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1.
Rev. peru. med. integr ; 2(4): 823-827, 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, MTYCI | ID: biblio-906564

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Evaluar la eficacia antibacteriana in vitro del alumbre napolitano, adquirido en una herbolaria de la ciudad de Trujillo, sobre cepas de Staphylococcus aureus y Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Materiales y Métodos: Se obtuvo alumbre napolitano natural en una herbolaria comercial, el cual se trituro y diluyo en agua esteril para obtener soluciones con concentraciones al 25%, 50%, 75% y 100%. Estas fueron colocadas en discos de papel filtro y colocadas en placas Petri con cepas de Staphylococcus aureus y Pseudomona aeruginosa. Se utilizó como control positivo la dilución en cloruro de sodio al 0.9% de piperacilina/tazobactam 4/0.5 mg. Se midieron los halos de inhibición obtenidos después de 48 h en mm. Resultados: Los mayores promedios de diámetros en halos de inhibición se encontraron en las soluciones de alumbre napolitano con concentraciones al 100%, en el caso de Staphylococcus aereus (18.7±3.2 mm) y 75% en cepas de Pseudomona aeruginosa (15.0±1.8 mm). Sin embargo, estos fueron menores a los encontrados en el control positivo (68.2±3.7mm y 65.6±4.0 mm, respectivamente). Se observó una relación dosis-dependiente, mayor en los cultivos de Staphylococcus aureus (R2=0.614; p<0.001) que en los cultivos de Pseudomonas aeruginosa (R2=0.483; p<0.001). Conclusión: Se encontró efecto antibacteriano en todas las concentraciones de alumbre napolitano (alumbre de potasio), con los mejores efectos en la concentración al 100% contra las cepas de Staphylococcus aereus y 75% en el caso de las cepas de Pseudomona aeruginosa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Staphylococcus aureus , Alum Compounds , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Peru , Medicine, Traditional
2.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 42(6): 1144-1149, Nov.-Dec. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828944

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) represents a challenging clinical entity. While various intravesical agents have been utilized in this setting, limited data exist regarding safety or efficacy. Herein, then, we evaluated the effectiveness and complications associated with intravesical alum instillation for HC in a contemporary cohort. Materials and Methods: We identified 40 patients treated with intravesical alum for HC between 1997-2014. All patients had failed previous continuous bladder irrigation with normal saline and clot evacuation. Treatment success was defined as requiring no additional therapy beyond normal saline irrigation after alum instillation. Results: Median patient age was 76.5 years (IQR 69, 83). Pelvic radiation was the most common etiology for HC (n=38, 95%). Alum use decreased patient's transfusion requirement, with 82% (32/39) receiving a transfusion within 30 days before alum instillation (median 4 units) versus 59% (23/39) within 30 days after completing alum (median 3 units) (p=0.05). In total, 24 patients (60%) required no additional therapy prior to hospital discharge. Moreover, at a median follow-up of 17 months (IQR 5, 38.5), 13 patients (32.5%) remained without additional treatment for HC. Adverse effects were reported in 15 patients (38%), with bladder spasms representing the most common event (14/40; 35%). No clinical evidence of clinically significant systemic absorption was detected. Conclusion: Intravesical alum therapy is well-tolerated, with resolution of HC in approximately 60% of patients, and a durable response in approximately one-third. Given its favorable safety/efficacy profile, intravesical alum may be considered as a first-line treatment option for patients with HC.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Aged , Cystitis/drug therapy , Alum Compounds/administration & dosage , Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Administration, Intravesical , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Treatment Outcome , Cystitis/complications , Alum Compounds/adverse effects , Aluminum/blood , Hemorrhage/etiology , Therapeutic Irrigation
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-319683

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the pro-inflammatory toxicity of Pinellia pedatiecta, as well as the alum processing method on its pro-inflammatory effect.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Raphide and agglutinin (PPA) proteins were isolated from fresh P. pedatiecta. The overall animal and cellular level models were applied to investigate the pro-inflammatory effect of raphide and PPA in P. pedatiecta, as well as the impact of the alum processing method on the pro-inflammatory effect, with inflammatory mediators as the index.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Intraperitoneal injection with P. pedatiecta raphide suspension could significantly increase the content of inflammatory mediators PGE2 and NO. After the alum processing method was adopted, fresh P. pedatiecta and raphide-induced PGE2 and NO release significantly reduced. The stimulation of mice macrophages with P. pedatiecta agglutinin protein could cause the content of dose-dependent inflammatory mediators TNF-alpha and IL-6. After the alum processing method was adopted, PGE2 content in P. pedatiecta agglutinin protein-induced mice peritoneal exudate notably decreased.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The irritation and toxicity of P. pedatiecta were inflammatory responses in organisms. Its raphide and agglutinin proteins were toxic components, both could cause significant the release of inflammatory medium. The alum processing method could help significantly reduce the pro-inflammatory toxicity of P. pedatiecta.</p>


Subject(s)
Alum Compounds , Chemistry , Animals , Drug Compounding , Methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Toxicity , Female , Inflammation Mediators , Chemistry , Toxicity , Interleukin-6 , Allergy and Immunology , Macrophages , Allergy and Immunology , Male , Mice, Inbred ICR , Pinellia , Chemistry , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Allergy and Immunology
4.
Immune Network ; : 10-15, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-13003

ABSTRACT

Aluminum hydroxide (alum) is the most widely used adjuvant in human vaccines. Nevertheless, it is virtually unknown whether alum acts on B cells. In the present study, we explored the direct effect of alum on Ig expression by murine B cells in vitro. LPS-activated mouse spleen B cells were cultured with alum, and the level of isotype-specific Ig secretion, IgG1 secreting cell numbers, and Ig germ-line transcripts (GLT) were measured using ELISA, ELISPOT, and RT-PCR, respectively. Alum consistently enhanced total IgG1 production, numbers of IgG1 secreting cells, and GLTgamma1 expression. These results demonstrate that alum can directly cause IgG1 isotype switching leading to IgG1 production.


Subject(s)
Alum Compounds , Aluminum Hydroxide , Animals , B-Lymphocytes , Cell Count , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay , Humans , Hydroxides , Immunoglobulin Class Switching , Immunoglobulin G , Mice , Spleen , Vaccines
5.
Protein & Cell ; (12): 564-570, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-757255

ABSTRACT

Phagocytosis and innate immune responses to solid structures are topics of interest and debate. Alum, monosodium urate, calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate, silica and by extension all solid entities draw varying degrees of attention from phagocytes, such as antigen presenting cells. For some, innocuous soluble metabolites turn into fierce irritants upon crystallization, pointing to divergent signaling mechanisms of a given substance in its soluble and solid states. Over the years, many mechanisms have been proposed, including phagocytic receptors, toll like receptors, and NACHT-LRRs (NLRs), as well as several other protein structure mediated recognition of the solids. Is there a more general mechanism for sensing solids? In this perspective, I present an alternative view on the topic that membrane lipids can engage solid surfaces, and the binding intensity leads to cellular activation. I argue from the stands of evolution and biological necessity, as well as the progression of our understanding of cellular membranes and phagocytosis. The effort is to invite debate of the topic from a less familiar yet equally thrilling viewing angle.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic , Alum Compounds , Animals , Antigen-Presenting Cells , Cell Biology , Allergy and Immunology , Biological Evolution , Calcium Pyrophosphate , Allergy and Immunology , Cell Membrane , Allergy and Immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Membrane Lipids , Allergy and Immunology , Phagocytes , Cell Biology , Allergy and Immunology , Phagocytosis , Allergy and Immunology , Phase Transition , Receptors, Pattern Recognition , Allergy and Immunology , Signal Transduction , Allergy and Immunology , Silicon Dioxide , Allergy and Immunology , Uric Acid , Allergy and Immunology
6.
Qom University of Medical Sciences Journal. 2012; 6 (2): 69-75
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-155744

ABSTRACT

One of the industries dependent on oil compounds that play an important role in economy, preserve resources and oil reserves, as well as environmental protection is the secondary refinery Oil industries. The efficiency of Coagulation, flocculation and advanced oxidation process in the Effluent treatment industry was studied. This study is a descriptive- quasi-experimental that effluent pollution quality measured with COD. Physicochemical processes of coagulation, flocculation, by using conventional coagulants and oxidation with ozone for the removal to access environmental discharge effluent standards were studied. Coagulants such as aluminum sulfate, ferric chloride, sodium silicate, poly aluminum chloride were evaluated. Jartest was used to determine the efficiency of coagulation and flocculation. Samples were collected from Salafchegan industrial district in Qom. Examination methods were extracted from Standard methods for water and wastewater examination. Initial experiments showed that BOD, indicating biological treatment wastewater, in comparison with COD, indicating chemical oxygen demand of wastewater is very low. Thus, the application of biological processes of effluent treatment without using chemical processes, not performance and not economic. The experiment showed that the amount of COD in raw effluent was varied from 38000 to 78000mg/l. Using advanced oxidation with O[3] in pH=11.5 can reach 77.5% and in pH=9 in 57.2 and in pH=3.25 in 21.3 COD removal efficiency respectively. According to the results, advanced oxidation process prior to biological effluent treatment of the second refinery oil industries is effective in eliminating pollutants and toxic substances


Subject(s)
Industry , Flocculation , Oxidation-Reduction , Alum Compounds , Ferric Compounds , Chlorides , Silicates , Aluminum Hydroxide
7.
Journal of Advanced Research. 2012; 3 (4): 331-336
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-150816

ABSTRACT

The potentials of using the hydraulic technique in combined unit for municipal wastewater treatment were studied. A combined unit in which processes of coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation, has been designed utilizing hydraulic mixing instead of mechanical mixing. Ajar test treatability study has been conducted to locate the optimum dose of the coagulants to be used. Alum, ferrous sulfate, ferric sulfate, a mixture of ferric and ferrous sulfates, and mixture of lime and ferrous sulfate were all tested. A pilot unit was constructed in the existing wastewater treatment plant at El Mansoura governorate located in north Egypt. The optimum dose of coagulants used in the combined unit gives removal efficiencies for COD, BOD, and total phosphorous as 65%, 55%, and 83%, respectively


Subject(s)
Fractionation, Field Flow/methods , Coagulants/chemistry , Alum Compounds/analysis , Ferrous Compounds , Ferric Compounds , Waste Water/chemistry
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-184140

ABSTRACT

A quick hemostatic effect, as well as sclerosing and shrinkage of hemorrhoids, can be attained when internal hemorrhoids are treated by using injection therapy with aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid (ALTA), the outcomes of treatment may be similar to those of a hemorrhoidectomy. However, if the type of hemorrhoid or the method of injection is not appropriate for ALTA treatment, complications peculiar to ALTA or recurrence may develop. Accordingly, sufficient understanding of the treatment mechanism of ALTA injection and repeated training for injection are required for effective use of the ALTA treatment.


Subject(s)
Alum Compounds , Aluminum , Hemorrhoidectomy , Hemorrhoids , Potassium , Recurrence , Tannins
9.
Iranian Journal of Health and Environment. 2010; 3 (1): 75-82
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-105700

ABSTRACT

In Iran, indicated that the municipal landfill leachate has been one of the major problem for environment. In the operations, leachate treatment is a very difficult and expensive process. Although, young leachate can be treated easily by biological treatment, COD removal efficiency are usually low due to high ammonium ion content and the presence of toxic compounds such as metal ions. Treatment of leachate is necessary.The aim of this study is reduction of Chemical Oxygen Demond [COD] and Total Suspended Solids [TSS] from hamedan city sanitary landfill leachate by three coagulants: alum, PAC and ferrous sulfate. This experimental study was conducted to investigate the effect of treatment of landfill leachate by a coagulation-flocculation process. The effects of different amounts of coagulant and different pH values on the coagulation processes were compared. result of this survey show that the high efficiency for COD removal by PAC in pH=12 and 2500[mg/l] concentration of PAC was 62.66%, by alum in pH=12 and 1000 [mg/l] concentration of alum was 60%, by ferrous sulfate in pH=2 and 1000 [mg/l] concentration of ferrous sulfate was 70.62%. Also result shown the high efficiency for TSS removal by PAC in pH=12 and 2500[mg/l] concentration of PAC was 58.37%, with alum in pH=2 and 1500 [mg/l] concentration of alum was39.14%, by ferrous sulfate in pH=7 and 2500[mg/l] concentration of ferrous sulfate was 35.58%. The best coagulant for COD removal is ferrous sulfate.The physico-chemical process may be used as a useful pretreatment step, especially for fresh leachates, prior to post-treatment [polishing] step for partially stabilized leachates


Subject(s)
Environmental Pollution , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Alum Compounds , Ferrous Compounds
10.
Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering. 2009; 6 (4): 247-252
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-93647

ABSTRACT

During the last decade, there has been a concern about the relation between aluminum residuals in treated water and Alzheimer disease, and more interest has been considered on the development of natural coagulants such as chitosan. Chitosan, a natural linear biopolyaminosaccharide, is obtained by alkaline deacetylation of chitin. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of alum as coagulant in conjunction with chitosan as coagulant aid on the removal of turbidity, hardness and Escherichia coli from water. A conventional jar test apparatus was employed for the tests. The optimum pH was observed between 7 to 7.5 for all turbidities. The optimum doses of alum and chitosan when used in conjunction, were 10mg/L and 1mg/L, 5mg/L and 0.5mg/L, and 5mg/L and 0.5mg/L in low, medium and high turbidities, respectively. Turbidity removal efficiency was resulted between%74.3 to%98.2 by alum in conjunction with chitosan. Residual Al[+3] in treated water was less than 0.2 mg/L, meeting the international guidelines. The results showed that turbidity decrease provided also a primary Escherichia coli reduction of 2-4 log units within the first 1 to 2 hr of treatment. Hardness removal efficiency decreased when the total hardness increased from 102 to 476mg/L as CaCO3. At low initial turbidity, chitosan showed marginally better performance on hardness, especially at the ranges of 100 to 210 mg/L as CaCO3. In conclusion, coagulant aid showed a useful method for coagulation process. By using natural coagulants, considerable savings in chemicals and sludge handling cost may be achieved


Subject(s)
Water Purification/methods , Alum Compounds , Coagulants , Escherichia coli , Efficiency , Hardness
11.
Urology Journal. 2009; 6 (3): 149-156
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-100198

ABSTRACT

In a patient with bladder urothelial cancer that is not suitable for or does not choose curative treatment, intractable hematuria is a disastrous condition. In this article, we tried to review the literature and extract a stepwise approach for palliative treatment of hematuria in these patients. The MEDLINE was searched with the help of the Medical Subject Headings system using different combinations of terms urinary bladder neoplasm, hematuria, carboprost, cyclophosphamide, cystitis, alum, and hyperbaric oxygenation. The articles were separately reviewed by the two authors and verified by each other. Eventually, a decision tree was developed for management of gross hematuria in patients with bladder cancer. Although, there was not any reported randomized controlled trial or prospectively designed study, the available case series were rather expressive to draw out a logical approach. Formalin has a grave adverse effect profile and is recommended only in special circumstances. For management of each case of gross hematuria in bladder cancer, the etiology of bleeding is the most important determinant. Hematuria in the context of advanced bladder neoplasms can now be effectively treated with fewer side effects using all available modalities in a logical holistic approach. We proposed a decision tree for management of hematuria in this context. However, regarding lack of well-designed trials, a treatment method should be based on individualized scenarios and clinical experience, bringing into account the patient's preferences


Subject(s)
Humans , /therapy , Palliative Care , Formaldehyde , Alum Compounds , Hyperbaric Oxygenation , Carboprost , Tromethamine , Urinary Diversion , Cystectomy , Cyclophosphamide , Administration, Intravesical
12.
Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol ; 2008 Jun-Sep; 26(2-3): 143-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-36906

ABSTRACT

An animal model resembling the human immuno-pathological features of CR allergy is needed for CR allergy research, e.g., measuring allergenicity of novel allergens, testing immunotherapeutic efficacies of drugs and vaccines. In this study we develop a murine model of American CR, P. americana allergy. BALB/c mice, 6 weeks old, were individually intraperitoneally injected with three doses (days 0, 7 and 14) of alum adjuvanted-crude extract of P. americana. On days 21 and 23, they were given crude CR extract in PBS intranasally (10 microl) and aerosolically (10 ml) via an air-pressure nebulizer, respectively. Mice received alum alone and PBS instead of the CR extract served as non-allergenic controls. All mice were bled twenty four hours after the nebulization and sacrificed. Their serum samples, broncho-alveolar lavage fluids (BALF), and lung tissues were collected. BALF of all allergen-treated mice had marked cellular infiltration notably neutrophils, eosinophils and lymphocytes. The average total cell count in BALF of the allergenic mice was 1.9 x 10(5) cells/ml which out-numbered those of the non-allergenic controls (8 x 10(4) cells/ml). The eosinophil infiltration was pronounced in lungs of the allergen-treated mice. Specific serum IgE to the CR extract elevated in serum samples of all allergen treated mice and nil in the sera of the controls. None of the mice showed detectable level of IgG2a to the CR extract. RT-PCR revealed that all allergen-treated mice had marked increase of IL-13, IL-4 and TNF-alpha gene expressions, slight increase of IL-5 gene expression, and absence of detectable IFN-gamma gene expression in comparison to the non-allergenic controls. None of the allergen-treated mice and 50% of the non-allergenic controls had IL-12 gene expression as detected by RT- PCR. One allergen treated-mouse (25%) had subpar level of the IL-18 gene expression compared to the controls. Results of the quantitative real-time PCR conformed to those of the RT-PCR. A murine model of P. americana resembling human allergic manifestations was successfully developed.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Alum Compounds , Animals , Cell Movement , Complex Mixtures/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal , Eosinophils/immunology , Female , Humans , Hypersensitivity/blood , Immunization, Secondary , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Leukocyte Count , Lung/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Periplaneta/immunology
13.
Bulletin of the National Research Centre. 2008; 33 (4): 407-419
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-112251

ABSTRACT

Different blended fabrics comprise polyamide/viscose, polyester/linen, wool/polyester and polyester/cotton were subjected to burn out using Aluminum sulphate, Sodium phosphate, Aluminum potassium sulphate, Di-hydrogen phosphate, Caustic soda or Formic acid. The loss weight was found to depend on both the nature of fabric and the chemical used as well as the concentration of the latter. Different color tones could be obtained on dyeing the burn out blends using a natural dye namely Rhubarb powder. The effect of burn out was evaluated via measuring the loss in weight, K/S as well as the overall fastness properties of the dyed fabrics


Subject(s)
Color/standards , Polyesters , Cellulose , Cotton Fiber , Nylons , Wool , Alum Compounds/chemistry , Sulfates/chemistry , Burns , Textiles
14.
Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering. 2007; 4 (1): 29-36
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-102434

ABSTRACT

Textile industry is the major source of water consumption and wastewater pollution. There are various treatment techniques to remove textile wastewater pollution. Coagulation-flocculation is a widely used process to remove pollution due to suspended particles. In this research, different coagulants like Alum, Lime, FeCl[3], FeSO[4] and MgCl[2] were applied to select the suitable ones with optimum removal efficiency. Settling characteristics of flocs formed in the coagulation process were studied in a laboratory scale settling column unit. Parameters such as color, COD, TSS, turbidity and settled sludge volume have been evaluated. The optimum coagulant dose and pH value were determined by comparing the effectiveness of these coagulants. Results showed other coagulants except lime could eliminate color and COD successfully. In this case, FeSO[4] was chosen as an optimum coagulant for color removal because of the lowest required coagulant dose, minimum settled sludge volume and maximum decolorization


Subject(s)
Water Purification , Water Pollution , Water Pollution, Chemical , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Industrial Waste , Coloring Agents , Textile Industry , Alum Compounds , Oxides , Calcium Compounds
15.
Infectious Diseases Journal of Pakistan. 2007; 16 (1): 10-13
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-82787

ABSTRACT

To determine the purity of different mineral and hospital waters and to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of Alum and Sulphur. 50 samples of mineral water of different brands and 50 water samples from different hospitals were analyzed. Detection of parasites was done by Zinc Sulphate Flotation Technique. Bacteriological analysis was done by Membrane Filter Technique and inoculation of selective media by spread plate method. Isolates were identified by standard methods and Quick Test Strip [QTS]. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of isolates was determined by Disc Diffusion Method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration [MIC] of Alum and Sulphur was determined by Agar Well Diffusion method. Out of 50 mineral water samples, 42 [84%] and from 50 hospitals water samples, 49 [98%] were contaminated. Parasites were not detected in mineral and hospital water samples. Bacterial isolates from bottled water were Pseudomonas spp. [50%], E.coli [25%], Enterobactor spp [10%], Salmonella typhi [5%], Shigella. dysenteriae [5%] and Aeromonas hydrophilla [5%]. In hospital water bacteria isolated were Pseudomonas spp. [47%], Escherichia coli [35%], Enterobactor spp [6%] and S. dysenteriae [10%]. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern indicated Cefazidime, Chloramphenicol and Gentamycin was found to be effective against bacteria isolated from mineral and hospital water. MIC of Alum against different bacterial isolates indicated no effect whereas MIC of sulphur was effective against all bacteria except Pseudomonas spp. This study highlights the problems that can arise in general population after consuming contaminated mineral water and in hospitalized patients drinking contaminated hospital water. It is safer to boil the water because boiling effectively killed all the bacteria


Subject(s)
Alum Compounds/pharmacology , Sulfur/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents , Mineral Waters/microbiology , Hospitals , Water Supply , Water Purification
16.
International Journal of Environmental Research. 2007; 1 (2): 104-113
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-82810

ABSTRACT

The efficiency of existing municipal wastewater treatment plants has been affected by the increase of incoming organic load caused by the expansions in developing countries. In the present investigation, the effect of Chemically Enhanced Primary Treatment [CEPT] process was studied on the enhancement efficiency of a municipal wastewater treatment plant in Tehran, Iran. Jar test results showed an increase in COD, phosphorus, turbidity and TSS removal by the increase in dosage of aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride as coagulants. Results revealed COD, phosphorus, turbidity and TSS removals of 38, 66, 68 and 69%, for alum at 80 mg/L and 60, 73, 49 and 48% for ferric chloride at 70 mg/L as the optimum doses, respectively. Ferric chloride revealed more efficient results compared with alum. The result of tests to find the optimum pH of two coagulants revealed that pH of 8.2 for both chemicals is the optimum performance condition. Therefore, CEPT can be used as an efficient method in conventional municipal wastewater treatment plants to reduce the organic load of biological treatment and enhance the removal of nutrients


Subject(s)
Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods , Phosphorus , Water , Alum Compounds , Ferric Compounds
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-287949

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Elucidating the detoxification mechanism of the raw Pinellia ternata processed by alum solution or alkaline solution (pH > 12).</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Raw Pinellia ternata was immersed in alum solution and alkaline solution according to Chinese pharmacopoeia. Observed the shape's changing of needle-like calcium oxalate crystals by scanning electro-microscopy. Determinating the contents of calcium oxalate crystals by applying oxidation reduction titration. Measured the irritations of raw P. ternata and various processing products on the model of rabbits'eyes.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>After processed by 8% alum solution prescribed in Chinese pharmacopoeia or 10% sodium carbonate solution, the needle-like shape of raphides in raw Pinellia ternata were changing and the sting barb of raphides were rusted and dissolved, the contents of calcium oxalate crystal in raw Pinellia ternata were sharply declined from more than 1% to less than 0.5%. the decline of contents is relative to the irritation decline of P. ternata on rabbit's eyes. Less than 0.5% calcium oxalate crystals of P. ternata almost had no irritation.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>After processed by 8% alum solution or sodium carbonate solution (pH > 12) , the irritation components in raw P. ternata could be rusted and dissolved, the needle point of raphides was broken, which led to the raphides'content declining and the irritation disappearing. The micro-structures, shapes and contents of calcium oxalate crystals in different medicine plants were not same. These properties of calcium oxalate crystal in India Madder Root and yam et al were very different from those in raw P. ternata.</p>


Subject(s)
Alum Compounds , Chemistry , Animals , Calcium Oxalate , Toxicity , Carbonates , Chemistry , Conjunctiva , Crystallization , Drug Interactions , Eye Diseases , Pinellia , Chemistry , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Powders , Rabbits , Technology, Pharmaceutical , Methods
18.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-114079

ABSTRACT

The Pallavaram Tanners Industrial Effluent Treatment Company Limited has been a forerunner in ensuring cleaner and safe environment. The project was implemented by a company formed by the tanners of the Pallavaram area. Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board (TNPCB) was the counterpart of UNIDO and took the overall responsibility for implementation of the project. The present study has been undertaken to evaluate performance efficiency of the treatment plant. Water samples were collected at different stages of treatment units and analysed for the major water quality parameters, such as pH, biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and total dissolved solids (TDS). The performance efficiency of each unit in treating the pollutants was calculated. The generated data presented evidence to that the common effluent treatment plant has been working with the norms of TNPCB and meeting the discharge standard limits.


Subject(s)
Alum Compounds/chemistry , Calcium Compounds/chemistry , Flocculation , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Industrial Waste , Odorants , Oxides/chemistry , Tanning , Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods , Water Pollutants/analysis
19.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113977

ABSTRACT

In pickling industries, a lot of sludge is generated during the treatment of pickling effluent and there is severe problem of its disposal. Disposal of this sludge as per the Hazardous Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 1989 is not easy. Its transportation and construction of lined disposal sites pose very severe problems. In the normal practice, the sludge is being disposed of at the sides of roads and railway tracks to fill low lying areas. This may cause serious health hazards. Considering these problems, a study has been undertaken to minimize the sludge generation during the treatment of pickling effluent by neutralizing it with lime, sodium hydroxide and combination of both. An attempt has been made to do an economic evaluation of the above process.


Subject(s)
Alum Compounds/chemistry , Calcium Compounds/chemistry , Hazardous Waste/prevention & control , Industrial Waste/prevention & control , Metallurgy , Oxides/chemistry , Sodium Hydroxide/chemistry , Steel , Sulfites/chemistry , Sulfuric Acids/chemistry , Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods
20.
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2006; 3 (2): 153-157
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-76877

ABSTRACT

In this study acrylic water base color was removed from synthetic wastewater using coagulation process. Experiments were conducted on the sample containing 100 mg/L and 400 mg/L of acrylic water base color. Destruction of color by means of coagulation/flocculation techniques using ferrous sulfate, alum, lime and polyelectrolyte [cationic, anionic and non ionic].The study was performed in a systematic approach searching optimum values of alum and FeSO[4] concentration, pH and temperature. All the experiments were run in a laboratory scale. The obtained results show that treatment with alum and ferrous sulfate alone proved to be very effective in removing the color [> 99%] and part of COD [60-70%] from aqueous solution. Lime alone did not significant change on COD and color removal


Subject(s)
Color , Waste Management/methods , Ferrous Compounds , Alum Compounds
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