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1.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 44: e14, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101772

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives. To assess the distribution of Mayaro virus (MAYV) in Latin America and the Caribbean and evaluate existing country-level MAYV surveillance mechanisms. Methods. Research was conducted from May 2018 through May 2019 to collect data from academic literature on Mayaro fever in Latin America and the Caribbean. PubMed, ClinicalKey, Scopus, Nature, SciELO, LILACS, and Google Scholar were searched for peer-reviewed journal articles, and data from health authorities, including the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and ministries of health, was also sought. MAYV-related publications published from 1954 through 2019 were screened. Publications that added to the overall understanding of MAYV, including its geographical and epidemiological distribution, were included in this report. Results. A total of 901 MAYV cases have been reported in humans in countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. Since its discovery in 1954 in Trinidad and Tobago, MAYV has been isolated from individuals living in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, French Guiana, Haiti, Mexico, Panama, Peru, and Venezuela. Of those 901 cases, 42 of them were reported exclusively by health authorities. In contrast, 843 confirmed and presumptive autochthonous cases and an additional 16 imported cases were identified in academic literature. No country-level surveillance mechanisms for MAYV were recorded in academic literature or by health authorities. Conclusions. This report demonstrates that MAYV surveillance efforts are limited in comparison to the virus's presence in Latin America and the Caribbean, highlighting the importance of enhancing arboviral surveillance systems in the affected countries.(AU)


RESUMEN Objetivos. Evaluar la distribución del virus Mayaro (MAYV) en América Latina y el Caribe y los mecanismos de vigilancia de nivel nacional. Métodos. Entre mayo de 2018 y mayo de 2019 se llevó a cabo una revisión bibliográfica sobre la fiebre de Mayaro en América Latina y el Caribe en las bases de datos PubMed, ClinicalKey, Scopus, Nature, SciELO, LILACS y Google Académico para identificar artículos en revistas arbitradas; también se revisó información suministrada por las autoridades sanitarias, entre ellas la Organización Panamericana de la Salud y los ministerios de salud. Se revisaron artículos relacionados con MAYV publicados entre 1954 y 2019. En este informe se incluyeron artículos que contribuyeran a la comprensión general sobre el MAYV, incluida su distribución geográfica y su epidemiología. Resultados. Se han reportado 901 casos de MAYV en seres humanos en 11 países de América Latina y el Caribe. Desde su descubrimiento en 1954 en Trinidad y Tobago, MAYV ha sido aislado de personas en Argentina, Bolivia, Brasil, Ecuador, Guayana Francesa, Haití, México, Panamá, Perú y Venezuela. De estos 901 casos, 42 fueron reportados exclusivamente por las autoridades sanitarias. A la vez, en la bibliografía se identificaron 844 casos autóctonos confirmados o presuntivos y 15 casos importados. A través de la bibliografía o las autoridades sanitarias no se identificaron mecanismos de vigilancia de nivel nacional para el MAYV. Conclusiones. En América Latina y el Caribe la vigilancia del MAYV es limitada en comparación con la presencia del virus en la región; es necesario mejorar los sistemas de vigilancia de arbovirus en los países afectados.(AU)


RESUMO Objetivo. Analisar a distribuição do vírus Mayaro (MAYV) na América Latina e Caribe e avaliar os mecanismos nacionais de vigilância. Métodos. Dados da literatura acadêmica sobre a febre Mayaro na América Latina e Caribe foram coletados de maio de 2018 a maio de 2019. Foram pesquisadas as bases de dados PubMed, ClinicalKey, Scopus, Nature, SciELO, LILACS e Google Acadêmico para identificar artigos em revistas revisadas por pares; também foram examinados dados de autoridades sanitárias, incluindo a Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS), e dos ministérios de saúde. Artigos relacionados com MAYV publicados de 1954 a 2019 foram revisados. Este relatório incluiu artigos que contribuíssem para o entendimento geral do MAYV, com informações sobre distribuição geográfica e epidemiologia. Resultados. Foram registrados 901 casos de MAYV em humanos em 11 países da América Latina e do Caribe. Desde a sua descoberta em 1954 em Trinidad e Tobago, o MAYV foi isolado em indivíduos na Argentina, Bolívia, Brasil, Equador, Guiana Francesa, Haiti, México, Panamá, Peru e Venezuela. Desses 901 casos, 42 foram comunicados exclusivamente pelas autoridades sanitárias. Por sua vez, 844 casos autóctones confirmados ou suspeitos e 15 casos importados foram descritos na literatura. Nenhum mecanismo nacional de vigilância do MAYV foi identificado na literatura ou pelas autoridades sanitárias. Conclusões. Na América Latina e Caribe, a vigilância do MAYV é limitada em contraste com a presença do vírus na região; é importante melhorar os sistemas de vigilância desse arbovírus nos países afetados.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Alphavirus Infections/epidemiology , Public Health Surveillance/methods , West Indies/epidemiology , Latin America/epidemiology
2.
Rev. cuba. med. gen. integr ; 35(2): e831, abr.-jun. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093498

ABSTRACT

Introducción: En los últimos años, debido a los movimientos migratorios, se ha desarrollado una expansión de nuevas enfermedades, como chikungunya, zika, oropuche y mayaro. Caso clínico: Paciente que manifestaba síntomas de fiebre, cefalea y artralgias persistente. Después de un arduo estudio y eliminación de otras patologías se llega al diagnóstico de virus mayaro. El paciente residía en una zona nororiental del Perú. Se brindó tratamiento de soporte junto con hidratación, paracetamol 500 mg cada 8 horas y se indicó cita diaria para evaluación. El paciente evolucionó favorablemente a los pocos días. Conclusiones: La vigilancia, las pruebas y el control vectorial siguen siendo claves para prevenir la propagación de este tipo de virus. La posibilidad de que el virus mayaro se urbanice aún más. Se debe tener siempre en cuenta el diagnóstico diferencial de virus mayaro(AU)


Introduction: In recent years, due to migratory movements, an expansion of new diseases has developed, such as chikungunya, zika, oropuche and mayaro. Clinical case: Patient with the following symptoms: fever, headache and persistent arthralgia. After an arduous study and ruling out other possible diseases, we diagnose mayaro virus. The patient resided in a northeastern part of Peru. Supportive treatment was provided along with hydration; paracetamol 500 mg every 8 hours and daily appointment for evaluation was indicated. The patient evolved favorably within a few days. Conclusions: Surveillance, testing and vector control are still key to monitoring and preventing the spread of this type of virus. The possibility of mayaro virus becoming more urbanized is worthy of attention. The differential diagnosis of mayaro virus should always be considered(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Alphavirus Infections/diagnosis , Alphavirus Infections/prevention & control , Alphavirus Infections/epidemiology , Vector Control of Diseases , Peru
3.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(5): 540-544, Sept.-Oct. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888906

ABSTRACT

Abstract Mayaro virus is an alphavirus from the Togaviridae family and is transmitted mainly by Hemagogus mosquitoes. This virus circulates in high-density tropical forests or rural areas of Central and South America causing a disease characterized by high-grade fever, maculopapular skin rash and marked arthralgia that, in some patients, can persist for long periods after infection and may be misinterpreted as chikungunya. Although only a few outbreaks involving this virus have been reported, in the last years the number of Mayaro virus infections has increased in the central and northern regions of Brazil. In this review, we describe the reported prevalence of this infection over the years and discuss the circumstances that can contribute to the establishment of an urban mayaro virus epidemic in Brazil and the problems encountered with the specific diagnosis, especially the antigenic cross-reactivity of this pathogen with other viruses of the same family.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Alphavirus Infections/epidemiology , Alphavirus/classification , Urban Population , Brazil/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Mosquito Vectors/virology
4.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(supl.1): 38-50, Oct.-Dec. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839330

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Arboviruses pose a serious threat to public health worldwide, overloading the healthcare system and causing economic losses. These viruses form a very diverse group, and in Brazil, arboviruses belonging to the families Flaviviridae and Togaviridae are predominant. Unfortunately, the number of arboviruses increases in proportion with factors such as deforestation, poor sanitation, climate changes, and introduction of new viruses like Chikungunya virus and Zika virus. In Brazil, dengue is endemic, along with the presence of other arboviruses. The situation is complicated by the scarcity of diagnostic infrastructure and the absence of approved vaccines for these diseases. Disease control, thus, relies solely on vector control. Therefore, enhanced clinical knowledge and improved general awareness about these arboviruses are indispensable to tackle diagnostic inadequacies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Virus Diseases/transmission , Virus Diseases/virology , Insect Vectors/virology , Culicidae/virology , Brazil/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Alphavirus Infections/diagnosis , Alphavirus Infections/transmission , Alphavirus Infections/epidemiology , Alphavirus Infections/virology , Alphavirus/classification , Alphavirus/physiology , Dengue/transmission , Dengue/epidemiology , Dengue/virology , Dengue Virus/classification , Dengue Virus/physiology , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Zika Virus Infection/transmission , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/virology
5.
Buenos Aires; GCBA. Gerencia Operativa de Epidemiología; 23 sept. 2016. a) f: 21 l:24 p. mapas, tab.(Boletín Epidemiológico Semanal: Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, 1, 5).
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1116240

ABSTRACT

La Fiebre Chikungunya es una enfermedad provocada por el virus Chikungunya (CHIKV) que pertenece al género Alphavirus (familia Togaviridae). A partir de 2004 se produjeron epidemias en África, Asia y Europa, con las que se inició una expansión global de la infección. Desde finales de 2013 la enfermedad está presente en las Américas, y no existe hasta el momento vacuna ni tratamiento con medicamentos antivirales contra esta enfermedad. El presente informe analiza sus vías de transmisión, manifestaciones clínicas, la situación epidemiológica internacional, argentina, y en Ciudad de Buenos Aires


Subject(s)
Epidemiologic Studies , Alphavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Chikungunya Fever/diagnosis , Chikungunya Fever/pathology , Chikungunya Fever/prevention & control , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Hospitals, Municipal/statistics & numerical data
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(6): 677-683, Nov-Dec/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732989

ABSTRACT

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Mayaro virus (MAYV) are emergent arthropod-borne viruses that produce outbreaks of acute febrile illness with arthropathy. Despite their different continental origins, CHIKV and MAYV are closely related and are components of the Semliki Forest Complex of the Alphavirus (Togaviridae). MAYV and, more recently, CHIKV, which are both transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, have resulted in severe public health problems in the Americas, including Brazil. In this review, we present aspects of the pathogenesis, clinical presentation and treatment of febrile illnesses produced by CHIKV and MAYV. We also discuss the epidemiological aspects and effects related to the prophylaxis of infections by both viruses.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Alphavirus Infections/virology , Alphavirus/genetics , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Americas , Alphavirus Infections/epidemiology , Alphavirus/classification , Alphavirus/physiology , Chikungunya virus/genetics , Chikungunya virus/physiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Insect Vectors/classification , Virus Replication
7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(6): 820-823, 09/09/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723986

ABSTRACT

Mayaro virus (MAYV) is frequently reported in Pan-Amazonia. The aim of this study was to investigate the circulation of alphaviruses during a dengue outbreak in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Serum samples from dengue-suspected patients were subjected to multiplex semi-nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for 11 flaviviruses and five alphaviruses, to nucleotide sequencing and to viral isolation. MAYV was detected in 15 (2.5%) of 604 patients. Twelve were co-infected with dengue virus 4, which was isolated from 10 patients. The molecular detection of MAYV in dengue-suspected patients suggests that other arboviruses may be silently circulating during dengue outbreaks in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Alphavirus Infections/epidemiology , Alphavirus/isolation & purification , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Dengue Virus/isolation & purification , Dengue/epidemiology , Alphavirus/classification , Alphavirus/genetics , Base Sequence/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/virology , Dengue/blood , Dengue/virology , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
8.
Medisan ; 18(6): 848-856, jun. 2014.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-712632

ABSTRACT

Debido a la emergencia en el Caribe por fiebre de Chikungunya, y teniendo en cuenta que no tiene antecedentes en Cuba, además de la situación entomológica que presenta la provincia de Santiago de Cuba, donde existen vectores transmisores de enfermedades, tales como mosquitos Aedes aegypti y Aedes albopictus; se realizó una revisión bibliográfica exhaustiva, para contribuir a la actualización sobre el tema de toda la comunidad médica de la provincia.


Due to the emergency in the Caribbean caused by Chikungunya fever, and keeping in mind that it has no history in Cuba, besides the entomological situation that presents Santiago de Cuba province, where vectors transmitting diseases exist, such as Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes, an exhaustive literature review was carried out, to contribute to the updating on the topic of the whole medical community from the province.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Chikungunya virus , Insect Vectors , Alphavirus Infections/epidemiology , Vector Control of Diseases , Cuba , Alphavirus Infections/prevention & control , Alphavirus Infections/transmission
9.
Brasilia; Brasília. Ministério da Saúde; 2014. ilus, tab.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-716030

ABSTRACT

O CHIKV é um vírus RNA que pertence ao gênero Alphavírus da família Togaviridae. O nome chikungunya deriva de uma palavra em Makonde que significa aproximadamente “aqueles que se dobram”, descrevendo a aparência encurvada de pacientes que sofrem de artralgia intensa. Casos humanos com febre, exantema e artrite aparentando ser CHIKV foram relatados no início de 1770. Porém, o vírus não foi isolado do soro humano ou de mosquitos até a epidemia na Tanzânia de 1952-53. Outros surtos ocorreram subsequentemente na África e na Ásia. Muitos ocorreram em pequenas comunidades ou comunidades rurais. No entanto,na Ásia, cepas de CHIKV foram isoladas durante grandes surtos urbanos em Bangkok eTailândia em 1960 e em Calcutá e Vellore, na Índia, durante as décadas de 60 e 70.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aedes , Chikungunya virus , Dengue/epidemiology , Insect Vectors , Alphavirus Infections/epidemiology , Vector Control of Diseases , Brazil/epidemiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Dengue/diagnosis , Alphavirus Infections/diagnosis , Alphavirus Infections/prevention & control , Alphavirus Infections/transmission , Population Surveillance
11.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-139000

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: A retrospective study on chikungunya outbreak in India in five States viz. Delhi, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Maharashtra and Kerala was conducted in 2007-2008 to know the distribution and determinants of chikungunya fever outbreak in India. Methods: On the basis of high and low incidence of chikungunya fever, two districts from each State and two wards from the selected district were taken for random selection of 1000 households from 10 districts and 5 States. Semi-structured questionnaires were administered to individuals, patients, qualified health professionals and to stakeholders for collecting information. Results: The educational background and occupation of the respondents showed variations across the study States. Only in high incidence ward of Maharashtra, water storage period for 3-6 days and emptying, drying of water containers on weekly basis was noted. The study through knowledge, attitude, belief, practice (KABP) obtained individual's perception of chikungunya fever, its prevention and control. Patients’ expenditure on treatment was mainly recorded less than Rs 500 across study States. Health facility survey obtained an overview of the capacity of local health facilities. Stakeholders’ perception regarding chikungunya fever was also noted. Interpretation & Conclusions: The study revealed differences in awareness of chikungunya, cause of the disease, vector responsible, mode of transmission, biting time and elimination of breeding of mosquitoes statistically significant among high and low incidence wards of all the States. Expenditure on treatment was independent of economically active status and loss of man-days across all the States. Education and occupation did not have any relation with emptying/drying of water containers in high incidence wards. Strengthening of surveillance, information, education and communication (IEC) activities along with case management facilities may be provided by the State health department for prevention of chikungunya outbreaks in future. Stakeholders should be more involved in outbreak management and future planning.


Subject(s)
Alphavirus Infections/epidemiology , Chikungunya virus/isolation & purification , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Incidence , India/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Urban Population
12.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 45(1): 128-129, Jan.-Feb. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-614924

ABSTRACT

Initially diagnosed in Africa and Asia, the Chikungunya virus has been detected in the last three years in the Caribbean, Italy, France, and the United States of America. Herein, we report the first case for Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2010.


Antes diagnosticado na África e na Ásia, o vírus Chikungunya foi detectado nos últimos três anos, no Caribe, na Itália, na França e nos Estados Unidos. Relatamos o primeiro caso do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, em 2010.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Aedes , Alphavirus Infections/diagnosis , Chikungunya virus , Vector Control of Diseases , Alphavirus Infections/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Alphavirus Infections/prevention & control
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 106(8): 912-916, Dec. 2011. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-610963

ABSTRACT

India was affected by a major outbreak of chikungunya fever caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) during 2006-2007. Kerala was the worst affected state during 2007 with a contribution of 55.8 percent suspected cases in the country. However, except for clinically reported case records, no systematic information is available on infection status of CHIKV in the region. Hence, we carried out a post-epidemic survey to estimate seroprevalence status [immunoglobulin G (IgG)] in the community using commercially available indirect immunofluorescence test. This methodology had been reported to be highly specific and sensitive for CHIKV infection. The study area selected was the worst affected mid-highlands region of Kerala which harbour vast area of rubber plantations. The study evidenced 68 percent of the population to be seropositive for CHIKV IgG. Males were found more affected than females (χ2 = 9.86; p = 0.002). Among males, prevalence was significantly higher in the age classes 21-30 (χ2 = 5.46; p = 0.019) and 31-40 (χ2 = 5.84; p = 0.016) years. This may be due to high occupational risk of the male population engaged in plantation activities exposed to infective bites of Aedes albopictus. The current study provides an insight into the magnitude of CHIKV outbreak in Kerala.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Alphavirus Infections/epidemiology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Chikungunya virus/immunology , Disease Outbreaks , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Alphavirus Infections/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , India/epidemiology , Prevalence , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies
14.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135714

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Chikungunya infection has become a public health threat in Malaysia since the 2008 nationwide outbreaks. Aedes albopictus Skuse has been identified as the chikungunya vector in Johor State during the outbreaks. In 2009, several outbreaks had been reported in the State of Kelantan. Entomological studies were conducted in Kelantan in four districts, namely Jeli, Tumpat, Pasir Mas and Tanah Merah to identify the vector responsible for the virus transmission. Methods: CHIKV cases records were obtained from State Health Department, Kelantan and localities involved were identified. Larva survey was conducted to collect the immature mosquito stages. Modified aspirators were used to collect the adult mosquitoes. All samples on dry ice were transferred to laboratory and the presence of the virus was detected using reverse transcriptase PCR. Results: A total of 1,245 mosquito larvae were collected during larval survey and 2,019 adult mosquitoes were collected using aspirator. From these collections, 640 mosquito pools were tested for the presence of CHIKV by RT-PCR but none found positive. Ae. albopictus was the most abundant mosquito collected, followed by Culex sp., Armigeres sp. and Anopheles sp. A total of 2, 814 artificial containers were inspected during the study. Interpretation & conclusions: Since none of the mosquito samples was found to be positive for chikungunya virus, the vector(s) of chikungunya virus in these localities could not be identified.


Subject(s)
Alphavirus Infections/epidemiology , Alphavirus Infections/transmission , Animals , Chikungunya virus/genetics , Chikungunya virus/pathogenicity , Culicidae/physiology , Humans , Malaysia/epidemiology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
16.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135391

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives : A large number of cases of undiagnosed fever and joint pain were reported from different parts of the State of Orissa since February 2006. Epidemiological and laboratory investigation were carried out to confirm the cause of emerging illness, which was provisionally suspected as Chikungunya (CHIK) fever. Methods: Upon getting the reports of suspected CHIK like illness in different parts of the State, epidemic investigations were carried out in the outbreak affected villages. Case history was recorded, clinical examination undertaken and blood samples collected for seroconfirmation for CHIK IgM antibody using ELISA based kit. Simultaneously vector survey was also carried out. Results: With no previous record of CHIK infection in the State, the first outbreak was confirmed during February 2006. Subsequently, the infection spread to 13 of 30 districts in different episodes covering 79 villages till November 2007. Attack rate was 9-43 per cent in the different outbreaks with average seropositivity of 24 per cent to CHIK specific IgM. Morbidity was high though no deaths were recorded. Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus were identified as the possible vectors for transmission. Interpretation & conclusions : The report confirmed emergence of CHIK infection in the State of Orissa, India, and its spread to a larger geographic zone in a short period which warrants public health measures to control further spread.


Subject(s)
Alphavirus Infections/diagnosis , Alphavirus Infections/epidemiology , Alphavirus Infections/transmission , Chikungunya virus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Disease Outbreaks , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , India/epidemiology
17.
Weekly Epidemiological Monitor. 2011; 04 (11): 1
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-142762

ABSTRACT

As of 12 March 2011, the Ministry of Public Health in Yemen has reported over 15,000 suspected cases of Chikugunya and dengue fevers from Al-Hodeida Governorate. 104 of the cases were fatal. The outbreak seems to have started in September 2010. Chikungunya was first laboratory confirmed on 15 December 2010. The Ministry of Health and Population, World Health Organization and NAMRU-3 have responded and control measures have been put in place


Subject(s)
Humans , Alphavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Chikungunya virus , Alphavirus Infections/prevention & control
18.
Weekly Epidemiological Monitor. 2011; 04 (32): 1
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-161281

ABSTRACT

The WHO Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office organized a sub-regional meeting on dengue fever and chikungunya for the countries of the Red Sea rim from 20-21 August, 2011. The meeting was held in Cairo, Egypt and was attended by 51 participants and 5 organizations. The meeting brought in together, epidemiologists, clinicians, laboratory experts and senior policy and decision makers from the ministries of health and other institutions and a call for action was launched on the concluding day


Subject(s)
Alphavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Severe Dengue/epidemiology , Severe Dengue/prevention & control , Alphavirus Infections/prevention & control , Dengue/prevention & control , Dengue
20.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-139105

ABSTRACT

Background. Two epidemics of chikungunya fever were reported from Kerala in 2006 and 2007. We aimed to investigate the environmental factors of households affected by chikungunya fever and to estimate the proportion of population that suffered from the disease during the epidemic in 2007. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the 5 heavily affected districts of Kerala during October–November 2007. The 2-stage sampling technique was used to collect data from 10 clusters, each having 18 houses from every district, by interviewing the subjects using a structured questionnaire. The sample size was 900. Results. The proportion of the population affected by chikungunya fever was 57.1% (95% CI: 52.8%–61.4%). There was a significant association between location of houses and disease status. Houses located near a public conveyance facility (within 250 m) were relatively protected from the disease (OR 0.19 [0.06–0.60]). About 69% of the households perceived mosquito infestation as a problem and 46.6% used fumes to avoid mosquitoes. More than 42% of households were not using any anti-mosquito measures at the time of the survey. Stored drinking water was the most common potential breeding source in the houses (23.5%). Households which did not store water inside were protected from the disease (OR 0.22 [0.08–0.65]). Conclusion. The study indicated the persistence of favourable domestic and environmental factors after the epidemic, reflecting the necessity to strengthen anti-mosquito campaigns.


Subject(s)
Aedes , Alphavirus Infections/epidemiology , Animals , Chikungunya virus , Cross-Sectional Studies , Environment , Humans , India/epidemiology , Mosquito Control , Population Density , Time Factors
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