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1.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(10): 864-870, Oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345321

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The Cambridge Cognition Examination (CAMCOG) is one of the most used cognitive assessment batteries for older adults. Objective: To evaluate a brief version of the CAMCOG for illiterate older adults (CAMCOG-BILL) with Alzheimer's dementia (AD) and healthy controls (CG). Methods: Cross-sectional case-control study with 246 illiterate older adults (AD [n=159] and CG [n=87], composed by healthy seniors without cognitive complaints) who never attended school or took reading or writing lessons. Diagnosis of AD was established based on the NIA-AA and DSM-5 criteria. All participants were assessed with the CAMCOG by a researcher blinded for diagnosis. To assess the consistency of the chosen CAMCOG-BILL sub-items, we performed a binary logistic regression analysis. Results: Both the CAMCOG and the CAMCOG-BILL had satisfactory psychometric properties. The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.932 (p<0.001) for the original version of CAMCOG and 0.936 for the CAMCOG-BILL. Using a cut-off score of ≥60 (CAMCOG) and ≥44 (CAMCOG-BILL), both instruments had the same sensitivity and specificity (89 and 96%, respectively). Conclusion: The CAMCOG-BILL may be a preferred tool because of the reduced test burden for this vulnerable subgroup of illiterate patients with dementia.


RESUMO Antecedentes: O Cambridge Cognition Examination (CAMCOG) é uma das baterias de avaliação cognitiva mais usadas para idosos. Objetivos: Avaliar uma versão breve do CAMCOG para idosos analfabetos (CAMCOG-BILL) com demência de Alzheimer (DA) em comparação com controles saudáveis não demenciados (GC). Métodos: Estudo caso-controle transversal com 246 idosos analfabetos (AD [n=159] e GC [n=87], composto por idosos saudáveis sem queixas cognitivas) que nunca frequentaram a escola ou fizeram aulas de leitura ou redação. O diagnóstico de DA foi estabelecido pelos critérios NIA-AA e DSM-5. Todos os participantes foram avaliados por meio do CAMCOG por avaliador cego, para o diagnóstico dos grupos. Para avaliar a consistência dos subitens escolhidos do CAMCOG-BILL, realizou-se uma análise de regressão logística binária. Resultados: Tanto o CAMCOG quanto o CAMCOG-BILL apresentaram propriedades psicométricas satisfatórias. A área sob a curva (AUC) foi de 0,932 (p<0,001) para a versão original do CAMCOG e de 0,936 para o CAMCOG-BILL. Usando-se uma pontuação de corte de ≥60 (CAMCOG) e ≥44 (CAMCOG-BILL), ambos os instrumentos tiveram a mesma sensibilidade e especificidade (89 e 96%, respectivamente). Conclusão: O CAMCOG-BILL pode ser preferido para reduzir a sobrecarga do teste para esse subgrupo vulnerável de pacientes analfabetos com demência.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Neuropsychological Tests
2.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 57(2): 8-13, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280767

ABSTRACT

Dementia is a syndrome characterized by a decline of two or more cognitive functions, affecting social or professional life. Alzheimer's Disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that represents 53% of dementia cases; memory loss, inability to recognize faces, impaired judgement, disorientation and confusion are possible common symptoms. Vascular Dementia is responsible for 42% of dementia cases, due to cerebrovascular pathologies, and the clinical aspects are related to the extension and location of the brain injury. Lewy Bodies Dementia is a neurodegenerative disorder that represents 15% of dementia cases, and its symptoms include visual hallucinations, parkinsonism and fluctuating cognitive decline. Frontotemporal dementia is a group of clinical syndromes, divided in Behavioral-variant, characterized by disinhibition, compulsions, apathy, aberrant sexual behavior and executive dysfunction; and Primary Progressive Aphasia, which is subdivided in Nonfluentvariant and Semantic-variant. Vitamin B12 deficiency is a reversible cause of dementia, with a wide clinical feature, that includes psychiatric symptoms such as depression and irritability, hematological symptoms related to anemia (e.g. dyspnea and fatigue), and neurological symptoms including dementia and neuropathy. Normal pressure hydrocephalus is also reversible, presenting forgetfulness, changes in mood, decline of executive functions, reduced attention, and a lack of interest in daily activities as symptoms. The radiological findings vary depending on the etiology of dementia. For that reason, understanding neuroimaging and clinical aspects is important to diagnose effectively.


A demência é uma síndrome que consiste em um declínio de um ou mais domínios cognitivos, que afeta o desempenho social ou profissional do indivíduo. A Doença de Alzheimer é um transtorno neurocognitivo que representa 53% dos casos de demência; seus sintomas podem incluir perda de memória, incapacidade de reconhecer rostos familiares, julgamento comprometido desorientação e confusão mental. A Demência Vascular é responsável por 42% dos casos de demência e é causada por doenças cerebrovasculares, seus achados clínicos são relacionados com o local e com a extensão do dano cerebral. Já a Demência por Corpos de Lewy é uma doença neurocognitiva que representa 15% dos casos de demência, cujos sintomas incluem alucinações visuais, parkinsonismo e flutuação cognitiva. A Demência Frontotemporal, por sua vez, é um grupo de síndromes, que se dividem em variante comportamental ­ caracterizada por desinibição, compulsão, apatia, hipersexualidade e disfunções executivas ­ e Afasia Progressiva Primária, subdividida em variante não-fluente e variante semântica, que cursam com disfunções da linguagem. Há, ainda, a Deficiência de Vitamina B12, uma causa reversível de demência. Ela possui um quadro clínico variado, que inclui sintomas psiquiátricos, como depressão e irritabilidade, sintomas hematológicos relacionados a anemia, como dispneia e fadiga) e sintomas neurológicos, que incluem demência e neuropatias. Uma outra causa reversível é a Hidrocefalia de Pressão Normal, que se apresenta com esquecimentos, alterações de humor, perda de função executiva e redução da atenção e do interesse nas atividades cotidianas. Os achados de neuroimagem variam dependendo da etiologia da demência. Assim, compreender os aspectos clínicos e radiológicos é importante para um diagnóstico efetivo..


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Dementia, Vascular/diagnosis , Dementia/complications , Dementia/epidemiology , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , Vitamin B 12 Deficiency/etiology , Prevalence , Cerebrum/diagnostic imaging , Neuroimaging/methods , Cognitive Dysfunction , Mental Status and Dementia Tests , Hydrocephalus, Normal Pressure/etiology , Memory Disorders
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879248

ABSTRACT

The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a common neurodegenerative disease, is still unknown. It is difficult to determine the atrophy areas, especially for patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at different stages of AD, which results in a low diagnostic rate. Therefore, an early diagnosis model of AD based on 3-dimensional convolutional neural network (3DCNN) and genetic algorithm (GA) was proposed. Firstly, the 3DCNN was used to train a base classifier for each region of interest (ROI). And then, the optimal combination of the base classifiers was determined with the GA. Finally, the ensemble consisting of the chosen base classifiers was employed to make a diagnosis for a patient and the brain regions with significant classification capability were decided. The experimental results showed that the classification accuracy was 88.6% for AD


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neural Networks, Computer , Neurodegenerative Diseases
4.
Clin. biomed. res ; 41(2): 157-166, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341979

ABSTRACT

Introdução: A neuroinflamação associada às células gliais é um elemento importante do processo patológico da doença de Alzheimer (DA). Este estudo apresenta uma revisão dos marcadores gliais quitinase 3-like 1 (YKL-40), do receptor desencadeado expresso nas células mieloides 2 (Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 ­ TREM2), da proteína acídica fibrilar glial (GFAP) e da proteína B S100 ligante de cálcio (S100B). Métodos: Nesta revisão são analisados os marcadores gliais YKL-40, TREM2, GFAP e S100B presentes em sangue e/ou líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR), a partir de estudos publicados até 2020 nos bancos de dados do PubMed, Medline e Periódicos Capes. Resultados: Foram recuperados 233 documentos, dentre os quais foram incluídos 60. Todos os marcadores se encontram aumentados na DA em LCR ­ YKL-40 e TREM2 solúvel (sTREM2), já na fase pré-clínica ­, e em sangue, e estão correlacionados ao declínio cognitivo. No entanto, nenhum dos marcadores analisados apresentou grande potencial para o diagnóstico diferencial. Além da proteína TREM2 solúvel no LCR, no sangue também se pode identificar alteração nos níveis do RNAm de TREM2. GFAP sanguíneo mostra ser o melhor em distinguir controles de pacientes com Alzheimer. Há evidências de um efeito protetivo da ativação glial em reação ao acúmulo amiloide. Conclusão: Os marcadores gliais no geral têm pouca utilidade para o diagnóstico diferencial, mas podem auxiliar no prognóstico e como biomarcadores inespecíficos para doenças neurodegenerativas. (AU)


Introduction: Glial cell-associated neuroinflammation is a driving force for the pathological process of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study is a systematic review aimed to analyze the following glial markers: chitinase-3-like protein 1 (YKL-40), triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B). Methods: The PubMed, MEDLINE and CAPES Journals databases were searched for studies published until 2020 that addressed blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of YKL-40, TREM2, GFAP and S100B. Results: A total of 233 articles were retrieved, of which 60 were included in this study. All CSF ­ YKL-40 and soluble TREM2 (sTREM2) in preclinical stage ­ and blood biomarker levels were elevated for AD and were correlated to cognitive decline. None of the analyzed biomarkers showed promising results for differential diagnosis. Besides CSF sTREM2 levels, blood TREM2 mRNA levels were also altered in AD. Blood GFAP levels seem to be the best option for distinguishing controls from AD patients.' There is evidence of a protective role of glial activation in amyloid accumulation. Conclusion: Glial markers in general are of little use for differential diagnosis but can assist in prognosis and as nonspecific biomarkers of neurodegenerative diseases. (AU)


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Neuroglia , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Membrane Glycoproteins , Receptors, Immunologic , S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit , Chitinase-3-Like Protein 1 , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
5.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(11): 713-723, Nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142366

ABSTRACT

Abstract Spatial disorientation has been observed in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and is associated with a higher risk of progression to Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there is no gold standard assessment for spatial orientation and paper-and-pencil tests lack ecological validity. Recently, there has been an increasing number of studies demonstrating the role of spatial disorientation as a cognitive marker of pathological decline, shedding new light on its importance for MCI. This systematic review aimed to investigate the accuracy of spatial orientation tasks for the diagnosis of MCI by comparison with cognitively healthy elderly. The search was conducted in the databases Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE/PubMed), Web of Science, Scopus, Excerpta Medica Database (Embase), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (Lilacs) and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO). Only original studies reporting spatial orientation assessment in MCI patients compared to a healthy control group were included. Studies were excluded if the MCI classification did not follow well described criteria and/or if accuracy results of spatial orientation assessment were not provided. Seven studies met the eligibility criteria, describing a variety of spatial orientation assessments including questionnaires, paper-and-pencil, office-based route learning, and computer-based and virtual reality tasks. Spatial orientation tasks demonstrated moderate to high accuracy in detecting elderly with MCI compared to cognitively healthy elderly, with areas under the curve (AUC) ranging from 0.77 to 0.99. However, important methodological issues were found in the selected studies which should be considered when interpreting results. Although the inclusion of spatial orientation assessments in MCI evaluations seems to have significant value, further studies are needed to clarify their true capacity to distinguish pathological from non-pathological aging.


RESUMO A ocorrência de desorientação espacial foi observada no comprometimento cognitivo leve (CCL) e está associada a um maior risco de progressão para a doença de Alzheimer (DA). No entanto, não há um padrão ouro para avaliação da orientação espacial e os testes em papel e caneta não apresentam validade ecológica. Recentemente, um número cada vez maior de estudos têm apontado o papel da desorientação espacial como um marcador cognitivo do declínio patológico, lançando uma nova luz sobre sua importância para o CCL. Esta revisão sistemática teve como objetivo investigar a acurácia de tarefas de orientação espacial para se estabelecer o diagnóstico de CCL entre idosos cognitivamente saudáveis. A pesquisa foi realizada através das bases de dados Medline/PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Embase, Lilacs e Scielo. Apenas artigos originais que reportassem avaliação da orientação espacial em idosos CCL comparados a um grupo controle saudável foram incluídos. Foram excluídos os estudos que não utilizassem a classificação de CCL segundo critérios bem descritos e/ou que não reportassem resultados de acurácia da avaliação da orientação espacial. Sete estudos atenderam aos critérios de elegibilidade, descrevendo uma variedade de formas de avaliação da orientação espacial, incluindo questionários, tarefas em papel e lápis, tarefas de aprendizado de rotas no escritório, tarefas baseadas em computador e com realidade virtual. As tarefas de orientação espacial demonstraram acurácia moderada a alta na detecção de CCL em comparação com idosos cognitivamente saudáveis, com áreas sob a curva (area under the curve — AUC) variando de 0,77 a 0,99. No entanto, um viés metodológico importante foi identificado nos estudos selecionados, o que deve ser levado em consideração na interpretação dos resultados. Apesar da inclusão da orientação espacial na avaliação cognitiva em CCL parecer ter um valor significativo, mais estudos são necessários para esclarecer sua verdadeira capacidade de distinguir o envelhecimento patológico do não patológico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Disease Progression , Orientation, Spatial
7.
Med. leg. Costa Rica ; 37(1): 33-38, ene.-mar. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098369

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Air contamination happens when unsafe or inordinate amounts of substances including gases, particles, and organic atoms are brought into Earth's climate. Objective: This review article defines air pollution, describes the types of pollutants, enumerates the various causative factors, enumerates the ways it impacts human health and suggests preventive measures to reduce the impact of air pollution on human health. Methods: Literature was studied extensively and effects of air pollution on human health have been described. Results and Conclusion: Air pollution has tremendous effects on human health in the form of respiratory diseases and aggravations in the form of asthma and lung cancer, cardiovascular dysfunctions, and malignant growth. An affiliation has been found to exist between male infertility and air pollution and a relationship has been established between air contamination and higher danger of immune dysfunction, neuroinflammation, neurobehavioral hyperactivity, crime, age-unseemly behaviours, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Traffic-related air pollutants have been found to affect skin aging and cause pigmented spots on the face. An association exists between air pollution and irritation of the eyes, dry eye syndrome, risk for retinopathy and adverse ocular outcomes. Chronic exposure to air pollutants during pregnancy has been associated with adverse effects on the developing foetus in the form of low birth weight and still birth. Air contamination has been seen as a significant supporter of the expanded predominance of allergic diseases in children.


Subject(s)
Skin Diseases/diagnosis , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Environmental Pollution/analysis , Disease/etiology , Costa Rica , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis
8.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18772, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285509

ABSTRACT

There is emerging evidence for a dysregulation of insulin signaling in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) with overlapping molecular features to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). In addition, T2DM is a known risk factor of AD. The goal of this study was to investigate the neurogenic and neuroprotective potential of rosmarinic acid (RA) in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced combined with high fat diet (HFD) mouse model of diabetes. Animals were divided into four experimental groups (control, diabetic, diabetic + RA, RA only). Behavioral analysis was performed to assess spatial learning and anxiety levels of animals, whereas quantitative real time PCR was carried out to assess the gene expression levels of neuronal markers of neurogenesis (Ki67, DCX and NeuN). A significant decrease in memory and spatial learning was observed in the diabetic mice, which was substantially improved by RA treatment. RA also increased the gene expression of NeuN, DCX and Ki67, which were dysregulated in the diabetic model. This study proposes RA as a potential therapeutic agent to mitigate neuronal dysfunction associated with T2DM by promoting adult hippocampal neurogenesis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Streptozocin/pharmacokinetics , Neurogenesis/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
9.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO4752, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039735

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the epidemiological profile of patients seen at a dementia outpatient clinic. Methods A retrospective study conducted by medical record review searching data on sex, race, age, schooling level, and diagnosis of patients seen from 2008 to 2015. Results A total of 760 patients were studied, with a predominance of female (61.3%; p<0.0001). The mean age was 71.2±14.43 years for women and 66.1±16.61 years for men. The most affected age group was 71 to 80 years, accounting for 29.4% of cases. In relation to race, 96.3% of patients were white. Dementia was diagnosed in 68.8% of patients, and Alzheimer's disease confirmed in 48.9%, vascular dementia in 11.3%, and mixed dementia in 7.8% of cases. The prevalence of dementia was 3% at 70 years and 25% at 85 years. Dementia appeared significantly earlier in males (mean age 68.5±15.63 years). As to sex distribution, it was more frequent in women (59.6%) than in men (40.4%; p<0.0001; OR=2.15). People with higher schooling level (more than 9 years) had a significantly younger age at onset of dementia as compared to those with lower schooling level (1 to 4 years; p=0.0007). Conclusion Most patients seen in the period presented dementia, and Alzheimer was the most prevalent disease. Women were more affected, and men presented young onset of the disease. Individuals with higher schooling level were diagnosed earlier than those with lower level.


RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar o perfil epidemiológico dos pacientes atendidos em um ambulatório de demência. Métodos Estudo retrospectivo realizado pela revisão de prontuários com busca de dados sobre sexo, raça, idade, escolaridade e diagnóstico de pacientes atendidos de 2008 a 2015. Resultados Foram estudados 760 pacientes, com predomínio do sexo feminino (61,3%; p<0,0001). A média de idade foi 71,2±14,43 anos, para as mulheres, e de 66,1±16,61 anos, para os homens. A faixa etária mais acometida foi de 71 a 80 anos, representando 29,4% dos casos. Em relação à etnia, 96,3% dos pacientes eram brancos. O quadro de demência foi diagnosticado em 68,8% dos pacientes, tendo sido a doença de Alzheimer confirmada em 48,9% dos casos, demência vascular em 11,3% e mista em 7,8%. A prevalência de demência foi de 3% aos 70 anos e de 25% aos 85 anos. O quadro demencial apareceu significativamente mais cedo no sexo masculino (média de idade 68,5±15,63 anos). A distribuição entre os sexos mostrou demência mais frequente em mulheres (59,6%) do que em homens (40,4%; p<0,0001; RC=2,15). Pessoas com maior escolaridade (acima de 9 anos) apresentaram idade de aparecimento da demência significativamente menor que aquelas de menor escolaridade (1 a 4 anos; p=0,0007). Conclusão Os pacientes atendidos no período apresentaram demência na maioria dos casos, sendo Alzheimer a doença mais prevalente. Mulheres foram mais acometidas, entretanto homens apresentaram a doença mais precocemente. Indivíduos com maior escolaridade foram diagnosticados mais cedo que aqueles com menor escolaridade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Outpatients/statistics & numerical data , Dementia/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Medical Records , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals, Private/statistics & numerical data , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Dementia/diagnosis , Educational Status , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Middle Aged
10.
Clinics ; 75: e1435, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089609

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe elderly performance in the Bender Gestalt Test (BGT) and to discriminate its score by using types of errors as comparison among healthy controls, Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and vascular dementia (VD) patients. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 285 elderly individuals of both sexes, all over 60 years old and with more than 1 year of schooling. All participants were assessed through a detailed clinical history, laboratorial tests, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological tests including the BGT, the Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG), the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and the Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire (PFAQ). The BGT scores were not used to establish diagnosis. RESULTS: Mean BGT scores were 3.2 for healthy controls, 7.21 for AD, and 8.04 for VD with statistically significant differences observed between groups (p<0.0001). Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the main risk factors for the diagnostic groups. BGT's scores significantly differentiated the healthy elderly from those with AD (p<0.0001) and VD (p<0.0001), with a higher area under the curve, respectively 0.958 and 0.982. BGT's scores also showed that the AD group presented 12 types of errors. Types of errors evidenced in the execution of this test may be fundamental in clinical practice because it can offer differential diagnoses between senescence and senility. CONCLUSION: A cut-off point of 4 in the BGT indicated cognitive impairment. BGT thus provides satisfactory and useful psychometric data to investigate elderly individuals.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Aged , Psychometrics/statistics & numerical data , Dementia, Vascular/diagnosis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Cognition Disorders/diagnosis , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cognition/physiology , Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , Neuropsychological Tests
12.
Rev. bras. anal. clin ; 51(4): 277-285, 2019/12/30. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1103940

ABSTRACT

A doença de Alzheimer (DA) é uma das formas mais comuns de demência, sendo ela uma patologia neurodegenerativa que acomete pessoas idosas de maneira irreversível. O diagnóstico precoce possibilitaria a realização de tratamentos que apresentassem melhores resultados sobre a redução da severidade dos sintomas. Entretanto, isto é um grande problema, pois os métodos já consolidados de diagnóstico são invasivos, como a análise do líquido cefalorraquidiano e a biópsia do cérebro. Este estudo buscou analisar biomarcadores sanguíneos capazes de identificar a DA ainda em seu estágio inicial. Realizou-se uma revisão integrativa da literatura mediante busca de artigos indexados nas plataformas eletrônicas de dados PubMed e SciELO com o descritor em inglês e português "Biomarker, blood, alzheimer": Foram analisados artigos de 2013 a 2019, onde os principais tipos de biomarcadores foram os que realizaram a análise de proteínas específicas, microRNAs e autoanticorpos, proporcionando assim bons resultados não só no diagnóstico como também no custo benefício, pois a eles confere a diferenciação das demais patologias para o estado inicial da doença de Alzheimer. Conclui-se que apesar dos resultados obtidos terem sido positivos, ainda são necessários mais estudos a fim de aumentar a sensibilidade e especificidade na diferenciação da DA de outros tipos de demência.


Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common forms of dementia, being a neurodegenerative disorder that irreversibly affects older people. Early diagnosis would enable the realization of treatments presenting better results on reducing the severity of symptoms. However, this is a major problem, since the already consolidated methods of diagnosis are invasive, such as CSF analysis and brain biopsy. This study aimed to analyze blood biomarkers capable of identifying AD even in its initial stage. An integrative review of the literature was carried out by searching indexed articles in electronic data platforms PubMed and SciELO with the descriptor in English and Portuguese "Biomarker, blood, alzheimer": Articles from 2013 to 2019 were analyzed, where the main types of biomarkers were the ones that carried out the analysis of specific proteins, microRNAs and autoantibodies. Thus providing good results not only in the diagnosis, but also in the cost benefit, since they confer the differentiation of the other pathologies to the initial state of Alzheimer's disease. It has concluded that although the results obtained were positive, further studies are needed in order to increase sensitivity and specificity in the differentiation of AD from other types of dementia.


Subject(s)
Blood , Biomarkers , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis
13.
Arch. Clin. Psychiatry (Impr.) ; 46(5): 120-124, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054911

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Current evidence suggests that upregulation of polyamines system plays a role both in cognitive deficit and synaptic loss observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Objective The aim of this study was to determine the plasmatic concentration of polyamines in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD patients in comparison with healthy controls (HC). Methods Plasmatic polyamines were quantified using the AbsoluteIDQ® p180 and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS). Results The study group comprised 34 AD patients, 20 MCI and 25 HC. All individuals were followed for 4 years. During this period 8 amnestic MCI patients (40% of the MCI sample at baseline) converted to AD. Spermidine level was lower in both patient groups (AD; MCI) compared to HC (p = 0.007). Plasma levels of spermine were higher in the MCI group (p < 0.001), but decreased in the sub-sample of MCI patients who converted to AD (p = 0.043). No statistically significant differences were found in ornithine and putrescine levels (p = 0.056 and p = 0.126, respectively). Discussion Our results suggest dynamic changes in the expression of polyamines in the MCI-AD continuum.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Polyamines/blood , Spermine/blood , Alzheimer Disease/physiopathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Ornithine/blood , Polyamines/metabolism , Biomarkers/blood , Putrescine/blood , Spermidine/blood , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Metabolomics/methods , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis
14.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 55(2): 17-32, abr.-jun. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1010037

ABSTRACT

Os derivados canabinoides podem ser vistos como novos potenciais terapêuticos para o tratamento da doença de Parkinson e Alzheimer. Assim, esta revisão teve como objetivo descrever os efeitos terapêuticos e adversos do uso de canabidiol e de delta-9-tetrahidrocanabinol nas doenças de Parkinson e de Alzheimer. Para tanto, foi realizada uma busca na base de dados Medline no período entre 2007 e 2017. Os descritores utilizados foram (Tetrahydrocannabinol OR Cannabidiol) AND (Parkinson OR Alzheimer) AND (Treatment OR Therapeutics). Os resultados mostraram efeitos terapêuticos promissores do canabidiol e do delta-9-tetrahidrocanabinol nestas doenças, tais como redução de sintomas motores e cognitivos, e ação neuroprotetora. Estes resultados podem ser explicados, em parte, pelos efeitos antioxidante, antiinflamatório, antagonista de receptores CB1, ou pela ativação de receptores PPAR-gama produzido por estas substâncias. Além disso, poucos efeitos adversos foram descritos, como boca seca e sonolência. Nesse contexto, estes resultados evidenciam a necessidade de novas pesquisas a respeito dos efeitos terapêuticos e adversos de canabinoides com maiores doses e períodos de exposição, para quem sabe, em um futuro próximo, ser possível olhar estas substâncias como uma opção terapêutica mais eficaz e segura para estes pacientes.


Cannabinoid derivatives can be viewed as a novel therapeutic potentials for the treatment of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Thus, this review aimed to describe the therapeutic and adverse effects of the use of cannabidiol and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. A search of the Medline database was carried out between 2007 and 2017. The descriptors used were (Tetrahydrocannabinol OR Cannabidiol) AND (Parkinson OR Alzheimer) AND (Treatment OR Therapy). The results showed promising therapeutic effects of cannabidiol and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in Parkinson and Alzheimer's diseases, such as the reduction of motor and cognitive symptoms and neuroprotective action. These results may be explained, in part, by the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, by CB1 receptor antagonism, or by the activation of PPAR-gamma receptors, produced by these substances. In addition, few adverse effects have been reported, such as dry mouth and drowsiness. In this context, these results highlight the need for further research on the therapeutic and adverse effects of cannabinoids with higher doses and periods of exposure, for whom, in the near future, it is possible to view these substances as a more effective and safe therapeutic option for these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Aged , Rats , Parkinson Disease/diagnosis , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Cannabinoids/therapeutic use , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Cannabinoids/administration & dosage , Cannabinoids/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Surveys and Questionnaires , Treatment Outcome , Animal Experimentation
15.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 41(3): 218-224, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011499

ABSTRACT

Objective: To perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of donepezil and rivastigmine therapy for mild and moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) from the perspective of the Brazilian Unified Health System. Method: A hypothetical cohort of 1,000 individuals of both sexes, aged >65 years, and diagnosed with AD was simulated using a Markov model. The time horizon was 10 years, with 1-year cycles. A deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed. Results: For mild AD, the study showed an increase in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) of 0.61 QALY/21,907.38 Brazilian reais (BRL) for patients treated with donepezil and 0.58 QALY/BRL 24,683.33 for patients treated with rivastigmine. In the moderate AD group, QALY increases of 0.05/BRL 27,414.96 were observed for patients treated with donepezil and 0.06/BRL 34,222.96 for patients treated with rivastigmine. Conclusions: The findings of this study contradict the standard of care for mild and moderate AD in Brazil, which is based on rivastigmine. A pharmacological treatment option based on current Brazilian clinical practice guidelines for AD suggests that rivastigmine is less cost-effective (0.39 QALY/BRL 32,685.77) than donepezil. Probabilistic analysis indicates that donepezil is the most cost-effective treatment for mild and moderate AD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/economics , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Alzheimer Disease/economics , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Rivastigmine/economics , Rivastigmine/therapeutic use , Donepezil/economics , Donepezil/therapeutic use , Brazil , Cohort Studies , Treatment Outcome , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , National Health Programs
16.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(2): 537-545, mar.-abr. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1004286

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Se presentó un caso de una paciente de 70 años de edad, con antecedentes patológicos personales de hipertensión arterial controlada, además de un síndrome demencial instaurado hace 5 años aproximadamente. Con un diagnóstico presuntivo de una demencia tipo Alzheimer y sin estudios desde el punto de vista imagenológico. Se le realizaron diversos estudios que arrojaron una lesión extraaxial interpretada como un meningioma del tercio medio del ala del esfenoides. Se le aplicó una resección tumoral de la totalidad de la lesión, su evolución postquirúrgica fue satisfactoria.


ABSTRACT The case presented is the one of a female patient aged 70 years, with personal pathological antecedents of controlled arterial hypertension besides dementia syndrome for around five years, presumptively diagnosed as Alzheimer-kind dementia without imaging studies. She underwent several studies showing an extra axial lesion that was interpreted as meningioma of the medial third of the sphenoid wing. The tumor resection of the entire lesion was carried out; the post-surgery evaluation was satisfactory.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Sphenoid Bone , Skull Base Neoplasms , Meningioma/surgery , Meningioma/diagnosis , Meningioma/diagnostic imaging , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy
17.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(4): 279-288, Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001362

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Cognitive screening instruments are influenced by education and/or culture. In Brazil, as illiteracy and low education rates are high, it is necessary to identify the screening tools with the highest diagnostic accuracy for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Objective: To identify the cognitive screening instruments applied in the Brazilian population with greater accuracy, to detect AD in individuals with a low educational level or who are illiterate. Methods: Systematic search in SciELO, PubMed and LILACS databases of studies that used cognitive screening tests to detect AD in older Brazilian adults with low or no education. Results: We found 328 articles and nine met the inclusion criteria. The identified instruments showed adequate or high diagnostic accuracy. Conclusion: For valid cognitive screening it is important to consider sociocultural and educational factors in the interpretation of results. The construction of specific instruments for the low educated or illiterate elderly should better reflect the difficulties of the Brazilian elderly in different regions of the country.


RESUMO Os instrumentos de rastreio cognitivo sofrem influência educacional e/ou cultural. No Brasil, como as taxas de analfabetismo e baixa escolaridade são altas, é necessário identificar os instrumentos com maior acurácia diagnóstica para a doença de Alzheimer (DA). Objetivo: identificar os instrumentos de rastreio cognitivo aplicados na população brasileira com maior acurácia para detectar DA em indivíduos com baixo nível de escolaridade ou que são analfabetos. Métodos: Busca sistemática de estudos que utilizaram testes de rastreio cognitivo para detectar DA em idosos brasileiros de baixa escolaridade ou analfabetos, nas bases de dados: SCIELO, PUBMED E LILACS. Resultados: Foram encontrados 328 artigos e 9 preencheram os critérios de inclusão. Os instrumentos identificados apresentaram acurácia diagnóstica adequada ou elevada. Conclusão: Para um rastreio cognitivo válido é importante considerar os fatores socioculturais e educacionais na interpretação dos resultados. A construção de instrumentos epecíficos para idosos de baixa escolaridade ou analfabetos deve ser incentivada para melhor refletir as dificuldades dos idosos brasileiros de diferentes regiões.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Literacy/psychology , Brazil , Reproducibility of Results , Educational Status , Alzheimer Disease/psychology , Neuropsychological Tests
18.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(6): e00091918, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011697

ABSTRACT

Este artículo proporciona estimaciones de las tasas de mortalidad por la demencia por la enfermedad de Alzheimer (DA) en población adulta mayor. Para ello, se usaron datos del Censo Demográfico de 2010 del Instituto Brasileño de Geografía y Estadística (IBGE) y microdatos de mortalidad de las 27 capitales de los estados brasileños, registradas en el Sistema de Informaciones sobre Mortalidad (SIM) del Ministerio de Salud de Brasil, en población con 65 años o más por lugar de residencia, entre los años 2009 y 2013. Se obtuvieron correcciones de los subregistros de mortalidad y ajustes finales de las tasas específicas de mortalidad, a partir de métodos bayesianos, con distribuciones de probabilidad a priori, construidas en base a información obtenida desde metaanálisis. Se destaca que las tasas por demencia y DA en Brasil fueron superiores a las obtenidas en países desarrollados. Las tasas de mortalidad por Alzheimer en 2013 fueron de 140,03 (IC95%: 117,05; 166,4) y 127,07 (IC95%: 103,74; 149,62) por 100.000 habitantes, respectivamente, en hombres y mujeres. La contribución de la DA a la mortalidad adulta mayor en el Brasil fue 4,4% (IC95%: 3,25; 5,72), en el grupo de personas de 0 a 3 años de estudio, independiente de la edad y sexo. Nuestras contribuciones fueron dirigidas a aumentar el conocimiento en estimaciones corregidas de las tasas de mortalidad por Alzheimer con base en estadísticas vitales, proporcionando estimaciones más precisas y pertinentes, fundamentadas en el método científico.


Este artigo oferece estimativas das taxas de mortalidade devidas à demência pela doença de Alzheimer (DA) na população idosa brasileira. Para isso, foram usados dados do Censo de Demográfico de 2010 do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE) e microdados de mortalidade das 27 capitais dos estados brasileiros, registradas no Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade (SIM) do Ministério da Saúde, em população com 65 anos ou mais por local de residência, entre os anos de 2009 e 2013. Foram obtidas correções dos sub-registros de mortalidade e ajustes finais das taxas específicas de mortalidade, a partir de métodos bayesianos, com distribuições de probabilidade a priori, construídas em base a informações obtidas via meta-análises. Foi destacado que as taxas por demência e DA no Brasil foram superiores às obtidas em países desenvolvidos. As taxas de mortalidade por Alzheimer em 2013 foram de 140,03 (IC95%: 117,05; 166,4) e 127,07 (IC95%: 103,74; 149,62) por 100 mil habitantes, respectivamente, em homens e mulheres. A contribuição da DA para a mortalidade em idosos no Brasil foi 4,4% (IC95%: 3,25; 5,72), em um grupo de pessoas com 0 a 3 anos de estudo, independentemente da idade ou sexo. Nossas contribuições foram dirigidas a aumentar o conhecimento em estimativas corrigidas das taxas de mortalidade por Alzheimer com base em estatísticas vitais, proporcionando estimativas mais precisas e pertinentes, fundamentadas no método científico.


This paper provides estimates of mortality rates from Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD) in the elderly Brazilian population. Data were obtained from the 2010 Population Census by Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and microdata on mortality in Brazil's 27 state capitals recorded in the Brazilian Mortality Information System (SIM) for the population 65 years or older by place of residence for the years 2009 to 2013. Corrections were obtained for underreporting of mortality, and final adjustments were made to the specific mortality rates based on Bayesian methods with prior probability distributions built on the basis of information obtained from a meta-analysis. The mortality rates from all dementias and from AD in Brazil were higher than in developed countries. The mortality rates from Alzheimer's disease in 2013 were 140.03 (95%CI: 117.05; 166.4) and 127.07 (95%CI: 103.74; 149.62) per 100,000 inhabitants, respectively, in men and women. The contribution of AD to mortality in elderly Brazilians was 4.4% (95%CI: 3.25; 5.72) in the group with 0 to 3 years of schooling, independently of age and sex. The study aimed to increase knowledge on corrected estimates of mortality rates from Alzheimer's disease based on vital statistics, providing more precise and pertinent evidence-based estimates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Dementia/mortality , Alzheimer Disease/mortality , Brazil/epidemiology , Residence Characteristics , Risk Factors , Mortality/trends , Bayes Theorem , Cause of Death , Age Factors , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/etiology , Alzheimer Disease/complications , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Health Information Systems
19.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 136(5): 390-397, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-979385

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Praxis impairment may be one of the first symptoms manifested in dementia, primarily in cortical dementia. The Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG) evaluates praxis, but little is known about the accuracy of CAMCOG for diagnosing dementia. The aims here were to investigate the accuracy of praxis and its subitems in CAMCOG (constructive, ideomotor and ideational subitems) for diagnosing Alzheimer's disease (AD) among elderly patients. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study on community-dwelling elderly people. METHODS: 158 elderly patients were evaluated. CAMCOG, Mini-Mental State Examination and Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire were used. ROC curve analysis was used to establish cutoff points. RESULTS: The total scores for praxis and the constructive subitem presented significant differences (P < 0.0001) between healthy elderly people and AD patients. Stage of dementia (clinical dementia rating, CDR = 0, 1 and 2) showed that total and constructive praxis can be used to classify the stages of dementia (mild and moderate cases), i.e. constructive praxis classified 88% of the patients with mild dementia (P < 0.0001) while total praxis classified 56% with moderate dementia. Comparison of normal controls (NC) and mild dementia cases showed specificity of 71% and sensitivity of 88% (AUC = 0.88; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Some praxis subtests can have higher predictive diagnostic value for detecting Alzheimer's disease in mild stages (total praxis AUC = 0.858; P < 0.0001; constructive AUC = 0.972; P < 0.0001). Constructive praxis as measured using CAMCOG may contribute towards diagnosing dementia, because occurrence of impairment of praxis may help in recognizing an evolving dementia syndrome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Mental Status and Dementia Tests/standards , Reference Values , Task Performance and Analysis , Case-Control Studies , Geriatric Assessment/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Cognition Disorders/diagnosis , Statistics, Nonparametric , Alzheimer Disease/physiopathology
20.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 40(3): 264-269, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-959233

ABSTRACT

Objective: To validate the Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale for use in Brazil (RUDAS-BR). Methods: We first completed an English-Brazilian Portuguese translation and back-translation of the RUDAS. A total of 135 subjects over 60 years of age were included: 65 cognitively healthy and 70 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) according to the DSM-IV and Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke/Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCDS-ADRDA) criteria. All participants completed an interview and were screened for depression. The receiver operating characteristic curves of the RUDAS were compared with those of the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) regarding the sensitivity and specificity of cutoffs, taking education into consideration. Results: The areas under the curve were similar for the RUDAS-BR (0.87 [95%CI 0.82-0.93]) and the MMSE (0.84 [95%CI 0.7-0.90]). RUDAS-BR scores < 23 indicated dementia, with sensitivity of 81.5% and specificity of 76.1%. MMSE < 24 indicated dementia, with sensitivity of 72.3% and specificity of 78.9%. The cutoff score was influenced by years of education on the MMSE, but not on the RUDAS-BR. Conclusions: The RUDAS-BR is as accurate as the MMSE in screening for dementia. RUDAS-BR scores were not influenced by education. The RUDAS-BR may improve the cognitive assessment of older persons who are illiterate or of lower educational attainment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Geriatric Assessment , Dementia/diagnosis , Neuropsychological Tests/standards , Translations , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Dementia/psychology , Educational Status , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Language
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