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1.
Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics [The]. 2017; 18 (2): 187-191
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-188481

ABSTRACT

Background: Angiotensin I-converting enzyme [ACE] has two homologous catalytic domains, the N- and C-domains. Our previous study suggested that Alu insertion [I allele] in the intron 16 of ACE resulted in premature codon termination. The I allele has only one active site in the N-domain while the Alu deletion [D allele] still has two active sites of ACE. Therefore the effect of I/ D polymorphism of ACE on the enzyme's ability to catalyse bradykinin is still not widely known


Aims: This study aimed to examine the serum bradykinin level in hypertensive patients with I/D polymorphism of ACE, who were treated with ACE inhibitor


Subjects and methods: The serum bradykinin and I/D polymorphism have been detected in 64 hypertensive patients taking ACE inhibitor [lisinopril or captopril] for at least eight weeks with good medication adherence. The binding affinity of ACE with its receptor was calculated by molecular docking


Results: The findings show that genotype II is more frequent in the population the researchers observed [53.12%] compared to ID [23.44%] and DD [23.44%] variances. On the other hand, the bradykinin level is not affected by genotype of the ACE genes on the population. Bradykinin increases in patients with genotype II who are given captopril, but decreases in patients treated with lisinopril. Nevertheless, there is no statistically significant difference


Conclusion: This study suggests that the polymorphism might not significantly affect the serum bra-dykinin level in hypertensive patients taking ACE inhibitors


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Polymorphism, Genetic , Alu Elements , INDEL Mutation , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Bradykinin , Angiotensins
2.
Rev. bras. hematol. hemoter ; 38(4): 291-297, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829947

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Acute myeloid leukemia presenting the MYST3-CREBBP fusion gene is a rare subgroup associated with hemophagocytosis in early infancy and monocytic differentiation. The aim of this study was to define the relevant molecular cytogenetic characteristics of a unique series of early infancy acute myeloid leukemia cases (≤24 months old), based on the presence of hemophagocytosis by blast cells at diagnosis. Methods: A series of 266 infant cases of acute myeloid leukemia was the reference cohort for the present analysis. Acute myeloid leukemia cases with hemophagocytosis by blast cells were reviewed to investigate the presence of the MYST3-CREBBP fusion gene by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results: Eleven cases with hemophagocytosis were identified with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis being ruled out. Six cases were classified as myelomonocytic leukemia, three as AML-M7 and two as AML-M2. In five cases, the presence of the MYST3-CREBBP fusion gene identified by molecular cytogenetics was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. All patients received treatment according to the Berlin-Frankfürt-Münster acute myeloid leukemia protocols and only one out of the five patients with the MYST3-CREBBP fusion gene is still alive. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that the presence of hemophagocytosis in acute myeloid leukemia was not exclusively associated to the MYST3-CREBBP fusion gene. Improvements in molecular cytogenetics may help to elucidate more complex chromosomal rearrangements in infants with acute myeloid leukemia and hemophagocytosis.


Subject(s)
Child , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Phagocytosis , Alu Elements/genetics , Chimera/genetics , Introns/genetics
3.
Genomics & Informatics ; : 70-77, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-117345

ABSTRACT

Transposable elements are one of major sources to cause genomic instability through various mechanisms including de novo insertion, insertion-mediated genomic deletion, and recombination-associated genomic deletion. Among them is Alu element which is the most abundant element, composing ~10% of the human genome. The element emerged in the primate genome 65 million years ago and has since propagated successfully in the human and non-human primate genomes. Alu element is a non-autonomous retrotransposon and therefore retrotransposed using L1-enzyme machinery. The 'master gene' model has been generally accepted to explain Alu element amplification in primate genomes. According to the model, different subfamilies of Alu elements are created by mutations on the master gene and most Alu elements are amplified from the hyperactive master genes. Alu element is frequently involved in genomic rearrangements in the human genome due to its abundance and sequence identity between them. The genomic rearrangements caused by Alu elements could lead to genetic disorders such as hereditary disease, blood disorder, and neurological disorder. In fact, Alu elements are associated with approximately 0.1% of human genetic disorders. The first part of this review discusses mechanisms of Alu amplification and diversity among different Alu subfamilies. The second part discusses the particular role of Alu elements in generating genomic rearrangements as well as human genetic disorders.


Subject(s)
Alu Elements , DNA Transposable Elements , Genetic Diseases, Inborn , Genome , Genome, Human , Genomic Instability , Humans , Nervous System Diseases , Primates , Recombination, Genetic , Retroelements
4.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 250-266, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-757149

ABSTRACT

Transposable elements (TEs) have no longer been totally considered as "junk DNA" for quite a time since the continual discoveries of their multifunctional roles in eukaryote genomes. As one of the most important and abundant TEs that still active in human genome, Alu, a SINE family, has demonstrated its indispensable regulatory functions at sequence level, but its spatial roles are still unclear. Technologies based on 3C (chromosome conformation capture) have revealed the mysterious three-dimensional structure of chromatin, and make it possible to study the distal chromatin interaction in the genome. To find the role TE playing in distal regulation in human genome, we compiled the new released Hi-C data, TE annotation, histone marker annotations, and the genome-wide methylation data to operate correlation analysis, and found that the density of Alu elements showed a strong positive correlation with the level of chromatin interactions (hESC: r = 0.9, P < 2.2 × 10(16); IMR90 fibroblasts: r = 0.94, P < 2.2 × 10(16)) and also have a significant positive correlation with some remote functional DNA elements like enhancers and promoters (Enhancer: hESC: r = 0.997, P = 2.3 × 10(-4); IMR90: r = 0.934, P = 2 × 10(-2); Promoter: hESC: r = 0.995, P = 3.8 × 10(-4); IMR90: r = 0.996, P = 3.2 × 10(-4)). Further investigation involving GC content and methylation status showed the GC content of Alu covered sequences shared a similar pattern with that of the overall sequence, suggesting that Alu elements also function as the GC nucleotide and CpG site provider. In all, our results suggest that the Alu elements may act as an alternative parameter to evaluate the Hi-C data, which is confirmed by the correlation analysis of Alu elements and histone markers. Moreover, the GC-rich Alu sequence can bring high GC content and methylation flexibility to the regions with more distal chromatin contact, regulating the transcription of tissue-specific genes.


Subject(s)
Alu Elements , Genetics , Base Composition , Binding Sites , Cell Line , Chromatin , Chemistry , Genetics , Metabolism , CpG Islands , DNA , Metabolism , Databases, Genetic , Enhancer Elements, Genetic , Genetics , Genome, Human , Histones , Metabolism , Humans , Methylation
5.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 19(2): 151-155, Apr-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-747145

ABSTRACT

Introduction Auditory neuropathy/dyssynchrony (AN/AD) comprises a spectrum of pathology affecting the auditory pathways anywhere from the inner hair cells to the brainstem. It is characterized by an absent or atypical auditory brainstem response (ABR) with preservation of the cochlear microphonics and/or otoacoustic emissions (OAEs). Objective Retrospective analysis of patients with AN/AD. Methods Fifteen patients with AN/AD were included in this study and their records were retrospectively investigated. Results Possible etiology of AN/AD was neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in three patients, family history of hearing loss in three patients, consanguineous marriage in two patients, head trauma in two patients, mental motor retardation in one patient, cerebrovascular disease in one patient, and there was no apparent cause in three patients. Conclusion Otolaryngologists should keep in mind the diagnosis of AN/AD especially in patients complaining of difficulty in hearing and speech and audiological evidence of disassociation between pure tone and speech audiometry. ABR and OAE testing is recommended in these patients for AN/AD diagnosis. .


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Brain/metabolism , Epigenesis, Genetic , Klinefelter Syndrome/genetics , Transcriptome , Alu Elements , Case-Control Studies , Cerebellum/metabolism , DNA Methylation , Klinefelter Syndrome/complications , Klinefelter Syndrome/metabolism , Long Interspersed Nucleotide Elements , Prefrontal Cortex/metabolism , Schizophrenia/complications
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-64356

ABSTRACT

CHARGE syndrome MIM #214800 is an autosomal dominant syndrome involving multiple congenital malformations. Clinical symptoms include coloboma, heart defects, choanal atresia, retardation of growth or development, genital hypoplasia, and ear anomalies or deafness. Mutations in the chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 7 (CHD7) gene have been found in 65-70% of CHARGE syndrome patients. Here, we describe a 16-month-old boy with typical CHARGE syndrome, who was referred for CHD7 gene analysis. Sequence analysis and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification were performed. A heterozygous 38,304-bp deletion encompassing exon 3 with a 4-bp insertion was identified. There were no Alu sequences adjacent to the breakpoints, and no sequence microhomology was observed at the junction. Therefore, this large deletion may have been mediated by non-homologous end joining. The mechanism of the deletion in the current case differs from the previously suggested mechanisms underlying large deletions or complex genomic rearrangements in the CHD7 gene, and this is the first report of CHD7 deletion by this mechanism worldwide.


Subject(s)
Alu Elements/genetics , Base Sequence , CHARGE Syndrome/diagnosis , DNA/chemistry , DNA End-Joining Repair , DNA Helicases/genetics , DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Exons , Gene Dosage , Heterozygote , Humans , Infant , Male , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mutation , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Sequence Deletion
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-295502

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the frequencies of HLA-Alu repeat polymorphisms (AluMICB, AluTF, AluHJ, AluHG and AluHF) in Chinese Lisu and Nu ethnic populations.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The frequencies of HLA-Alu repeat polymorphisms in above populations were determined with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The associations between HLA-Alu repeat polymorphisms and HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-C alleles were also analyzed. Phylogenetic trees were constructed with genetic distance calculated from the frequencies of HLA-Alu repeat polymorphisms.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Frequencies of AluTF*2 and AluHF*2 were different between the two populations (P< 0.05), while those of other three insertions were similar. The strength of association between HLA-Alus and HLA alleles were different (P< 0.05) in the two populations. Although AluMICB*2 were associated with HLA-B*56:01 in both populations, the association was stronger in Lisu population (74.0%) but moderate in Nu population (30.7%). HLA-Alus were associated with particular HLA subtypes, e.g., AluHG*2 with certain HLA-A*02 subtypes. By phylogenetic analysis, Lisu and Nu were clustered together with southern Chinese and Thai populations.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The distribution of HLA-Alus and the strength of associations between HLA-Alus and HLA class I alleles have varied between the two populations. Study of this association may facilitate identification of origins, evolution, progenitor haplotypes and recombination within the HLA class I region.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Alleles , Alu Elements , Asians , Genetics , Child , Female , Genes, MHC Class I , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phylogeny , Polymorphism, Genetic , Young Adult
8.
Genomics & Informatics ; : 226-233, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-11760

ABSTRACT

Since the advent of whole-genome sequencing, transposable elements (TEs), just thought to be 'junk' DNA, have been noticed because of their numerous copies in various eukaryotic genomes. Many studies about TEs have been conducted to discover their functions in their host genomes. Based on the results of those studies, it has been generally accepted that they have a function to cause genomic and genetic variations. However, their infinite functions are not fully elucidated. Through various mechanisms, including de novo TE insertions, TE insertion-mediated deletions, and recombination events, they manipulate their host genomes. In this review, we focus on Alu, L1, human endogenous retrovirus, and short interspersed element/variable number of tandem repeats/Alu (SVA) elements and discuss how they have affected primate genomes, especially the human and chimpanzee genomes, since their divergence.


Subject(s)
Alu Elements , Coat Protein Complex I , DNA , DNA Transposable Elements , Endogenous Retroviruses , Genetic Variation , Genome , Humans , Long Interspersed Nucleotide Elements , Pan troglodytes , Primates , Recombination, Genetic , Tromethamine
9.
Genet. mol. biol ; 34(3): 371-376, 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-595985

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to show how, in some particular circumstances, a physical marker can be used along with molecular markers in the research of an ancient people movement. A set of five Alu insertions was analysed in 42 subjects from a particular Tunisian group (El Hamma) that has, unlike most of the Tunisian population, a very dark skin, similar to that of sub-Saharans, and in 114 Tunisian subjects (Gabes sample) from the same governorate, but outside the group. Our results showed that the El Hamma group is genetically midway between sub-Saharan populations and North Africans, whereas the Gabes sample is clustered among North Africans. In addition, The A25 Alu insertion, considered characteristic to sub-Saharan Africans, was present in the El Hamma group at a relatively high frequency. This frequency was similar to that found in sub-Saharans from Nigeria, but significantly different from those found in the Gabes sample and in other North African populations. Our molecular results, consistent with the skin color status, suggest a sub-Saharan origin of this particular Tunisian group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alu Elements , Polymorphism, Genetic , Population , Skin Pigmentation , Tunisia
10.
Genet. mol. biol ; 34(3): 396-405, 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-595986

ABSTRACT

Alu repeats or Line-1-ORF2 (ORF2) inhibit expression of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene when inserted downstream of this gene in the vector pEGFP-C1. In this work, we studied cis-acting elements that eliminated the repression of GFP gene expression induced by Alu and ORF2 and sequence characteristics of these elements. We found that sense and antisense PolyA of simian virus 40 (SV40PolyA, 240 bp) eliminated the repression of GFP gene expression when inserted between the GFP gene and the Alu (283 bp) repeats or ORF2 (3825 bp) in pAlu14 (14 tandem Alu repeats were inserted downstream of the GFP gene in the vector pEGFP-C1) or pORF2. Antisense SV40PolyA (PolyAas) induced stronger gene expression than its sense orientation (PolyA). Of four 60-bp segments of PolyAas (1F1R, 2F2R, 3F3R and 4F4R) inserted independently into pAlu14, only two (2F2R and 3F3R) eliminated the inhibition of GFP gene expression induced by Alu repeats. Deletion analysis revealed that a 17 nucleotide AT repeat (17ntAT; 5'-AAAAAAATGCTTTATTT-3') in 2F2R and the fragment 3F38d9 (5'-ATAAACAAGTTAACAACA ACAATTGCATT-3') in 3F3R were critical sequences for activating the GFP gene. Sequence and structural analyses showed that 17ntAT and 3F38d9 included imperfect palindromes and may form a variety of unstable stem-loops. We suggest that the presence of imperfect palindromes and unstable stem-loops in DNA enhancer elements plays an important role in GFP gene activation.


Subject(s)
Alu Elements , Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming , Genetic Enhancement , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning Transmission
11.
NOVA publ. cient ; 7(12): 136-142, jul.-dic. 2009. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-613068

ABSTRACT

El ADN libre en sangre incrementa con algunas condiciones patológicas y ciertos estados fisiológicos. Varios reportes en la literatura han resaltado que el ADN libre en plasma o suero tiene potencial clínico como una posible herramienta para el pronóstico de cáncer en humanos. Sin embargo, hasta el momento no se tienen valores de referencia de individuos sanos con un tamaño de muestra representativo y tampoco se han descrito valores para poblaciones específicas como la bogotana. Es por ello que en el presente estudio se cuantificó la concentración de ADN libre en personas sanas de la población bogotana y así se estableció un rango normal o valor de referencia, adicionalmente se analizó la relación entre los niveles de ADN libre y las características como edad y género. La concentración de ADN libre en la población bogotana fue de 0,72 ng/μL y no se encontraron diferencias significativas entre las edades y los géneros.


Subject(s)
DNA , Alu Elements , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Colombia
12.
Genet. mol. biol ; 32(1): 25-31, 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-505769

ABSTRACT

Alu-PCR is a relatively simple technique that can be used to investigate genomic instability in cancer. This technique allows identification of the loss, gain or amplification of gene sequences based on the analysis of segments between two Alu elements coupled with quantitative and qualitative analyses of the profiles obtained from tumor samples, surgical margins and blood. In this work, we used Alu-PCR to identify gene alterations in ten patients with invasive ductal breast cancer. Several deletions and insertions were identified, indicating genomic instability in the tumor and adjacent normal tissue. Although not associated with specific genes, the alterations, which involved chromosomal bands 1p36.23, 1q41, 11q14.3, 13q14.2, occurred in areas of well-known genomic instability in breast and other types of cancer. These results indicate the potential usefulness of Alu-PCR in identifying altered gene sequences in breast cancer. However, caution is required in its application since the Alu primer can produce non-specific amplification.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Alu Elements , Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast , Genomic Instability , Breast Neoplasms/genetics , Cytogenetic Analysis , Gene Deletion , Mutagenesis, Insertional , Recombination, Genetic , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-36259

ABSTRACT

Transitional-CpG methylation between unmethylated promoters and nearby methylated retroelements plays a role in the establishment of tissue-specific transcription. This study examined whether chromosomal losses reducing the active genes in cancers can change transitional-CpG methylation and the transcription activity in a cancer-type-dependent manner. The transitional-CpG sites at the CpG-island margins of nine genes and the non-island-CpG sites round the transcription start sites of six genes lacking CpG islands were examined by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. The number of active genes in normal and cancerous tissues of the stomach, colon, breast, and nasopharynx were analyzed using the public data in silico. The CpG-island margins and non-island CpG sites tended to be hypermethylated and hypomethylated in all cancer types, respectively. The CpG-island margins were hypermethylated and a low number of genes were active in the normal stomach compared with other normal tissues. In gastric cancers, the CpG-island margins and non-island-CpG sites were hypomethylated in association with high-level chromosomal losses, and the number of active genes increased. Colon, breast, and nasopharyngeal cancers showed no significant association between the chromosomal losses and methylation changes. These findings suggest that chromosomal losses in gastric cancers are associated with the hypomethylation of the gene-control regions and the increased number of active genes.


Subject(s)
Alu Elements/genetics , Chromosome Deletion , CpG Islands/genetics , DNA Methylation , DNA, Neoplasm/chemistry , Gene Expression Profiling , Genes, Neoplasm , Humans , Long Interspersed Nucleotide Elements/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Promoter Regions, Genetic , Stomach Neoplasms/genetics
14.
Genet. mol. res. (Online) ; 6(4): 1131-1141, 2007. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-520035

ABSTRACT

The human genome has linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks, within which single-nucleotide polymorphisms show strong association with each other. We examined data from the International HapMap Project to define LD blocks and to detect DNA sequence features inside of them. We used permutation tests to determine the empirical significance of the association of LD blocks with genes and Alu repeats. Very large LD blocks (>200 kb) have significantly higher gene coverage and Alu frequency than the outcome obtained from permutation-based simulation, whereas there was no significant positive correlation between gene density and block size. We also observed a reduced frequency of Alu repeats at the gaps between large LD blocks, indicating that their enrichment in large LD blocks does not introduce recombination hotspots that would cause these gaps.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alu Elements , Genome, Human , Linkage Disequilibrium , Databases, Nucleic Acid , Genetics, Population , Models, Genetic , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Recombination, Genetic
15.
Genet. mol. res. (Online) ; 5(1): 63-71, Mar. 31, 2006. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-449145

ABSTRACT

We describe a novel polymorphic Alu insertion (DXS225) on the human X chromosome (Xq21.3) embedded into an L1 retrotransposon. The DXS225 polymorphism was genotyped in 684 males from the CEPH Human Genome Diversity Panel. This insertion was found in all regions of the globe, suggesting that it took place before modern humans spread from Africa ca. 100,000 years ago. However, only one Amerindian population (Karitiana) showed this insertion allele, which may have been introduced by European admixture. Thus, it appears likely that the Alu insertion was absent from pre-Columbian America. Analysis of molecular variance worldwide demonstrated that 92.2% of the genetic variance was concentrated within populations. DXS225 is flanked by two microsatellites (DXS8114 and DXS1002), which are 86 kb apart and are in very strong linkage disequilibrium. The combination of a unique event polymorphism on the X chromosome in linkage disequilibrium with two rapidly evolving microsatellites should provide a useful tool for studies of human evolution.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Chromosomes, Human, X/genetics , Alu Elements/genetics , Genetic Variation , Genetics, Population/methods , Polymorphism, Genetic/genetics , Retroelements/genetics , Cell Line , Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Human , Genotype , Racial Groups/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-281233

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the polymorphism of DYS287 among 28 ethnic populations in 9 provinces of China.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>YAP element was detected by Touchdown PCR amplification and 2% agarose gel electrophoresis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>YAP+ frequencies in these ethnic populations were as follows: Zang 36.7%, Tu 23.8%, Yi 18.4%, Pumi 11.3%, Tajik 7.4%, Bai 6.7%, Jino 5.1%, Shandong Han 4%, Mulao 2.7%, and Maonan 1.3%. The rest ethnic populations in our study, including Gansu Han, Yunnan Han, Zhuangzu, Daizu, Lizu, Nuzu, Lisu, Naxi, Lahu, Dulong, Hani, Shezu, Weiwuer, Sala, Kerkizi, Dongxiang, Vazu, and Korea didn't carry YAP + element.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Zangzu, Tuzu, Yizu, Pumi, Jino, and Baizu, which belong to Sino-Tibetan language family, carry a high YAP + frequency. Sala, Tuzu, and Tajik, regarded as Central Asia by origin in history and linguistics, also have a high YAP + frequency. Mulao and Maonan, which origin from "Baiyue" ancient ethnic groups, also have a considerable YAP + frequency.</p>


Subject(s)
Alu Elements , Genetics , Asians , Genetics , China , Ethnology , Chromosomes, Human, Y , Genetics , Electrophoresis, Agar Gel , Gene Frequency , Humans , Male , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Genetic
17.
Genomics & Informatics ; : 11-15, 2006.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-109764

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to identify hRad21-binding sites in human chromosome, the core component of cohesin complex that held sister chromatids together. After chromatin immunoprecipitation with an hRad21 antibody, it was cloned the recovered DNA and sequenced 30 independent clones. Among them, 20 clones (67%) contained repetitive elements including short interspersed transposable elements (SINE or Alu elements), long terminal repeat (LTR) and long interspersed transposable elements (LINE), fourteen of these twenty (70%) repeats clones had Alu elements, which could be categorized as the old and the young Alu Subfamily, eleven of the fourteen (73%) Alu elements belonged to the old Alu Subfamily, and only three Alu elements were categorized as young Alu subfamily. There is no CpG island within these selected clones. Association of hRad21 with Alu was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR using conserved Alu primers. The primers were designed in the flanking region of Alu, and the specific Alu element was shown in the selected clone. From these experiments, it was demonstrated that hRad21 could bind to SINE, LTRs, and LINE as well as Alu.


Subject(s)
Alu Elements , Chromatids , Chromatin , Chromatin Immunoprecipitation , Chromosomes, Human , Clone Cells , CpG Islands , DNA , DNA Transposable Elements , Humans , Humans , Siblings , Terminal Repeat Sequences
18.
Genomics & Informatics ; : 86-91, 2004.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-217506

ABSTRACT

Even though it represents 6 13% of human genomic DNA, Alu sequences are rarely found in coding regions. When in exon region, over 80 % of them are found in 3' untranslated region (UTR). Pseudogenes are an important component of human genome. Their functions are not clearly known and the mechanism of how they are generated is still debatable. Both the Alu and Pseudogenes are important research problems in molecular biology. mRNA is thought to be a prime source of pseudogene and active research is going on its molecular mechanism. We report, for the first time, that mRNAs containing Alu repeats at 3' UTR has a significantly high correlation with processed pseudogenes, suggesting a possibility that Alu containing mRNAs have a high tendency to become processed pseudogenes. It is known that about 10% of all human genes have been transposed. Transposed genes at 3' UTR without Alu repeat have about two processed pseudogenes per gene on average while we found with statistical significance that a transposed gene with Alu had over three processed Pseudogenes on average. Therefore, we propose Alu repeats as a new and important factor in the generation of pseudogenes.


Subject(s)
3' Untranslated Regions , Alu Elements , Clinical Coding , DNA , Exons , Genome, Human , Humans , Molecular Biology , Pseudogenes , RNA, Messenger
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-27635

ABSTRACT

We exploited the serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) libraries and human genome database in silico to correlate the breadth of expression (BOE; housekeep-ing versus tissue-specific genes) and peak rate of expression (PRE; high versus low expressed genes) with the density distribution of the retroelements. The BOE status is linearly associated with the density of the sense Alus along the 100 kb nucleotides region upstream of a gene, whereas the PRE status is inversely correlated with the density of antisense L1s within a gene and in the up- and downstream regions of the 0-10 kb nucleotides. The radial distance of intranuclear position, which is known to serve as the global domain for transcription regulation, is reciprocally correlated with the fractions of Alu (toward the nuclear center) and L1 (toward the nuclear edge) elements in each chromosome. We propose that the BOE and PRE statuses are related to the reciprocal distribution of Alu and L1 elements that formulate local and global expression domains.


Subject(s)
Alu Elements/genetics , Chromosome Mapping/methods , Comparative Study , Databases, Genetic , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Genome, Human , Humans , Long Interspersed Nucleotide Elements/genetics , Retroelements/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA/methods , Statistics , Tissue Distribution
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-63353

ABSTRACT

Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) may be involved in the pathogenesis of peptic ulcers through suppression of fibrinolysis. This study was designed to investigate associations of t-PA and PAI-1 genes with clinical features of the patients with bleeding gastric ulcers. Eighty-four patients with peptic ulcers and 100 controls were studied between January 1998 and April 2000. We used polymerase chain reaction and endonuclease digestion to genotype for 4G/5G polymorphism in the promoter region of the PAI-1 gene and the Alurepeat insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in intron h of the t-PA gene. Various clinical features, including lesion site, bleeding event, recurrence of ulcer, and rebleeding, were assessed using a multiple logistic regression model. The genotype distributions of both the t-PA and PAI-1 genes did not differ between the patient and control groups. The occurrence of the I/D or D/D genotype of t-PA was significantly higher in cases of duodenal ulcer (adjusted OR=4.39, 95% CI=1.12-17.21). When a dominant effect (i.e., 4G/4G or 4G/5G versus 5G/5G) of the 4G allele was assumed, the PAI-1 4G/4G genotype was independently associated with rebleeding after hemostasis (adjusted OR=5.07, 95% CI=1.03-24.87). Our data suggest that t-PA gene polymorphism is associated with duodenal ulcers, and that the PAI-1 gene may be a risk factor leading to recurrent bleeding after initial hemostasis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Alu Elements/genetics , DNA Mutational Analysis , Duodenal Ulcer/complications , Duodenal Ulcer/genetics , Female , Gene Frequency , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mutagenesis, Insertional , Peptic Ulcer Hemorrhage/etiology , Peptic Ulcer Hemorrhage/genetics , Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics , Recurrence , Sequence Deletion , Stomach Ulcer/complications , Stomach Ulcer/genetics , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/genetics
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