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Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1760-1766, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134509


SUMMARY: The posterior superior alveolar artery is responsible for the vascularisation of the mucous which covers the posterior wall of the maxillary sinus, pulp and the periodontal tissues of upper molars. The collateral rami of the infraorbital artery irrigate the mucous of the anterior and lateral walls of the maxillary sinus, as well as the pulp and periodontal tissue of the upper anterior teeth and upper premolars. Both these arteries present intraosseous and extraosseous rami which form an anastomosis in the anterior and lateral walls of the maxillary sinus, called the alveolar antral artery (AAA). The aim of this study was to analyse the presence, location and morphometry of the AAA in a Chilean population, considering sex, side and age, using Cone-Beam computed tomography (CBCT). Forty-two CBCT examinations of Chilean adults were evaluated to analyse the presence, location (extraosseous, intraosseous or subperiosteal) and diameter (<1mm, 1-2 mm, 2-3 mm, >3 mm) of the AAA and the distance from the AAA to the amelocemental limit of the upper second premolar (2PM), permanent upper first molar (1M) and permanent upper second molar (2M) by sex and age range. Pearson's chi-squared test, Student's t-test, ANOVA and Pearson's correlation coefficient were applied, using a significance threshold of 5 %. AAA was found in 75 sides (89.3 %), 38 on the right side (90.5 %) and 37 on the left (88.09 %); extraosseous location was most common. More than 80 % of the arteries presented a diameter between 1 and 2 mm, with no important differences between sexes or age ranges. In younger individuals, the artery was located closer to the vestibular amelocemental limit than in older individuals. Carrying out a proper treatment plan which includes imagenological analysis before surgical procedures is essential to avoid possible haemorrhagic events in the region.

RESUMEN: Arteria alveolar superior posterior es responsable de la vascularización de la mucosa que recubre la pared posterior del seno maxilar, la pulpa y el tejido peridontal en el que se insertan los molares superiores. Las ramas colaterales de la arteria infraorbitaria irrigan la mucosa de las paredes anterior y lateral del seno maxilar, así como la pulpa y el periodonto de los dientes anteriores superiores y los premolares superiores. Ambas arterias presentan ramas intraóseas y extraóseas que forman una anastomosis en las paredes anterior y lateral del seno maxilar, denominada arteria alvéolo antral (AAA). El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la presencia, localización y morfometría del AAA en una población chilena, considerando sexo, lado y edad, mediante tomografía computarizada Cone-Beam (CBCT). Se evaluaron 42 exámenes CBCT de adultos chilenos para analizar la presencia, ubicación (extraósea, intraósea o subperióstica) y diámetro (<1 mm, 1-2 mm, 2-3 mm,> 3 mm) del AAA. y la distancia del AAA al límite amelocemental del segundo premolar superior (2PM), primer molar superior permanente (1M) y segundo molar superior permanente (2M) por sexo y rango de edad. Se aplicaron la prueba de chi-cuadrado de Pearson, la prueba t de Student, ANOVA y el coeficiente de correlación de Pearson, utilizando un umbral de significancia del 5 %. Se encontró AAA en 75 lados (89,3 %), 38 del lado derecho (90,5 %) y 37 del lado izquierdo (88,09 %); la localización extraósea fue la más común. Más del 80 % de las arterias presentaban un diámetro entre 1 y 2 mm, sin diferencias importantes entre sexos ni rangos de edad. En individuos más jóvenes, la arteria se ubicó más cerca del límite amelocemental vestibular que en individuos mayores. La realización de un adecuado plan de tratamiento que incluya análisis imagenológico antes de los procedimientos quirúrgicos es fundamental para evitar posibles eventos hemorrágicos en la región.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Arteries/anatomy & histology , Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Alveolar Process/blood supply , Alveolar Process/diagnostic imaging , Chile , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Maxillary Sinus
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 30(1): e132, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952053


Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of segmental osteotomy on the blood vessels and osteoclasts in rats using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histomorphometric analysis. After segmental osteotomy was performed around the maxillary first molars of 36 male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 72), the samples were divided into a control group (no displacement), 0.5 D group (0.5 mm buccal displacement) and 1.0 D group (1.0 mm buccal displacement) (n = 24/group). At 1, 2, 4 and 8 weeks after surgery, changes in the blood vessel volume were investigated using micro-CT with perfusion of radiopaque silicone rubber. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining was used for histomorphometric analysis. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (rmANOVA) was performed to compare the volume of blood vessels and number of TRAP-positive osteoclasts among the groups. Regarding blood vessel volume, the displacement groups had no significant effects, while the time points had significant effects (p = 0.014). The blood vessel volume at 1 week was significantly smaller than that at 2, 4, and 8 weeks (p = 0.004, p = 0.026, and p = 0.005, respectively). Regarding TRAP cell count, the displacement groups had no significant effects, while the time points had significant effects (p < 0.001). The number of TRAP-positive osteoclasts at 8 weeks was significantly smaller than that at 1, 2, and 4 weeks (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p = 0.002, respectively), and the count at 4 weeks was smaller than that at 1 week (p = 0.011). Therefore, a regional osteoclast-related acceleratory phenomenon was maintained until 4 weeks after surgery.

Animals , Male , Rats , Alveolar Process/blood supply , Alveolectomy/methods , Maxillary Osteotomy/methods , Osteoclasts , Reference Values , Time Factors , Cell Count , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , X-Ray Microtomography , Alveolar Process/diagnostic imaging , Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase , Molar
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 19(2): 96-107, Mar-Apr/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-714625


Introduction: Nicotine is harmful to angiogenesis, osteogenesis and synthesis of collagen. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nicotine on bone remodeling during orthodontic movement in rats. Methods: Eighty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: Group C (control), group CM (with orthodontic movement) and group NM (nicotine with orthodontic movement) groups. The animals comprising groups C and CM received 0.9% saline solution while group NM received nicotine solution (2 mg/kg). A nickel-titanium closed-coil spring was used to induce tooth movement. The animals were euthanized and tissue specimens were processed histologically. We quantified blood vessels, Howship's lacunae and osteoclast-like cells present in the tension and compression areas of periodontal ligaments. The extent of bone formation was evaluated under polarized light to determine the percentage of immature/mature collagen. Results: We observed lower blood vessel densities in the NM group in comparison to the CM group, three (p < 0.001) and seven (p < 0.05) days after force application. Osteoclast-like cells and Howship's lacunae in the NM group presented lower levels of expression in comparison to the CM group, with significant differences on day 7 (p < 0.05 for both variables) and day 14 (p < 0.05 for osteoclast-like cells and p < 0.01 for Howship's lacunae). The percentage of immature collagen increased in the NM group in comparison to the CM group with a statistically significant difference on day 3 (p < 0.05), day 7 (p < 0.001), day 14 (p < 0.001) and day 21 (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Nicotine affects bone remodeling during orthodontic movement, reducing angiogenesis, osteoclast-like cells and Howship's lacunae, thereby delaying the collagen maturation process in developed bone matrix. .

Introdução: a nicotina apresenta efeito prejudicial sobre a angiogênese, osteogênese e síntese de colágeno. Objetivo: investigar a ação da nicotina sobre a remodelação óssea durante o movimento dentário induzido em ratos. Métodos: oitenta ratos machos Wistar foram divididos em três grupos: grupo C (sem indução de movimento dentário e sem a ação da nicotina - controle); grupo CM (indução de movimento dentário) e grupo NM (indução de movimento dentário associado à ação da nicotina). Os animais dos grupos C e CM receberam solução salina a 0,9% e os animais do grupo NM receberam nicotina (solução PA a 98% diluída em solução salina a 0,9% estéril) por via subcutânea (2mg/kg). Após a eutanásia dos animais, com 3, 7, 14 e 21 dias de uso da mola ortodôntica, os espécimes teciduais foram processados histologicamente e quantificou-se o número de vasos sanguíneos, lacunas de Howship e células osteoclásticas nos lados de tração e compressão do ligamento periodontal. A neoformação óssea foi avaliada por meio de luz polarizada, para determinar a porcentagem de colágeno maduro e imaturo. Resultados: observou-se que a quantidade de vasos sanguíneos diminuiu no grupo NM, quando comparado ao grupo CM, nos períodos de três (p < 0,001) e sete (p < 0,05) dias. Quanto às células osteoclásticas e lacunas de Howship, o grupo NM apresentou menores níveis de expressão em relação ao grupo CM, com diferença estatisticamente significativa nos períodos de 7 e 14 dias. A porcentagem de colágeno imaturo apresentou-se aumentada no grupo NM, quando comparado ao grupo CM, em todos os períodos analisados, com diferença e...

Animals , Male , Rats , Alveolar Process/drug effects , Bone Remodeling/drug effects , Nicotine/pharmacology , Periodontal Ligament/drug effects , Tooth Movement Techniques , Alveolar Process/blood supply , Bone Resorption/pathology , Collagen/drug effects , Dental Alloys/chemistry , Dental Cementum/blood supply , Dental Cementum/drug effects , Molar/blood supply , Molar/drug effects , Neovascularization, Physiologic/drug effects , Nickel/chemistry , Orthodontic Wires , Osteoclasts/drug effects , Osteogenesis/drug effects , Periodontal Ligament/blood supply , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Stress, Mechanical , Time Factors , Titanium/chemistry , Tooth Movement Techniques/instrumentation , Tooth Root/blood supply , Tooth Root/drug effects
Braz. oral res ; 27(5): 431-437, Sep-Oct/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-685421


Assessment of the maxillary sinus anatomy before sinus augmentation is important for avoiding surgical complications, because of the close anatomical relationship between the posterior maxillary teeth and the maxillary sinus. The posterior superior alveolar artery (PSAA) is the branch of the maxillary artery that supplies the lateral sinus wall and overlying membrane. We evaluated the location of the PSAA and its relationship to the alveolar ridge and maxillary sinus using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). The study group consisted of 135 CBCT scans (270 sinuses) obtained from the archive of the dentomaxillofacial radiology department at Yeditepe University Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul, Turkey. The distance between the lower border of the artery and the alveolar crest, bone height from the sinus floor to the ridge crest, distance from the artery to the medial sinus wall, and the diameter and location of the artery were determined. The occurrence of septa and pathology were recorded from CBCT scans. The PSAA was observed in 89.3% of sinuses, and 71.1% of arteries were intraosseous with diameters mostly < 1 mm (68.9%). The prevalence of sinus septa was 55.2%, and that of sinus pathology was 57.4%. The mean age was 43.07 ± 17.55 years. There was a statistically significant difference between the location of the artery and gender (p < 0.05). The prevalence of sinus membrane thickening was 57.4%. Detailed knowledge about the location of the PSAA and sinus morphology may be obtained with CBCT before maxillary sinus surgery.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Alveolar Process/blood supply , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography/methods , Maxillary Artery , Maxillary Sinus , Age Factors , Alveolar Process/anatomy & histology , Alveolar Process , Maxillary Artery/anatomy & histology , Maxillary Sinus/anatomy & histology , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Sex Factors
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-139995


Background: Lingual vascular canal (LVC) is an important anatomical structure in mandibular anterior region. Trauma to this structure during implant placement has been reported in this study. Dental computed tomography (DCT) provides a three-dimensional visualization of lingual vascular canal. Aim: To assess the frequency, location, and size of LVC using dental CT. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of 75 mandibular DCT was done. Evaluation was done to detect the frequency, size, and number of lingual vascular canal using Seimens Somatom Sensation 64. Results: About 73.3% patients (male=34, female=21) demonstrated presence of LVC with only one patient showing two canals. The mean distance from the inferior border of mandible was 0.5 mm, S.D.±0.70. The mean diameter of the canal was 0.31 mm, S.D.±0.70. Conclusion:Dental CT provides adequate information regarding frequency, number, and size of lingual vascular canal, which is an important anatomical structure in mandibular anterior region.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alveolar Process/blood supply , Alveolar Process/diagnostic imaging , Cephalometry/methods , Child , Dental Arch/blood supply , Dental Arch/diagnostic imaging , Dental Implantation, Endosseous , Female , Humans , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Male , Mandible/blood supply , Mandible/diagnostic imaging , Middle Aged , Multidetector Computed Tomography/methods , Patient Care Planning , Radiography, Panoramic/methods , Retrospective Studies , Software , Young Adult