Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 39
Filter
1.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e018, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089390

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of hydrofluoric acid (HF) concentration, etching time, and application of phosphoric acid (PA) followed by neutralization with sodium bicarbonate on the bond strength between a feldspar ceramic and resin cement. Thus, 80 blocks (10 x 12 x 2 mm) of glass ceramic (VM - Vita Mark II - Vita Zahnfabrik) were made and randomly assigned to eight groups (n = 10) according to the factors: HF concentration (5 and 10%), etching time (60 and 120 s), and use of phosphoric acid (PA) (with and without). According to the experimental group, 37% PA (Condac, FGM) was applied after HF etching for 60s. Afterwards, samples were immersed in sodium bicarbonate for 1 min then in an ultrasonic bath in distilled water (5 min) for cleaning. After surface bonding treatment, cylinders (Ø = 2 mm; h = 2 mm) of dual resin cement (AllCem / FGM) were made in the center of each block. The samples were then stored in water (37ºC) for 90 days and submitted to the shear bond test (50 KgF, 1 mm/min). Failure analysis was performed by stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscopy. Data (MPa) were analyzed with 3-way ANOVA and Tukey's test. Only the factor "HF concentration" was significant (p = 0.02). Most failures were of cohesive in ceramic (40%) and mixed types (42.5%). The 10% HF resulted in higher shear bond strength value than the 5% HF. Surface cleaning with phosphoric acid followed by sodium bicarbonate and HF time (60 or 120 seconds) did not influence the resin bond strength to feldspar ceramic.


Subject(s)
Phosphoric Acids/chemistry , Dental Bonding/methods , Potassium Compounds/chemistry , Aluminum Silicates/chemistry , Hydrofluoric Acid/chemistry , Reference Values , Silanes/chemistry , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Resin Cements/chemistry , Shear Strength/drug effects , Dental Porcelain/chemistry , Methacrylates/chemistry
2.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e095, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039305

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluates the shear bond strength (SBS) of various resin cements to different ceramics. Composite resin cylinders of Z100 were fabricated and cemented to disks of feldspathic ceramic (Creation), leucite-reinforced feldspathic ceramic (Empress I), and densely sintered aluminum oxide ceramic (Procera AllCeram) using five resin cements: Panavia F (PAN), RelyX ARC (ARC), RelyX Unicem (RXU), RelyX Veneer, and Variolink II. SBS was measured after three days of water storage (baseline) and after artificial aging (180 days of water storage along with 12,000 thermal cycles). Failure mode of fractured specimens also was evaluated. Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (α=0.05). RXU showed 1) the lowest baseline median SBS to feldspathic ceramic, which was not statistically different from PAN; 2) the lowest median baseline SBS to leucite-reinforced feldspathic and densely sintered aluminum-oxide ceramics. All cements performed similarly after aging, except for ARC (median 0.0 MPa) and PAN (median 16.2 MPa) in the densely sintered aluminum-oxide ceramic group. Resin cements perform differently when bonded to different ceramic substrates. While all test resin cements worked similarly in the long-term to feldspathic and leucite-reinforced feldspathic ceramics, only the MDP-containing resin cement provided durable bonds to densely sintered aluminum-oxide ceramic.


Subject(s)
Ceramics/chemistry , Dental Bonding/methods , Resin Cements/chemistry , Reference Values , Surface Properties , Materials Testing , Reproducibility of Results , Potassium Compounds/chemistry , Statistics, Nonparametric , Shear Strength , Aluminum/chemistry , Aluminum Silicates/chemistry
3.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e029, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001599

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Orthodontic bonding systems are submitted to demineralization and remineralization dynamics that might compromise their surface smoothness, and favor biofilm aggregation and caries development. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a cariogenic challenge model (in vitro pH-cycling model) on the surface roughness and topography of 3 bonding materials: Transbond™ XT (XT), Transbond™ Plus Color Change (PLUS) and Fuji Ortho™ LC (FUJI), by means of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Six specimens with standardized dimensions and surface smoothness were fabricated per group, and the materials were manipulated in accordance with the manufacturers' instructions. No polishing was necessary. AFM tests were performed before and after pH-cycling, taking 3 readouts per specimen. The roughness results (Ra) were obtained at nanometric levels (nm) and surface records were acquired in two- and three-dimensional images of height and lock-in phase of the material components. The surfaces of all groups analyzed in the study were morphologically altered, presenting images suggestive of matrix degradation and loss of matrix-load integrity. FUJI presented the greatest increase in surface roughness, followed by XT and PLUS, respectively (p≤0.001). Nevertheless, the roughness values found did not present sufficient degradation to harbor bacteria. The surface roughness of all tested materials was increased by pH-cycling. The use of materials capable of resisting degradation in the oral environment is recommended, in order to conserve their integrity and of the surrounding tissues.


Subject(s)
Acrylic Resins/chemistry , Cariogenic Agents/chemistry , Dental Bonding/methods , Resin Cements/chemistry , Aluminum Silicates/chemistry , Reference Values , Surface Properties , Materials Testing , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Microscopy, Atomic Force , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
4.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e026, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001604

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The aim of this study is to evaluate the machinability of four CAD/CAM materials (n = 13) assessed by brittleness index, Vickers hardness, and fracture toughness and interaction among such mechanical properties. The materials selected in this in vitro study are Feldspathic ceramic [FC], Lithium-disilicate glass ceramic [LD], leucite-reinforced glass ceramic [LR], and nanofilled resin material [RN]. Slices were made from the blocks following original dimensions 14 × 12 × 3 mm (L × W × H), using a precision slow-speed saw device and then surfaces were regularized through a polishing device. Brittleness index and fracture toughness were calculated by the use of specific equations for each one of the properties. The Vickers hardness was calculated automated software in the microhardness device. One-way Anova and Pearson's correlation were applied to data evaluation. LD obtained the highest values for brittleness index and was not significantly different from FC. LR presented statistically significant difference compared with RN, which had the lowest mean. Vickers hardness showed LD with the highest average, and no statistical difference was found between FC and LR. RN presented the lowest average. Fracture toughness showed FC and LR not statistically different from each other, likewise LD and RN. The brittleness index, considered also as the machinability of a material, showed within this study as positively dependent on Vickers hardness, which leads to conclusion that hardness of ceramics is related to its milling capacity. In addition, fracture toughness of pre-sintered ceramics is compared to polymer-based materials.


Subject(s)
Polymers/chemistry , Ceramics/chemistry , Computer-Aided Design , Resin Cements/chemistry , Dental Porcelain/chemistry , Aluminum Silicates/chemistry , Reference Values , Surface Properties , Materials Testing , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Hardness Tests
5.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180230, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-984573

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives To study the fluoride uptake and release properties of glass carbomer dental cements and compare them with those of conventional and resin-modified glass ionomers. Materials and Methods Three materials were used, as follows: glass carbomer (Glass Fill), conventional glass ionomer (Chemfil Rock) and resin-modified glass ionomer (Fuji II LC). For all materials, specimens (sets of six) were matured at room temperature for time intervals of 10 minutes, 1 hour and 6 weeks, then exposed to either deionized water or sodium fluoride solution (1000 ppm in fluoride) for 24 hours. Following this, all specimens were placed in deionized water for additional 24 hours and fluoride release was measured. Results Storage in water led to increase in mass in all cases due to water uptake, with uptake varying with maturing time and material type. Storage in aqueous NaF led to variable results. Glass carbomer showed mass losses at all maturing times, whereas the conventional glass ionomer gained mass for some maturing times, and the resin-modified glass ionomer gained mass for all maturing times. All materials released fluoride into deionized water, with glass carbomer showing the highest release. For both types of glass ionomer, uptake of fluoride led to enhanced fluoride release into deionized water. In contrast, uptake by glass carbomer did not lead to increased fluoride release, although it was substantially higher than the uptake by both types of glass ionomer. Conclusions Glass carbomer resembles glass ionomer cements in its fluoride uptake behavior but differs when considering that its fluoride uptake does not lead to increased fluoride release.


Subject(s)
Apatites/chemistry , Resin Cements/chemistry , Fluorides/chemistry , Glass Ionomer Cements/chemistry , Reference Values , Resins, Synthetic/chemistry , Sodium Fluoride/chemistry , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Water/chemistry , Analysis of Variance , Aluminum Silicates/chemistry
6.
Braz. dent. j ; 29(2): 202-207, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951528

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluated the effect of the accelerated artificial aging (AAA) on feldspar ceramic strength and the reinforcing effect promoted by adhesive cementation with resin luting agent. One hundred twenty feldspar ceramic disks were obtained. Sixty disks were acid-etched, silanized, and coated with an experimental resin luting agent simulating the adhesive luting procedures. Four groups were created (n=30): uncoated ceramic (control group), uncoated ceramic submitted to AAA, ceramic coated with resin luting agent, and coated ceramic submitted to AAA. Biaxial flexural testing with ball-on-ring setup was carried out. Biaxial flexural strength (s bf , MPa), characteristic strength (s 0 , MPa), and Weibull modulus (m) were calculated for axial positions z=0 (ceramic surface) and z=−t2 (luting agent surface). Data of s bf at positions z=0 and z=-t2 were separately submitted to statistical analyses (a=0.05). The uncoated ceramic submitted to AAA had no significant difference in s bf and s 0 compared with the control group. Resin coating of the ceramic increased s bf and s 0 at z=0. The AAA increased the s bf and s 0 for the resin-coated ceramic specimens at z=0 and also the s 0 at axial position z=-t2. The structural reliability at z=0 and z=-t2 was not influenced by the variables tested. In conclusion, resin coating improved the mechanical strength of the feldspar ceramic. The AAA procedure was not effective in aging the uncoated or resin-coated feldspar ceramic specimens.


Resumo Este estudo avaliou o efeito do envelhecimento artificial acelerado (EAA) na resistência da cerâmica feldspática e o reforço promovido pela cimentação adesiva com cimento resinoso. Cento e vinte discos de cerâmica feldspática foram obtidos. Sessenta discos foram condicionados com ácido, silanizados, e recobertos com um cimento resinoso experimental simulando os procedimentos de cimentação adesiva. Quatro grupos foram criados (n=30): cerâmica sem recobrimento (grupo controle), cerâmica sem recobrimento submetida ao EAA, cerâmica recoberta com cimento resinoso, cerâmica recoberta com cimento resinoso submetida ao EAA. O teste de resistência à flexão biaxial foi realizado utilizando o dispositivo pistão-anel. Resistência à flexão biaxial (s fb , MPa), resistência característica (s 0 , MPa), e módulo de Weibull (m) foram calculados para as posições axiais z=0 (superfície da cerâmica) e z=−t2 (superfície do cimento). Os dados de s fb em z=0 e z=−t2 foram submetidos a análises estatísticas separadamente (a=0,05). A cerâmica não recoberta submetida ao EAA não teve diferença significante na s fb e s 0 comparada com o grupo controle. O recobrimento com cimento resinoso da cerâmica aumentou a s fb e s 0 em z=0. O EAA aumentou a s fb e s 0 para os espécimes de cerâmica recobertos com cimento resinoso em z=0 e também a s 0 em z=−t2. A confiabilidade em z=0 e z=−t2 não foi influenciada pelas variáveis testadas. Concluindo, o recobrimento com cimento resinoso melhorou a resistência mecânica da cerâmica feldspática. O procedimento de EAA não foi efetivo em envelhecer os espécimes de cerâmica feldspática recobertos ou não com cimento resinoso.


Subject(s)
Materials Testing , Potassium Compounds/chemistry , Resin Cements/chemistry , Dental Cements/chemistry , Dental Porcelain/chemistry , Aluminum Silicates/chemistry , Dental Bonding , Composite Resins/chemistry , Dental Stress Analysis
7.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 32: e106, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974464

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to determine if multiple processing (heat-pressing) of a dental ceramic influences flexural strength, hardness, and microstructure. Ninety bar-shaped specimens (15 mm × 4 mm × 2 mm) of a pressed ceramic (Vita PM9) were fabricated and randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 15) according to the factors "number of pressings" (C1, C2, and C3, fired 1, 2, and 3 times, respectively) and "mechanical cycling" (M). Half of the specimens were mechanically cycled (106 cycles, 45 N, 3.4 Hz, in water) and all specimens were tested for 3-point bending (0.5 mm/min, load 1000 kgf) and Vickers hardness (19.6 N for 20 s). X-ray diffraction was used to characterize the phases and scanning electron microscopy to characterize the microstructure. The flexural strength data was statistically analyzed with Weibull analysis, ANOVA, and Tukey test. Hardness data was evaluated by 2-way ANOVA and Fisher test. All tests were performed with a significance level of 0.05. Two-way ANOVA revealed that neither "number of pressings" (p=0.085) or "mechanical cycling" (0.055) significantly affected flexural strength. But Weibull analysis showed significant difference for Weibull moduli and characteristic strength between groups. For hardness, a statistical difference was seen for the interaction "Number of pressings * Mechanical cycling", (p = 0.016). Hardness decreased in the following order: C1 (775±17.2), CM3 (751±101), CM2 (735±45), C3 (701±82), CM1 (671±82), and C2 (663±92). Fewer defects were observed with an increased number of firings. Therefore, the possibility of recycling PM9 ceramic does not interfere in the evaluated mechanical properties and improves microstructure.


Subject(s)
Ceramics/chemistry , Aluminum Silicates/chemistry , Hot Temperature , Surface Properties , Time Factors , X-Ray Diffraction , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Pliability , Hardness Tests
8.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20180004, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-954510

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the cavity preparation and ceramic type on the stress distribution, tooth strain, fracture resistance and fracture mode of human molar teeth restored with onlays. Material and Methods Forty-eight molars were divided into four groups (n=12) with assorted combinations of two study factors: BL- conventional onlay preparation with boxes made from leucite ceramic (IPS-Empress CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent); NBL- conservative onlay preparation without boxes made from leucite ceramic; BD- conventional onlay preparation with boxes made from lithium disilicate glass ceramic (IPS e.max CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent); NBL- conservative onlay preparation with boxes made from lithium disilicate glass ceramic cuspal deformation (µS) was measured at 100 N and at maximum fracture load using strain gauge. Fracture resistance (N) was measured using a compression test, and the fracture mode was recorded. Finite element analysis was used to evaluate the stress distribution by modified von Mises stress criteria. The tooth strain and fracture resistance data were analyzed using the Tukey test and two-way ANOVA, and the fracture mode was analyzed by the chi-square test (α=0.05). Results The leucite ceramic resulted in higher tooth deformation at 100 N and lower tooth deformation at the maximum fracture load than the lithium disilicate ceramic (P<0.001). The lithium disilicate ceramic exhibited higher fracture resistance than the leucite ceramic (P<0.001). The conservative onlay resulted in higher fracture strength for lithium disilicate ceramic. Finite element analysis results showed the conventional cavity preparation resulted in higher stress concentration in the ceramic restoration and remaining tooth than the conservative onlay preparation. The conservative onlays exhibited increased fracture resistance, reduced stress concentration and more favorable fracture modes. Conclusion Molars restored with lithium disilicate CAD-CAM ceramic onlays exhibited higher fracture resistance than molars restored with leucite CAD-CAM ceramic onlays.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ceramics/chemistry , Computer-Aided Design , Dental Cavity Preparation/methods , Dental Porcelain/chemistry , Aluminum Silicates/chemistry , Inlays/methods , Polyurethanes/chemistry , Reference Values , Tooth Fractures , Acrylic Resins/chemistry , Materials Testing , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Composite Resins/chemistry , Dental Restoration Failure , Finite Element Analysis , Dental Stress Analysis , Elastic Modulus , Molar
9.
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(1): 61-68, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-841162

ABSTRACT

Abstract Resin cements have led to great advances in dental ceramic restoration techniques because of their ability to bond to both dental structures and restorative materials. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the performance of resin cements when different curing modes are used, by evaluating the degree of conversion and bond strength to a ceramic substrate. Material and Methods Three resin cements were evaluated, two dual-cured (Variolink II and RelyX ARC) and one light-cured (Variolink Veneer). The dual-cured resin cements were tested by using the dual activation mode (base and catalyst) and light-activation mode (base paste only). For degree of conversion (DC) (n=5), a 1.0 mm thick feldspathic ceramic disc was placed over the resin cement specimens and the set was light activated with a QTH unit. After 24 h storage, the DC was measured with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). For microshear bond strength testing, five feldspathic ceramic discs were submitted to surface treatment, and three cylindrical resin cement specimens were bonded to each ceramic surface according to the experimental groups. After 24 h, microshear bond testing was performed at 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed until the failure. Data were submitted to one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey test (p<0.05). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used for classifying the failure modes. Results Higher DC and bond strength values were shown by the resin cements cured by using the dual activation mode. The Variolink II group presented higher DC and bond strength values when using light-activation only when compared with the Variolink Veneer group. Conclusion The base paste of dual-cured resin cements in light-activation mode can be used for bonding translucent ceramic restorations of up to or less than 1.0 mm thick.


Subject(s)
Polyethylene Glycols/chemistry , Polymethacrylic Acids/chemistry , Ceramics/chemistry , Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate/chemistry , Potassium Compounds/chemistry , Resin Cements/chemistry , Light-Curing of Dental Adhesives/methods , Aluminum Silicates/chemistry , Reference Values , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Shear Strength , Curing Lights, Dental , Photochemical Processes , Polymerization
10.
Rev. ciênc. farm. básica apl ; 37(1)2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-964156

ABSTRACT

Clay mineral facial masks are used to treat some dermatological diseases, just for cleansing or reduce the amount of oil secreted by sebaceous glands. There are several types of clays, which vary in mineralogical and chemical composition, color and origin. However, the literature lacks studies involving clay facial masks, in particular regarding their influence on skin´s biomechanical properties. Thus, this work aimed to characterize colored clays and evaluate its influence on skin frmness and elasticity by a short-term clinical study. Different clays (named in this study magnesium aluminum silicate - MAS, white, pink and green) were chemically characterized, and facial mask formulations were prepared. The short-term clinical study was performed through the application of formulations on the skin. The skin frmness and elasticity were assessed before treatment and after mask removal. The statistical analysis showed no signifcant influence of time or formulations in those parameters, although volunteers reported the sensation of mechanical tension after the removal of the clay facial masks. Thus, the composition of the different clays did not affect the skin viscoelasticity behavior in the short-term clinical study, and a long-term use of this type of formulation must be indicated to observe all the expected benefts.(AU)


Máscaras faciais argilosas são utilizadas para tratar algumas doenças dermatológicas, apenas para a limpeza ou reduzir a quantidade de óleo secretado pelas glândulas sebáceas. Existem vários tipos de argilas, que variam em composição mineral, química, cor e origem. No entanto, a literatura carece de estudos envolvendo máscaras faciais argilosas, em particular em relação a sua influência nas propriedades biomecânicas da pele. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar argilas coloridas e avaliar sua influência sobre a frmeza e elasticidade da pele por meio de um estudo clínico de curto prazo. Diferentes argilas (chamadas neste estudo de silicato de alumínio e magnésio - MAS, branca, rosa e verde) foram caracterizadas quimicamente, e formulações de máscaras faciais foram preparadas. O estudo clínico de curto prazo foi realizado por meio da aplicação das formulações na pele. A frmeza e elasticidade da pele foram avaliadas antes do tratamento e após a remoção da máscara. A análise estatística mostrou nenhuma influência signifcativa do tempo ou das formulações nesses parâmetros, embora os voluntários tenham reportado sensação de tensão mecânica, após a remoção das máscaras faciais argilosas. Assim, a composição das diferentes argilas não afetou o comportamento visco-elástico da pele no estudo clínico de curto prazo, e uma utilização de longa duração poderia ser indicada com a fnalidade de se observar todos os benefícios esperados.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Clay , Skin Care , Facial Masks , Clinical Study , Skin Care/methods , Magnesium Silicates/chemistry , Color , Aluminum Silicates/chemistry
11.
Bauru; s.n; 2016. 75 p. tab, ilus, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-881987

ABSTRACT

O diagnóstico das lesões incipientes de erosão em esmalte é difícil de ser realizado e, em situações clínicas, poderá ocorrer a colagem de braquetes em superfícies erodidas. Este trabalho in vitro avaliou a adesão de braquetes ortodônticos ao esmalte dentário bovino hígido e previamente erodido, utilizando dois materiais para colagem. Os fatores em estudo foram condição prévia do esmalte em 2 níveis (com e sem erosão) e tipo de material de colagem em 2 níveis (Transbond XT e Fuji Ortho LC). A amostra foi composta por 160 coroas de incisivos bovinos, sendo metade dela submetida a desafio erosivo para formação de lesões artificiais de erosão e a outra metade permaneceu hígida. Na ciclagem erosiva as coroas foram imersas 8X/dia em Coca-cola® (10 min), seguido da imersão em saliva artificial (2 h), durante 5 dias. A outra metade da amostra ficou em saliva artificial por 5 dias. Braquetes de incisivo central superior foram colados às coroas hígidas (H) e erodidas (E), seguindo orientações dos fabricantes de cada material. As variáveis de resposta foram resistência ao cisalhamento e índice de remanescente adesivo (IRA). Os dados de resistência ao cisalhamento foram analisados por ANOVA 2 critérios e Teste de Tukey (p<0,05). Os resultados, expressos em megapascal, não mostraram diferenças na resistência ao cisalhamento entre esmalte erodido e hígido, tanto no grupo colado com resina (RH = 15,25 +3,72; RE = 15,79 +4,41) quanto colado com ionômero (IH = 10,70 +3,73; IE = 11,26 +3,70). A resina apresentou resistência à colagem superior ao ionômero. Na comparação do índice de remanescente adesivo, por meio do teste de Mann Whitney, o esmalte erodido apresentou valores mais altos para o IRA, evidenciando uma maior quantidade de material remanescente no esmalte, tanto no grupo colado com resina (p=0,044) quanto com ionômero (p<0,001). Conclui-se que a presença da lesão de erosão não interfere na resistência ao cisalhamento de braquetes colados ao esmalte tanto com resina quanto com cimento de ionômero de vidro. No entanto, independentemente do material de colagem, o índice de remanescente adesivo evidenciou uma maior adesão ao esmalte com erosão.(AU)


The diagnosis of initial erosion lesions on enamel is difficult and in some clinical situations, the professional bonds brackets to eroded surfaces without noting.This in vitro study evaluated the bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to eroded and sound bovine enamel with two different materials. The factors under study were enamel condition in two levels (with and without erosion) and type of bonding material in two levels (Transbond® XT and Fuji Ortho LC). The sample consisted of 160 bovine lower incisor teeth, half of the specimens was subjected to erosive challenge to form artificial erosive lesions and the other half remained sound. In the erosive cycling tooth crowns were immerged 8x/day in Coca-cola® (10 min), followed by immersion in artificial saliva for (2 h), for 5 days. The other half of the sample was maintained in artificial saliva for 5 days. At sequence, brackets were bonded to eroded (E) and sound (S) enamel, according to manufacturing recommendations of each material. The response variables were shear bond strength and adhesive remnant index (ARI). Shear bond strength data were analyzed by Two-way ANOVA and Tukeys test (p<0,05). The results, expressed in megapascal, did not show any difference between eroded and sound enamel, in both composite resin (RS = 15,25 +3,72; RE = 15,79 +4,41) and glass ionomer (IS = 10,70 +3,73; IE = 11,26 +3,70) groups. Composite resin showed higher shear bond strength compared to glass ionomer cement. In the comparison of adhesive remnant index using Mann Whitney test, eroded enamel presented higher scores for ARI, showing greater amount of material remaining on enamel, in both resin (p=0,04) and ionomer (p<0,001) groups. It was concluded that the presence of erosion lesions did not interfere on shear bond strength of brackets bonded to enamel with composite resin or glass ionomer cement. However, independently of the bonding material, adhesive remnant index showed higher bond strength to eroded enamel.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Acrylic Resins/chemistry , Aluminum Silicates/chemistry , Dental Bonding/methods , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Orthodontic Brackets , Resin Cements/chemistry , Tooth Erosion , Materials Testing , Reproducibility of Results , Saliva, Artificial/chemistry , Shear Strength , Surface Properties , Time Factors
12.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 20(4): 51-56, July-Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-757427

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess four different chemical surface conditioning methods for ceramic material before bracket bonding, and their impact on shear bond strength and surface integrity at debonding.METHODS: Four experimental groups (n = 13) were set up according to the ceramic conditioning method: G1 = 37% phosphoric acid etching followed by silane application; G2 = 37% liquid phosphoric acid etching, no rinsing, followed by silane application; G3 = 10% hydrofluoric acid etching alone; and G4 = 10% hydrofluoric acid etching followed by silane application. After surface conditioning, metal brackets were bonded to porcelain by means of the Transbond XP system (3M Unitek). Samples were submitted to shear bond strength tests in a universal testing machine and the surfaces were later assessed with a microscope under 8 X magnification. ANOVA/Tukey tests were performed to establish the difference between groups (α= 5%).RESULTS: The highest shear bond strength values were found in groups G3 and G4 (22.01 ± 2.15 MPa and 22.83 ± 3.32 Mpa, respectively), followed by G1 (16.42 ± 3.61 MPa) and G2 (9.29 ± 1.95 MPa). As regards surface evaluation after bracket debonding, the use of liquid phosphoric acid followed by silane application (G2) produced the least damage to porcelain. When hydrofluoric acid and silane were applied, the risk of ceramic fracture increased.CONCLUSIONS: Acceptable levels of bond strength for clinical use were reached by all methods tested; however, liquid phosphoric acid etching followed by silane application (G2) resulted in the least damage to the ceramic surface.


OBJETIVO: avaliar quatro métodos de condicionamento químico da superfície cerâmica, previamente à colagem de braquetes, e seu impacto sobre a resistência ao cisalhamento e a integridade da superfície ao descolamento.MÉTODOS: quatro grupos experimentais (n = 13) foram delineados de acordo com o método de condicionamento da superfície cerâmica empregado: G1 = ácido fosfórico a 37%, seguido da aplicação de silano; G2 = ácido fosfórico líquido a 37%, seguido da aplicação de silano sem lavagem prévia do ácido; G3 = ácido fluorídrico a 10%; e G4 = ácido fluorídrico a 10%, seguido da aplicação de silano. Após o condicionamento da superfície, braquetes metálicos foram colados à porcelana utilizando-se o sistema Transbond XP (3M Unitek). As amostras foram submetidas a ensaios de resistência ao cisalhamento, em máquina de ensaio universal, e as superfícies cerâmicas foram posteriormente avaliadas em microscópio, com magnitude de 8X. Testes ANOVA/Tukey foram realizados para verificar-se a diferença entre os grupos (α = 5%).RESULTADOS: os maiores valores de resistência ao cisalhamento foram encontrados nos grupos G3 e G4 (22,01 ± 2,15MPa e 22,83 ± 3,32Mpa, respectivamente), seguidos por G1 (16,42 ± 3,61MPa) e G2 (9,29 ± 1,95MPa). Quanto à avaliação da superfície após a descolagem do braquete, a utilização de ácido fosfórico líquido seguido da aplicação de silano, sem lavagem do ácido (G2), produziu menores danos à porcelana. Quando ácido fluorídrico e silano foram aplicados, o risco de fraturar a cerâmica aumentou.CONCLUSÕES: níveis aceitáveis de resistência de união para uso clínico foram alcançados por todos os métodos testados. No entanto, o condicionamento com ácido fosfórico líquido, seguido da aplicação de silano (G2), resultou em menor dano à superfície cerâmica.


Subject(s)
Acid Etching, Dental/methods , Dental Bonding , Orthodontic Brackets , Dental Porcelain/chemistry , Phosphoric Acids/chemistry , Silanes/chemistry , Stress, Mechanical , Surface Properties , Materials Testing , Orthodontic Appliance Design , Dental Debonding/methods , Potassium Compounds/chemistry , Composite Resins/chemistry , Resin Cements/chemistry , Dental Alloys/chemistry , Shear Strength , Dental Stress Analysis/instrumentation , Aluminum Silicates/chemistry , Hydrofluoric Acid/chemistry , Microscopy
13.
Braz. dent. j ; 26(2): 152-155, Mar-Apr/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741213

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of different surface conditioning methods on the microtensile bond strength of a restorative composite repair in three types of dental ceramics: lithium disilicate-reinforced, leucite-reinforced and feldspathic. Twelve blocks were sintered for each type of ceramic (n=3) and stored for 3 months in distilled water at 37 °C. The bonding surface of ceramics was abraded with 600-grit SiC paper. Surface treatments for each ceramic were: GC (control) - none; GDB - diamond bur #30 µm; GHF - hydrofluoric acid (10%); GT- tribochemical silica coating (45-μm size particles). Treatments were followed by cleaning with phosphoric acid 37% for 20 s + silane + adhesive. The composite resin was used as restorative material. After repair, samples were subjected to thermocycled ageing (10,000 cycles between 5 °C and 55 °C for 30 s). Thereafter, the samples were sectioned into 1.0 mm2 sticks and tested for microtensile bond strength with 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed. Data were compared by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). The superficial wear with diamond bur proved to be suitable for feldspathic porcelain and for leucite-reinforced glass ceramic while hydrofluoric acid-etching is indicated for repairs in lithium disilicate-reinforced ceramic; tribochemical silica coating is applicable to leucite-reinforced ceramic. Predominance of adhesive failures was observed (>85% in all groups). In conclusion, the success of surface treatments depends on the type of ceramic to be repaired.


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia de diferentes condicionamentos de superfície na resistência de união de reparos de compósitos restauradores em três tipos de cerâmicas odontológicas: reforçada por dissilicato de lítio, reforçada por leucita e feldspática. Foram confeccionados 12 blocos para cada tipo de cerâmica (n=3) e armazenados por 3 meses em água destilada a 37 oC. A superfície de união das cerâmicas foi regularizada com lixa de granulação 600 por 15 s e lavadas em ultrassom por 10 min. Os tratamentos de superfície para cada cerâmica foram: GC (controle) - nenhum; GPD - ponta diamantada com 30 µm de granulação; GAF - ácido hidrofluorídrico a 10%; GJ - jateamento com partículas de óxido de alumínio revestido por sílica (45 µm - tamanho das partículas). Após, foi realizada a limpeza da superfície com ácido fosfórico a 7% por 20 s, seguido de silano e adesivo. Como material restaurador foi utilizada resina composta. Após o reparo, as amostras foram submetidas a ciclagem térmica (10,000 ciclos entre 5 °C e 55 °C, por 30 s). Na sequência, as amostras foram seccionadas em palitos de aproximadamente 1,0 mm2 e levadas ao teste de tração em uma máquina de ensaios universal à velocidade de 0,5 mm/min. Os dados obtidos foram comparados estatisticamente por ANOVA de dois fatores e teste de Tukey (α=0,05). Sugere-se que o desgaste da superfície com ponta diamantada é mais indicado para a cerâmica feldspática e cerâmica reforçada por leucita, enquanto o condicionamento com ácido fluorídrico é indicado para reparos em cerâmica reforçada por dissilicato de lítio. O jateamento com partículas de óxido de alumínio revestido por sílica mostrou-se aplicável à cerâmica reforçada por leucita. Predominancia de fraturas adesivas acima de 85% foi observada para todos os grupos. Este estudo demonstrou que o sucesso dos tratamentos de superfície depende do tipo de cerâmica a que são aplicados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aluminum Silicates/chemistry , Ceramics/chemistry , Composite Resins/chemistry , Dental Porcelain/chemistry , Potassium Compounds/chemistry , Acid Etching, Dental , Dental Cements , Random Allocation , Surface Properties , Tensile Strength
14.
J. appl. oral sci ; 22(5): 390-396, Sep-Oct/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-729841

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the push-out bond strength of glass fiber posts to root dentin after cementation with glass ionomer (GICs) and resinmodified glass ionomer cements (RMGICs). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty human maxillary canines were transversally sectioned at 15 mm from the apex. Canals were prepared with a step back technique until the application of a #55 K-file and filled. Post spaces were prepared and specimens were divided into five groups according to the cement used for post cementation: Luting & Lining Cement; Fuji II LC Improved; RelyX Luting; Ketac Cem; and Ionoseal. After cementation of the glass fiber posts, all roots were stored at 100% humidity until testing. For push-out test, 1-mm thick slices were produced. The push-out test was performed in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute and the values (MPa) were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Levene's tests and by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test at a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: Fiber posts cemented using Luting & Lining Cement, Fuji II LC Improved, and Ketac Cem presented the highest bond strength to root dentin, followed by RelyX Luting. Ionoseal presented the lowest bond strength values (P>0.05). The post level did not influence the bond strength of fiber posts to root dentin (P=0.148). The major cause of failure was cohesive at the cement for all GICs and RMGICs. CONCLUSIONS: Except for Ionoseal, all cements provided satisfactory bond strength values. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Dentin/drug effects , Glass Ionomer Cements/chemistry , Post and Core Technique , Resin Cements/chemistry , Tooth Root/drug effects , Aluminum Silicates/chemistry , Analysis of Variance , Composite Resins/chemistry , Dental Bonding/methods , Magnesium Oxide/chemistry , Materials Testing , Polycarboxylate Cement/chemistry , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Resins, Synthetic/chemistry , Tensile Strength , Zinc Oxide/chemistry
15.
Acta odontol. latinoam ; 27(1): 16-24, July 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-761843

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to compare the microtensile bondstrength of two heat-pressed ceramics (leucite-based - IPSEmpress Esthetic/ Ivoclar Vivadent, and lithium disilicate-based- IPS e.max Press/ Ivoclar Vivadent) to dentin with the use ofconventional and self-adhesive resin cements. The occlusal surfaceof 60 intact human molars was removed and the dentin wasexposed. Ceramic blocks were cemented randomly with regardto the cementation systems (n=10): conventional dual resincement (Variolink II/ Ivoclar Vivadent), conventional self-polymerizingresin cement (Multilink/ Ivoclar Vivadent), and dualself-adhesive resin cement (RelyX U100/ 3M ESPE). The dualcementation systems were photoactivated with a LED lightdevice (Radii Cal, SDI) for 40 seconds. The specimens were sectionedto obtain sticks of approximately 1 mm2 for microtensiletests on a universal testing machine (EMIC). The type of fracturewas analyzed under a scanning electron microscope. TheAnalysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey test (α=0.05)showed that there was no difference between types of ceramic.Average microtensile bond strength was higher for the conventionaldual resin cement (Variolink II) and the self-adhesive dualresin cement (RelyX U100), despite greater prevalence of prematureloss of the sticks with the latter. Average bond strengthwas lower when the conventional self-polymerizing resin cement(Multilink) was used. Leucite-based and lithium disilicate-basedcements present similar bond strength to the dentin withconventional dual resin cement (Variolink II) and a dual selfadhesivecement (RelyX U100)...


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a resistência de união pormicrotração à dentina humana entre cerâmicas prensadas (abase de leucita - IPS Empress Esthetic/ Ivoclar Vivadent, e abase de dissilicato de lítio - IPS e.max Press/ Ivoclar Vivadent)após cimentação com agentes resinosos e convencionais eautoadesivos. As superfícies oclusais de 60 molares humanoshígidos foram removidas e a dentina foi exposta. A cimentaçãodos blocos cerâmicos foi realizada de forma aleatória de acordocom os sistemas de cimentação (n=10): cimento resinosodual convencional (Variolink II/ Ivoclar Vivadent), cimentoresinoso autopolimerizável convencional (Multilink/ IvoclarVivadent) e cimento resinoso dual autoadesivo (RelyX U100/3M ESPE). Os sistemas de cimentação duais foram fotoativadoscom aparelho de luz LED (Radii Cal, SDI) por 40segundos. Os espécimes foram seccionados para a obtençãode palitos com aproximadamente 1 mm2 para a realização doteste de microtração em máquina universal de ensaios (EMIC).O padrão de fratura foi analisado em microscópio eletrônicode varredura. A Análise de Variância (ANOVA) e o teste deTukey (α=0,05) mostraram que não houve diferenças entre ostipos de cerâmicas. Houve maiores médias de resistência deunião por microtração para o cimento resinoso dual convencional(Variolink II) e para cimento resinoso dual autoadesivo(RelyX U100), apesar de maior prevalência de perdas prematurasdos palitos com este cimento. Houve menores médias deresistência de união ao se utilizar o cimento resinoso autopolimerizávelconvencional (Multilink). As cerâmicas a base deleucita (IPS Empress Esthetic) e a base de dissilicato de lítio(IPS e.max Press) apresentaram resistência de união semelhanteà dentina ao se utilizar o cimento resinoso dualconvencional (Variolink II) e o dual autoadesivo (RelyX U100)...


Subject(s)
Humans , Cementation/methods , Resin Cements/chemistry , Ceramics/chemistry , Dentin/ultrastructure , Dental Porcelain/chemistry , Aluminum Silicates/chemistry , Dental Stress Analysis/instrumentation , Curing Lights, Dental , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Polymerization , Stress, Mechanical , Surface Properties , Tensile Strength , Time Factors
16.
J. appl. oral sci ; 22(2): 85-90, Mar-Apr/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-704193

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feldspathic ceramic surface cleaning on micro-shear bond strength and ceramic surface morphology. Material and Methods: Forty discs of feldspathic ceramic were prepared and etched with 10% hydrofluoric acid for 2 minutes. The discs were randomly distributed into five groups (n=8): C: no treatment, S: water spray + air drying for 1 minute, US: immersion in ultrasonic bath for 5 minutes, F: etching with 37% phosphoric acid for 1 minute, followed by 1-minute rinse, F+US: etching with 37% phosphoric acid for 1 minute, 1-minute rinse and ultrasonic bath for 5 minutes. Composite cylinders were bonded to the discs following application of silane and hydrophobic adhesive for micro-shear bond strength testing in a universal testing machine at 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed until failure. Stereomicroscopy was used to classify failure type. Surface micromorphology of each treatment type was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy at 500 and 2,500 times magnification. Results: One-way ANOVA test showed no significant difference between treatments (p=0.3197) and the most common failure types were cohesive resin cohesion followed by adhesive failure. Micro-shear bond strength of the feldspathic ceramic substrate to the adhesive system was not influenced by the different surface cleaning techniques. Absence of or less residue was observed after etching with hydrofluoric acid for the groups US and F+US. Conclusions: Combining ceramic cleaning techniques with hydrofluoric acid etching did not affect ceramic bond strength, whereas, when cleaning was associated with ultrasound, less residue was observed. .


Subject(s)
Acid Etching, Dental/methods , Aluminum Silicates/chemistry , Ceramics/chemistry , Dental Bonding/methods , Hydrofluoric Acid/chemistry , Potassium Compounds/chemistry , Analysis of Variance , Composite Resins/chemistry , Dental Restoration Failure , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Resin Cements/chemistry , Shear Strength/drug effects , Surface Properties/drug effects , Time Factors
17.
J. appl. oral sci ; 21(4): 327-334, Jul-Aug/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-684561

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and fluoride releasing capacity of 3 bonding materials. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty nine specimens with standardized surface smoothness and dimensions were prepared. The antimicrobial capacity of the materials against S. mutans, L. casei and C. albicans was evaluated by determining the percentage of growth inhibition of these microorganisms in an inoculated medium, obtained by optical density readouts on a spectrophotometer. The potential to interfere in microbial growth on the surface of the studied materials was observed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fluoride release capacity in ultrapure water for 14 days was analyzed by means of ion chromatography. RESULTS: The PLUS group presented the highest percentage of microbial inhibition and the most contamination-free surface. The FUJI group presented the best fluoride release capacity. CONCLUSIONS: The TransbondTM Plus Color Change was the one that presented the best general behavior considering the evaluated aspects. .


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage , Dental Bonding , Dental Materials/chemistry , Fluorides/administration & dosage , Acrylic Resins/chemistry , Aluminum Silicates/chemistry , Candida albicans/drug effects , Composite Resins/chemistry , Lactobacillus casei/drug effects , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Pharmaceutical Vehicles/chemistry , Resin Cements/chemistry , Surface Properties , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Time Factors
18.
Braz. oral res ; 27(2): 136-141, Mar-Apr/2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-667996

ABSTRACT

The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the flexural, compressive and diametral tensile strengths of five cements used in orthodontics for band cementation. Twelve specimens of each cement were tested: 1 - GC Fuji Ortho Band (FJ), GC America Inc.; 2 - Meron (MR), Voco; 3 - Multi-Cure Glass Ionomer Band Cement (MC), 3M Unitek; 4 - Band-Lok (BL), Reliance Orthodontic Products; and 5 - Ketac Cem (KC), 3M ESPE. The results (mean) for diametral tensile strength were: 10.51 MPa (FJ), 9.60 MPa (MR), 20.04 MPa (MC), 42.80 MPa (BL), and 4.08 MPa (KC). The results for compressive strength were (in the same order): 64.50 MPa, 77.71 MPa, 94.21 MPa, 193.88 MPa, and 81.93 MPa. The results for flexural strength were (in the same order): 20.72 MPa, 25.84 MPa, 53.41 MPa, 137.41 MPa, and 20.50 MPa. The statistical analysis was performed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey tests with p-value £ 0.05. In terms of diametral tensile strength, BL showed the highest strength statistically, and MC, the second highest. In terms of compressive tensile strength, BL showed the highest strength statistically, and FJ did not attain the minimum recommended strength. In terms of flexural tensile strength, BL cement was superior to MC, and MR, FJ and KC were equivalent and inferior to BL and MC.


Subject(s)
Acrylic Resins/chemistry , Aluminum Silicates/chemistry , Cementation/methods , Glass Ionomer Cements/chemistry , Magnesium Oxide/chemistry , Polycarboxylate Cement/chemistry , Zinc Oxide/chemistry , Analysis of Variance , Compressive Strength , Materials Testing , Surface Properties , Tensile Strength
19.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-140173

ABSTRACT

Aim: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the flexural bond strength of porcelain to combinations of used and new nickel-chromium alloy in various proportions. Materials and Methods: Used and new nickel-chromium bonding alloys were combined in various proportions (groups I to V; 10 samples per group) and their flexural bond strengths with porcelain were compared. A three-point loading system was used for the application of load. Load was applied at a constant speed of 0.5 mm/minute and the load required to fracture the porcelain was recorded for each specimen. Statistical Analysis Used: (a) Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and (b) Duncan's multiple range tests. Results: The best bond strength values were seen when 100% new alloy was used. According to the findings of this study, there was no adverse effects noted with up to 75% recast metal, but serious changes were found in the bond strength values when 100% old metal was used. Conclusions: The following conclusions were drawn from the study Fresh nickel-chromium alloy shows the greatest porcelain adherence. There is no significant change in bond strength of ceramic to alloy with up to 75% of used nickel-chromium alloy. At least 25%- of new alloy should be added when recycled nickel-chromium alloy is being used for metal ceramic restorations.


Subject(s)
Adhesiveness , Aluminum Silicates/chemistry , Chromium Alloys/chemistry , Dental Bonding , Dental Casting Technique , Dental Impression Materials/chemistry , Dental Porcelain/chemistry , Dental Stress Analysis/instrumentation , Equipment Reuse , Humans , Materials Testing , Methylmethacrylates/chemistry , Pliability , Potassium Compounds/chemistry , Stress, Mechanical
20.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-140125

ABSTRACT

Background: Newer available composite resin adhesives have chromatic agents that change their color during setting from pink to colorless. It has an advantage of easy flash removal thus reducing the amount of plaque accumulation and helping patients to maintain better hygiene. Aim: The aim of the present study was to compare shear bond strengths of light-cure orthodontic bonding agents, namely glass ionomer (FujiOrthoLC, GC Orthodontics), conventional composite resin (Transbond XT, 3M Unitek), and color-changing composite resin (Transbond Plus, 3M Unitek) with conventional etch and self-etch primer (Transbond PlusSEP, 3M Unitek). Materials and Methods: Maxillary premolars (n=300) were bonded on the facial surface in five groups. The INSTRON machine was used for shear bond strength testing. Statistical Analysis: Comparison of the mean rank among the groups was done by Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). To determine the mean difference among groups, the Mann-Whitney test with Bon Ferroni adjustment was applied. Observations: It was observed that light-cure conventional composite resin with the conventional etchant group had the highest and glass ionomer resin adhesive had the lowest shear bond strength. There was no statistically significant difference between conventional composite used with conventional etchant and color-changing composite resin used with conventional etchant or with self-etch primer. Conclusion: Considering the advantages of a color-changing composite and self-etch primer especially in patients having high DMFT scores or physically and mentally compromised patients unable to maintain their hygiene properly, it was concluded in the present study that it would be the most suitable material for direct bonding.


Subject(s)
Acid Etching, Dental/methods , Acrylic Resins/chemistry , Aluminum Silicates/chemistry , Bicuspid , Color , Coloring Agents/chemistry , Composite Resins/chemistry , Dental Alloys/chemistry , Dental Bonding , Dental Cements/chemistry , Dental Stress Analysis/instrumentation , Glass Ionomer Cements/chemistry , Humans , Light-Curing of Dental Adhesives , Materials Testing , Orthodontic Brackets , Resin Cements/chemistry , Shear Strength , Stainless Steel/chemistry , Stress, Mechanical
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL