Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 217
Filter
1.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 72(4): 347-349, ago. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138721

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Los hongos dematiáceos se caracterizan por la presencia de abundante melanina en su pared celular. Presentan una distribución mundial, siendo más comunes en climas tropicales y subtropicales. Producen infecciones cutáneas y subcutáneas, además de enfermedades alérgicas, neumonías, abscesos cerebrales o infecciones diseminadas. Caso Clínico: Presentamos el caso de un paciente con adenocarcinoma de recto intervenido quirúrgicamente con hallazgo incidental de divertículo de Meckel y en el cual en el estudio anatomopatológico reveló la presencia de un hongo dematiáceo


Introduction: Dematiaceous fungi are characterized by the presence of brown melanine or melanine like pigments in their cell wall. They are generally distributed worldwide, being more common in tropical and subtropical climates. The clinical syndromes are often cutaneous and subcutaneous infections, but can be also responsible of allergic diseases, pneumonias, cerebral abscesses or disseminated infections. Clinical Case: We present the case of a patient with a diagnosis of rectal adenocarcinoma intervening surgically and with an incidental finding of Meckel's Diverticulum. The anatomopathological study revealed the presence of a dematiaceous fungi.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Diverticulitis/surgery , Alternaria/pathogenicity , Meckel Diverticulum/surgery , Colostomy/methods
2.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eRC5478, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142868

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT A 33-year-old male with house dust mite allergic rhinitis and asthma reported an episode of facial and lip angioedema, dyspnea, cough and dysphagia at the age of 25, minutes after eating a mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus ) pizza. He denied any drug intake, hymenoptera stings or other possible triggers, and no identifiable cofactors were present. Since then he avoided all types of mushrooms, however an accidental contact occurred with mushroom sauce that resulted in angioedema of the lip within minutes. The allergy workup included measurements of total IgE and specific IgE to mushroom, and skin prick test to aeroallergens sources, possible food allergen sources and mushroom extract, a prick to prick test with raw and cooked A. bisporus , in addition to a SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting assay. The study revealed a specific IgE to mushroom of 0.76kUA/L positive skin prick test to mushroom extract, and prick to prick test positive to white and brown A. bisporus (raw and cooked). The immunoblotting identified two IgE binding proteins with 10kDa and 27kDa. We report a case of A. bisporus anaphylaxis probably due to primary mushroom sensitization. We detected two IgE-reactive proteins with 10kDa and 27kDa as possible culprit allergens.


RESUMO Paciente do sexo masculino, 33 anos, com asma e rinite alérgica desencadeadas por ácaros, relatou episódio de angioedema facial e labial, dispneia, tosse e disfagia aos 25 anos, minutos após a ingestão de uma pizza de cogumelo ( Agaricus bisporus ). O paciente negou consumo de medicamentos, picadas de himenópteros, ou quaisquer outros possíveis desencadeadores ou cofatores que pudessem estar presentes. Desde então, evita todos os tipos de cogumelos, até a ocorrência de um contato acidental com molho de cogumelo, que resultou em angioedema labial minutos após. O estudo imunoalergológico incluiu doseamento de IgE total e específica para cogumelos, testes cutâneos para aeroalérgenos, possíveis alérgenos alimentares e extrato de cogumelos, teste prick to prick com A. bisporus cru e cozido e teste de SDS-PAGE immunoblotting . O estudo revelou IgE específica para cogumelos de 0,76kUA/L, teste cutâneo positivo para extrato de cogumelos e teste prick to prick positivo para A. bisporus branco e castanho (cru e cozido). O immunoblotting identificou duas proteínas de ligação de IgE, de 10kDa e 27kDa. Relatamos, assim, um caso de anafilaxia por ingestão de A. bisporus , provavelmente explicado por sensibilização primária a cogumelos. Detectamos duas proteínas IgE-reativas de 10kDa e 27kDa como os possíveis alérgenos responsáveis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Adult , Cats , Agaricus , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Cough/etiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Food Hypersensitivity/immunology , Anaphylaxis/etiology , Angioedema/etiology , Immunoglobulin E/blood , Skin Tests , Allergens , Alternaria , Flour , Anaphylaxis/chemically induced
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777479

ABSTRACT

In order to find new source of antifungal agents, eleven cultivable endophytic fungi were isolated from the roots,stems and leaves of Chelidonium majus by traditional method. Seven of them were identified as Colletotrichum(L1, L2, L3, S1, S3, S4, S5), and three of them were identified as Fusarium(R1,R2,R3) by morphological features and molecular biological technology. The antifungal activity test showed that all the tested fungi displayed some inhibitory activity against five common plant pathogens(C. gloeosporioides, Curvularia lunata, Pyricularia oryza, Alternaria alternate and A. brassicae), and their inhibition rate of some test items were over 60%. Among them, R1, S2, S3 and S4 were more potent than others. This study enriches the understanding of endophytes from Ch. majus and provides a basis for the study of new microbial fungicides.


Subject(s)
Alternaria , Virulence , Antibiosis , Ascomycota , Virulence , Chelidonium , Microbiology , Colletotrichum , Chemistry , Endophytes , Chemistry , Fusarium , Chemistry
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777442

ABSTRACT

To obtain biocontrol fungus for Alternaria panax,the antifungal effects of one strain of endophytic fungi isolated from leaves of healthy ginseng were screened and evaluated by using dual-culture method,and the taxonomic assignment of the screened strain was identified based on the morphological characters and ITS sequence analysis. The results of dual-culture showed that one of the endophytes marked as FS-01 had good antifungal effects and the inhibitory rates of FS-01 strain to A. panax was( 60. 21±0. 12) %.The hyphae junction of the both strains,A. panax dissolved,broke and winded,while the hyphae of FS-01 strain remained normal. The inhibitory rates of non-sterilized FS-01 strain fermentation liqud was( 13. 94±0. 21) %. Strain FS-01 identified as Chaetomium globosum.


Subject(s)
Alternaria , Virulence , Antibiosis , Chaetomium , Classification , Endophytes , Fungicides, Industrial , Panax , Microbiology , Plant Diseases
5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766844

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report a case of infectious crystalline keratopathy caused by Alternaria in the corneal center. CASE SUMMARY: A 66-year-old male visited our clinic with right ocular pain and visual loss after corneal trauma caused by a foreign body hitting his right eye while performing farm work 1 month prior to his visit. The patient had no history of corneal surgery and long-term use of topical corticosteroid. A corneal epithelial defect and whitish snowflake margin infiltration around the corneal stroma were observed in the corneal center, but there was an absence of conjunctival injection and anterior segment inflammation. Cultures and a biopsy of the corneal scrapings revealed Alternaria species fungus. The patient was treated with 1% topical voriconazole and 0.5% moxifloxacin, together with oral voriconazole (400 mg/day). After 2 months of treatment, the disease was completely cured, with a minute corneal opacity. CONCLUSIONS: We successfully treated a rare case of infectious crystalline keratopathy caused by Alternaria, which has not been previously reported in the Republic of Korea.


Subject(s)
Aged , Agriculture , Alternaria , Biopsy , Corneal Injuries , Corneal Opacity , Corneal Stroma , Crystallins , Foreign Bodies , Fungi , Humans , Inflammation , Male , Republic of Korea , Voriconazole
6.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 563-566, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762371

ABSTRACT

The Alternaria species are dematiaceous fungi. Human infection due to dematiaceous fungi is uncommon. Most reported cases of alternariosis have occurred in patients with immunodeficiency. The majority of cases were solid-organ transplantation recipients. Cutaneous alternariosis lesions are usually asymptomatic solitary nodules, plaques of ulcers or subcutaneous cysts. Here we report a case of a 77-year-old female who presented with hemorrhagic skin necrosis in right arm that had developed from hemorrhagic bullae. Her prior medical history included iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome, hypertension, interstitial lung disease and congestive heart failure. Following administration of itraconazole, her lesions improved.


Subject(s)
Aged , Alternaria , Alternariosis , Arm , Cushing Syndrome , Female , Fungi , Heart Failure , Humans , Hypertension , Itraconazole , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Necrosis , Phaeohyphomycosis , Skin , Ulcer
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762137

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Children with sensitization to aeroallergens have decreased lung function and nasal patency. Our purpose was to determine the association of sensitization to different aeroallergens with airway function and nasal patency. METHODS: Four hundred and eighty-six randomly selected 11 year-old children who lived in Seongnam City were examined. Serum specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels against 6 common allergens (Dermatophagoidesfarinae, birch, cat, dog, Japanese hop and Alternaria), impulse oscillometry (IOS) results for the evaluation of airway dysfunction, and acoustic rhinometry for the determination of nasal airway patency were obtained. RESULTS: IOS indicated that children sensitized to Alternaria (n = 38, 7.8%) and dog dander (n = 69, 14.2%) had decreased lung function, based on resistance at 10 Hz (Rrs10; aβ = 0.0072; 95% CI, 0.017, 0.127; P = 0.010) and 1 Hz (Rrs1; aβ = 0.038; 95% CI, 0.001, 0.074; P = 0.042). Children sensitized to D. farinae (n = 281, 57.8%) had decreased post-decongestant nasal volume at 0 to 5 cm (aβ = −0.605; 95% CI, −1.005, −0.205; P = 0.003), but normal IOS results at all measured frequencies (P > 0.05). Increased serum eosinophil level was associated with Rrs1 (P = 0.007) and Rrs2 (P = 0.018) and post-decongestant nasal volume at 0 to 5 cm (aβ = −0.885; 95% CI, −1.331, −0.439; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Sensitivity to specific aeroallergens, serum eosinophil count and total IgE level had different associations with upper and lower airway dysfunction in urban children.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Alternaria , Animals , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Betula , Cats , Child , Dander , Dogs , Eosinophils , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulins , Jupiter , Lung , Oscillometry , Respiratory Function Tests , Rhinometry, Acoustic
8.
Mycobiology ; : 66-75, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760525

ABSTRACT

A new species of Alternaria causing leaf spots on the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) in Yunnan, China, was isolated, examined, and illustrated. Morphologically, it belongs to the section Porri of Alternaria, which produces relatively large conidia and a simple or branched, filamentous long beak. It is, however, characterized by conidiophores gradually enlarging near the apex into a clavate conidiogenous cell and long ellipsoid to obclavate, smooth-walled conidia with a long filamentous beak. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on ITS rDNA, GAPDH, and TEF1-alpha sequences demonstrate that the phytopathogen falls in the clade of the section Porri, being most closely related to A. sidae, A. sennae, A. deseriticola, A. cyamopsidis, A. rostellata, A. nitrimali, A. crassa, and A. thunbergiae.


Subject(s)
Acanthaceae , Accidental Falls , Alternaria , Animals , Ascomycota , Beak , China , Classification , DNA, Ribosomal , Hevea , Rubber , Spores, Fungal
9.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 236-245, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974331

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Salinity and alkalinity are major abiotic stresses that limit growth and development of poplar. We investigated biocontrol potential of saline- and alkaline-tolerant mutants of Trichoderma asperellum to mediate the effects of salinity or alkalinity stresses on Populus davidiana × P. alba var. pyramidalis (PdPap poplar) seedlings. A T-DNA insertion mutant library of T. asperellum was constructed using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation system; this process yielded sixty five positive transformants (T1-T65). The salinity tolerant mutant, T59, grew in Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) containing up to 10% (1709.40 mM) NaCl. Under NaCl-rich conditions, T59 was most effective in inhibiting Alternaria alternata (52.00%). The alkalinity tolerant mutants, T3 and T5, grew in PDA containing up to 0.4% (47.62 mM) NaHCO3. The ability of the T3 and T5 mutants to inhibit Fusarium oxysporum declined as NaHCO3 concentrations increased. NaHCO3 tolerance of the PdPap seedlings improved following treatment with the spores of the WT, T3, and T5 strains. The salinity tolerant mutant (T59) and two alkalinity tolerant mutants (T3 and T5) generated in this study can be applied to decrease the incidence of pathogenic fungi infection under saline or alkaline stress.


Subject(s)
Plant Diseases/microbiology , Trichoderma/physiology , Sodium Chloride/metabolism , Populus/growth & development , Alkalies/metabolism , Alternaria/physiology , Antibiosis , Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Stress, Physiological , Trichoderma/genetics , Populus/microbiology , Seedlings/growth & development , Seedlings/microbiology
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714757

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To identify the correlation between nasal eosinophilia and aeroallergen sensitization in children and adolescents. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of patients below 18 years of age who had a history of rhinitis that lasted more than 2 weeks or had been repeated more than once a year, received nasal eosinophil examinations, and had serum specific IgE to aeroallergens measured at an Allergy Clinic in a single tertiary teaching hospital in Seoul, Korea. The percentage of nasal eosinophils was calculated by the number of eosinophils per total leukocytes in a high-power field of 1,000×. Data was analyzed to determine the association between nasal eosinophilia and 18 aeroallergens. RESULTS: Of the 245 patients included, 156 (63.7%) were male and the mean age (±standard deviation) was 7.9 years (±3.8). In total, 175 patients (71.4%) were sensitized to at least 1 of the 18 aeroallergens tested, and sensitization to house dust mite was most common. In addition, 118 (48.2%) and 69 patients (28.2%) had nasal eosinophilia of at least 1% and 5%, respectively. There were no significant correlations between serum total IgE or age and the percentage of nasal eosinophils. However, the percentage of nasal eosinophils in the group sensitized to any aeroallergens was significantly increased compared to the nonsensitized group (P=0.002). The percentage of nasal eosinophils was significantly higher in patients who were sensitized to Birch-Alder Mix, oak white, Bermuda grass, orchard grass, timothy grass, sweet vernal grass, rye, mugwort, short ragweed, Alternaria alternata, cats, dogs or Dermatophagoides farinae compared to those nonsensitized. CONCLUSION: Nasal eosinophilia was significantly associated with sensitization to aeroallergens.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Alternaria , Ambrosia , Animals , Artemisia , Cats , Child , Cynodon , Dactylis , Dermatophagoides farinae , Dogs , Eosinophilia , Eosinophils , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Immunoglobulin E , Korea , Leukocytes , Lolium , Male , Phleum , Pyroglyphidae , Retrospective Studies , Rhinitis , Seoul
11.
Mycobiology ; : 168-171, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729783

ABSTRACT

In 2016, a severe leaf spot disease was found on Iris ensata Thumb. in Nanjing, China. The symptom was elliptical, fusiform, or irregularly necrotic lesion surrounded by a yellow halo, from which a small-spored Alternaria species was isolated. The fungus was identified as Alternaria iridiaustralis based on morphological characteristics. The pathogenicity tests revealed that the fungus was the causal pathogen of the disease. Phylogenic analyses using sequences of ITS, gpd, endoPG, and RPB2 genes confirmed the morphological identification. This study is the first report of A. iridiaustralis causing leaf spots on I. ensata in China.


Subject(s)
Alternaria , China , Fungi , Iris , Sequence Analysis , Thumb , Virulence
12.
Mycobiology ; : 172-176, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729782

ABSTRACT

A new species belonging to the genus Alternaria was isolated from the necrotic leaf spots of Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis in Yuseong district, Daejeon, Korea. It is an occasional isolate, not an etiological agent, which is morphologically similar to A. broccoli-italicae, but differs in conidial size and conidiophore shape. Phylogenetic analysis using the sequence datasets of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rDNA, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd), and plasma membrane ATPase genes showed that it is distantly related to A. broccoli-italicae and closely related to Alternaria species in the section Pseudoalternaria, which belonged to a clade basal to the section Infectoriae. Morphologically, the species is unique because it produces solitary conidia or conidial chains (two units), unlike the four members in the section Pseudoalternaria that produce conidia as short branched chains. It exhibits weak pathogenicity in the host plant. This report includes the description and illustration of A. brassicifolii as a new species.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphatases , Alternaria , Brassica rapa , Brassica , Brassicaceae , Cell Membrane , Dataset , DNA, Ribosomal , Korea , Oxidoreductases , Plants , Spores, Fungal , Virulence
13.
Mycobiology ; : 278-282, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729770

ABSTRACT

Chrysanthemum coronarium is an economically important plant in Asia, and used medicinally, ornamentally and as a vegetable. In April 2017, leaf spot disease on C. coronarium was observed in Shiyan, Hubei, China. A single-spore isolate was obtained and identified based on morphology and sequence analysis using four regions (rDNA ITS, GAPDH, EF-1α, and RPB2). The results indicated that the fungus is Alternaria argyranthemi. The pathogenicity tests revealed that the species could cause severe leaf spot and blight disease on the host. This is the first report of leaf spot disease on C. coronarium caused by A. argyranthemi in the world, which is also a new record of Alternaria species in China.


Subject(s)
Alternaria , Asia , Asteraceae , China , Chrysanthemum , Fungi , Plants , Sequence Analysis , Vegetables , Virulence
14.
Mycobiology ; : 370-381, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729739

ABSTRACT

Bioactive natural compounds, isolated from fungal endophytes, play a promising role in the search for novel drugs. They are an inspiring source for researchers due to their enormous structural diversity and complexity. During the present study fungal endophytes were isolated from a well-known medicinal shrub, Berberis aristata DC. and were explored for their antagonistic and antioxidant potential. B. aristata, an important medicinal shrub with remarkable pharmacological properties, is native to Northern Himalayan region. A total of 131 endophytic fungal isolates belonging to eighteen species and nine genera were obtained from three hundred and thirty surface sterilized segments of different tissues of B. aristata. The isolated fungi were classified on the basis of morphological and molecular analysis. Diversity and species richness was found to be higher in leaf tissues as compared to root and stem. Antibacterial activity demonstrated that the crude ethyl acetate extract of 80% isolates exhibited significant results against one or more bacterial pathogens. Ethyl acetate extract of Alternaria macrospora was found to have potential antibacterial activity. Significant antioxidant activity was also found in crude ethyl acetate extracts of Alternaria alternata and Aspergillus flavus. Similarly, antagonistic activity of the fungal endophytes revealed that all antagonists possessed inhibition potential against more than one fungal pathogen. This study is an important step towards tapping endophytic fungal diversity for bioactive metabolites which could be a step forward towards development of novel therapeutic agents.


Subject(s)
Alternaria , Aspergillus flavus , Berberis , Endophytes , Fungi
15.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 85: e0352017, 2018. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-908646

ABSTRACT

The objectives of the present project were to evaluate the sanity and germination of tobacco seed samples cultivated in Brazil and to identify potential pathogenic fungi to the culture. Thirty-four representatives samples of tobacco seeds were evaluated through germination and sanity test by the blotter-test. On the germination test, results were expressed in percentage of seedlings considered normal, abnormal and non-germinated seeds. The percentage of seeds germination varied between 54.5 and 90%. According to sanity test, it was verified the incidence of Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium spp., Fusarium spp., and Phoma spp. The incidence of A. alternata varied from 3 to 67%, and Fusarium spp. varied from 0 to 19%. There was significative positive correlation between the incidence of A. alternata and the percentage of seed germination. Species of Alternaria and Fusarium can be potential pathogens to tobacco culture and an alarm for the necessity of seed treatment of the seeds that are transporting these fungi.(AU)


Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram avaliar a sanidade e a germinação de amostras de sementes de tabaco utilizadas no Brasil e identificar fungos potencialmente fitopatogênicos à cultura. Foram avaliadas 34 amostras representativas de lotes de sementes de tabaco, por meio dos testes de germinação, do método do rolo de germinação, e sua sanidade pelo método do papel de filtro. Os resultados do teste de germinação foram expressos em porcentual de plântulas consideradas normais, anormais e sementes não germinadas. A porcentagem de germinação das sementes variou entre 54,5 e 90%. Mediante o teste de sanidade, foi verificada a incidência dos fungos Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium spp., Fusarium spp. e Phoma spp. A incidência de A. alternata variou de 3 a 67%, e Fusarium spp., de 0 a 19%. Houve correlação significativa positiva entre a incidência de A. alternata e a porcentagem de germinação das sementes. Espécies dos gêneros Alternaria e Fusarium podem ser potenciais patógenos para a cultura do tabaco, alertando para a necessidade do tratamento das sementes portadoras desses fungos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Tobacco , Alternaria , Fusarium , Seeds/growth & development , Germination
16.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 85: 1-8, 2018. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-998434

ABSTRACT

Passion fruit is usually propagated by seeds because of the ease and lower cost in seedling production. However, the seed is the most efficient agent for the spread of pathogens. The damages from seed-borne diseases occur mainly during the germination stages or at the formation of seedlings in nurseries. Considering the need for knowledge on the pathology of sweet passion fruit seeds, the objective was to evaluate the transmission and pathogenicity of the fungi Alternaria sp., Botrytis fabae, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Fusarium spp. and Lasiodiplodia theobromae, known as potentially pathogenic to this crop, and isolated from sweet passion fruit seeds. Therefore, tests on seed health, germination and seedling emergence in a sterilized commercial substrate were conducted using seeds from this species, inoculated with those fungal isolates. Leaves, stems and fruit from this plant were also inoculated with the same fungi. Alternaria sp., Fusarium spp. and L. theobromae were identified in seedlings obtained from inoculated seeds, confirming the transmission of these fungi by seeds. L. theobromae was also considered the most harmful fungus to passion fruit crop, as it causes seed rot and other disease symptoms on the leaves, stem and fruit. These findings inferred that healthy seeds of sweet passion fruit are essential for producing seedlings and to prevent the spread of the diseases caused by these fungi to exempt areas.(AU)


O maracujazeiro geralmente é propagado por meio de sementes em virtude da facilidade e do menor custo na produção de mudas. No entanto, a semente é o agente mais eficiente de disseminação de patógenos, sendo que os danos decorrentes das doenças transmitidas por elas ocorrem principalmente durante os estágios de germinação ou na formação de mudas nos viveiros. Considerando a necessidade de informações acerca da patologia de sementes de maracujá-doce nesse contexto, objetivou-se obter informações sobre a transmissão e a patogenicidade dos fungos Alternaria sp., Botrytis fabae, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Fusarium spp. e Lasiodiplodia theobromae, isolados de sementes de maracujá-doce e potencialmente patogênicos à cultura. Para tanto, testes de sanidade, germinação e emergência de plântulas em substrato comercial esterilizado foram conduzidos com sementes dessa espécie, inoculadas com esses isolados. Folhas, colo e frutos dessa planta também foram inoculados com os mesmos fungos. Alternaria sp., Fusarium spp. e L. theobromae foram identificados em plântulas obtidas de sementes inoculadas, confirmando a transmissão por sementes. L. theobromae foi considerado o mais agressivo à cultura do maracujá, por ter causado podridão nas sementes, além de maiores lesões nas folhas, no colo da planta e nos frutos. Dessa forma, infere-se que a obtenção de sementes de maracujá-doce sadias é imprescindível para a produção de mudas, evitando-se assim a disseminação desses patógenos em áreas isentas.(AU)


Subject(s)
Seeds , Passiflora , Fungi/pathogenicity , Cladosporium/pathogenicity , Germination , Botrytis/pathogenicity , Alternaria/pathogenicity , Fusarium/pathogenicity
17.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 85: e0972017, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-999051

ABSTRACT

Weeds compete with agricultural crops for water, light, nutrients and space, besides having an extensive seed bank. However, another aspect to be considered relates to few studies pointing out weeds as hosts of phytopathogenic fungi. Many fungi, the main cause of diseases in plants, are known to use seeds as an efficient means of survival and dispersal. The objective of this work was to evaluate the health of weed seeds and the pathogenicity of fungi associated to plants of agricultural importance. The seeds were collected manually in Cerrado areas located in the municipality of Gurupi, Tocatins, Brazil. The blotter test method was used to evaluate seed health. The incidence of fungi was evaluated through an individual analysis of seeds using a stereoscopic and an optical microscope. The pathogenicity of fungi from weed seeds was evaluated by inoculation in plants of agronomic interest and, when pathogenic, we inoculated them in the host plant of the fungus. Weed seeds have been identified in fungi of the genus Alternaria, Aspergillus, Bipolaris, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Fusarium, Nigrospora, Papularia, Rhizopus and Pythium. The seeds of Acanthospermum australe, Bidens pilosa, Cenchrus echinatus, Digitaria horizontalis, Echinochloa crus-pavonis, Eleusine indica, Ipomoea sp., Pennisetum setosum, Sida rhombifolia, Spermacoce latifolia, Tridax procumbens and Vernonia polyanthes carry and disseminate fungi that, once inoculated, cause infection in plants of agricultural importance, such as Oryza sativa, Phaseolus vulgaris, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays and Glycine max.(AU)


As plantas daninhas competem com culturas agrícolas por água, luz, nutrientes e espaço, além de possuírem um extenso banco de sementes. Entretanto, outra vertente a ser considerada é quanto aos poucos estudos relacionando plantas daninhas como hospedeiras de fungos fitopatogênicos. É sabido que muitos fungos, principais causadores de doenças em plantas, utilizam as sementes como meio eficiente de sobrevivência e de dispersão. Dessa forma, o trabalho objetivou avaliar a sanidade de sementes de plantas daninhas e a patogenicidade dos fungos associados às plantas de importância agrícola. As sementes foram coletadas manualmente em áreas de cerrado localizadas no município de Gurupi, Tocantins, utilizando o método blotter test para avaliação da sanidade. A incidência dos fungos foi avaliada com auxílio de microscópio estereoscópico e ótico. A patogenicidade dos fungos oriundos das sementes de plantas daninhas foi avaliada por meio da inoculação em plantas de interesse agronômico e, quando patogênico, a inoculação foi na própria planta daninha hospedeira do fungo. Foram identificados os fungos dos gêneros Alternaria, Aspergillus, Bipolaris, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Fusarium, Nigrospora, Papularia, Rhizopus e Pythium. As sementes de Acanthospermum australe, Bidens pilosa, Cenchrus echinatus, Digitaria horizontalis, Echinochloa crus-pavonis, Eleusine indica, Ipomoea sp., Pennisetum setosum, Sida rhombifolia, Spermacoce latifolia, Tridax procumbens e Vernonia polyanthes transportam e disseminam fungos que, uma vez inoculados, causam infecção em plantas de importância agrícola, como Oryza sativa, Phaseolus vulgaris, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays e Glycine max.(AU)


Subject(s)
Aspergillus/pathogenicity , Cladosporium/pathogenicity , Alternaria/pathogenicity , Plant Weeds , Fungi/pathogenicity , Plant Diseases , Oryza , Soybeans , Zea mays , Phaseolus , Vigna , Fusarium/pathogenicity
18.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(4): 706-714, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889164

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Tomato is one of the most important vegetables in the world. Decay after harvest is a major issue in the development of tomato industry. Currently, the most effective method for controlling decay after harvest is storage of tomato at low temperature combined with usage of chemical bactericide; however, long-term usage of chemical bactericide not only causes pathogen resistance but also is harmful for human health and environment. Biocontrol method for the management of disease after tomato harvest has great practical significance. In this study, antagonistic bacterium B-6-1 strain was isolated from the surface of tomato and identified as Enterobacter cowanii based on morphological characteristics and physiological and biochemical features combined with sequence analysis of 16SrDNA and ropB gene and construction of dendrogram. Effects of different concentrations of antagonistic bacterium E. cowanii suspension on antifungal activity after tomato harvest were analyzed by mycelium growth rate method. Results revealed that antifungal activity was also enhanced with increasing concentrations of antagonistic bacterium; inhibitory rates of 1 × 105 colony-forming units (cfu)/mL antagonistic bacterial solution on Fusarium verticillioides, Alternaria tenuissima, and Botrytis cinerea were 46.31%, 67.48%, and 75.67%, respectively. By using in vivo inoculation method, it was further confirmed that antagonistic bacterium could effectively inhibit the occurrence of B. cinerae after tomato harvest, biocontrol effect of 1 × 109 cfu/mL zymotic fluid reached up to 95.24%, and antagonistic bacterium E. cowanii has biocontrol potential against B. cinerea after harvest of fruits and vegetables.


Subject(s)
Plant Diseases/microbiology , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiology , Enterobacter/isolation & purification , Enterobacter/physiology , Antibiosis , Plant Diseases/prevention & control , Botrytis/growth & development , Botrytis/physiology , Enterobacter/classification , Enterobacter/genetics , Alternaria/growth & development , Alternaria/physiology , Fruit/microbiology , Fusarium/growth & development , Fusarium/physiology
19.
Mycobiology ; : 392-400, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-730013

ABSTRACT

Peanut yield and quality are seriously affected by pod rot pathogens worldwide, especially in China in recent years. The goals of this study are to analyze the structure of fungal communities of peanut pod rot in soil in three peanut cultivars and the correlation of pod rot with environmental variables using 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 46,723 internal transcribed spacer high-quality sequences were obtained and grouped into 1,706 operational taxonomic units at the 97% similarity cut-off level. The coverage, rank abundance, and the Chao 1 and Shannon diversity indices of the operational taxonomic units were analyzed. Members of the phylum Ascomycota were dominant, such as Fusarium, Chaetomium, Alternaria, and Sordariomycetes, followed by Basidiomycota. The results of the heatmap and redundancy analysis revealed significant variation in the composition of the fungal community among the three cultivar samples. The environmental conditions in different peanut cultivars may also influence on the structure of the fungal community. The results of this study suggest that the causal agent of peanut pod rot may be more complex, and cultivars and environmental conditions are both important contributors to the community structure of peanut pod rot fungi.


Subject(s)
Alternaria , Arachis , Ascomycota , Basidiomycota , Chaetomium , China , Fungi , Fusarium , Soil
20.
Mycobiology ; : 385-391, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729649

ABSTRACT

The ability of Bacillus subtilis, strain ALICA to produce three mycolytic enzymes (chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase, and protease), was carried out by the chemical standard methods. Bacillus subtilis ALICA was screened based on their antifungal activity in dual plate assay and cell-free culture filtrate (25%) against five different phytopathogenic fungi Alternaria alternata, Macrophomina sp., Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Botrytis cinerea, and Sclerotium rolfesii. The B. subtilis ALICA detected positive for chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase and protease enzymes. Fungal growth inhibition by both strain ALICA and its cell-free culture filtrate ranged from 51.36% to 86.3% and 38.43% to 68.6%, respectively. Moreover, hyphal morphological changes like damage, broken, swelling, distortions abnormal morphology were observed. Genes expression of protease, β-1,3-glucanase, and lipopeptides (subtilosin and subtilisin) were confirmed their presence in the supernatant of strain ALICA. Our findings indicated that strain ALICA provided a broad spectrum of antifungal activities against various phytopathogenic fungi and may be a potential effective alternative to chemical fungicides.


Subject(s)
Alternaria , Bacillus subtilis , Bacillus , Botrytis , Chitinases , Colletotrichum , Fungi , Lipopeptides , Prosopis
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL