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1.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 35-52, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008078

ABSTRACT

WRKYs is a unique family of transcription factors (TFs) in plants, and belongs to the typical multifunctional regulator. It is involved in the regulation of multiple signaling pathways. This type of transcription factor is characterized to contain about 60 highly conservative amino acids as the WRKY domain, and usually also has the Cys2His2 or Cys2His-Cys zinc finger structure. WRKYs can directly bind to the W-box sequence ((T)(T) TGAC (C/T)) in the promoter region of the downstream target gene, and activate or inhibit the transcription of the target genes by interacting with the target protein. They may up-regulate the expression of stress-related genes through integrating signal pathways mediated by abscisic acid (ABA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus playing a vital role in regulating plant response to abiotic stresses. This review summarizes the advances in research on the structure and classification, regulatory approach of WRKYs, and the molecular mechanisms of WRKYs involved in response to drought and salt stresses, and prospects future research directions, with the aim to provide a theoretical support for the genetic improvement of crop in response to abiotic stresses.


Subject(s)
Transcription Factors/genetics , Abscisic Acid , Amino Acids , Droughts , Stress, Physiological/genetics
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250936, 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345557

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Glutamine, as a dipeptide or a free amino acid form, on the progression of burn injuries in rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were burned with a comb metal plate heated in boiling water (98 °C) for three minutes, creating four rectangular full-thickness burn areas separated by three unburned interspaces (zone of stasis) in both dorsum sides. The animals were randomized into three groups (n=10): saline solution (G1-Control) and treated groups that orally received Glutamine as dipeptide (G2-Dip) or free amino acid (G3-FreeAA). Two and seven days after burn injury, lesions were photographed for unburned interspaces necrosis evolution assessment. Seven days after injury, glutathione seric was measured and histopathological analysis was performed. By photographs, there was a significant reduction in necrosis progression in G3-Free-AA between days two and seven. Histopathological analysis at day 7 showed a significantly higher stasis zone without necrosis and a higher number of fibroblasts in G2-Dip and G3-FreeAA compared with G1-Control. Also, glutathione serum dosage was higher in G2-Dip. The plasmatic glutathione levels were higher in the G2-Dip than the G1-Control, and there was a trend to higher levels in G3-FreeAA. The reduction in histological lesions, greater production of fibroblasts, and greater amounts of glutathione may have benefited the evolution of burn necrosis, which showed greater preservation of interspaces.


Resumo Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar o efeito da Glutamina, como um dipeptídeo ou forma de aminoácido livre, na progressão de queimaduras em ratos. Trinta ratos Wistar machos foram queimados com um pente de metal aquecido em água fervente (98 °C) por três minutos, criando quatro áreas retangulares queimadas separadas por três interesespaços não queimados (zona de estase) em ambos os lados do dorso. Os animais foram randomizados em três grupos (n = 10): solução salina (G1-Controle) e grupos tratados que receberam glutamina via oral como dipeptídeo (G2-Dip) ou aminoácido livre (G3-FreeAA). Dois e sete dias após a queimadura, as lesões foram fotografadas para avaliação da evolução da necrose entre os espaços não queimados. Sete dias após a lesão, foi dosada a glutationa sérica e realizada análise histopatológica. Pelas fotografias, houve uma redução significativa na progressão da necrose no G3-Free-AA entre os dias dois e sete. A análise histopatológica no dia 7 mostrou uma zona de estase significativamente maior sem necrose e número mais elevado de fibroblastos em G2-Dip e G3-FreeAA em comparação com G1-Controle. Os níveis plasmáticos de glutationa foram maiores no G2-Dip em relação ao G1-Controle, e houve tendência a níveis mais elevados no G3-FreeAA. A redução das lesões histológicas, maior produção de fibroblastos, maior quantidade de glutationa podem ter beneficiado a evolução da necrose da queimadura, que mostrou maior preservação dos interespaços.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Burns/drug therapy , Glutamine , Rats, Wistar , Dipeptides , Disease Models, Animal , Amino Acids
3.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 695-699, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013157

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the relationship between amino acid variations of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) nonstructural protein (NS) 1 and the clinical characteristics. Method: A retrospective case review was conducted. From December 2018 to January 2020, a total of 81 cases of hospitalized children who were tested only positive for RSV by RT-PCR or PCR at the Department of Respiratory Medicine, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University were included in the study. The NS1 genes of RSV subtype A and subtype B were amplified by PCR and sequenced. The amino acid sequences were analyzed. The Chi-square test and Mann-Whitney rank sum test were used to compare the clinical characteristics and type Ⅰ interferon levels of children with or without NS1 variation in the variation and non-variation groups. Results: Among 81 cases, there were 58 males and 23 females. There were 11 cases in the variation group, the age of onset was 2.0 (1.0, 11.0) months, included 4 cases of subtype A (variant sites were: 2 cases for Lys33Gln, one case for Gly2Asp, Pro67Ser, Leu137Phe, respectively) and 7 cases of subtype B (variant sites were: two cases for Val121Ile, one case for Tyr30Cys, Val65Met, Asn85Ser, Ser118Asn, Asp124Asn, respectively). These variant sites all appeared at a very low frequency 0.08 (0.04, 0.29) % in the NCBI PROTEIN database. There were 70 cases in non-variation group, the onset age was 3.5 (1.0, 7.0) months. The proportion of dyspnea in the variation group was higher than that in the non-variation group (10/11 vs. 47% (33/70), χ2=7.31, P<0.01). Conclusions: There are some variant sites in nonstructural protein NS1 of RSV. Children may be prone to have dyspnea with NS1 variations.


Subject(s)
Child , Male , Female , Humans , Infant , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Amino Acids , Retrospective Studies , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction
4.
Chinese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; (12): 930-938, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012300

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of endothelin A receptor (ETAR) expression in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC). To design ETAR carboxyl terminal (ETAR-C) amino acids derived polypeptide and to study the inhibitory effect on ovarian epithelial carcinoma cells in vitro. Methods: (1) A total of 126 patients who received surgical treatment and were diagnosed with HGSOC by postoperative pathological examination in Central Hospital of Xuzhou from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2017 were selected. All patients had completed clinicopathological data and follow-up data. Cancer tissue samples were collected and ETAR mRNA expression in HGSOC tissues was detected by reverse transcript-PCR. The clinical significance was analyzed. (2) ETAR-C fusion polypeptide was designed based on the sequence of carboxyl terminal amino acids of ETAR, expressed and purified in vitro. The effects of ETAR-C fusion polypeptide on migration and invasion ability of ovarian cancer SKOV3 and CAOV3 cells were detected by scratch test and invasion test, respectively. The effect of ETAR-C fusion polypeptide on chemosensitivity of cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer SKOV3/cDDP and CAOV3/cDDP cells was determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) colorimetric assay. The effect of ETAR-C fusion polypeptide on β-arrestin-1 expression in ovarian cancer SKOV3 and CAOV3 cells was detected by western blot. Results: (1) The relative expression level of ETAR mRNA in HGSOC tissues was 18.6±5.1. Patients with HGSOC were divided into high ETAR mRNA expression (n=76) and low ETAR mRNA expression (n=50) with 61.7% as cut-off value analyzed by X-Tile software. High expression of ETAR mRNA was significantly correlated with abdominal water volume, platinum drug resistance, and cancer antigen 125 (CA125) value in HGSOC patients (all P<0.05), but was not related to the age of patients with HGSOC and the size of postoperative residual lesions (all P>0.05). The 5-year progression free survival rates were 18.4% and 28.0%, and the 5-year overall survival rates were 38.2% and 52.0% in HGSOC patients with high and low ETAR mRNA expression respectively, there were statistically significant differences (P=0.046, P=0.034). (2) The results of scratch test and invasion test showed that the scratch healing rate and cell invasion rate of SKOV3 or CAOV3 cells treated with endothelin-1 (ET-1) and ET-1+ETAR-C were respectively compared, and the differences were statistically significant (all P<0.05). MTT assay showed that the inhibition rates of ETAR-C fusion polypeptide treated in SKOV3/cDDP and CAOV3/cDDP cells were significantly higher than those of control cells after the addition of 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 24 μg/ml cisplatin (all P<0.05). Western blot analysis showed that the relative expression levels of β-arrestin-1 in SKOV3 or CAOV3 cells treated with ET-1 and ET-1+ETAR-C were 1.85±0.09 and 1.13±0.09 (SKOV3 cells), 2.14±0.15 and 1.66±0.12 (CAOV3 cells), respectively. The differences were statistically significant (all P<0.05). Conclusions: The prognosis of HGSOC patients with high expression of ETAR mRNA is significantly worse than those with low expression of ETAR mRNA. ETAR might be a new target for HGSOC treatment. The ETAR-C fusion polypeptide that interferes with the interaction of ETAR and β-arrestin-1 has good inhibitory effect on ovarian cancer cells in vitro, and might have clinical application potential.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Amino Acids/therapeutic use , beta-Arrestins/therapeutic use , Cell Line, Tumor , Cisplatin/pharmacology , Clinical Relevance , Ovarian Neoplasms/pathology , Receptor, Endothelin A/therapeutic use , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
5.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 4497-4516, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008038

ABSTRACT

Cyclodipeptide (CDP) composed of two amino acids is the simplest cyclic peptide. These two amino acids form a typical diketopiperazine (DKP) ring by linking each other with peptide bonds. This characteristic stable ring skeleton is the foundation of CDP to display extensive and excellent bioactivities, which is beneficial for CDPs' pharmaceutical research and development. The natural CDP products are well isolated from actinomycetes. These bacteria can synthesize DKP backbones with nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) or cyclodipeptide synthase (CDPS). Moreover, actinomycetes could produce a variety of CDPs through different enzymatic modification. The presence of these abundant and diversified catalysis indicates that actinomycetes are promising microbial resource for exploring CDPs. This review summarized the pathways for DKP backbones biosynthesis and their post-modification mechanism in actinomycetes. The aim of this review was to accelerate the genome mining of CDPs and their isolation, purification and structure identification, and to facilitate revealing the biosynthesis mechanism of novel CDPs as well as their synthetic biology design.


Subject(s)
Actinobacteria/metabolism , Actinomyces/metabolism , Biological Products/metabolism , Bacteria/metabolism , Diketopiperazines/metabolism , Amino Acids
6.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3169-3187, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007951

ABSTRACT

ω-transaminases are able to catalyze the reversible transfer of amino groups between diverse amino compounds (such as amino acids, alkyl amines, aromatic amines) and carbonyl compounds (such as aldehydes, ketones, ketoacids). ω-transaminases exhibit great application prospects in the field of chiral amine biosynthesis because of their desirable properties, such as wide range of substrates, high stereoselectivity, and mild catalytic conditions. It is therefore important for China to develop efficient, specific, and environment-friendly chiral amine production technologies with independent intellectual property rights, which is of great significance for the development of pharmaceutical, pesticide, and material industries. This review systematically summarizes the Chinese patents regarding ω-transaminase filed by Chinese institutions in the recent decade. The development of ω-transaminase resource, enzymatic property improvement by protein engineering, application in chiral amine synthesis, and development of production technologies are elaborated. This review will shed light on further basic and application studies of ω-transaminase.


Subject(s)
Transaminases/genetics , Amino Acids , China , Aldehydes , Amines
7.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3111-3124, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007948

ABSTRACT

L-homophenylalanine (L-HPA) is an important non-natural amino acid that has been used as a key intermediate for the synthesis of Puli drugs for the treatment of hypertension. At present, L-HPA is synthesized using chemical methods, which has the disadvantages of expensive raw materials, tedious steps and serious pollution. Therefore, researchers have conducted in-depth research on the enzymatic production of L-HPA. This review summarizes the research progress on the enzymatic synthesis of L-HPA, including the dehydrogenase process, the transaminase process, the hydantoinase process, and the decarboxylase process, with the hope to facilitate the industrial production of L-HPA.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids , Environmental Pollution , Industry , Protein Biosynthesis
8.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2485-2501, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981213

ABSTRACT

Amino acids are the basic building blocks of protein that are very important to the nutrition and health of humans and animals, and widely used in feed, food, medicine and daily chemicals. At present, amino acids are mainly produced from renewable raw materials by microbial fermentation, forming one of the important pillar industries of biomanufacturing in China. Amino acid-producing strains are mostly developed through random mutagenesis- and metabolic engineering-enabled strain breeding combined with strain screening. One of the key limitations to further improvement of production level is the lack of efficient, rapid, and accurate strain screening methods. Therefore, the development of high-throughput screening methods for amino acid strains is very important for the mining of key functional elements and the creation and screening of hyper-producing strains. This paper reviews the design of amino acid biosensors and their applications in the high-throughput evolution and screening of functional elements and hyper-producing strains, and the dynamic regulation of metabolic pathways. The challenges of existing amino acid biosensors and strategies for biosensor optimization are discussed. Finally, the importance of developing biosensors for amino acid derivatives is prospected.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Amino Acids , Biosensing Techniques , Metabolic Engineering , High-Throughput Screening Assays , China
9.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 2158-2189, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981196

ABSTRACT

The synthesis of fine chemicals using multi-enzyme cascade reactions is a recent hot research topic in the field of biocatalysis. The traditional chemical synthesis methods were replaced by constructing in vitro multi-enzyme cascades, then the green synthesis of a variety of bifunctional chemicals can be achieved. This article summarizes the construction strategies of different types of multi-enzyme cascade reactions and their characteristics. In addition, the general methods for recruiting enzymes used in cascade reactions, as well as the regeneration of coenzyme such as NAD(P)H or ATP and their application in multi-enzyme cascade reactions are summarized. Finally, we illustrate the application of multi-enzyme cascades in the synthesis of six bifunctional chemicals, including ω-amino fatty acids, alkyl lactams, α, ω-dicarboxylic acids, α, ω-diamines, α, ω-diols, and ω-amino alcohols.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids , Biocatalysis , Amino Alcohols , Coenzymes/metabolism , Diamines
10.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 1496-1503, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009328

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the difference in the gene expression, amino acid and carnitine levels in the cervical secretions between the endometria of pre-receptive and receptive stages, with an aim to provide clues for identifying new molecular markers for endometrial receptivity.@*METHODS@#Fifty nine infertile women treated at the Department of Reproductive Medicine of Linyi People's Hospital from January 6, 2020 to January 31, 2022 were selected as as the study subjects, which were matched with 3 pairs (6 cases) of infertile women preparing for embryo transfer based on factors such as age, body mass index, and length of infertility. Endometrial tissue samples were collected for gene transcription and expression analysis. Twenty five women who had become pregnant through assisted reproductive technology were selected as the control group, and 28 non-pregnant women receiving ovulation monitoring at the Outpatient Department were enrolled as the case group. Status of endometrial receptivity was determined by ultrasonography. In the former group, endometrial tissues were sampled for sequencing, and GO and KEGG database enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes was carried out. In the latter group, cervical secretions were collected, and amino acid and carnitine levels were measured by mass spectrometry. Statistical analysis was carried out using rank sum test, t test and chi-square test with SPSS v25.0 software.@*RESULTS@#No difference was found in the clinical data of the patients with regard to age, body mass index, infertility years, AMH, FSH, LH, E2, and type of infertility. Compared with the receptive endometrial tissues, there were 100 significantly up-regulated genes and 191 significantly down-regulated genes in the pre-receptive endometrial tissue, with the most significantly altered ones being HLA-DRB5 and MMP10. The biological processes, molecular functions and pathways enriched by more differentially expressed genes in GO and KEGG were mainly immune regulation, cell adhesion and tryptophan metabolism. Analysis of secretion metabolism also revealed a significant difference in the levels of amino acids and carnitine metabolites between the two groups (P < 0.05), in particular those of Alanine, Valine, 3-hydroxybutyrylcarnitine (C4OH) + malonylcarnitine (C3DC)/captoylcarnitine (C10).@*CONCLUSION@#A significant difference has been discovered in the levels of gene transcription and protein expression in the endometrial tissues from the pre-receptive and receptive stages. The levels of amino acids and carnitine, such as Alanine, Valine, 3-hydroxybutyryl carnitine (C4OH)+malonyl carnitine (C3DC)/caproyl carnitine (C10), may be associated with the receptive status of the endometrium, though this need to be verified with larger samples.


Subject(s)
Pregnancy , Humans , Female , Infertility, Female/genetics , Endometrium/metabolism , Amino Acids/metabolism , Gene Expression , Carnitine , Alanine/metabolism , Valine/metabolism
11.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 1263-1269, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009286

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a patient with Alport syndrome (AS) and confirm the existence of a splicing variant.@*METHODS@#An AS patient diagnosed at the Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University on January 8, 2021 for significant proteinuria and occult hematuria was selected as the study subject. Clinical data was collected. Peripheral blood samples were collected for the extraction of genomic DNA. Whole exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing were carried out to identify potential genetic variants. An in vitro experiment was also conducted to verify the abnormal mRNA splicing. Bioinformatic software was used to analyze the conservation of amino acids of the variant sites and simulate the 3D structure of the variant collagen IV protein. Immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry were carried out on renal tissues from the patient to confirm the presence of AS kidney injury.@*RESULTS@#The patient, a 21-year-old male, had a 24-hour urine protein of 3.53 g/24 h, which fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for proteinuria. His blood uric acid has also increased to 491 μmol/L. DNA sequencing revealed that he has harbored a c.835-9T>A splice variant of the COL4A5 gene, which was not found in either of his parents. In vitro experiment confirmed that the variant has removed 57 bp from the exon 15 of the mRNA of the COL4A5 gene. The deletion may cause loss of amino acid residues from positions 279 to 297, which in turn may affect the stability of the secondary structure of the α5 chain encoded by the COL4A5 gene. The amino acids are conserved across various species. The result of homology modeling indicated that the trimerization of Col-IV with the mutated α5 chain could be achieved, however, the 3D structure was severely distorted. The AS kidney damage was confirmed through immunofluorescence assays. Based on the guidelines from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics, the c.835-9T>A variant was classified as likely pathogenic (PVS1_Moderate+PS3_Moderate+PM2_Supporting+PS2+PP3+PP4).@*CONCLUSION@#The c.835-9T>A variant of the COL4A5 gene probably underlay the AS in this patient. In vitro experiment has confirmed the abnormal splicing caused by the variant. Histopathological examination of the kidney tissue has provided in vivo evidence for its pathogenicity. Above finding has expanded the mutational spectrum of the COL4A5 gene.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Young Adult , Amino Acids , China , Collagen Type IV/genetics , Exons , Nephritis, Hereditary/genetics , RNA Splicing
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6600-6612, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008859

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to provide data support for resource utilization of the stems and leaves of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus(SLAM) by analyzing and evaluating the chemical constituents. The crude protein, crude fiber, and soluble saccharide of SLAM were analyzed by Kjeldahl method, filtration method, and UV-Vis spectrophotometry, respectively. The nucleosides, amino acids, flavonoids, and saponins of SLAM were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry(UPLC-TQ-MS). Combined with principal component analysis(PCA), the quality difference of resource components of SLAM was comprehensively evaluated. The results showed that the average content of crude protein, crude fiber, total polysaccharide, and redu-cing sugar in SLAM was 5.11%, 30.33%, 11.03 mg·g~(-1), and 31.90 mg·g~(-1), respectively. Six nucleosides, 15 amino acids, 22 flavonoids, and one saponin were detected, with an average content of 1.49 mg·g~(-1), 6.00 mg·g~(-1), 1.86 mg·g~(-1), and 35.67 μg·g~(-1), respectively. The content of various types of chemical components in SLAM differed greatly in different harvesting periods and growing years. The results of PCA showed that the quality of SLAM produced in Ningxia was superior. The results can provide references for the utilization of SLAM.


Subject(s)
Astragalus propinquus/chemistry , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Flavonoids/analysis , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Amino Acids , Saponins/analysis
13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5898-5907, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008788

ABSTRACT

This study aims to reveal the endogenous metabolic characteristics of acteoside in the young rat model of purinomycin aminonucleoside nephropathy(PAN) by non-targeted urine metabolomics and decipher the potential mechanism of action. Biochemical indicators in the urine of rats from each group were determined by an automatic biochemical analyzer. The potential biomarkers and related core metabolic pathways were identified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometry(UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS) combined with principal component analysis(PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA). MetaboAnalyst 5.0 was used to establish the receiver operating characteristic(ROC) curve for evaluating the clinical diagnostic performance of core metabolites. The results showed that acteoside significantly decreased urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio in PAN young rats. A total of 17 differential metabolites were screened out by non-targeted urine metabolomics in PAN young rats and they were involved in phenylalanine metabolism and phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis. Thirtten differential metabolites were screened by acteoside intervention in PAN young rats, and they were involved in phenylalanine metabolism and arginine and proline metabolism. Among them, leucylproline and acetophenone were the differential metabolites that were significantly recovered after acteoside treatment. These pathways suggest that acteoside treats PAN in young rats by regulating amino acid metabolism. The area under the curve of two core biomarkers, leucylproline and acetophenone, were both greater than 0.9. In summary, acteoside may restore amino acid metabolism by regulating endogenous differential metabolites in PAN young rats, which will help to clarify the mechanism of acteoside in treating chronic glomerulonephritis in children. The characteristic biomarkers screened out have a high diagnostic value for evaluating the treatment of chronic glomerulonephritis in children with acteoside.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Rats , Animals , Puromycin Aminonucleoside , Metabolomics/methods , Biomarkers/urine , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Acetophenones , Glomerulonephritis , Phenylalanine , Amino Acids
14.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 453-465, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971570

ABSTRACT

Myelin-forming oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) are essential for structural and functional homeostasis of nervous tissue. Albeit with certain similarities, the regulation of CNS and PNS myelination is executed differently. Recent advances highlight the coordinated regulation of oligodendrocyte myelination by amino-acid sensing and growth factor signaling pathways. In this review, we discuss novel insights into the understanding of differential regulation of oligodendrocyte and Schwann cell biology in CNS and PNS myelination, with particular focus on the roles of growth factor-stimulated RHEB-mTORC1 and GATOR2-mediated amino-acid sensing/signaling pathways. We also discuss recent progress on the metabolic regulation of oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells and the impact of their dysfunction on neuronal function and disease.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids , Myelin Sheath/metabolism , Schwann Cells/metabolism , Oligodendroglia/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism
15.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 276-281, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970918

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To retrospectively analyze the clinical phenotypes and genetic variants in two Chinese pedigrees affected with Hereditary hypofibrinemia (IFD) and explore their molecular pathogenesis.@*METHODS@#Two probands and their pedigree members were admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University on March 30, 2021 and May 27, 2021, respectively. Clinical phenotypes of the probands were collected, and blood clotting indexes of the probands and their pedigree members were determined. Variants of the FGA, FGB and FGG genes were analyzed by Sanger sequencing, and candidate variants were verified by sequence comparison. Bioinformatic software was used to analyze the conservation of the amino acids and pathogenicity of the proteins. Alteration in protein structure and intermolecular force before and after the variant was analyzed by simulating the protein model.@*RESULTS@#Proband 1, a 18-year-old male, had significantly low plasma fibrinogen activity (Fg:C) and plasma fibrinogen antigen (Fg:Ag), respectively at 0.80 g/L and 1.00 g/L. Proband 2, a 43-year-old male, had slightly low Fg:C and Fg:Ag at 1.35 g/L and 1.30 g/L, respectively. The Fg:C and Fg:Ag of proband 1's father, proband 2's father and son were also below the normal level. Genetic testing showed that proband 1 had harbored a heterozygous missense variant of c.688T>G (p.Phe230Val) in exon 7 of the FGG gene, which was inherited from his father. Proband 2, his father and son all had harbored a heterozygous variant of c.2516A>C (p.Asn839Thr) in exon 6 of the FGA gene. Homology analysis showed that the Phe230 and Asn839 residues were highly conserved among homologous species. Bioinformatic analysis predicted that both p.Phe230Val and p.Asn839Thr were pathogenic variants.@*CONCLUSION@#Analysis of protein simulation model showed that the p.Asn839Thr variant has changed the hydrogen bo`nd between the amino acids, thus affecting the stability of the protein structure. The heterozygous missense variants of p.Phe230Val and p.Asn839Thr probably underlay the IFD in the two pedigrees.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Amino Acids , East Asian People , Exons , Pedigree , Retrospective Studies , Afibrinogenemia/genetics , Mutation, Missense , Fibrinogen/genetics
16.
Journal of Central South University(Medical Sciences) ; (12): 795-808, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982350

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy occurring in middle and old age. MM is still an incurable disease due to its frequent recurrence and drug resistance. However, its pathogenesis is still unclear. Abnormal amino acid metabolism is one of the important characteristics of MM, and the important metabolic pathway of amino acids participates in protein synthesis as basic raw materials. Aminoacyl transfer ribonucleic acid synthetase (ARS) gene is a key regulatory gene in protein synthesis. This study aims to explore the molecular mechanism for ARS, a key factor of amino acid metabolism, in regulating amino acid metabolism in MM and affecting MM growth.@*METHODS@#The corresponding gene number was combined with the gene expression profile GSE5900 dataset and GSE2658 dataset in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database to standardize the gene expression data of ARS. GSEA_4.2.0 software was used to analyze the difference of gene enrichment between healthy donors (HD) and MM patients in GEO database. GraphPad Prism 7 was used to draw heat maps and perform data analysis. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression model were used to analyze the expression of ARS gene and the prognosis of MM patients, respectively. Bone marrow samples from 7 newly diagnosed MM patients were collected, CD138+ and CD138- cells were obtained by using CD138 antibody magnetic beads, and the expression of ARS in MM clinical samples was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. Human B lymphocyte GM12878 cells and human MM cell lines ARP1, NCI-H929, OCI-MY5, U266, RPMI 8266, OPM-2, JJN-3, KMS11, MM1.s cells were selected as the study objects. The expression of ARS in MM cell lines was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA) lentiviruses were used to construct gene knock-out plasmids (VARS-sh group). No-load plasmids (scramble group) and gene knock-out plasmids (VARS-sh group) were transfected into HEK 293T cells with for virus packaging, respectively. Stable expression cell lines were established by infecting ARP1 and OCI-MY5 cells, and the effects of knockout valyl-tRNA synthetase (VARS) gene on proliferation and apoptosis of MM cells were detected by cell counting and flow cytometry, respectively. GEO data were divided into a high expression group and a low expression group according to the expression of VARS. Bioinformatics analysis was performed to explore the downstream pathways affected by VARS. Gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF/MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used to detect the valine content in CD138+ cells and ARP1, OCI-MY5 cells and supernatant of knockdown VARS gene in bone marrow samples from patients, respectively.@*RESULTS@#Gene enrichment analysis showed that tRNA processing related genes were significantly enriched in MM compared with HD (P<0.0001). Further screening of tRNA processing-pathway related subsets revealed that cytoplasmic aminoacyl tRNA synthetase family genes were significantly enriched in MM (P<0.0001). The results of gene expression heat map showed that the ARS family genes except alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AARS), arginyl-tRNA synthetase (RARS), seryl-tRNA synthetase (SARS) in GEO data were highly expressed in MM (all P<0.01). With the development of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) to MM, the gene expression level was increased gradually. Kaplan-Meier univariate analysis of survival results showed that there were significant differences in the prognosis of MM patients in methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MARS), asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase (NARS) and VARS between the high expression group and the low expression group (all P<0.05). Cox regression model multivariate analysis showed that the high expression of VARS was associated with abnormal overall survival time of MM (HR=1.83, 95% CI 1.10 to 3.06, P=0.021). The high expression of NARS (HR=0.90, 95% CI 0.34 to 2.38) and MARS (HR=1.59, 95% CI 0.73 to 3.50) had no effect on the overall survival time of MM patients (both P>0.05). Real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting showed that VARS, MARS and NARS were highly expressed in CD138+ MM cells and MM cell lines of clinical patients (all P<0.05). Cell counting and flow cytometry results showed that the proliferation of MM cells by knockout VARS was significantly inhibited (P<0.01), the proportion of apoptosis was significantly increased (P<0.05). Bioinformatics analysis showed that in addition to several pathways including the cell cycle regulated by VARS, the valine, leucine and isoleucine catabolic pathways were upregulated. Non-targeted metabolomics data showed reduced valine content in CD138+ tumor cells in MM patients compared to HD (P<0.05). HPLC results showed that compared with the scramble group, the intracellular and medium supernatant content of ARP1 cells and the medium supernatant of OCI-MY5 in the VARS-shRNA group was increased (all P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#MM patients with abnormal high expression of VARS have a poor prognosis. VARS promotes the malignant growth of MM cells by affecting the regulation of valine metabolism.


Subject(s)
Humans , Valine-tRNA Ligase , Multiple Myeloma/genetics , Metabolomics , Amino Acids , RNA, Transfer
17.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 362-367, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981964

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the relationship between early parenteral nutrient intake and the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants with gestational age less than 32 weeks who could not receive enteral nutrition within one week after birth.@*METHODS@#A retrospective study was conducted on preterm infants born between October 2017 and August 2022 with gestational age less than 32 weeks who were admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in Children's Hospital of Soochow University within 24 hours after birth and relied solely on parenteral nutrition within the first week of life. The study population included 79 infants with BPD and 73 infants without BPD. Clinical data during hospitalization were compared between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#The proportions of infants with weight loss of more than 10% after birth, extrauterine growth retardation, and parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis in the BPD group were higher than in the non-BPD group (P<0.05). The time to regain birth weight, time to achieve full enteral feeding, and corrected gestational age at discharge were longer in the BPD group than in the non-BPD group. The Z-scores of physical growth at corrected gestational age of 36 weeks were lower in the BPD group than in the non-BPD group (P<0.05). The BPD group had a higher fluid intake and a lower calories intake in the first week than the non-BPD group (P<0.05). The starting dose and total amount of amino acids, glucose, and lipids in the first week were lower in the BPD group than in the non-BPD group (P<0.05). The BPD group had a higher glucose-to-lipid ratio on the third day and higher energy-to-nitrogen and glucose-to-lipid ratios on the seventh day after birth than the non-BPD group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Preterm infants with BPD had lower intake of amino acids and lipids and a lower proportion of calories provided by amino acids and lipids in the first week of life, which suggests an association between early parenteral nutrition intake and the development of BPD.


Subject(s)
Infant , Child , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Infant, Premature , Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Gestational Age , Amino Acids , Parenteral Nutrition/adverse effects , Glucose , Lipids
18.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3140-3148, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981449

ABSTRACT

The gene GeDTC encoding the dicarboxylate-tricarboxylate carrier protein in Gastrodia elata was cloned by specific primers which were designed based on the transcriptome data of G. elata. Bioinformatics analysis on GeDTC gene was carried out by using ExPASY, ClustalW, MEGA, etc. Positive transgenic plants and potato minituber were obtained by virtue of the potato genetic transformation system. Agronomic characters, such as size, weight, organic acid content, and starch content, of potato minituber were tested and analyzed and GeDTC gene function was preliminarily investigated. The results showed that the open reading frame of GeDTC gene was 981 bp in length and 326 amino acid residues were encoded, with a relative molecular weight of 35.01 kDa. It was predicted that the theoretical isoelectric point of GeDTC protein was 9.83, the instability coefficient was 27.88, and the average index of hydrophilicity was 0.104, which was indicative of a stable hydrophilic protein. GeDTC protein had a transmembrane structure and no signal peptide and was located in the inner membrane of mitochondria. The phylogenetic tree showed that GeDTC was highly homologous with DTC proteins of other plant species, among which GeDTC had the highest homology with DcDTC(XP_020675804.1) in Dendrobium candidum, reaching 85.89%. GeDTC overexpression vector pCambia1300-35Spro-GeDTC was constructed by double digests, and transgenic potato plants were obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated gene transformation. Compared with the wild-type plants, transgenic potato minituber harvested by transplanting had smaller size, lighter weight, lower organic acid content, and no significant difference in starch content. It is preliminarily induced that GeDTC is the efflux channel of tricarboxylate and related to the tuber development, which lays a foundation for further elucidating the molecular mechanism of G. elata tuber development.


Subject(s)
Gastrodia/genetics , Phylogeny , Amino Acids , Cloning, Molecular
19.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1824-1832, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981400

ABSTRACT

This study aims to develop the pre-column derivatization high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) method for the determination of 16 kinds of amino acids in Eucommia ulmoides leaves, and compare the content of amino acids in the leaves harvested at different time and under leaf-oriented cultivation mode(LCM) and arbor forest mode(AFM). The HPLC conditions are as below: phenyl isothiocyanate(PITC) as pre-column derivatization agent, Agilent ZORBAX C_(18 )column(4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm), mobile phase A of acetonitrile-water(80∶20), mobile phase B of 0.1 mol·L~(-1) sodium acetate solution-acetonitrile(94∶6), gradient elution, flow rate of 1.0 mL·min~(-1), injection volume of 5 μL, column temperature of 40 ℃, and detection wavelength of 254 nm. The HPLC profile indicated well separation of 16 kinds of amino acids and the amino acid content in E. ulmoides leaves was up to 16.26%. In addition, the amino acid content in leaves of E. ulmoides under LCM was higher than under AFM. The amino acid content varied with the harvesting time. Through orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis, the amino acids of E. ulmoides under LCM and AFM were compared, which can distinguish the leaves under LCM from those under AFM. Principal component analysis was applied to comprehensively score the amino acids of E. ulmoides leaves. The results showed that the score of leaves under LCM was higher than that under AFM. Nutritional evaluation results indicated that the proteins in E. ulmoides leaves belonged to high-quality vegetable proteins. The established method for the determination of amino acid content is reliable. With the amino acid content as index, the leaf quality of E. ulmoides under LCM is better than that under AFM. This study lays a theoretical basis for the promotion of LCM for E. ulmoides and the development of medicinal and edible products from E. ulmoides leaves.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids/metabolism , Eucommiaceae/chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Plant Leaves/chemistry
20.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1131-1141, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970428

ABSTRACT

The α-amino acid ester acyltransferase (SAET) from Sphingobacterium siyangensis is one of the enzymes with the highest catalytic ability for the biosynthesis of l-alanyl-l-glutamine (Ala-Gln) with unprotected l-alanine methylester and l-glutamine. To improve the catalytic performance of SAET, a one-step method was used to rapidly prepare the immobilized cells (SAET@ZIF-8) in the aqueous system. The engineered Escherichia coli (E. coli) expressing SAET was encapsulated into the imidazole framework structure of metal organic zeolite (ZIF-8). Subsequently, the obtained SAET@ZIF-8 was characterized, and the catalytic activity, reusability and storage stability were also investigated. Results showed that the morphology of the prepared SAET@ZIF-8 nanoparticles was basically the same as that of the standard ZIF-8 materials reported in literature, and the introduction of cells did not significantly change the morphology of ZIF-8. After repeated use for 7 times, SAET@ZIF-8 could still retain 67% of the initial catalytic activity. Maintained at room temperature for 4 days, 50% of the original catalytic activity of SAET@ZIF-8 could be retained, indicating that SAET@ZIF-8 has good stability for reuse and storage. When used in the biosynthesis of Ala-Gln, the final concentration of Ala-Gln reached 62.83 mmol/L (13.65 g/L) after 30 min, the yield reached 0.455 g/(L·min), and the conversion rate relative to glutamine was 62.83%. All these results suggested that the preparation of SAET@ZIF-8 is an efficient strategy for the biosynthesis of Ala-Gln.


Subject(s)
Escherichia coli/genetics , Glutamine , Zeolites/chemistry , Amino Acids
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