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1.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1321-1328, July-Aug. 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131480

ABSTRACT

Fifteen New Zealand adult rabbits were randomly allocated into three groups: Sham-operated (group A), Ischemia and Reperfusion (group B) and Carolina Rinse Solution (CRS) (group C). Groups B and C were subjected to one hour of ischemia and two hours of reperfusion. In group C, ten minutes before reperfusion, the bowel lumen was filled with CRS, and the segment immersed in CRS. Necrosis and loss of integrity of the villi were visible in groups B and C. Edema of the submucosa and circular muscle was observed in all groups. Hemorrhage was observed in different layers for groups B and C, but group C showed more severe hemorrhage in different layers during reperfusion. All groups showed polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration on the base of the mucosa, submucosa, and longitudinal muscle, in addition to polymorphonuclear leukocytes margination in the mucosal and submucosal vessels. Necrosis of enterocytes, muscles, crypts of Lieberkühn and myenteric plexus was observed in groups B and C during reperfusion. Topical and intraluminal Carolina Rinse Solution did not attenuate the effects of ischemia and reperfusion in the small intestine of rabbits.(AU)


Quinze coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia foram alocados em três grupos: instrumentado (grupo A), isquemia e reperfusão (grupo B) e solução de Carolina rinse (CRS) (grupo C). Os grupos B e C foram submetidos a uma hora de isquemia e a duas horas de reperfusão. No grupo C, 10 minutos antes da reperfusão, o segmento isolado foi imerso e teve seu lúmen preenchido com CRS. Os grupos B e C apresentaram necrose e perda progressiva da integridade das vilosidades. Foi observado edema na submucosa e na camada muscular circular em todos os grupos. Nos grupos B e C, foi observada hemorragia em diferentes camadas, mas, no grupo C, a hemorragia foi mais intensa durante a reperfusão. Todos os grupos apresentaram infiltrado de PMN na base da mucosa, na submucosa e na camada muscular longitudinal e marginação de PMN nos vasos da mucosa e da submucosa. Durante a reperfusão, foi observada necrose dos enterócitos, das camadas musculares, das criptas de Lieberkühn e do plexo mioentérico nos grupos B e C. O uso tópico e intraluminal de CRS não atenuou os efeitos da isquemia e da reperfusão no intestino delgado de coelhos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Reperfusion/veterinary , Allopurinol/administration & dosage , Deferoxamine/administration & dosage , Glutathione/administration & dosage , Ischemia/veterinary , Jejunum/surgery
2.
Adv Rheumatol ; 59: 37, 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088617

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Benzbromarone is a uricosuric drug that has been used in the treatment of gout over the last 30 years. Due to its potent inhibition of the dominant apical (luminal) urate exchanger in the human proximal tubule URAT1, it reduces the urate reabsorption, diminishing serum urate levels and therefore preventing gout flares. Main body of the abstract Through several clinical trials, Benzbromarone has been proved effective and safe, inclusive in patients with chronic kidney disease and as combination therapy with allopurinol. Due to hepatotoxicity reports, it was withdrawn from the European market by the manufacturer, however many authors have questioned the product's withdrawal due to a lack of clinical evidence in order to support its hepatotoxicity. Benzbromarone is still available in several European countries, New Zealand, Brazil and several other countries. Despite the product's marketing over more than 20 years after the first hepatotoxicity reports, we have found only five reports in our literature search, and no prospective or retrospective study correlating hepatotoxicity with benzbromarone use. Short conclusion Benzbromarone is a safe and effective molecule for the treatment of gout. However, due to in vitro and in vivo data related to hepatotoxicity, it is prudent to prescribe it with some caution, especially for patients with an already known liver condition.


Subject(s)
Humans , Benzbromarone/therapeutic use , Gout/drug therapy , Allopurinol/administration & dosage , Drug Combinations , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions
3.
Autops. Case Rep ; 7(2): 35-42, Apr.-June 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-905231

ABSTRACT

The standard therapy for some autoimmune diseases consists of a combination of corticosteroids and thiopurines. In non-responders to thiopurine drugs, the measurement of the metabolites of azathioprine, 6-thioguanine, and 6-methylmercaptopurine, can be a useful tool. The measurement has been used during the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases and, less commonly, in autoimmune hepatitis. Many patients preferentially metabolize thiopurines to 6-methylmercaptopurine (6-MMP), which is potentially hepatotoxic, instead of 6-thioguanine, the active immunosuppressive metabolite. The addition of allopurinol shifts the metabolism of thiopurine towards 6-thioguanine, improving the immunosuppressive effect. We present the case of a 51-year-old female with autoimmune hepatitis who had a biochemical response after azathioprine and prednisone treatment without histological remission, and who preferentially shunted to 6-MMP. After the addition of allopurinol, the patient's 6-thioguanine levels increased, and she reached histological remission with a reduction of 67% of the original dose of azathioprine. The patient did not develop clinical manifestations as a consequence of her increased immunosuppressive state. We also review the relevant literature related to this issue. In conclusion, the addition of allopurinol to thiopurine seems to be an option for those patients who do not reach histological remission and who have a skewed thiopurine metabolite profile.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Allopurinol/administration & dosage , Azathioprine/administration & dosage , Hepatitis, Autoimmune/drug therapy , Remission Induction/methods , Allopurinol/metabolism , Azathioprine/administration & dosage
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-208225

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to observe the effects of uric acid lowering therapy (UALT), febuxostat and allopurinol, on blood pressure (BP) and serum creatinine level. Post-hoc data were derived from a phase-III, randomised, double-blind, 4-week trial of male gouty patients that compared the safety and efficacy of febuxostat and allopurinol in adults with gout. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of five groups, 35-37 in each group (febuxostat: 40, 80, 120 mg/d; allopurinol: 300 mg/d; control group: placebo). Blood pressure and serum creatinine level were measured at baseline and at weeks 2 and 4. Diastolic BP and creatinine level had decreased significantly in the UALT groups compared to the control group at week 4. Diastolic BP had decreased significantly in the allopurinol group and serum creatinine level had decreased significantly in the febuxostat groups at week 4. After adjusting for confounding variables, serum uric acid changes were found to be significantly correlated with changes in serum creatinine level but were not associated with changes in systolic or diastolic BP. UALT in gouty subjects significantly decreased diastolic BP and serum creatinine level. Changes in uric acid were significantly correlated with those in serum creatinine level, suggesting the feasibility of renal function improvement through UALT in gouty men.


Subject(s)
Allopurinol/administration & dosage , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Creatinine/blood , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Gout/drug therapy , Gout Suppressants/administration & dosage , Humans , Hypertension, Renal/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thiazoles/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome
5.
Acta cir. bras ; 26(3): 186-193, May-June 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-583738

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the duration of apoptosis caused by ischemia-reperfusion in the intestine in a new double jejunum-segment model, and to analyze the protective effects of allopurinol or ischemic preconditioning (IPC). METHODS: In Experiment I for harvesting the double jejunum-segment model after laparotomy a 30-cm-long jejunum part was selected on mongrel dogs (n=24). End-to-end anastomoses were performed at both ends and in the middle of the jejunum part, creating two equal segments. In one segment ischemia was induced by occluding the supplying vessels, the other segment served as control. Tissue samples for detecting apoptosis were taken at 30th minutes, 1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 12th and 24th hours of reperfusion. In Experiment II using the same model the 4-hour reperfusion time period, allopurinol (50 mg/kg) pre-treated and IPC (3 cycles of 5x1) groups (n=5 per each) were also investigated. RESULTS: In Experiment I the greatest apoptotic activity was detected at the 4th and 6th hour of reperfusion (14.2 ± 1.31 and 16.3 ± 1.05 per visual field at 40x magnification). In Experiment II Using the 4-hour reperfusion time period allopurinol pre-treatment increased the apoptotic activity (10.72 ± 0.47 per 50 intestinal villi) approximately two-fold than the IPC (6.72 ± 0.46 per 50 intestinal villi) did (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Apoptotic activity has a characteristic time curve, reaching the highest values between the 4th and 6th hours after 30-minute intestinal ischemia. Ischemic preconditioning seemed to be protective against the morphological changes caused by intestinal ischemia-reperfusion.


OBJETIVO: Investigar a duração da apoptose causada pela isquemia-reperfusão no intestino em um novo modelo de duplo segmento de jejuno e analisar os efeitos protetores do alopurinol ou precondicionamento isquêmico (IPC). MÉTODOS: No experimento I para obter o modelo do duplo segmento de jejuno, após a laparotomia, uma parte de 30cm de comprimento de jejuno foi selecionada em cães mestiços (n=24). Anatomoses T-T foram realizadas em ambas as extremidades no meio do segmento de jejuno, criando dois segmentos iguais. Em um segmento foi induzida isquemia por oclusão dos vasos que o irrigavam e o outro segmento foi usado como controle. Amostras de tecido para detecção da apoptose foram obtidos aos 30 minutos, 1h, 2h, 4h, 6h, 8h, 12h e 24 horas de reperfusão. No experimento II usando o mesmo modelo, no tempo de reperfusão de 4 horas, foram investigados dois outros grupos (n=5 cada) usando precondicionamento com alopurinol (50 mg/kg) e IPC (3 ciclos de 5x1). RESULTADOS: No experimento I a maior atividade de apoptose detectada foi às 4h e 6h de reperfusão (14,2 ± 1,31 e 16,3 ± 1,05 no campo visual de 40x). No experimento II usando o período de 4horas de reperfusão o pré-tratamento com alopurinol aumentou a atividade apoptótica (10,72 ± 0,47) aproximadamente 2 vezes mais do que o IPC (6,72 ± 0,46) (p<0,05). CONCLUSÕES: A atividade de apoptose tem uma curva caractetística, atingindo maiores valores entre a 4ª e a 6ª horas após 30 minutos de isquemia intestinal. O precondicionamento isquêmico parece proteger contra alterações morfológicas causadas pela isquemia-reperfusão intestinal.


Subject(s)
Animals , Allopurinol/administration & dosage , Dogs/classification , Ischemia , Jejunum/anatomy & histology
6.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 32(2): 181-186, Mar.-Apr. 2006. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-429016

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The exact mechanism of chronic nonbacterial prostatitis has not been yet elucidated and the outcome with the current management is dismal. In this trial, we studied the effect of allopurinol in the treatment of this disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this randomized double blind controlled trial, a calculated sample size of 56 were grouped into "intervention group" who received allopurinol (100 mg tds for 3 months) with ofloxacin (200 mg tds) for 3 weeks (n = 29) and "control group" who received placebo tablets with ofloxacin (n = 27). PatientsÆ scores based on the National Institute of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Score were recorded before therapy and then every month during the study. A four-glass study was performed before intervention and after 3 months. RESULTS: The 2 groups were similar regarding outcome variables. In the first month of study, a significant but similar improvement in symptom scores was observed in both groups. Microscopic examination of prostate massage and post-massage samples were also similar in both groups. No side effects due to allopurinol were observed in patients. CONCLUSION: We did not find any advantage for allopurinol in the management of chronic prostatitis versus placebo in patients receiving routine antibacterial treatment.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Allopurinol/therapeutic use , Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary/therapeutic use , Antimetabolites/therapeutic use , Ofloxacin/therapeutic use , Prostatitis/drug therapy , Allopurinol/administration & dosage , Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary/administration & dosage , Antimetabolites/administration & dosage , Chronic Disease , Double-Blind Method , Drug Therapy, Combination , Ofloxacin/administration & dosage
7.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-39455

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of combined low dose of hypouricemic drugs (Allopurinol 100 mg and benzbromarone 20 mg; Allomaron) and standard dose 300 mg of allopurinol in hyperuricemia. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A prospective, open study of 94 hyperuricemic patients was done at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Each group of 47 patients was given a combined low dose of hypouricemic drugs (Allopurinol 100 mg and benzbromarone 20 mg; Allomaron) and a standard dose 300 mg of allopurinol. Serum uric acid was measured before and 4 weeks after receiving the drugs. The efficacy was measured from the difference of the level of serum uric acid before and after receiving the drugs. RESULTS: The patients receiving the combined low dose of hypouricemic drugs and standard dose of allopurinol showed a mean reduction of serum uric acid of 2.5+/-3.4 mg/dl and 4.1+/-2.7 mg/dl consecutively. There was a statistically significant difference between the 2 groups (P = 0.010). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that the efficacy of standard dose 300 mg of allopurinol is superior to a combined low dose of allopurinol and benzbromarone in lowering the level of serum uric acid level.


Subject(s)
Allopurinol/administration & dosage , Benzbromarone/administration & dosage , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Gout/blood , Gout Suppressants/administration & dosage , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Uric Acid/blood , Uricosuric Agents/administration & dosage
8.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-45518

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of benzbromarone compared to allopurinol in lowering serum uric acid level in hyperuricemic patients with normal renal function (serum creatinine < or = 1.5). The authors conducted a crossover study consisting of two four-week treatment periods of allopurinol 300 mg/day and benzbromarone 100 mg/day separated by a four-week washout period. Fourteen patients with mean age and duration of hyperuricemia of 60.78 +/- 8.62 and 6.93 +/- 3.69 years, respectively, were recruited and all completed our study protocol. This study was a crossover design consisting of two four-week treatments of allopurinol and benzbromarone separated by a four-week washout period. The serum uric acid level was reduced from 9.89 +/- 1.43 mg/dl to 5.52 +/- 0.83 mg/dl and from 9.53 +/- 1.48 to 4.05 +/- 0.87 mg/dl by allopurinol and benzbromarone, respectively. The efficacy of benzbromarone in lowering serum uric acid level was significantly superior to allopurinol (p=0.005). No patient reported clinical side effects during treatment with either drug. In conclusion, the authors have shown that benzbromarone is more effective than allopurinol in the reduction of serum uric acid levels in hyperuricemic patients with normal renal function.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Allopurinol/administration & dosage , Benzbromarone/administration & dosage , Cross-Over Studies , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Gout/blood , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Probability , Statistics, Nonparametric , Treatment Outcome , Uric Acid/blood , Uricosuric Agents/administration & dosage , Urinalysis
9.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 76(6): 463-472, June 2001. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese, English | LILACS | ID: lil-286364

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of diet and medication, either isolated or associated, on serum levels of uric acid in patients with hyperuricemia. METHODS: We studied patients from the Hypertension Unit of the University of Goias who had hyperuricemia (men > or = 8.5mg/dL and women > or = 7.5mg/dL). We divided the patients into three groups: G1 (low purine diet), G2 (low purine diet + medication), and G3 (medication only). Patients received allopurinol, 150mg/day titrated up to 300mg/dL when necessary. Patients were evaluated with regards to their lifestyles (diet, smoking, physical, activity, alcohol consumption), uric acid, blood pressure, use of medication, body mass index, cholesterol, and triglyceride. Follow-up took place in weeks 0 (M1), 6 (M2), 12 (M3) during the intervention and in week 36(M4) after the study was completed. RESULTS: Fifty-five patients participated in the study, 31 women, mean age 54.4 + or - 10.6 years, body mass index 28.6 + or - 3.9kg/m². A similar reduction (p<0.001) in uric acid levels occurred in the three intervention groups. In week 36 (M4), after 24 weeks without intervention, a tendency toward elevation of uricemia was noted in G2 and G3, and a continuous drop in uricemia was noted in G1. No significant modifications were observed in the other variables analyzed. CONCLUSION: Considering the cost x benefit relationship, a diet low in purine should be the 1st therapeutic option for controlling hyperuricemia in patients with similar characteristic to the ones presented in this study


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Allopurinol/administration & dosage , Diet , Hypertension/physiopathology , Purines/administration & dosage , Uric Acid/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Energy Intake , Ethanol/adverse effects , Exercise , Follow-Up Studies , Hypertension/drug therapy , Risk Factors , Smoking/adverse effects , Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
10.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-85758

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: A randomized clinical trial of low dosage combination of pentamidine and allopurinol was carried out with objectives to assess the efficacy and toxicity as compared to full dosage of pentamidine in antimony unresponsive visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients. METHODS: Using a randomized control clinical trial, a total of 158 antimony unresponsive patients of VL were randomly allocated into two treatment groups. Patients in one group (n=80) received half the dosage of pentamidine i.e. 2 mg/kg body weight by IM route on alternate day and allopurinol in dose of 15 mg/kg body weight in three divided dosages for 30 days; patients in the second group (n=78) received pentamidine in dose of 4 mg/kg body weight by IM route on alternate day for 15 injections in 30 days. The efficacy and safety of the two regimens were compared. RESULTS: Apparent cure i.e. clinical and pathological cure at the end of therapy, in 78 (97.5%) and 67 (86%), and ultimate cure i.e. clinical and parasitological cure at the end of follow-up of six months, in 73 (91.25%) and 58 (74.35%) patients was observed in the combination regimen and single regimen group respectively. The difference of the ultimate cure between two groups of the patients was statistically significant (p < 0.01). In single regimen group, 11 (14%) patients showed primary unresponsiveness (with no response during treatment) and nine (13%) relapse (after six months of follow-up) respectively, where as in combination regimen group, two (2.5%) patients showed primary unresponsiveness and five (6.4%) relapse respectively. By the end of the treatment, the incidence of injection-related toxicity, such as rigor and fever, was same in both groups. No hyperglycemia was observed in combination therapy probably due to reduced dose of pentamidine and three patients in single regimen developed hyperglycemia and one of them developed irreversible hyperglycemia. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that the combination of pentamidine (half dose) and allopurinol is more effective in achieving ultimate cure with an added advantage of reduced toxicity in unresponsive cases as compared to full pentamidine dose.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Allopurinol/administration & dosage , Antiprotozoal Agents/administration & dosage , Chi-Square Distribution , Child , Drug Therapy, Combination , Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Pentamidine/administration & dosage
11.
Parasitol. día ; 23(3/4): 100-12, jul.-dic. 1999. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-258103

ABSTRACT

En la actualidad se acepta que la enfermedad de Chagas humana debe ser tratada en cualquier período de su evolución con la única excepción del período crónico terminal. En el período agudo clínico, infección de menos de 2 meses así como en el biológico: pesquisa de parásitos al fresco, frotis, gota gruesa y con serología convencional positiva e IgM(+). El ideal de tratamiento es con nifurtimox (NF) 8-10 mg/kg día en adultos y 15 mg/kg día en niños por 60-90 días. La dosis se reparte en tres tomas. La curación clínica y serológica es de un 60 por ciento. En Brasil donde se utiliza este fármaco se trata con benznidazol (BNZ) 5 mg/kg día (adultos) y 5-10 mg/kg día en niños por 60 días. En las infecciones congénitas la terapia debe ser precoz en cuanto se realice el diagnóstico por clínica y pesquisa del parásito al fresco, frotis, microstraut etc. Muchas veces el diagnóstico se efectúa por persistenica de la serología por más de 6 meses y el recién nacido ya esta en etapa crónica de la infección. Es necesario efectuar seguimiento clínico serológico y parasitológico de los casos. Las infecciones accidentales deben ser tratadas por 10 días. En los trasplantes de órganos en que el receptor o dador es chagásico se debe indicar terapia con NF o BNZ a igual dosis y tiempo que la señalada anteriormente. Las reactivaciones en los casos crónicos ejem: que adquieren un SIDA o que presentan depresiones del sistema inmunidad celular como leucemias, Hodgkin, etc se deben tratar como cuadros agudos con NF ó NBZ por períodos prolongados de 5 ó más meses. En estos casos obviamente la prevención es lo ideal: hacer serología para Chagas a los pacientes con SIDA, etc


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Chagas Disease/drug therapy , Trypanosoma cruzi/drug effects , Acute Disease , Allopurinol/administration & dosage , Chagas Disease/congenital , Chagas Disease/transmission , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Electron Transport , Ergosterol/chemical synthesis , Itraconazole/administration & dosage , Nifurtimox/administration & dosage , Nifurtimox/adverse effects , Purines/metabolism
13.
J. bras. nefrol ; 21(1): 7-12, mar. 1999. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-247786

ABSTRACT

A influencia do ion superoxido na evolution da nefropatia por adriamicina foi avaliada usando-se alopurinol para inibir sua sintese.Sessenta ratos Wistar machos foram divididos em 6 grupos.No primeiro dia do experimento 3 grupos receberam salina(GCS,GCSTA eGCSTC) e 3 receberam adriamicina(GNC,GNTA,GNTC)Dois grupos(GCSTA eGNTA)foram tratados com alopurinol 3 horas antes e 1 minuto depois da inoculacao com salina(GCTA) ou adriamicina(GNTA).em dois grupos adicionais o tratamento com alopurinol foi mantido ate o fim do experimento(4 semanas).Os grupos tratados com adriamicina apresentaram proteinuria macica da semana 2 ate a semana 4.Apenas na semana 2 observou-se diferenca estatistica entre a proteinuria dos tres grupos tratados com adriamicina.((GNC=129,2+ou -17,5mg/24h:GNTA=85,4+ ou -15,9mg/24h:GNTC=87,8+ ou -15,9mg/24h;p maior0,01)A microscopia optica os animais inoculados com adriamicina apresentaram somente lesoes tubulo-intersticiais tais como cilindros intratubulares,dilatacao e atrofia tubular e infiltrado inflamatorio intersticial.Nao houve diferenca significativa do indice de lesao tubulo-interstitical entre os tres grupos nefroticos(GNC=8;GNTA=6;GNTC=4;p menor0,05).Conclusao:Em ratos com nefropatia por adriamicina,o uso de alopurinol associou-se com diminuicao transitoria da proteinuria,mas nao alterou a lesao tubulo-intersticial


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Allopurinol/administration & dosage , Allopurinol/adverse effects , Allopurinol/urine , Kidney Diseases/chemically induced , Kidney Diseases/physiopathology
14.
Rev. bras. cir ; 87(5): 225-8, set.-out. 1997. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-280199

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Evidências crescentes na literatura tem sugerido a participaçäo das espécies ativas de oxigênio (EAO) no dano celular decorrente da isquemia e reperfusäo de órgäos. Para demonstrar essa relaçäo, utilizou-se um modelo animal de isquemia-reperfusäo a fim de se observar alteraçöes na funçäo renal causadas pelas EAO. Materiais e método: Foram utilizados 40 ratos Wistar, divididos em quatro grupos: Grupo I (controle 1); Grupo II (controle 2); Grupo III (isquemia renal por 50 minutos); Grupo IV (pré-tratamento com alopurinl, isquemia por 50 minutos). A funçäo renal foi avaliada através dos níveis de creratinina sérica e da depuraçäo da creatinina endógena. Resultados: A concentraçäo de creatinina foi maior no Grupo III em relaçäo aos Grupos I, II e IV nas primeiras 24 horas após a cirurgia (p<0,05), mantendo essa diferença nas 96 hs. A DCE foi menor nos animais submetidos à isquemia (Grupos III e IV) quando comparados com os animais controles (Grupos I e II) nas primeiras 96 hs após o procedimento (p<0,05); houve uma melhor DCE no Grupo III em comparaçäo com o Grupo IV neste período (p<0,05). Conclusäo: Assim, poderemos concluir que a isquemia seguida de reperfusäo é responsável pela alteraçäo aguda da funçäo de um órgäo a partir de dano a nível celular, determinado por aumento da produçäo das EAO durante esse processo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Allopurinol/administration & dosage , Allopurinol/therapeutic use , Ischemia/pathology , Reperfusion/methods
15.
Arch. argent. dermatol ; 47(2): 53-66, mar.-abr. 1997. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-196996

ABSTRACT

La leshmaniasis es producida por un protozoo, trasmitida por muchos mosquitos hematófagos (Lutzomia brasiliensis), artrópodos (Rhipicephalus turanicus) y probablemente triatomideos (Triatoma infestans, Pansterongilus infestans). En Bolivia existen tres formas de leishmaniasis: cutánea, mucocutánea y visceral, producidas por el mismo agente etiológico, con tres diferentes fases evolutivas relacionadas con mecanismos inmunológicos dependientes de muchos factores. Las tres responden a diversas drogas, a veces inespecíficas, que son empleadas para otras enfermedades (plasmodios, trichomonas, giardias, hongos y bacilos de Koch). Las sales antimoniales pentavalentes son las más comúnmente usadas, con resultados variables, a veces adversos, por su toxicidad, ineficacia ineficiencia y, sobre todo, resistencia y difícil manejo. Se ha demostrado que la L. cutánea tratada con glucantime, anfotericina B y otros presenta posteriormente lesiones mucocutáneas. Por otro lado, leishmaniosos que curaron espontáneamente han mostrado lesiones secundarias en forma ocasional. Lo que demuestra que en esta enfermedad existe una falla inmunológica, razón por la que usamos un inmunomodulador (DECARIS-clorhidrato de levamisol-, que es un antiparasitario), con buenos resultados (95 por ciento de éxito), sobre todo por su bajo costo, uso cómodo y efectos colaterales mínimos. Finalmente concluimos que en el momento actual no existe un leishmanicida eficaz para el tratamiento de esta enfermedad. El tratamiento inmunológico parece ser muy prometedor


Subject(s)
Humans , Allopurinol/therapeutic use , Antimony Sodium Gluconate/therapeutic use , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/drug therapy , Leishmaniasis/drug therapy , Levamisole/therapeutic use , Allopurinol/administration & dosage , Antimony Sodium Gluconate/administration & dosage , Antimony Sodium Gluconate/adverse effects , Antiparasitic Agents/therapeutic use , Bolivia/epidemiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Disease Vectors/classification , Interferon-gamma/administration & dosage , Interferon-gamma/therapeutic use , Itraconazole/administration & dosage , Itraconazole/therapeutic use , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/immunology , Leishmaniasis/pathology , Leishmaniasis/transmission , Leishmania/classification , Levamisole/administration & dosage , Metronidazole/administration & dosage , Metronidazole/therapeutic use
16.
Rev. chil. cir ; 48(2): 129-38, abr. 1996. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-195045

ABSTRACT

Se efectuó la standarización de la rata Sprague-Dawley en relación a parámetros hematológicos, bioquímicos y anatómicos en una muestra de 24 ratas, 12 machos y 12 hembras. Se estandarizó el modelo de asa duodenal cerrada para producir pancreatitis aguda en 72 ratas, las que fueron sacrificadas en grupos de 3 cada hora durante 24 horas. Se determinó que el momento en que se inicia la pancreatitis aguda, tanto por parámetros bioquímicos como histopatológicos, corresponde a la sexta hora postinducción. Utilizando este modelo se efectuaron diferentes acciones tendientes a disminuir los efectos de una PA de inicio reciente. Cien ratas fueron divididas en 5 grupos de 20: 1. Control, 2. Descompresión biliar precoz, 3. Verapamilo 0,5 mg/kg ev., 4. Allopurinol 50 mg/kg ev., 5. Superóxido dismutasa 5 mg/kg ev. Para determinar el efecto benéfico de estas acciones sobre la PA, ellas fueron realizadas a la sexta hora postinducción. Se concluye que los mejores efectos logrados en este modelo corresponden a la desobtrucción efectuada precozmente. Dentro de las drogas utilizadas, como drogas captadoras de radicales libres de oxígeno, la superóxido dismutasa fue la que presentó los mejores efectos benéficiosos. El allopurinol mostró efectos discretos en este modelo, no comprobándose el efecto beneficioso del verapamilo en relación al grupo control


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Pancreatitis/physiopathology , Allopurinol/administration & dosage , Rats, Sprague-Dawley/physiology , Superoxide Dismutase/pharmacokinetics , Verapamil/administration & dosage
17.
Rev. chil. enferm. respir ; 11(1): 16-24, ene.-mar. 1995. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-194534

ABSTRACT

La instilación endotraqueal de bleomicina (BLM) en ratas produce daño pulmonar difuso. A los 3 dias de la administración de BLM se observa edema e inflamación y a los 14 y 30 días fibrosis intersticial. Basándonos en que la liberación de radicales libres del O2 ha sido involucrada en el daño pulmonar inducido por bleomicina, nuestro objetivo fue evaluar el efecto asociado de dos antioxidantes: alopurinol y superóxido dismutasa (SOD) sobre la respuesta pulmonar a BLM. Utilizamos 5 series de ratas: a)BLM 1 u/100 g de peso corporl fue instilada por vía intratraqueal. b) Tratada con BLM y alopurinol (2mg/100 g intraperitoneal, 30 min antes de la BLM. c) Tratada con BLM + alopurinol y SOD (0.3 mg/100 g intraperitoneal, 5 min antes de la BLM); d) Controles (0.3 ml de NaCl al 0.9 porciento/100 g vía intratraqueal); e) NaCl 0.9 porciento + alopurinol + SOD. Luego de 3, 14, 30 días se estudió la hispatología pulmonar y el lavado broncoalveolar se determinó: número de células, contenido de proteínas y fosfolípidos y actividad de gama glutamiltranspeptidasa. Encontramos que el alopurinol asociado a la SOD disminuyó en porcentaje hispatológico de la fibrosis pulmonar inducida por la BLM a los 14 y 30 días. Además, esta asociación redujo en aumento en el recuento celular y en el contenido de fosfolípidos del lavado broncoalveolar, sin que modificara el aumento de proteínas y de la actividad de la gama glutamiltranspeptidasa observado en las ratas tratadas con BLM


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Allopurinol/administration & dosage , Bleomycin/adverse effects , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Superoxide Dismutase/administration & dosage , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/etiology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/drug therapy
18.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 129(2): 131-7, mar.-abr. 1993. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-177106

ABSTRACT

Se comunica la técnica, modificaciones, y resultados, en el desarrollo experimental del transplante total heterotópico de intestino delgado en la rata. En el desarrollo del protocolo, se evaluaron todos los aspectos técnicos y de preservación, desde la descripción original de Monchik y Russell en 1917, sobre el trasplante total de intestino delgado en ratas, así como las modificaciones posteriores postuladas por diversos autores, y las de nuestro propio grupo. Se revisan los resultados obtenidos mediante el uso de modificaciones en la técnica de obtención y preservación del intestino delgado para el trasplante total heterotópico en la rata. Un total de 80 ratas sprague-dawley, fueron divididas en tres grupos (trasplante inmediato, con lavado del lecho vascular con solución salina, y trasplante a las 24 horas, con solución de lavado y preservación tipo UW y ADAAV) las supervivencia para cada uno de los grupos fue de 80, 50 y 70 por ciento respectivamente. Se discuten las ventajas de esta técnica, y su futuro uso para aspectos de investigación aplicables a la clínica del transplante de órganos


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Adenosine/administration & dosage , Albumins/administration & dosage , Allopurinol/administration & dosage , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Dextrans/administration & dosage , Intestine, Small/surgery , Neomycin/administration & dosage , Therapeutic Irrigation , Verapamil/administration & dosage
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