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1.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(3): 702-712, 01-05-2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146497

ABSTRACT

The aluminum in high levels in the soil affects the emergence, growth, and development of various species. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the emergence and physiological behavior of four provenances of Jatropha curcas subjected to different levels of aluminum. The experiment was performed in a greenhouse in a completely randomized design, with four levels of aluminum in the soil (8.2, 16.5, 24.0 mmolc·dm-3 and control) and four provenances of J. curcas seeds (P1 = Dourados-MS, P2 = Montes Claros-MG, P3 = Alta Floresta-MT, and P4 = Petrolina-PE); the effects of aluminum toxicity were investigated in 25, 50, 75, and 100 days after emergence. The levels of aluminum in the soil were collected from the initial soil correction, which featured an aluminum level of 24.0 mmolc dm-3. The seedling emergence was not affected by treatment with aluminum; however, the height and leaf area of P1, P2, and P3 were reduced with increasing levels of aluminum. The emergence and vigor of J. curcas seeds were not influenced by the differences in the origins of the seeds or by the aluminum levels evaluated. Gas exchanges were affected negatively by aluminum and the responses of the chlorophyll a fluorescence indicate harmful effect in the photosynthetic apparatus. The seeds of origin P4 (Petrolina-PE) has increased tolerance to stress conditions.


O alumínio em níveis elevados no solo afeta a emergência, o crescimento e o desenvolvimento de diversas espécies. Diante disso, o objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a emergência e o comportamento fisiológico de quatro procedências de Jatropha curcas submetidas a diferentes níveis de alumínio. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro níveis de alumínio no solo (8,2; 16,5 e 24,0 mmolc dm-3 e o controle) e quatro procedências de sementes de J. curcas (P1 = Dourados-MS P2 = Montes Claros-MG, P3 = Alta Floresta-MT e P4 = Petrolina-PE), e os efeitos da toxicidade do alumínio foram investigados aos 25, 50, 75 e 100 dias após a emergência. A emergência das plântulas não foi afetada pelo tratamento com alumínio; no entanto, a altura e a área foliar de P1, P2 e P3 foram reduzidas com níveis crescentes de alumínio. A emergência e o vigor das plântulas das procedências não foram afetados pelos níveis de alumínio avaliados. A taxa fotossintética, taxa de transpiração e condutância estomática também foram reduzidas quando as plantas foram cultivadas em solo contendo altas níveis de alumínio. As plantas P4 foram menos sensíveis aos níveis crescentes de alumínio.


Subject(s)
Soil , Jatropha , Aluminum , Photosynthesis , Soil Analysis , Growth and Development , Control , Toxicity , Chlorophyll A
3.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e080, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132682

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aims of the present study were to compare conventional radiography, radiographs digitized with a scanner or photographic camera, and digital radiography, used to evaluate the radiopacity of endodontic materials, and to compare the accuracy of linear and quadratic models used to convert radiopacity values to equivalent millimeters of aluminum (mm Al). Specimens of AH Plus, Endofill, Biodentine and BioMTA materials (n = 8) were radiographed next to an aluminum step-wedge using radiographic films and digital radiography systems (FONA CMOS sensor, Kodak CMOS sensor and photosensitive phosphor plate-PSP). Conventional radiographs were digitized using a scanner or photographic digital camera. Digital images of all the radiographic systems were evaluated using dedicated software. Optical density units (ODU) of the specimens and the aluminum step-wedge were evaluated by a photo-densitometer (PTDM), used in conventional radiographs. The radiopacity in equivalent mm Al of the materials was determined by linear and quadratic models, and the coefficients of determination (R2) values were calculated for each model. Radiopacity of the materials ranged from -9% to 25% for digital systems and digitized radiographs, compared to the PTDM (p < 0.05). The R2 values of the quadratic model were higher than those of the linear model. In conclusion, the FONA CMOS sensor showed the lowest radiopacity variability of the methodologies used, compared with the PTDM, except for the BioMTA group (higher than PTDM). The quadratic model showed higher R2 values than the linear model, thus indicating better accuracy and possible adoption to evaluate the radiopacity of endodontic materials.


Subject(s)
Aluminum , X-Ray Film , Materials Testing , Radiography, Dental, Digital
4.
Acta toxicol. argent ; 27(1): 13-18, mayo 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1010978

ABSTRACT

El aluminio puede ser consumido por personas a través de la contaminación de alimentos y el agua. Los metales pesa­dos en alimentos de origen animal son un riesgo potencial para la salud de los consumidores. En algunos países, es una práctica habitual que las comidas cocinadas listas para el consumo se presenten y mantengan calientes en bandejas de aluminio en tiendas minoristas, como locales de comida rápida y supermercados. No hay información disponible sobre el desprendimiento de metal en este tipo de recipiente de conservación de alimentos. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la concentración de aluminio en la carne y en los líquidos de cocción almacenados en bandejas de aluminio descartables. El diseño del estudio incluyó carne bovina cocida almacenada sola, en una salsa acuosa de hierbas a pH 7, y en una salsa acuosa cítrica (a base de limón) a pH 4, para simular condiciones encontradas en la práctica minorista. El Comité Mixto FAO / OMS de Expertos en Aditivos Alimentarios estableció una ingesta semanal tolerable provisional de 2 mg Al kg-1 de peso corporal. Una sola porción de 250 g de carne en salsa ácida almace­nada en una bandeja de aluminio calentada durante 1, 2, 4 u 8 horas contribuiría con 0,9%, 3,4%, 6,9% y 19,8% respectivamente de acuerdo al límite tolerable. Aunque la carne se mantiene caliente durante largos períodos en bandejas de aluminio descartable, el contenido de aluminio no se acerca a los límites actualmente recomendados. Este estudio proporciona datos que sugieren que puede ser prudente limitar el consumo de este tipo de comidas a base de carne con salsas ácidas almacenadas calientes por tiem­pos extendidos en contenedores de aluminio.


Aluminium can be consumed by people through contamination of foods and in water. Heavy metals in foods of animal origin are a potential risk to the health of consumers. It is common practice in some countries that ready-to-eat cooked meals are often presented and maintained hot in aluminium trays in retail outlets such as fast food take-out stores and supermarkets. There are not available information about the detachment of metal in this kind of container food preservation. The objective of this study was to determine the concentration of aluminium in meat and cooking liquids stored in disposable aluminium trays. The design of the study included cooked beef meat stored either alone, or in an aqueous sauce of herbs at pH 7, or in a citric (base of lemon) aqueous sauce at pH 4, to simulate a range of conditions found in retail practice. The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives established a provisional tolerable weekly intake of 2 mg Al kg body weight-1. A single 250 g portion of meat in acid sauce stored in a heated aluminium tray for 1, 2, 4, or 8 hours would contribute 0.9%, 3.4%, 6.9% or 19.8% towards this tolerable limit, respectively. Although the aluminium content in meat held warm for long periods in aluminium foil trays does not approach the consumption limits currently recommended, this study provides data that suggest that is may be prudent to limit consumption of ready-to eat meat-based meals with acid sauces stored warm in aluminium containers for extended times.


Subject(s)
Humans , Prepared Foods , Food Storage , Aluminum/toxicity , Meat , Cattle , Food Contamination , Food Packaging
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760030

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the rate of neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser capsulotomy in the hydroimplantation intraocular lens (IOL) technique. METHODS: This retrospective study was comprised of 6,192 eyes in 3,790 patients who underwent surgery from January 2013 to September 2017 and then were followed up for at least 1 year. The eyes of these patients were divided into two groups: either viscoimplantation or hydroimplantation. The follow-up examinations were carried out on the 1st day, 4th day, 1st month, and 3 months to 1 year postoperatively. The Nd:YAG capsulotomy rates were evaluated by the different IOL implantation techniques and IOL materials. RESULTS: The mean follow-up duration of the patients was in the viscoimplantation group 14.85 ± 2.43 and 15.05 ± 1.93 months in the hydroimplantation group. The Nd:YAG capsulotomy rate was significantly lower in the hydroimplantation group compared with the viscoimplantation group for the entire hydrophilic IOL model (p < 0.001). In addition, the Nd:YAG rate was lower in the hydroimplantation group that used a hydrophilic IOL than it was in the viscoimplantation group, which used a hydrophobic IOL. CONCLUSIONS: The hydroimplantation technique reduced the Nd:YAG capsulotomy rate.


Subject(s)
Aluminum , Capsule Opacification , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lens Implantation, Intraocular , Lenses, Intraocular , Posterior Capsulotomy , Retrospective Studies , Yttrium
7.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 581-587, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785666

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Sclerotherapy with aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid (ALTA) has a potent effect on internal hemorrhoids. In this retrospective study, we compared the effects of endoscopic ALTA therapy and standard ALTA therapy.METHODS: We investigated patients who underwent treatment for internal hemorrhoids at our institution between 2014 and 2016. They were divided into a standard ALTA group (n=33, treated using proctoscopy) and an endoscopic ALTA group (n=48). We compared the clinical findings between the 2 groups.RESULTS: There were no intergroup differences in background factors. The mean ALTA dose was 21.9±7.2 mL and 17.8±3.4 mL in the standard and endoscopic ALTA groups, respectively (p<0.01). Adverse events occurred in 4 patients (12.1%) from the standard ALTA group and 6 patients (12.5%) from the endoscopic ALTA group. In both groups, the patients reported good satisfaction with the therapeutic effect at 1 month after the procedure. Hemorrhoids recurred in 2 patients (6.3%) from the standard ALTA group and 4 patients (8.3%) from the endoscopic ALTA group.CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic ALTA sclerotherapy is equivalent to standard ALTA therapy in terms of efficacy, adverse events, and recurrence. Therefore, it is a useful non-surgical option for patients with internal hemorrhoids who prefer a less invasive treatment.


Subject(s)
Aluminum , Endoscopy , Hemorrhoids , Humans , Potassium , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Sclerotherapy , Tannins
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761412

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of an indirect resin composite (IRC) to the various resin matrix ceramic (RMC) blocks using different surface treatments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-nine cubic RMC specimens consisting of a resin nanoceramic (RNC), a polymer-infiltrated hybrid ceramic (PIHC), and a flexible hybrid ceramic (FHC) were divided randomly into three surface treatment subgroups (n = 11). In the experimental groups, untreated (Cnt), tribochemical silica coating (Tbc), and Neodymium-Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser irradiation (Lsr) with 3 W (150 mJ/pulse, 20 Hz for 20 sec.) were used as surface treatments. An indirect composite resin (IRC) was layered with a disc-shape mold (2 × 3 mm) onto the treated-ceramic surfaces and the specimens submitted to thermal cycling (6000 cycles, 5 – 55℃). The SBS test of specimens was performed using a universal testing machine and the specimens were examined with a scanning electron microscope to determine the failure mode. Data were statistically analyzed with two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey HSD test (α=.05). RESULTS: According to the two-way ANOVA, only the surface treatment parameter was statistically significant (P<.05) on the SBS of IRC to RMC. The SBS values of Lsr-applied RMC groups were significantly higher than Cnt groups for each RMC material, (P<.05). Significant differences were also determined between Tbc surface treatment applied and untreated (Cnt) PIHC materials (P=.039). CONCLUSION: For promoting a reliable bond strength during characterization of RMC with IRC, Nd:YAG laser or Tbc surface treatment technique should be used, putting in consideration the microstructure and composition of RMC materials and appropriate parameters for each material.


Subject(s)
Aluminum , Ceramics , Composite Resins , Fungi , Shear Strength , Silicon Dioxide , Yttrium
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776711

ABSTRACT

Aluminum (Al) is the most abundant metal element in the earth's crust. On acid soils, at pH 5.5 or lower, part of insoluble Al-containing minerals become solubilized into soil solution, with resultant highly toxic effects on plant growth and development. Nevertheless, some plants have developed Al-tolerance mechanisms that enable them to counteract this Al toxicity. One such well-documented mechanism is the Al-induced secretion of organic acid anions, including citrate, malate, and oxalate, from plant roots. Once secreted, these anions chelate external Al ions, thus protecting the secreting plant from Al toxicity. Genes encoding the citrate and malate transporters responsible for secretion have been identified and characterized, and accumulating evidence indicates that regulation of the expression of these transporter genes is critical for plant Al tolerance. In this review, we outline the recent history of research into plant Al-tolerance mechanisms, with special emphasis on the physiology of Al-induced secretion of organic acid anions from plant roots. In particular, we summarize the identification of genes encoding organic acid transporters and review current understanding of genes regulating organic acid secretion. We also discuss the possible signaling pathways regulating the expression of organic acid transporter genes.


Subject(s)
Aluminum , Toxicity , Anions , Biological Transport , Citric Acid , Metabolism , Malates , Metabolism , Oxalic Acid , Metabolism , Plant Roots , Metabolism , Signal Transduction , Physiology
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760726

ABSTRACT

Aluminum (Al) is the third most abundant element in the earth's crust and is omnipresent in our environment, including our food. However, with normal renal function, oral and enteral ingestion of substances contaminated with Al, such as antacids and infant formulae, do not cause problems. The intestine, skin, and respiratory tract are barriers to Al entry into the blood. However, contamination of fluids given parenterally, such as parenteral nutrition solutions, or hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis or even oral Al-containing substances to patients with impaired renal function could result in accumulation in bone, parathyroids, liver, spleen, and kidney. The toxic effects of Al to the skeleton include fractures accompanying a painful osteomalacia, hypoparathyroidism, microcytic anemia, cholestatic hepatotoxicity, and suppression of the renal enzyme 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 alpha hydroxylase. The sources of Al include contamination of calcium and phosphate salts, albumin and heparin. Contamination occurs either from inability to remove the naturally accumulating Al or from leeching from glass columns used in compound purification processes. Awareness of this long-standing problem should allow physicians to choose pharmaceutical products with lower quantities of Al listed on the label as long as this practice is mandated by specific national drug regulatory agencies.


Subject(s)
Aluminum , Anemia , Antacids , Calcium , Eating , Glass , Heparin , Humans , Hypoparathyroidism , Infant Formula , Intestines , Kidney , Leeching , Liver , Osteomalacia , Parathyroid Glands , Parenteral Nutrition Solutions , Peritoneal Dialysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Renal Dialysis , Respiratory System , Salts , Skeleton , Skin , Spleen
11.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e095, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039305

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study evaluates the shear bond strength (SBS) of various resin cements to different ceramics. Composite resin cylinders of Z100 were fabricated and cemented to disks of feldspathic ceramic (Creation), leucite-reinforced feldspathic ceramic (Empress I), and densely sintered aluminum oxide ceramic (Procera AllCeram) using five resin cements: Panavia F (PAN), RelyX ARC (ARC), RelyX Unicem (RXU), RelyX Veneer, and Variolink II. SBS was measured after three days of water storage (baseline) and after artificial aging (180 days of water storage along with 12,000 thermal cycles). Failure mode of fractured specimens also was evaluated. Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (α=0.05). RXU showed 1) the lowest baseline median SBS to feldspathic ceramic, which was not statistically different from PAN; 2) the lowest median baseline SBS to leucite-reinforced feldspathic and densely sintered aluminum-oxide ceramics. All cements performed similarly after aging, except for ARC (median 0.0 MPa) and PAN (median 16.2 MPa) in the densely sintered aluminum-oxide ceramic group. Resin cements perform differently when bonded to different ceramic substrates. While all test resin cements worked similarly in the long-term to feldspathic and leucite-reinforced feldspathic ceramics, only the MDP-containing resin cement provided durable bonds to densely sintered aluminum-oxide ceramic.


Subject(s)
Ceramics/chemistry , Dental Bonding/methods , Resin Cements/chemistry , Reference Values , Surface Properties , Materials Testing , Reproducibility of Results , Potassium Compounds/chemistry , Statistics, Nonparametric , Shear Strength , Aluminum/chemistry , Aluminum Silicates/chemistry
12.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 32: e180249, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041312

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective The chia seed, an ancient pseudocereal, is rich in omega-3 fatty acids and polyphenols, and has been suggested to possess several health benefits. Although it has gained popularity among nutritionists, little is known about the systemic effects of chia and their interactions. Hence, hepatorenal indicators and plasma vitamin concentrations in chia-supplemented aluminum-exposed rats were investigated. Methods Wistar albino rats were either fed on a chia-rich- or standard-diet for 21 days and exposed to aluminum. Liver function tests (Alanine Aminotransferase, Aspartate Aminotransferase, Alkaline Phosphatase, Lactate Dehydrogenase), kidney function tests (Urea Nitrogen, Creatinine), and vitamin B12 and folic acid measurements were performed by using an automated analyzer. Results Aluminum exposure had no influence on renal function, as did chia supplementation. However, liver function was disturbed with the exposure to Aluminum and chia was of no use against it. Surprisingly, it was found that the animals fed on a chia-rich diet displayed higher concentrations of vitamin B12 which was not the case for folic acid. Conclusion It was deduced that a chia-rich diet has no effect on the renal function and is not able to reverse aluminum-induced hepatotoxicity; however, it may be of benefit against vitamin B12 insufficiency and thus, it may offer a novel treatment option which is particularly important in the vegan diet.


RESUMO Objetivo A semente de chia, um antigo pseudocereal, é rica em ácidos graxos ômega-3 e polifenóis e tem sido sugerida como tendo vários benefícios para a saúde. Embora tenha ganhado popularidade entre os nutricionistas, na verdade, pouco se sabe sobre os efeitos e interações sistêmicas da chia. Assim, investigamos os indicadores hepatorrenais e as concentrações plasmáticas de vitamina em ratos expostos ao alumínio suplementados com chia. Métodos Ratos albinos Wistar foram alimentados com dieta rica em chia ou padrão por 21 dias e expostos ao alumínio. Testes de função hepática (Alanina Aminotransferase, Aspartato Aminotransferase, Fosfatase Alcalina, Lactato Desidrogenase), testes de função renal (ácido úrico, Creatinina) e medições de vitamina B12 e ácido fólico realizada usando um analisador automático. Resultados A exposição ao alumínio não influenciou a função renal, assim como a suplementação de chia. No entanto, a função hepática foi perturbada com a exposição e a chia foi inútil contra ela. Surpreendentemente, descobrimos que os animais que se alimentavam de uma dieta rica em chia apresentavam concentrações mais elevadas de vitamina B12, o que não era o caso do ácido fólico. Conclusão Deduzimos que a dieta rica em chia não tem efeito sobre a função renal e não é capaz de reverter a hepatotoxicidade induzida pelo alumínio; no entanto, pode ser benéfico contra a insuficiência de vitamina B12 e, portanto, pode oferecer uma nova opção de tratamento que é particularmente importante na dieta vegana.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Salvia , Diet, Vegetarian , Food, Fortified , Rats, Wistar , Aluminum , Folic Acid , Kidney Function Tests , Liver Function Tests
13.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(4): 917-926, july/aug. 2018. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-967135

ABSTRACT

Most studies that have registered amelioration of Al toxicity due to root cation exchange capacity (CEC) decrease with B application were conducted using eudicotyledonous species (high root CEC). However, the effect of B/Al interaction on the root CEC values in species with low root CEC such as corn (Zea mays L.) has been understudied. Thus, this study aimed to: (1) verify if B decreases root CEC and if it benefits the growth and nutrient uptake in corn plants under Al toxicity; and (2) verify which method of root CEC analysis better differentiates the effects of B and Al. Corn seedlings were grown in complete nutrient solution with the following treatments: 0, 50, and 200 µM of B versus 0 and 300 µM of Al. Root attributes showed correlations with nutrient depletion from the nutrient solution, but nutrient depletion generally varied with transpiration in two depletion tests. The addition of B or Al in nutrient solution decreased root CEC; however, B failed to decrease Al toxicity in corn plants. The four methods used to determine CEC of corn roots had contrasting results, particularly with respect to the effect of B in the presence of Al.


A maioria dos estudos que registraram amenização da toxidez de Al devido ao decréscimo da capacidade de troca de cátions (CTC) radicular com a aplicação de B foram realizados com espécies eudicotiledôneas (alta CTC radicular). Contudo, o efeito da interação B/Al nos valores de CTC radicular em espécies de baixa CTC radicular, como no milho (Zea mays L.), é pouco conhecido. Assim, os objetivos desse estudo foram: (1) verificar se o B reduz a CTC radicular e se isso beneficia o crescimento e a absorção de nutrientes em plantas de milho sob toxidez por Al; (2) verificar qual método para análise de CTC radicular diferencia melhor o efeito do B e Al. Plântulas de milho foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva completa com os seguintes tratamentos: 0, 50 e 200 µM de B versus 0 e 300 µM de Al. Os atributos radiculares apresentaram correlações com a depleção de nutrientes da solução nutritiva, mas, em geral, a depleção de nutrientes variou principalmente com a transpiração em dois testes de depleção. A adição de B na solução nutritiva reduziu a CTC radicular, o que também ocorreu quando o Al foi adicionado, contudo, o B não aliviou a toxidez por Al nas plantas de milho. Os quatro métodos usados para determinar a CTC radicular do milho tiveram resultados contrastantes, particularmente com relação ao efeito do B na presença de Al.


Subject(s)
Boron , Soil Acidity , Plant Roots , Toxicity , Aluminum
14.
J. bras. nefrol ; 40(2): 201-205, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954535

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT About four decades ago, the relationship between dialysis-dementia and aluminum (Al) began to be established. The restriction of drugs containing Al and improvements on water quality used for dialysis resulted in the clinical disappearance of Al intoxication. However, high prevalence of Al deposition in bone tissue from Brazilian dialysis patients is still being detected. Through the case report of a patient on hemodialysis (HD) for one year, presenting significant Al deposition in bone tissue, we speculated if this problem is not being underestimated. We used extensive investigation to identify potential sources of Al exposure with a careful review of medication history and water quality controls. Al concentration was measured by different methods, including mass spectrometry, in poly-electrolyte concentrate solutions and solution for peritoneal dialysis, in an attempt to elucidate the possible sources of contamination. The objective of this case report is to alert the medical community about a potential high prevalence of Al deposition in bone tissue and to discuss the possible sources of contamination in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).


RESUMO Cerca de quatro décadas atrás, a relação entre demência relacionada à diálise e alumínio (Al) começou a ser estabelecida. A restrição de medicamentos contendo Al e melhorias na qualidade da água utilizada na diálise resultaram no desaparecimento clínico da intoxicação por Al. Contudo, no Brasil continua a ser identificada uma elevada prevalência de deposição de Al no tecido ósseo de pacientes em diálise. O presente relato de caso de um paciente em hemodiálise (HD) há um ano com deposição significativa de Al no tecido ósseo nos leva a especular se esse problema não tem sido subestimado. Realizamos uma ampla investigação para identificar possíveis fontes de exposição ao Al, com uma revisão cuidadosa do histórico de medicação e dos controles de qualidade da água. A concentração de Al foi medida por diferentes métodos, incluindo espectrometria de massa, nos concentrados polieletrolíticos para hemodiálise e soluções de diálise peritoneal, na tentativa de elucidar as possíveis fontes de contaminação. O objetivo do presente relato de caso é alertar a comunidade médica sobre uma possível elevada prevalência de deposição de Al no tecido ósseo e discutir as possíveis fontes de contaminação nos pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/metabolism , Aluminum/pharmacokinetics , Peritoneal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy
15.
Epidemiology and Health ; : 2018013-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786860

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of road dust on human health. A PubMed search was used to extract references that included the words “road dust” and “health” or “fugitive dust” and “health” in the title or abstract. A total of 46 references were extracted and selected for review after the primary screening of 949 articles. The respiratory system was found to be the most affected system in the human body. Lead, platinum-group elements (platinum, rhodium, and bohrium), aluminum, zinc, vanadium, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were the components of road dust that were most frequently referenced in the articles reviewed. Road dust was found to have harmful effects on the human body, especially on the respiratory system. To determine the complex mechanism of action of various components of road dust on the human body and the results thereof, the authors recommend a further meta-analysis and extensive risk-assessment research into the health impacts of dust exposure.


Subject(s)
Aluminum , Dust , Human Body , Humans , Mass Screening , Particulate Matter , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , Respiratory System , Review Literature as Topic , Rhodium , Risk Assessment , Vanadium , Zinc
16.
Epidemiology and Health ; : 2018022-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786851

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Aluminum phosphide (ALP), also known in Iran as rice tablets, is one of the most effective rodenticides used to protect stored grain. However, ALP poisoning regularly causes mortality in humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics and predictive factors of mortality from ALP poisoning.METHODS: This study evaluated all patients with ALP poisoning referred to Imam Khomeini Hospital in Kermanshah Province, Iran from 2014 to 2015. For each patient, the following information was recorded: age, sex, the number of tablets consumed, the number of suicide attempts, the time elapsed from consumption to treatment, blood pressure, blood pH, HCO3 levels, and PCO2. Differences between the survivors and non-survivors of ALP poisoning were analyzed using univariate logistic regression and multivariate analysis.RESULTS: In this study, 48 patients were male and 29 patients were female (total: 77 patients). The average age of the survivors and non-survivors was 28.7 and 31.3 years, respectively. All cases (100%) of ALP poisoning were intentional, with the goal of committing suicide. The main predictive variables of mortality from ALP poisoning were blood pressure, blood pH, and time elapsed from consumption to treatment.CONCLUSIONS: The likelihood of mortality in patients with ALP poisoning can be predicted using blood pressure, blood pH, and time elapsed from consumption to treatment. These findings may help healthcare providers take more effective measures to treat patients with ALP poisoning.


Subject(s)
Aluminum , Blood Pressure , Clergy , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Iran , Logistic Models , Male , Mortality , Multivariate Analysis , Poisoning , Rodenticides , Suicide , Survivors , Tablets
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786756

ABSTRACT

We reviewed the chemical/physical properties, toxicity, environmental fate, and ecotoxicity of strong acids in soil and groundwater environments. We recommend that sulfuric acid and hydrofluoric acid be classified as chemicals of priority control based on volumes used, toxicity, carcinogenicity, and past significant spill events. Understanding the behavior and transport of spilled strong acids in soil and groundwater environments requires a multi-disciplinary approach, as they can undergo a variety of geochemical and biochemical reactions with complex geomedia. The toxicity of spilled acid is dependent on the characteristics of the geomedia exposed to the acid and the amount of residual protons following acid–substrate interaction. Soil texture, cation exchange capacity, mineral composition, bedrock type, and aluminum content may be important factors affecting the toxicity of spilled acid in soil-groundwater environments. We expect that the results of this study will contribute preliminary data for future research on chemical spills.


Subject(s)
Aluminum , Groundwater , Hydrofluoric Acid , Miners , Protons , Soil , Sulfur
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719130

ABSTRACT

We reviewed the chemical/physical properties, toxicity, environmental fate, and ecotoxicity of strong acids in soil and groundwater environments. We recommend that sulfuric acid and hydrofluoric acid be classified as chemicals of priority control based on volumes used, toxicity, carcinogenicity, and past significant spill events. Understanding the behavior and transport of spilled strong acids in soil and groundwater environments requires a multi-disciplinary approach, as they can undergo a variety of geochemical and biochemical reactions with complex geomedia. The toxicity of spilled acid is dependent on the characteristics of the geomedia exposed to the acid and the amount of residual protons following acid–substrate interaction. Soil texture, cation exchange capacity, mineral composition, bedrock type, and aluminum content may be important factors affecting the toxicity of spilled acid in soil-groundwater environments. We expect that the results of this study will contribute preliminary data for future research on chemical spills.


Subject(s)
Aluminum , Groundwater , Hydrofluoric Acid , Miners , Protons , Soil , Sulfur
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