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1.
Rev. méd. hondur ; 90(1): 57-61, ene.-jun. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1393289

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: El efluvio telógeno puede ser definido como una pérdida de cabello difusa y sin cicatrices que ocurre alrededor de 2-3 meses después de un evento desencadenante y usualmente autolimitado. En la actualidad, la infección por COVID-19 se ha relacionado con manifestaciones dermatológicas, entre las cuales se encuentra el efluvio telógeno. Descripción del caso clínico: Se presenta el caso de una paciente femenina, de 48 años quien acudió a consulta refiriendo una pérdida brusca y masiva de cabello de aproximadamente 30-40% de las unidades foliculares, de dos semanas de evolución. Sin antecedentes familiares de pérdida de cabello, neumonía en la infancia, con antecedentes de alopecia androgénica por parte de su padre, con infección previa por COVID-19 confirmada por laboratorio. Al realizar la exploración física se observó prueba Pull positivo, aspecto macroscópico fino y deshidratado y pérdida de densidad generalizada sin alteraciones dérmicas. La tricoscopía mostró folículos vacíos y más del 20% en fase telógena. Se diagnosticó Efluvio telógeno post COVID-19 y alopecia androgénica de base (subclínica). Conclusiones: Con un número creciente de pacientes en recuperación de COVID-19, el riesgo de desarrollar esta manifestación dermatológica física y emocionalmente angustiante probablemente continuará en ascenso. Gracias a la implementación de pruebas genéticas específicas (Tricológico) se identificó a la paciente en fase temprana de alopecia androgénica femenina (FAGA), una patología pobremente diagnosticada en este sexo...(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Scalp Dermatoses/complications , Alopecia/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , COVID-19/complications
2.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 42(2): 84-86, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1378739

ABSTRACT

La alopecia frontal fibrosante es una alopecia cicatricial que se caracteriza por la recesión de la línea de implantación frontotemporal que afecta principalmente a mujeres caucásicas en edad posmenopáusica y rara vez a hombres. Actualmente los mecanismos específicos de desarrollo continúan en estudio; sin embargo hay varias hipótesis sobre la asociación de la alopecia frontal fibrosante con otros trastornos autoinmunitarios. Se comunica el caso de un paciente masculino de 58 años con alopecia frontal fibrosante en áreas comprometidas por vitiligo. (AU)


Frontal fibrosing alopecia is a cicatricial alopecic characterized by progressive regression of the frontotemporal hairline. It usually affects postmenopausal caucasian women, and rarely men. Currently the specific mechanisms of development remain unknown, however there are several hypotheses about the association of frontal fibrosing alopecia with other autoimmune disorders. The case of a 58-year-old male patient with frontal fibrosing alopecia in areas affected by vitiligo. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Vitiligo/complications , Alopecia/complications , Alopecia/diagnosis , Alopecia/drug therapy , Vitiligo/pathology , Clobetasol/administration & dosage , Tacrolimus/administration & dosage , Alopecia/pathology , Dutasteride/administration & dosage
4.
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(5): 569-573, Sept.-Oct. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345156

ABSTRACT

Abstract Monilethrix is a rare defect of the hair shaft, with most cases showing an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance and variable clinical expression. It is characterized by hypotrichosis secondary to hair fragility. The diagnosis is made through trichoscopy, detecting typical findings such as periodic narrowing at regular intervals, giving the hair the appearance of beads in a rosary. This article reports the case of six members of a family diagnosed with monilethrix with alopecia of varying degrees.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alopecia Areata , Hair Diseases , Scalp , Alopecia/diagnosis , Alopecia/genetics , Hair
5.
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(5): 605-608, Sept.-Oct. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345135

ABSTRACT

Abstract Five cases of telogen effluvium undergoing resolution are shown, with the presence of frontal, bitemporal, and occipital hair regrowth. Diagnosing acute telogen effluvium after the end of the active phase can be challenging, especially when the pull test is negative. The differential diagnosis includes alopecia areata and traction alopecia. Clinical signs of hair regrowth after telogen effluvium can help in the diagnosis. The frontal and temporal areas have more telogen hairs and are more affected. On the occipital area, hairs seem to have the same behavior. The acute telogen effluvium triad during resolution is proposed: frontal fringe, temporal recess and occipital fringe.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alopecia Areata/diagnosis , Acute Disease , Diagnosis, Differential , Alopecia/diagnosis , Hair
6.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 89(1): 92-97, feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-900074

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: Las hidrocefalias son condiciones complejas influenciadas por factores genéticos y ambientales. Excluyendo las hidrocefalias adquiridas por infección o tumores encefálicos, las hidrocefalias congénitas de causa genética pueden ocurrir de forma aislada (hidrocefalia aislada, pura o no sindromática) o como componente de un síndrome genético definido (hidrocefalia sindromática). Objetivo: Presentar una hidrocefalia congénita sindromática con un diagnóstico co nocido, y realizar una revisión de la literatura. Caso clínico: Preescolar con diagnóstico prenatal de hidrocefalia y romboencefalosinapsis, cariotipo y estudio de TORCH normales. Al nacer se confirmaron los diagnósticos prenatales y se excluyó malformación del desarrollo cortical cerebral. En la primera semana de vida se realizó derivación ventrículo peritoneal. En una reevaluación a la edad de 4 años, la ausencia de reflejos corneales y alopecia parietal bilateral asociado a romboencefalosinapsis reunieron los criterios diagnósticos definitivos de una displasia cerebelo-trigémino dermal (Síndrome de Gómez, López-Hernández (SGLH)). Conclusiones: El SGLH es un síndro me neurocutáneo infrecuente, posiblemente una condición esporádica que está subdiagnostica da. Con las nuevas tecnologías imageneológicas y genéticas pre y post natales podemos acceder a un diagnóstico de precisión de las hidrocefalias de origen genético, en el cual la alta sospecha de equipos de especialistas clínicos es esencial. Sin el diagnóstico preciso no podemos acceder a un pronóstico a largo plazo, prevención de morbilidad agregada y un consejo genético adecuado, que son requeridos en la pediatría actual.


Abstract: Introduction: Hydrocephalus is defined as complex conditions influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Excluding hydrocephalus acquired from infection or brain tumors, congenital hydrocephalus with a genetic cause may occur isolated (hydrocephalus isolated, pure or non-syndromatic) or as a component of a genetic syndrome (syndromic hydrocephalus). Objective: To present a syndromic congenital hydrocephalus with a known diagnosis, in order to be considered in the study of this pathology and to perform a review of hydrocephaly with a genetic cause. Clinical case: Preschool with a prenatal diagnosis of hydrocephalus and rhombencephalosynapsis, karyotype and study of TORCH was normal. At the moment of birth, the prenatal diagnoses were confirmed and a malformation of cerebral cortical development was excluded. During the first week of life, perito neal ventricle shunt was performed. A reevaluation at age 4, the absence of corneal reflexes bilate ral parietal and congenital focal alopecia associated with rhombencephalosynapsis, meet definitive criteria for cerebello-trigeminal-dermal displasia or Gómez-López-Hernández syndrome (GLHS). Conclusions: GLHS is an uncommon neurocutaneous syndrome, possibly a sporadic condition that is underdiagnosed. Due to the new imaging and genetic technologies pre and post-natal, today it is possible to achieve a better and more accurate diagnosis of hydrocephalus with a genetic origin, in which the high suspicion of teams of clinical specialists is essential. Without accurate diagnosis, we can not access to a long-term prognosis, prevention of aggregate morbidity or an adequate genetic counseling, which are required in today's pediatrics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Abnormalities, Multiple/diagnosis , Cerebellum/abnormalities , Craniofacial Abnormalities/diagnosis , Neurocutaneous Syndromes/diagnosis , Alopecia/diagnosis , Growth Disorders/diagnosis , Hydrocephalus/congenital , Rhombencephalon , Hydrocephalus/diagnosis
7.
Rev. pediatr. electrón ; 14(3): 23-27, oct. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-986895

ABSTRACT

El síndrome GAPO es una rara enfermedad autosómica recesiva caracterizada por retraso en el crecimiento, alopecia, pseudoanodoncia y atrofia óptica. Se han descrito mutaciones en el gen ANTXR1 como origen etiológico. Presenta afectación de múltiples aparatos, por lo que requiere un manejo multidisciplinar para lograr su adecuado tratamiento.


GAPO syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by growth retardation, alopecia, pseudoanodontia and optic atrophy. Gene alterations in the ANTXR1 gene have been reported to be causative of this disorder. Abnormalities of diverse organs and systems have been described. A multidisciplinary management to achieve an adequate treatment is required.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Optic Atrophy/diagnosis , Alopecia/diagnosis , Growth Disorders/diagnosis , Anodontia/diagnosis , Syndrome
8.
An. bras. dermatol ; 92(4): 537-539, July-Aug. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886983

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Trichotillomania is considered a behavioral disorder and is characterized by the recurring habit of pulling one's hair, resulting in secondary alopecia. It affects 1% of the adult population, and 2 to 4.4% of psychiatric patients meet the diagnostic criteria. It can occur at any age and is more prevalent in adolescents and females. Its occurrence in childhood is not uncommon and tends to have a more favorable clinical course. The scalp, eyebrows and eyelashes are the most commonly affected sites. Glutamate modulating agents, such as N-acetylcysteine, have been shown to be a promising treatment. N-acetylcysteine acts by reducing oxidative stress and normalizing glutaminergic transmission. In this paper, we report a case of trichotillomania with an excellent response to N-acetylcysteine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Trichotillomania/drug therapy , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Trichotillomania/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Alopecia/diagnosis , Alopecia/etiology
9.
An. bras. dermatol ; 91(2): 156-159, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-781366

ABSTRACT

Abstract BACKGROUND: Although the pathogenesis of androgenetic alopecia is not completely understood, the roles of genetic susceptibility and androgens are well-known. A lower ratio of the second digit (index finger = 2D) to the fourth digit (ring finger = 4D) length has been hypothesized to reflect prenatal androgen exposure and/or higher sensitivity to androgens. OBJECTIVES: To determine the relationship between the second to fourth digit length ratio and androgenetic alopecia. METHODS: Finger length measurements were made by a digital vernier calliper. Androgenetic alopecia severity was assessed using the Hamilton-Norwood scale. Subjects with an androgenetic alopecia score of grade III or more were included in the study. RESULTS: A total of 189 males with androgenetic alopecia and 171 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. The age range of participants was 19-65 years. The 2D:4D ratios in patients with androgenetic alopecia were significantly lower than those of healthy controls for the right hand; however, no significant difference was found for the left hand. Average 2D:4D ratios in androgenetic alopecia patients were also lower than in controls. No significant relationship was observed between androgenetic alopecia severity and 2D:4D ratios. CONCLUSION: Our data support the anatomical evidence of in utero androgen exposure and/or an individual’s sensitivity to androgens in patients with androgenetic alopecia. Furthermore, the right hand 2D:4D ratio might be an indicator of androgenetic alopecia development.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/diagnosis , Alopecia/diagnosis , Fingers/anatomy & histology , Organ Size , Reference Standards , Reference Values , Severity of Illness Index , Pregnancy , Genetic Markers , Case-Control Studies , Anthropometry/methods , Predictive Value of Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Alopecia/etiology , Androgens/analysis , Androgens/physiology
10.
Rev. chil. dermatol ; 32(1): 58-60, 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-946805

ABSTRACT

El Síndrome Graham-Little-Piccardi-Lasseur (GLPLS) corresponde a una variante clínica del llamado Liquen plano pilar y se caracteriza por presentar alopecia cicatrizal progresiva de cuero cabelludo con las características del Liquen plano pilar, alopecia no cicatrizal que compromete axilas y pubis, y erupción folicular liquenoide en tronco, extremidades, cara y/o cejas. Presentamos el caso de una paciente de 19 años que ha sido diagnosticada con GLPLS y cuyo curso ha sido de difícil manejo.


The Graham-Little-Piccardi-Lasseur Syndrome (GLPLS) corresponds to a clinical variant of Lichen planopilaris and is characterized by progressive scarring scalp alopecia with features of flat lichen, non-scarring alopecia localized in the armpits and pubis, and lichenoid follicular eruption in trunk, extremities, face and / or eyebrows. We present the case of a 19-year-old female patient who has been diagnosed with GLPLS and whose course has been difficult to manage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Cicatrix/diagnosis , Alopecia/diagnosis , Lichen Planus/diagnosis , Syndrome , Cicatrix/pathology , Alopecia/pathology , Darier Disease/diagnosis , Lichen Planus/pathology
11.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 2015 Mar-Apr; 81(2): 162-165
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-158270

ABSTRACT

Frontal fi brosing alopecia (FFA) is a lymphocyte-mediated scarring alopecia thought to be a variant of lichen planopilaris (LPP). We present a 67-year-old woman with frontal fi brosing alopecia whose daughter was diagnosed to have lichen planopilaris. Both patients had identical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) D types, supporting a phenotypical relationship between the two clinical entities. Interestingly, our patient also had of autoimmune chronic atrophic gastritis, a previously unreported association.


Subject(s)
Aged , Alopecia/diagnosis , Alopecia/epidemiology , Female , HLA-D Antigens , Humans , Gastritis, Atrophic/epidemiology , Lichen Planus/diagnosis , Lichen Planus/epidemiology
12.
An. bras. dermatol ; 90(1): 123-125, Jan-Feb/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-735737

ABSTRACT

Temporal triangular alopecia, also referred as congenital triangular alopecia, is an uncommon dermatosis of unknown etiology. It is characterized by a non-scarring, circumscribed alopecia often located unilaterally in the frontotemporal region. It usually emerges at ages 2-9 years. Alopecia areata is the main differential diagnosis, especially in atypical cases. Dermoscopy is a noninvasive procedure that helps distinguish temporal triangular alopecia from aloepecia areata. Such procedure prevents invasive diagnostic methods as well as ineffective treatments.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant , Alopecia Areata/diagnosis , Alopecia/diagnosis , Dermoscopy/methods , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Reproducibility of Results
13.
Dermatol. argent ; 21(1): 32-38, 2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-781772

ABSTRACT

La alopecia fibrosante frontal (AFF) pertenece al grupo de las alopecias cicatrizales linfocitarias primarias y presenta un patrón clínico distintivo de retroceso progresivo de lalínea de implantación capilar frontotemporal. Se realizó una revisión retrospectiva de 18 mujeres adultas con diagnóstico de AFF entre el 1 de junio de 2008 y el 1 de junio de 2014 en el CEMIC, el Hospital Cosme Argerich, Buenos Aires Skin y la práctica privada. La edad promedio fue de 69 años, todas las pacientes eran posmenopáusicas y presentaban retroceso de la línea de implantación frontotemporal por alopecia cicatrizal. El cuadro se asoció a pérdida completa o parcial de las cejas en dieciséis de las pacientes y sólo una presentó alopecia en otro sitio anatómico. Una paciente presentó pápulas no inflamatorias color piel en cara, otra de ellas liquen plano oral y dos liquen vulvar. Los tratamientos indicados incluyeron esteroides tópicos, acetónido de triamcinolona intralesional, doxiciclina, inhibidores de 5 alfa reductasa y metotrexate...


Subject(s)
Humans , Alopecia/diagnosis
14.
Rev. chil. dermatol ; 31(4): 401-409, 2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-869714

ABSTRACT

El Síndrome de Ovario Poliquístico es un trastorno endocrino común que afecta a mujeres en edad reproductiva que puede causar problemas metabólicos y deterioro psicosocial importante. Las manifestaciones dermatológicas más frecuentes del hiperandrogenismo incluyen acné, hirsutismo y alopecia, cuyo reconocimiento es esencial para hacer un diagnóstico precoz. Las modalidades de tratamiento incluyen terapia hormonal con el objetivo de modular la producción de andrógenos y su acción, así como tratamientos no hormonales dirigidos a condiciones dermatológicas específicas.


Polycystic ovarian syndrome is a common endocrine disorder that affects women of reproductive age, which can cause metabolic, reproductive and psychosocial impairment. The most common skin manifestations of hyperandrogenism are acne, hirsutism and alopecia, whose recognition is essential for early diagnosis. There are several treatment modalities, including hormonal therapy in order to modulate androgen production and their effects, as well as other non hormonal treatments targeted to specific dermatologic conditions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acne Vulgaris/diagnosis , Alopecia/diagnosis , Hirsutism/diagnosis , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/complications , Acne Vulgaris/etiology , Acne Vulgaris/therapy , Alopecia/etiology , Alopecia/therapy , Hirsutism/etiology , Hirsutism/therapy
15.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 74(5): 359-362, oct. 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-734401

ABSTRACT

It is well known that the reference values usually employed for endocrine biochemical measurements are those suggested by the suppliers of commercial kits despite their advice that each laboratory should set its own reference values. Our objectives were to (i) determine reference ranges for serum testosterone (T) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) appropriate to our laboratory and population, and (ii) to analyze their influence on evaluating hyperandrogenemia. SHBG and T were measured, and free and bioavailable testosterone calculated, in (a) 30 selected non-hyperandrogenic women, (b) 87 non-selected healthy female blood donors, (c) 53 women with hyperandrogenism, and (d) 38 women with hyperandrogenic disorders but without biochemical hyperandrogenemia according to normal ranges suggested by the kit manufacturer. Mean serum SHBG concentrations were significantly different among all four groups. SHBG levels were significantly higher in selected normal women (group a). Using our results for this selected control group as new reference values, 12 out of 38 (31.6%) women with hyperandrogenic disorders without apparent hyperandrogenemia (group d) were recategorized as hyperandrogenemic. Similarly, 4 out of 63 (6.4%) non-selected, normal weight, women (group b), were recategorized as hyperandrogenic. Therefore, the diagnosis of hyperandrogenemia would improve accuracy by using customized reference SHBG values instead of those suggested by the suppliers.


Con frecuencia los valores de referencia utilizados para las evaluaciones bioquímicas endocrinológicas son los sugeridos por los kits utilizados, a pesar de las recomendaciones de que cada laboratorio debiera obtener sus propios valores de normalidad. Nuestros objetivos fueron (i) analizar los rangos de referencia para testosterona (T) y globulina ligadora de esteroides sexuales (SHBG) apropiados para nuestro laboratorio y población, y (ii) analizar su influencia en la evaluación de la hiperandrogenemia. Se midió T y SHBG y se calculó testosterona libre y biodisponible en un grupo (a) control de 30 mujeres no hiperandrogénicas, (b) 87 mujeres no seleccionadas donantes de sangre, (c) 53 mujeres con hiperandrogenismo, y (d) 38 mujeres con desórdenes hiperandrogénicos pero sin hiperandrogenemia de acuerdo a los rangos de normalidad sugeridos por el kit. La concentración media de SHBG fue significativamente diferente entre los cuatro grupos. Los niveles de SHBG fueron significativamente más altos en las mujeres controles seleccionadas (grupo a). Tomando en consideración los resultados obtenidos en este grupo y estableciendo los rangos de referencia adecuados, 12 de 38 mujeres (31.6%) hiperandrogénicas sin hiperandrogenemia (grupo d) fueron recategorizadas como con exceso androgénico bioquímico. De igual manera, al analizar mujeres normopesas no seleccionadas, en edad reproductiva (grupo b), 4 de 63 (6.4%) pudieron ser definidas como hiperandrogénicas. Utilizando valores adecuados de referencia para SHBG, se mejora la precisión del diagnóstico de exceso androgénico.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Androgens/blood , Hyperandrogenism/diagnosis , Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin/analysis , Testosterone/blood , Acne Vulgaris/diagnosis , Alopecia/diagnosis , Biomarkers/blood , Dermatitis, Seborrheic/diagnosis , Hirsutism/diagnosis , Hyperandrogenism/etiology , Prospective Studies , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome/complications , Reference Values , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic/standards
16.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 2014 Jul-Aug; 80(4): 306-312
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154844

ABSTRACT

Background: There have been few reports on primary cicatricial alopecias (PCR) especially from Asia (PCA). Aims: To study the clinical, pathological and dermoscopic characteristics of PCA among Chinese patients. Methods: A retrospective analysis of the clinical data of 59 patients with PCA was conducted and the dermoscopic, pathological, treatment and prognosis characteristics analyzed. Fisher’s Chi‑square exact test, Kruskal‑Wallis and Spearman rank correlation test were performed. Results: The ratio of neutrophilic to lymphocytic cicatricial alopecias was about 1.3:1 in this group. The most frequent disorder was folliculitis decalvans. Follicular openings were absent on dermoscopy in all cases except alopecia mucinosa. Patulous follicular openings were characterisitc of alopecia mucinosa. After treatment, an increase in short vellus hairs was the earliest feature, while telangiectasia, epidermal scale, follicular hyperkeratosis, pustules and hair diameter diversity gradually decreased or even disappeared. Improvement in the areas of hair loss after treatment was seen more often in discoid lupus erythematosus, folliculitis decalvans and dissecting cellulitis than in patients with classic pseudopelade of Brocq. Nine patients (13.6%) relapsed after cessation of therapy. Female patients needed longer treatment times. Long duration, large areas of hair loss and shorter treatment courses were the major factors in relapses. Conclusions: Dermatoscopy provides a rapid, practical and useful aid for the diagnosis of PCA and also to assess disease activity. Patulous follicular openings are a specific dermoscopic sign of alopecia mucinosa. Lichen planopilaris is less common in China than in the West.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Alopecia/diagnosis , Alopecia/ethnology , Asians/ethnology , Child , Child, Preschool , Dermoscopy/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
17.
An. bras. dermatol ; 89(2): 353-355, Mar-Apr/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-706992

ABSTRACT

A 6 year-old patient began to experience localized hairloss in the right temporal region three years ago. During the first appointment, diagnoses of alopecia areata and congenital triangular alopecia were made. After one year, there was no change. Upon dermatological examination, non-scarring alopecia was noted in the right temporal region, revealing extremely fine and fair hair follicles. A dermoscopy revealed only thin vellus-type hairs. Congenital triangular alopecia is a condition commonly confused with alopecia areata and is thus underdiagnosed. However, well-established clinical parameters and dermoscopic criteria can be used to distinguish skin diseases that affect hair and define the diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/diagnosis , Dermoscopy/methods , Alopecia/diagnosis , Alopecia Areata/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential
18.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 2013 Sept-Oct; 79(5): 626-640
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-148755

ABSTRACT

Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a common cause of hair loss in women characterized by diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline. Its prevalence increases with advancing age and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. The pathophysiology of FPHL is still not completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Although androgens have been implicated, the involvement of androgen-independent mechanisms is evident from frequent lack of clinical or biochemical markers of hyperandrogenism in affected women. The role of genetic polymorphisms involving the androgen and estrogen receptors is being increasingly recognized in its causation and predicting treatment response to anti-androgens. There are different clinical patterns and classifications of FPHL, knowledge of which facilitates patient management and research. Chronic telogen effluvium remains as the most important differential diagnosis. Thorough history, clinical examination, and evaluation are essential to confirm diagnosis. Patients with clinical signs of androgen excess require assessment of biochemical parameters and imaging studies. It is prudent to screen the patients for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. The treatment comprises medical and/or surgical modalities. Medical treatment should be initiated early as it effectively arrests hair loss progression rather than stimulating regrowth. Minoxidil continues to be the first line therapy whereas anti-androgens form the second line of treatment. The progressive nature of FPHL mandates long-term treatment for sustained effect. Medical therapy may be supplemented with cosmetic concealment in those desirous of greater hair density. Surgery may be worthwhile in some carefully selected patients.


Subject(s)
5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Alopecia/diagnosis , Alopecia/drug therapy , Alopecia/genetics , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Female , Finasteride/therapeutic use , Humans , Minoxidil/therapeutic use , Vasodilator Agents/therapeutic use
19.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 2013 Sept-Oct; 79(5): 613-625
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-148754

ABSTRACT

Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is one of the commonest reasons for dermatological consultation. Over the last few years our understanding of the pathophysiology of AGA has improved and this has paved way for better diagnostic and therapeutic options. Recent research has dwelled on the role of stem cells in the pathophysiology of AGA and has also identified newer genetic basis for the condition. Dermoscopy/trichoscopy has emerged as a useful diagnostic tool for AGA. While the major treatment options continue to be topical minoxidil, systemic Finasteride and hair transplantations, newer modalities are under investigation. Specific diagnostic and treatment recommendations have also been developed on evidence based principles. This article reviews the recent concepts in relation to AGA. With regards to the pathophysiology we have tried to stress on recent knowledge of the molecular and genetic basis of AGA. We have emphasized on an evidence based approach for treatment and diagnosis.


Subject(s)
5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Alopecia/diagnosis , Alopecia/drug therapy , Alopecia/physiopathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Finasteride/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Minoxidil/therapeutic use , Vasodilator Agents/therapeutic use
20.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 2013 Sept-Oct; 79(5): 591-603
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-148752

ABSTRACT

Telogen effluvium (TE) is one of the most common causes of diffuse nonscarring hair loss. In its acute form, it generates a lot of anxiety in the patient, which can be signifi cantly allayed with a confi dent diagnosis. In its more chronic form, however, the hair loss may go unnoticed for long periods of time. Here in, the dermatologist’s role in differentiating it from the more common patterned hair loss is signifi cant. Differentiating TE from other causes of diffuse nonscarring hair loss can indeed be a daunting task and TE is often used as a waste basket diagnosis. A number of factors have been implicated in the causation of TE, however, clear evidence in their support is lacking. The role of stress as a causative factor as well as the result of hair loss needs to be adequately understood. This review aims at summarizing our current level of knowledge with respect to this very common cause of hair loss. An attempt is made to help the readers reliably differentiate TE from other causes of diffuse nonscarring hair loss. The possible causative factors, pathogenetic mechanisms, clinical presentation, and possible treatment options are discussed.


Subject(s)
Acute Disease , Alopecia/diagnosis , Alopecia/etiology , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/complications , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Stress, Psychological/complications
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