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2.
Frontiers of Medicine ; (4): 842-866, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922516

ABSTRACT

Among various genera of free-living amoebae prevalent in nature, some members are identified as causative agents of human encephalitis, in which Naegleria fowleri followed by Acanthamoeba spp. and Balamuthia mandrillaris have been successively discovered. As the three dominant genera responsible for infections, Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia work as opportunistic pathogens of granulomatous amoebic encephalitis in immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals, whereas Naegleria induces primary amoebic meningoencephalitis mostly in healthy children and young adults as a more violent and deadly disease. Due to the lack of typical symptoms and laboratory findings, all these amoebic encephalitic diseases are difficult to diagnose. Considering that subsequent therapies are also affected, all these brain infections cause significant mortality worldwide, with more than 90% of the cases being fatal. Along with global warming and population explosion, expanding areas of human and amoebae activity in some regions lead to increased contact, resulting in more serious infections and drawing increased public attention. In this review, we summarize the present information of these pathogenic free-living amoebae, including their phylogeny, classification, biology, and ecology. The mechanisms of pathogenesis, immunology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, epidemiology, diagnosis, and therapies are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Amebiasis/epidemiology , Balamuthia mandrillaris , Brain , Central Nervous System Protozoal Infections/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Naegleria fowleri
3.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 72(3): e490, sept.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156543

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Naegleria fowleri, Acanthamoeba spp. y Balamuthia mandrillaris son amebas de vida libre que producen daños sustanciales del sistema nervioso central y cuyo diagnóstico premortem es poco frecuente. Objetivo: Proveer una visión general de los aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos y las posibilidades diagnósticas más eficaces en la meningoencefalitis amebiana primaria y la encefalitis granulomatosa amebiana, así como las experiencias de tratamiento expuestas en la literatura reciente. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica sobre las amebas de vida libre. Se analizó la información obtenida de artículos científicos en la base de datos Google Scholar®, PubMed y las citas relacionadas por el programa en PubMed Central. Análisis y síntesis de la información: En primer término del análisis de la meningoencefalitis amebiana primaria y la encefalitis granulomatosa amebiana, resalta la diferenciación de sus características clínicas y epidemiológicas, también que el líquido cefalorraquídeo presenta gran relevancia para el diagnóstico de la meningoencefalitis amebiana primaria. Sin embargo, para los casos presuntivos de la encefalitis granulomatosa amebiana el examen del líquido cefalorraquídeo depende de la valoración riesgo-beneficio y se ha obtenido mayor positividad con el diagnóstico histopatológico de biopsias premortem. En general, se acrecienta la implementación de la investigación del ADN por diferentes métodos que brindan certeza de cada una de las especies de AVL causantes de enfermedad neurológica. El aislamiento en cultivo confirmatorio de N. fowleri, Acanthamoeba spp. y B. mandrillaris presenta diferencias en la factibilidad de crecimiento en diversos medios de acuerdo con la especie y limitaciones adicionales. Conclusiones: La mortalidad asociada con las infecciones del sistema nervioso central por amebas de vida libre permanece alta, aunque varios estudios brindan experiencias útiles a partir de los casos de pacientes que han sobrevivido. Resulta importante tener en cuenta que el diagnóstico rápido de la infección es clave para un tratamiento exitoso(AU)


Introduction: Naegleria fowleri, Acanthamoeba spp. and Balamuthia mandrillaris are free-living amoebae of infrequent premortem diagnosis which cause substantial damage to the central nervous system. Objective: To provide an overview of the clinical-epidemiological aspects and the most effective diagnostic possibilities in primary amebic meningoencephalitis and granulomatous amebic encephalitis, as well as their treatment experiences in recent publications.. Methods: A bibliographic review was conducted about free-living amoebae. An analysis was performed of data obtained from scientific papers published in the databases Google Scholar and PubMed, and the citations listed by the PubMed Central program. Data analysis and synthesis: As principal term of the analysis of primary amebic meningoencephalitis and amebic granulomatous encephalitis, the differentiation of their clinical and epidemiological characteristics stands out, also that cerebrospinal fluid is highly relevant for the diagnosis of primary amebic meningoencephalitis. However, for presumptive cases of amoebic granulomatous encephalitis, the examination of cerebrospinal fluid depends on the risk-benefit assessment and greater positivity has been obtained with the histopathological diagnosis of premortem biopsies. In general, the implementation of DNA research by different methods provided accurate information about each one of the free-living amoeba species that cause neurological disease. Confirmatory culture isolation of N. fowleri, Acanthamoeba spp. and B. mandrillaris revealed growth feasibility differences between diverse media depending on the species and additional limitations. Conclusions: Mortality associated to central nervous system infections caused by free-living amoebae remains high. Studies describing cases of patients who have survived constitute useful material. It is important to bear in mind that fast diagnosis of the disease is crucial to treatment success(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Central Nervous System Protozoal Infections/diagnosis , Central Nervous System Protozoal Infections/mortality , Balamuthia mandrillaris , Amebiasis/diagnosis
4.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 40(supl.1): 148-166, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124252

ABSTRACT

Los aptámeros son secuencias de ADN o ARN de cadena sencilla que adoptan la forma de estructuras tridimensionales únicas, lo cual les permite reconocer un blanco específico con gran afinidad. Sus usos potenciales abarcan, entre otros, el diagnóstico de enfermedades, el desarrollo de nuevos agentes terapéuticos, la detección de riesgos alimentarios, la producción de biosensores, la detección de toxinas, el transporte de fármacos en el organismo y la señalización de nanopartículas. El pegaptanib es el único aptámero aprobado para uso comercial por la Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Otros aptámeros para el tratamiento de enfermedades están en la fase clínica de desarrollo. En parasitología, se destacan los estudios que se vienen realizando en Leishmania spp., con la obtención de aptámeros que reconocen la proteína de unión a poliA (LiPABP) y que pueden tener potencial utilidad en la investigación, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de la leishmaniasis. En cuanto a la malaria, se han obtenido aptámeros que permiten identificar eritrocitos infectados e inhiben la formación de rosetas, y otros que prometen ser alternativas para el diagnóstico al detectar de forma específica la proteína lactato deshidrogenasa (PfLDH). Para Cryptosporidium parvuum se han seleccionado aptámeros que detectan ooquistes a partir de alimentos o aguas contaminadas. Para Entamoeba histolytica se han aislado dos aptámeros llamados C4 y C5, que inhiben la proliferación in vitro de los trofozoítos y tienen potencial terapéutico. Los aptámeros contra Trypanosoma cruzi inhiben la invasión de células LLC-MK2 (de riñón de mono) en un 50 a 70 % y aquellos contra T. brucei transportan moléculas tóxicas al lisosoma parasitario como una novedosa estrategia terapéutica. Los datos recopilados en esta revisión destacan los aptámeros como una alternativa para la investigación, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento contra parásitos de interés nacional.


Aptamers are single-stranded DNA or RNA sequences that adopt unique three-dimensional structures that allow them to recognize a specific target with high affinity. They can potentially be used for the diagnosis of diseases, as new therapeutic agents, for the detection of food risks, as biosensors, for the detection of toxins, and as drug carriers and nanoparticle markers, among other applications. To date, an aptamer called pegaptanib is the only aptamer approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for commercial use. Other aptamers are in different clinical stages of development for the treatment of different diseases. In parasitology, investigations carried out with parasites such as Leishmania spp. allowed the acquisition of aptamers that recognize the polyA-binding protein LiPABP and may have potential applications in research and diagnosis and even as therapeutic agents. Regarding malaria, aptamers have been obtained that allow the identification of infected erythrocytes or inhibit the formation of rosettes, along with those that provide promising alternatives for diagnosis by specifically detecting the protein lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH). In Cryptosporidium parvum allow the detection of oocysts in contaminated food or water. In Entamoeba histolytica, two aptamers called C4 and C5, which inhibit the proliferation of trophozoites in vitro and have potential use as therapeutic agents, have been isolated. Aptamers obtained against Trypanosoma cruzi inhibit the invasion of LLC-MK2 (from monkey kidney) cells by 50-70%, and in T. brucei, aptamers with the potential to transport toxic molecules to the parasitic lysosome were identified as a novel therapeutic strategy. The data collected in this review highlight aptamers as a novel alternative in the research, diagnosis, and treatment of parasites of national interest.


Subject(s)
Parasitology , Aptamers, Peptide , Aptamers, Nucleotide , Trypanosomiasis , Leishmaniasis , SELEX Aptamer Technique , Amebiasis , Malaria , Antibodies, Monoclonal
5.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 72(5): 1203-1210, Sep.-Oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1042139

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the playful educational interventions in the knowledge of schoolchildren about intestinal parasitosis. Method: This is a quasi-experimental, non-randomized study, based on pre- and post-intervention, conducted in a public elementary school in a peripheric neighborhood in the city of Ribeirão Preto (SP). The study population consisted of 101 students enrolled in the 5th and 6th grade. For comparison, we used the generalized version of the McNemar chi-squared test. Results: Of the 101 schoolchildren who participated in the study, 48 (47.5%) were female and 53 (52.5%) were male, aged from 9 to 14 years. Students' knowledge on intestinal parasitic infections has increased significantly after the playful educational intervention. Conclusion: Playful educational interventions are an excellent didactical resource in the teaching-learning process of schoolchildren.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Analizar las intervenciones educativas lúdicas en el conocimiento de escolares sobre enteroparasitosis. Método: Se trata de estudio casi-experimental, no aleatorizado, basado en la pre y pos-intervención, que ha sido ocurrido en escuela pública de enseñanza primaria de un barrio de la periferia en la ciudad de Ribeirão Preto (SP). La población del estudio ha sido conformada por 101 alumnos que cursaban el 5º y el 6º año. Para realizar la comparación ha sido utilizada la versión generalizada de la prueba chi-cuadrada de McNemar. Resultados: De los 101 escolares que han participado del estudio, 48 (el 47,5%) eran del sexo femenino y 53 (el 52,5%) del sexo masculino, con edad entre 9 a 14 años. El conocimiento de los alumnos sobre enteroparasitosis después de la intervención educativa lúdica se ha incrementado significativamente. Conclusión: Las intervenciones educativas lúdicas son un excelente recurso didáctico en el contexto del proceso enseñanza-aprendizaje de escolares.


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar as intervenções educativas lúdicas no conhecimento de escolares sobre enteroparasitoses. Método: Trata-se de estudo quase-experimental, não randomizado, baseado na pré e pós-intervenção, ocorrido em escola pública de ensino fundamental de um bairro da periferia na cidade de Ribeirão Preto (SP). A população do estudo foi composta por 101 alunos que cursavam o 5º e o 6º ano. Para efetuar a comparação foi utilizada a versão generalizada do teste qui-quadrado de McNemar. Resultados: Dos 101 escolares que participaram do estudo, 48 (47,5%) eram do sexo feminino e 53 (52,5%) do sexo masculino, com idade entre 9 a 14 anos. O conhecimento dos alunos sobre enteroparasitoses após a intervenção educativa lúdica aumentou significativamente. Conclusão: As intervenções educativas lúdicas são um excelente recurso didático no contexto do processo ensino-aprendizagem de escolares.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Play Therapy/methods , Health Education/methods , Intestinal Diseases/psychology , Play Therapy/instrumentation , Play Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Schools/organization & administration , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Health Education/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Giardiasis/psychology , Amebiasis/psychology , Intestinal Diseases/therapy
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 17(2): 66-70, abr.-jun. 2019. graf.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1026500

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Trazer um panorama atualizado acerca dos índices de internações e mortalidade por amebíase nos últimos 5 anos pelo sistema de saúde público brasileiro. Métodos: As informações analisadas foram pesquisadas no banco de dados do Departamento de Informática do Sistema Único de Saúde, considerandose as seguintes variáveis: amebíase; internações e mortalidade; sexo; faixa etária; e período de 2012 a 2016. Resultados: De 14.268 internações por amebíase em todo o Brasil, 4.252 foram em 2012, 3.248 em 2013, 2.552 em 2014, 2.033 em 2015 e 2.183 em 2016. Na Região Norte, encontraram-se os dois Estados com maior e menor número de internações da região e do país: o Pará, com 4.379 casos, e Roraima, com 5. Na Região Nordeste, o Maranhão foi o Estado com mais notificações (4.114) e o segundo maior do Brasil. Na Região Sudeste, Minas Gerais apresentou maior número de registros (793); no Sul, foi o Paraná (325) e, no Centro-Oeste, Goiás (731). Dos Estados com registro de mortalidade, na Região Norte, o Amazonas obteve maior valor (1,02); no Nordeste, foi o Sergipe (5,26); no Sudeste, o Rio de Janeiro (7,81); no Sul, o Rio Grande do Sul (5,26); e, no Centro-Oeste, o Mato Grosso (1,22). Conclusão: Apesar de uma redução no número de internações, as estatísticas para a amebíase ainda continuam altas, principalmente, considerando- se que se trata de uma patologia que poderia ser evitada. É necessário investir em mais medidas educativas, que ensinem a população a evitar a contaminação pelo Entamoeba spp., bem como que seja promovidas ações de saneamento básico e abastecimento de água potável adequados para todas as regiões do Brasil. (AU)


Objective: To provide an updated picture of the hospitalization rates, and mortality due to amebiasis in the last 5 years in the Brazilian public health system. Methods: The information analyzed was searched in the Informatics Department of the Unified Health System database, considering the following variables: amebiasis; hospitalizations and mortality; gender; age group; and period from 2012-2016. Results: Of 14,268 hospitalizations for amebiasis throughout Brazil, 4,252 were in 2012, 3,248 in 2013, 2,552 in 2014, 2,033 in 2015, and 2,183 in 2016. In the North Region, there were the two states with the highest and lowest number of hospitalizations in the region and in the country: the state of Pará, with 4,379 cases, and of Roraima with 5. In the Northeast region, the state of Maranhão was the one with more notifications (4,114), and the second largest one in Brazil. In the Southeast region, the stat of Minas Gerais presented the highest number of records (793); in the South region, it was the state of Paraná (325); and in Center-West, Goiás (731). Of the states with mortality records, in the North region Amazonas reached the highest value (1.02); in the Northeast, Sergipe (5,26); in the Southeast, Rio de Janeiro (7.81); in the South, Rio Grande do Sul (5.26); and in the Center-West region, Mato Grosso (1,22). Conclusion: Despite a reduction in the number of hospitalizations, the statistics for amebiasis are still high, mainly considering that it is a pathology that could be avoided. It is necessary to invest in more educational measures, which teach the population how to avoid contamination by Entamoeba spp., as well as to promote basic sanitation actions, and drinking water supply suitable for all regions of Brazil. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Amebiasis/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Health Profile , Brazil/epidemiology , Demography/statistics & numerical data , Indicators of Morbidity and Mortality , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Emergencies , Amebiasis/mortality , Hospitalization
7.
Evid. odontol. clín ; 4(2): 2-8, jul.-dic. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-995349

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Determinar el tipo de manifestaciones bucales en los pacientes con diagnóstico de Amebiasis y giardiasis. Material y métodos: La presente investigación es de campo de tipo descriptivo, observacional, la técnica utilizada fue observación clínica, y documental. El instrumento utilizado fue una ficha de observación estructurada; para realizar esta investigación se examinaron 90 pacientes de ambos sexos mayores de 16 años que presenten como diagnóstico Amebiasis, Giardiasis el cual fue confirmado utilizando como método de diagnóstico el examen parasitológico. Los pacientes fueron ordenados en dos grupos de trabajo: Grupo A: Constituido por 45 pacientes con diagnóstico de Amebiasis, Grupo B: Constituido por 45 pacientes con diagnóstico de Giardiasis. Resultados: En el Grupo A: 28 pacientes presentaron manifestaciones bucales de esto, el 38% de pacientes presentaron solamente una manifestación bucal siendo estas las Úlceras aftosas 18%; Glositis 11% y Queilitis 9%; el 24% de pacientes presentaron más de una manifestación bucal asociada. En el Grupo B: 24 pacientes presentaron solamente una manifestación bucal, siendo estas las úlceras aftosas 31,1%, queilitis 15,6% y glositis 6,6%,el 13,3% de pacientes presentaron más de una manifestación bucal asociada. La prueba estadística de Chi2 = 0,000, nos dice que hay una diferencia significativa entre la presencia de amebiasis y giardiasis con la presencia de lesiones bucales. (AU)


Objectives: To determine the type of oral manifestations in patients diagnosed with Amebiasis and giardiasis. Material and methods: The present investigation is of field of descriptive, observational type, the used technique was clinical observation, and documentary. The instrument used was a structured observation card; In order to carry out this investigation, 90 patients of both sexes older than 16 years were examined who presented as diagnosis Amebiasis, Giardiasis, which was confirmed using parasitological examination as diagnostic method. The patients were ordered into two working groups: Group A: Consisting of 45 patients diagnosed with Amebiasis, Group B: Consisting of 45 patients diagnosed with Giardiasis. Results: In group A: 28 patients presented oral manifestations of this, 38% of patients presented only one oral manifestation, these being aphthous ulcers 18%; Glositis 11% and Cheilitis 9%; 24% of patients presented more than one associated oral manifestation. In Group B: 24 patients presented only one oral manifestation, these being aphthous Ulcers 31.1%, Queilitis 15.6% and Glositis 6.6%. 13.3% of patients presented more than one associated oral manifestation. The Chi2 statistical test = 0.000, tells us that there is a significant difference between the presence of amebiasis and giardiasis with the presence of oral lesions. (AU)


Subject(s)
Oral Manifestations , Signs and Symptoms , Giardiasis , Amebiasis
8.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 70(3): 50-60, set.-dic. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-991105

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Acanthamoeba y Naegleria son géneros de amebas de vida libre resistentes a cambios extremos de temperatura y pH, aislados de diversos ambientes (suelo, aire y agua). Debido a la cantidad de habitantes que se benefician de las aguas del Río Pamplonita, al desconocimiento de su presencia en la región y al aumento de enfermedades relacionadas con el consumo de agua, se considera necesario realizar estudios sobre la distribución de estos microorganismos. Objetivo: Identificar Acanthamoeba spp. y Naegleria spp. en aguas del curso principal del río Pamplonita de la zona metropolitana de Cúcuta, Colombia. Métodos: La búsqueda de las amebas de interés se realizó mediante examen directo y cultivo a 28, 37 y 42 °C en agar no nutritivo a partir de 21 muestras de agua de siete sectores del río Pamplonita. Adicionalmente, se midió pH y temperatura in situ y se determinó la carga de coliformes. Resultados: Se encontró que 76,2 por ciento de las muestras fueron positivas para alguna de las amebas. La Acanthamoeba fue la que se aisló con mayor frecuencia. El 28,6 por ciento de los cultivos incubados a 42 °C fueron positivos principalmente para Naegleria spp., lo que indica que estos aislados termotolerantes podrían tener potencial patógeno. Conclusiones: Acanthamoeba spp. y Naegleria spp. son frecuentes en aguas del Río Pamplonita en áreas de importante intervención humana. El hallazgo de amebas termotolerantes alerta sobre el riesgo de salud para la población que se encuentra expuesta a esta fuente hídrica(AU)


Introduction: Acanthamoeba and Naegleria are genus of free-living amoeba (AVL) resistant to extreme changes in temperature and pH, isolated from different environments (soil, air and water). Due to the number of inhabitants that benefit from the waters of Pamplonita River, the lack of knowledge about its presence in the region and the increase of diseases related to water consumption, it is necessary to carry out studies on its distribution. Objective: To identify Acanthamoeba spp and Naegleria spp in the water of the main course of Pamplonita River, in the metropolitan area of Cúcuta, Colombia. Methods: The search for the amoebas of interest was performed by direct examination and culture at 28, 37 and 42 °C on non-nutritive agar from 21 water samples from seven sectors of Pamplonita River. Additionally, pH and temperature were measured in situ and the coliforms´ load was also determined. Results: It was found that 76.2 percent of the samples were positive for some of the amoebas, with Acanthamoeba being the most frequently isolated. 28.6 percent of the cultures incubated at 42 °C were positive mainly for Naegleria spp, indicating that these thermotolerant isolates could have pathogen potential. Conclusions: Acanthamoeba spp and Naegleria spp are frequent in waters of Pamplonita River which are areas of important human intervention. The finding of thermotolerant amoebas warns about the health risk for the population that is exposed to this water source(AU)


Subject(s)
Naegleria/microbiology , Water Samples , Amebiasis/microbiology , River Pollution/adverse effects , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Colombia
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742220

ABSTRACT

Soluble antigens from an axenic culture of Entamoeba histolytica were used to develop a commercial ELISA kit to quantify anti-E. histolytica antibodies in sera of patients with extraintestinal amebiasis in non-endemic settings. The diagnostic specificity and sensitivity of the test were assessed retrospectively using 131 human serum samples with amoebic serologic status available. They were selected according to their results in immunofluorescence (IFAT) and were separated in 2 sample categories: 64 sera with positive results by IFAT and 67 with negative results by IFAT. The sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA kit were assessed at 95.0% and 94.0% compared to the IFAT. The test can be useful to exclude a potential diagnosis of amebiasis and could be used as a screening method since ELISA is an automated technique.


Subject(s)
Amebiasis , Antibodies , Axenic Culture , Diagnosis , Entamoeba histolytica , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Humans , Mass Screening , Methods , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715718

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a major cause of morbidity and remains a major cause of hospitalization. Following the Syrian refugee crisis and insufficient clean water in the region, this study reviews the etiological and epidemiological data in Lebanon. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed demographic, clinical and routine laboratory data of 198 children from the age of 1 month to 10 years old who were admitted with the diagnosis of AGE to a private tertiary care hospital located in the district of Nabatieh in south Lebanon. RESULTS: Males had a higher incidence of AGE (57.1%). Pathogens were detected in 57.6% (n=114) of admitted patients, among them single pathogens were found in 51.0% (n=101) of cases that consisted of: Entamoeba histolytica 26.3% (n=52), rotavirus 18.7% (n=37), adenovirus 6.1% (n=12) and mixed co-pathogens found in 6.6% (n=13). Breast-fed children were significantly less prone to rotavirus (p=0.041). Moreover, children who had received the rotavirus vaccine were significantly less prone to rotavirus (p=0.032). CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight the high prevalence of E. histolytica infection as the major cause of pediatric gastroenteritis in hospitalized children, during the summer period likely reflecting the insanitary water supplies and lack of hygiene. Moreover the 42.4% of unidentified causative pathogens should prompt us to widen our diagnostic laboratory arsenal by adopting new diagnostic technologies.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae , Amebiasis , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Diagnosis , Diarrhea , Entamoeba histolytica , Gastroenteritis , Hospitalization , Humans , Hygiene , Incidence , Lebanon , Male , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Refugees , Rotavirus , Tertiary Healthcare , Water , Water Supply
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-174140

ABSTRACT

Amebic liver abscess (ALA) is the most common extraintestinal manifestation of amebiasis. Amebiasis, a parasitic infection caused by Entamoeba histolytica, used to be a prevalent protozoan disease in Korea, however, with an improving sanitary system, it has been among very uncommon etiology of liver abscess. A recent report suggested that ALA is an emerging parasitic infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients even in areas where the disease is not endemic and recommended HIV screening in patients in areas where ALA is not endemic, particularly those without history of travel to a disease-endemic area. We report on two patients who were admitted for treatment of ALA and then diagnosed as HIV infection. We also reviewed the etiology and characteristics of ALA in our hospital during the last 5 years.


Subject(s)
Amebiasis , Diagnosis , Entamoeba histolytica , HIV Infections , HIV , Humans , Korea , Liver Abscess , Liver Abscess, Amebic , Mass Screening
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787041

ABSTRACT

Amebic liver abscess (ALA) is the most common extraintestinal manifestation of amebiasis. Amebiasis, a parasitic infection caused by Entamoeba histolytica, used to be a prevalent protozoan disease in Korea, however, with an improving sanitary system, it has been among very uncommon etiology of liver abscess. A recent report suggested that ALA is an emerging parasitic infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients even in areas where the disease is not endemic and recommended HIV screening in patients in areas where ALA is not endemic, particularly those without history of travel to a disease-endemic area. We report on two patients who were admitted for treatment of ALA and then diagnosed as HIV infection. We also reviewed the etiology and characteristics of ALA in our hospital during the last 5 years.


Subject(s)
Amebiasis , Diagnosis , Entamoeba histolytica , HIV Infections , HIV , Humans , Korea , Liver Abscess , Liver Abscess, Amebic , Mass Screening
14.
Journal of Infection and Public Health. 2016; 9 (3): 356-357
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-178956
15.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 32(3): 591-597, jul.-sep. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS, INS-PERU | ID: lil-790749

ABSTRACT

Se reportan seis casos de encefalitis amebiana admitidos en el Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas entre los años 1994-2010 en Perú; estos casos ingresaron por sospecha clínica de tumor cerebral primario maligno y uno como sarcoma orbito-nasal. Todos los casos provenían de departamentos costeros; tres tenían menos de 24 años de edad y cuatro de sexo masculino. Los síntomas más frecuentes fueron cefalea y convulsiones. Tres casos presentaron más de una lesión cerebral. Se realizó biopsia por estereotaxia en tres pacientes y el diagnóstico anatomopatológico diferencial, en dos casos, fue glioma de alto y bajo grado. Se logró confirmar el diagnóstico mediante técnicas moleculares en muestras parafinadas en tres casos. Todos los pacientes fallecieron en menos de 15 días desde su ingreso al instituto. La encefalitis amebiana puede ser erradamente interpretada como una neoplasia cerebral, ocasionando retraso en el manejo del cuadro infeccioso...


Six cases of amoebic encephalitis admitted to the National Institute of Neoplastic Diseases between the years 1994-2010 in Peru are reported. These cases were admitted for clinical suspicion of malignant primary brain tumor and one orbital-nasal sarcoma. All cases came from coastal regions; three were less than 24 years of age and four were male. The most common symptoms were headache and seizures. Three cases had more than one brain lesion. Stereotactic biopsy was performed in three patients and the differential pathological diagnosis in two cases was glioma of high and low grade. It was possible to confirm the diagnosis using molecular techniques in paraffin-embedded samples in three cases. All patients died within 15 days of admission to the institution. Amoebic encephalitis may be erroneously interpreted as a cerebral neoplasm, causing delay in the management of the infection...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adolescent , Female , Child , Young Adult , Acanthamoeba , Amebiasis , Balamuthia mandrillaris , Meningoencephalitis
16.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 35(2): 160-164, 02/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748880

ABSTRACT

Infections by free-living amoebae can cause systemic disease in animals and humans. We describe the epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of disseminated acanthamoebiasis associated with canine distemper in three dogs of the semiarid region of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. Affected dogs developed progressive neurological and respiratory signs that progressed to death within in two to 20 days. Gross lesions were irregular and with yellow-reddish nodules randomly distributed in the lungs, heart, kidneys, spleen, lymph nodes, adrenals, and intestine. One dog had foci of malacia in the parietal cortex and another one in nucleus of brain basis. Histologically, pyogranulomas with areas of necrosis and hemorrhage in all organs affected were observed, associated with myriads of intralesional amoebic trophozoites. All three cases were concomitant canine distemper, that possibly triggered immunosuppression in the dogs. The diagnosis was performed through microscopic findings of infection by free-living amoebae and confirmed Acanthamoeba sp. by immunohistochemistry.


Infecções por amebas de vida livre podem causar doença sistêmica nos animais e no homem. Descrevem-se os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e patológicos de acanthamoebíase disseminada associada com cinomose em três cães na região semiárida da Paraíba, Nordeste do Brasil. Os cães afetados desenvolveram sinais respiratórios e neurológicos progressivos, que evoluíram para a morte em dois a 20 dias. Na necropsia havia áreas nodulares, irregulares e amarelo-avermelhadas distribuídas aleatoriamente em pulmões, coração, rins, fígado, baço, linfonodos, adrenal e intestino. Em um caso havia foco de malácia no córtex parietal e outro em núcleo da base encefálica. Histologicamente, foram observados piogranulomas com áreas de necrose e hemorragia em todos os órgãos afetados, associados a miríades de amebas intralesionais. Nos três casos havia cinomose concomitante, que possivelmente desencadeou imunossupressão nos cães. O diagnóstico foi realizado através dos achados microscópicos de infecção por amebas de vida livre e confirmado Acanthamoeba sp. pela imuno-histoquímica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Amebiasis/veterinary , Dogs/parasitology , Distemper , Epidemics/veterinary , Acanthamoeba/isolation & purification , Opportunistic Infections/veterinary , Signs and Symptoms/veterinary
17.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 30(1): 110-114, ene.-mar. 2015. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-747654

ABSTRACT

La infección por Entamoeba histolytica sigue siendo un problema mayor de salud pública en los países en desarrollo como Colombia. Aunque en la gran mayoría de casos se presenta como una disentería o un absceso hepático amebiano, existen casos donde la evolución genera una verdadera masa inflamatoria en el colon llamada ameboma. Estos amebomas son fácilmente confundidos con una lesión neoplásica y, de no tener un gran nivel de sospecha clínica o endoscópica, terminan en una resección de colon con un diagnóstico posoperatorio dado por la presencia de trofozoítos sin malignidad. Sin embargo, cuando el diagnóstico se hace de manera preoperatoria, podría haber resolución del cuadro sin necesidad de cirugía. Exponemos el caso de una rara presentación de ameboma en el recto asociado con un absceso hepático perforado, en el cual se hizo un diagnóstico preoperatorio, pero dada la ruptura de la lesión en el hígado, requirió de una intervención quirúrgica.


Entamoeba histolytica infections continue to be a major public health problem in developing countries such as Colombia. Although it most often presents as dysentery or amebic liver abscess, there are cases in which a true inflammatory mass develops in the colon. This is called an ameboma. These amebomas are easily confused with neoplastic lesions so that in the absence of a high level of clinical and endoscopic suspicion, a colon resection may be performed with the postoperative diagnosis given by the presence of trophozoites without malignancy. However, when the diagnosis is made preoperatively symptoms can be without surgery. We report a rare presentation of ameboma in the rectum associated with a perforated liver abscess. This was diagnosed prior to surgey, but given the liver injury, required surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Amebiasis , Entamoeba histolytica , Liver Abscess, Amebic
18.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2015. xv,69 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-774273

ABSTRACT

As parasitoses intestinais são altamente prevalentes nas populações humanas, sendo endêmicas em países em desenvolvimento e representam importante problema de Saúde Pública. Diversos são os fatores associados àtransmissão destes parasitas, entre eles o saneamento precário ou ausente. Os objetivos deste estudo foram: i) estimar a prevalência e fatores associados às diferentes parasitoses intestinais em localidades rurais do estado do Ceará, ii) avaliar o estado nutricional das crianças da região, correlacionando-o com a infecção pelos diferentes parasitas intestinais e iii) realizar a caracterização molecular de amebas do complexo Entamoeba histolytica/ E.dispar/ E. moshkovskii e E. hartmanni identificadas nas amostras fecais. Trata-se de um estudo transversal, incluindo 326 moradores de quatro localidades rurais do município de Russas, Estado do Ceará. Os exames de fezes foram realizados por meio das técnicas de Lutz, Ritchie modificado por Young et al., Kato-Katz e BaermannMoraes.Dados sócio-demográficos e antropométricos foram obtidos em visitas domiciliares. A prevalência dos parasitas foi: 0,3 por cento para Strongyloides stercoralis, 1,4 por cento para Rodentolepis nana, 3,7 por cento para ancilostomídeos, 10,2 por cento para amebas do complexo Entamoeba histolytica/ E.dispar/ E. moshkovskii e E. hartmanni e 14 por cento para Giardia duodenalis; 39 por cento dos indivíduos estavam poliparasitados. Na ausência de programas de transferência de renda, 12,2 por cento das pessoas incluídas neste estudo apresentaram renda per capita familiar mensal inferior a R$ 70,00, podendo ser classificadas no extrato de pobreza extrema. As bolsas do governo beneficiavam 83,1 por cento dos participantes, sendo 46 por cento pelo programa Bolsa Família...


Observou-se que 65,3 por cento dos indivíduos faziam uso deágua de poço dessalinizada; 24,8 por cento utilizavam água armazenada da chuva coletada dos telhados via calhas ecisternas para o consumo e 7,3 por cento utilizavam água fornecida por caminhão-pipa; 21,7 por cento das pessoas evacuavam acéu aberto. A desnutrição crônica foi observada em 5/79 crianças (6,3 por cento) e o baixo peso em 4/76 crianças (5,3 por cento). Não houve associação entre a infecção por ancilostomídeos e G. duodenalis e a fonte de água para beber. Háuma maior taxa de positividade de infecção para Entamoeba histolytica/ E. dispar/ E. moshkovskii/ E. hartmannientre os indivíduos que defecam a céu aberto do que entre aqueles que defecam em banheiro (p = 0,032). Com relação à amebíase, a taxa de positividade foi maior entre os indivíduos que defecam a céu aberto (19,1 por cento) em comparação com os que defecam no banheiro (7,8 por cento), p=0,032. As taxas de infecção por G. duodenalis, Entamoeba histolytica/E.dispar/E. moshkovskii e E. hartmanni e ancilostomídeos tendem a ser mais baixas no estrato superior de renda. Não houve correlação entre a renda per capita familiar mensal e o estado nutricional das crianças para o parâmetro altura-idade (R = 0,148 e p = 0,194) e o parâmetro peso-idade (R = 0,080 e p = 0,495). Não houve diferença entre as médias do escore-Z do parâmetro antropométrico altura-idade das crianças infectadas por G. duodenalis e as não infectadas. Conclui-se que a ancilostomíase, a amebíase e a giardíase são as infecções intestinais mais prevalentes na região, havendo associação entre o parasitismo e o local de defecação...


Subject(s)
Humans , Amebiasis , Ascaridiasis , Parasitic Diseases , Strongyloidiasis , Trichuriasis , Cross-Sectional Studies
19.
JCPSP-Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan. 2015; 25 (3): 159-160
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-178032
20.
Salud(i)ciencia (Impresa) ; 21(1): 65-71, Nov.2014. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-790935

ABSTRACT

A (La) amebíase é uma (es una) infecção parasitária causada pela (por) Entamoeba histolytica, protozoário que representa um risco à saúde nos (un riesgo para la salud en los) países onde as (donde las) barreiras sanitárias são inadequadas. Estima-se que 500 milhões de indivíduos em todo o mundo estejam (se encuentran) infectados por este patógeno, havendo até (hay hasta) 100 000 óbitos anuais (muertes anuales). O (El) diagnóstico laboratorial é realizado rotineiramente através da (rutinariamente por medio de la) demonstração microscópica de cistos e/ou (o) trofozoítos no (en el) sedimento fecal, não permitindo a (no permitiendo la) detecção de variações interespecíficas entre a E. histolytica e espécies não patogênicas como a Entamoeba dispar e a (y) Entamoeba moshkovskii. Metodologias imunológicas para a pesquisa de anticorpos contra a (la búsqueda de anticuerpos contra) E. histolytica já foram usadas esão (ya fueron utilizadas y son) capazes de diferenciar as espécies do (entre las especies del) complexo E.histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii, apesar de apresentarem resultados falso positivos e negativos. De modo semelhante a pesquisa de antígenos específicos por técnicas imunológicas são de utilidade limitada. Areação em cadeia da (La reacción en cadena de la) polimerase ainda constitui a metodologia de escolha para o (todavía es la metodología de elección para el) diagnóstico específico da amebíase, entretanto metodologias mais recentes foram empregadas no (fueron empleadas en el) diagnóstico da amebías elevando a resultados promissores (promisorios). A PCR em tempo real e as tecnologias baseadas na(basadas en la) detecção de microesferas magnéticas acopladas foram utilizadas para o diagnóstico da amebíase e apresentaram bom desempenho. Apesar do avanço no (del avance en el) diagnóstico laboratorial da amebíase ao longo dos anos, ainda há necessidade do desenvolvimento de (a lo largo de los años, todavía hay necesidad de desarrollar)...


Subject(s)
Humans , Amebiasis , Entamoeba histolytica , Antibody Formation , Antigens , Diagnosis , Hygiene , Infections
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