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1.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1305-1312, July-Aug. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131487

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se avaliar níveis de proteína e aminoácidos, mantendo-se as relações entre os aminoácidos para suínos machos, castrados, de30kg a 50kg. Foram utilizados 50 suínos machos, castrados, com peso inicial de 30,35±1,96kg, distribuídos em delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições com dois animais por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram em níveis de lisina digestível, mantendo-se a relação com os demais aminoácidos digestíveis: 0,73%; 0,83%; 0,93%; 1,03% e 1,13% na dieta. Avaliou-se desempenho, avaliação de carcaça, parâmetros sanguíneos e digestibilidade das dietas. Houve efeito quadrático para ganho de peso, conversão alimentar e níveis de creatinina em função dos níveis de lisina, com níveis ótimos estimados em 0,92%, 0,93% e 0,93%, respectivamente. As características de carcaça não foram influenciadas significativamente pelos tratamentos. Constatou-se efeito linear positivo para digestibilidade aparente da proteína bruta, da proteína total e da ureia sérica. Conclui-se que os níveis de proteína e lisina digestível recomendados para dietas de suínos machos, castrados, da raça Duroc, na fase de crescimento I, são de 16,70% e 0,93%, respectivamente, pois esses níveis proporcionaram melhorias no ganho de peso, na conversão alimentar e na creatinina sérica.(AU)


The objective of this study was to evaluate digestible lysine levels, keeping the relation among amino acids for Duroc barrows from 30 to 50kg. Fifty Duroc barrows (30.35±1.96kg live weight) were allotted in a completely randomized experimental design, divided in five treatments with five replicates and two animals in each experimental unit. The treatments consisted of digestible lysine levels (0.73%; 0.83%; 0.93%; 1.03% and 1.13%), keeping the relation with other essential amino acids. Performance, carcass characteristics, blood parameters and digestibility of the diets were evaluated. There was a quadratic response on weight gain, feed conversion and creatinine serum concentration as a function of the digestible lysine levels, with the greater levels obtained at 0.92%, 0.93% and 0.93%, respectively. The carcass characteristics were not influenced by the treatments. There was a linear increase of apparent digestibility of crude protein, total serum protein and urea. Results suggest that the requirement of protein and digestible lysine was 16.70% and 0.93%, respectively, providing improvements on weight gain, feed conversion and creatinine serum concentration of Duroc barrows in the growth phase.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Swine , Blood , Weight Gain , Diet , Lysine , Creatinine , Amino Acids, Essential
2.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(4): 658-668, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138601

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Regular lentil consumption may improve health and prevent certain chronic diseases. Lentils have high antioxidant activity and contain proteins, essential amino acids, fiber, minerals, and bioactive compounds. However, few studies have investigated the physicochemical characteristics of lentils when subjected to various soaking and cooking methods. We aimed to evaluate the effects of different hydration and cooking practices on the hydration coefficient, cooking time, primary metabolism compounds (lipids, proteins, fibers, carbohydrates), energy value, soluble protein, color and texture characteristics, amino acid and mineral profiles, bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, and antinutritional factors (phytates and tannins) in lentils. Hydration water was preheated to initial temperatures of 25°C or 90°C. Lentils pre-hydrated with water at 90°C needed less cooking time, obtained greater softness, and had less decreases in amino acids, minerals, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant activity.


RESUMEN El consumo regular de lentejas puede mejorar la salud y prevenir ciertas enfermedades crónicas. Las lentejas tienen una alta actividad antioxidante y contienen proteínas, aminoácidos esenciales, fibra, minerales y compuestos bioactivos. Sin embargo, pocos estudios han investigado las características fisicoquímicas de las lentejas sometidas a varios métodos de remojo y cocción. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar los efectos de diferentes procesos de cocción e hidratación sobre el coeficiente de hidratación, el tiempo de cocción, los metabolitos primarios (lípidos, proteínas, fibras, carbohidratos), el valor energético, la proteína soluble, color y textura, los perfiles de aminoácidos y minerales, los compuestos bioactivos, la actividad antioxidante y los factores antinutricionales (fitatos y taninos) en la lenteja. El agua de hidratación se precalentó a temperaturas iniciales de 25°C o 90°C. Las lentejas prehidratadas con agua a 90°C necesitaban menos tiempo de cocción y obtuvieron una mayor suavidad, disminuyendo también la pérdida de aminoácidos, minerales, compuestos bioactivos y actividad antioxidante.


Subject(s)
Health , Chronic Disease , Lens Plant , Amino Acids, Essential , Proteins , Metabolism , Minerals , Antioxidants
3.
Vitae (Medellín) ; 27(2): 1-9, 2020. Ilustraciones
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1120311

ABSTRACT

Background: Although legume protein extracts are useful in food preparation and processing as foam stabilizers and as viscosity, palatability and nutrition enhancers, many legume proteins from South America have not been characterized extensively. One such legume is the ñuña bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), which is cooked using dry heat until the cotyledons rapidly expand with a pop. The bean is widely cultivated in the Andes, but almost unknown elsewhere. Objective & Methods: In this study, we characterized ten functional properties of a ñuña protein extract using standard food analysis methods. Results: The extract was similar to other legume protein extracts for many properties (amino acid profile, proximate analysis, yield, water absorption, color, isoelectric point, and thermogravimetric analysis). The electrophoretic analysis revealed that the sample was nearly pure phaseolin. Additionally, the ability to form foam and increase solution viscosity were comparatively low when contrasted to other extracts. Conclusion: These properties make ñuña protein extract useful as a nearly pure phaseolin nutrition enhancer in beverages where foaming and high viscosity are undesirable, such as in fortified beverages, drinkable yogurts, or protein supplements. The extract may also have relevance as a weight-loss supplement. Therefore, we expect that incorporating ñuña protein in processed foods would be a straightforward process.


Antecedentes: Los extractos proteicos de leguminosas son muy utilizados en la preparación y procesamiento de alimentos como agentes estabilizadores de espuma y viscosidad, así como potenciadores de palatabilidad y nutrición. Sin embargo, muchas proteínas de leguminosas procedentes de Sudamérica no han sido caracterizadas extensamente. Una de ellas es el frijol ñuña (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), el cual se cocina utilizando calor seco hasta que los cotiledones se expanden rápidamente y explotan. La ñuña se cultiva ampliamente en los Andes, pero es mayormente desconocida en otras partes del mundo. Objetivo y Métodos: En el presente estudio, caracterizamos diez propiedades funcionales de un extracto proteico de ñuña, utilizando métodos estándares para análisis de alimentos. Resultados: Varias propiedades del extracto analizado fueron similares a las de los extractos proteicos de otras leguminosas (perfil de aminoácidos, análisis proximal, rendimiento, absorción de agua, color, punto isoeléctrico y análisis termogravimétrico). El análisis electroforético reveló que la muestra es mayormente faseolina. Además, el extracto analizado presentó baja capacidad para formar espuma e incrementar viscosidad de una solución a comparación de los otros extractos. Conclusión: Los resultados obtenidos indican que el extracto proteico de ñuña, que es casi faseolina pura, puede ser muy útil como potenciador nutricional de bebidas en las que la espuma y alta viscosidad son indeseadas, como es el caso de bebidas fortificadas, yogures bebibles o suplementos proteicos. El extracto podría tener relevancia como suplemento para pérdida de peso. Por lo tanto, esperamos que el uso de proteína de ñuña sea un proceso sencillo en la industria de alimentos procesados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Phaseolus , Food Additives , Amino Acids, Essential
4.
Rev. MVZ Córdoba ; 24(3): 7346-7354, sep.-dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115260

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estimar en vacas en pastoreo, tanto la reproducibilidad como la precisión del balance de metionina (Met) y lisina (Lis), aminoácidos más limitantes en la producción de leche, cuando se comparan los valores predichos versus los valores observados. Materiales y métodos. Se usaron 12 vacas durante un periodo de 20 días. Control: animales pastoreando y suplementados con alimento balanceado; Met-Lis: igual al control y el suplemento se ajustó con Lis y Met protegida. Para los valores predichos para la suplementación de Met y Lis, se tuvo en cuenta el promedio del consumo de materia seca (CMS) del hato, basado en la oferta y el consumo de pasto y los valores de proteína microbiana. Los valores observados se determinaron con base en el CMS individual usando marcadores externos e internos, además, la producción individual de proteína microbiana. Se realizó una prueba de t pareada y un modelo de predicción para determinar la eficiencia fue determinado usando el error cuadrático medio de predicción (ECMP) y el coeficiente de concordancia (CCC). Resultados. Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre la suplementación y el balance de Met y Lis, entre los valores predichos y los valores observados para el CMS del forraje, la digestibilidad de la proteína microbiana, la producción de proteína microbiana, el suministro y el balance de Lis y Met. El CCC del balance de Lis y Met fue bajo (0.10), el ECMP fue alto, excepto para el CMS, que tuvo una concordancia moderada (0.63) y un bajo ECMP(4.42). Conclusiones. Estos resultados demuestran la falta de precisión de las herramientas que se usan para balancear las raciones individuales de vacas en pastoreo, ya que subestiman la suplementación y el balance de los aminoácidos.


ABSTRACT Objective. The aim of this study was to determine in grazing cows, the reproducibility and accuracy of the balance between predicted values, when compared with the observed values for the most limiting amino acids in milk protein synthesis, the methionine (Met) and Lysine (Lys). Materials and methods. Twelve lactating cows were used for a 20-day experimental period. Control: animals grazing and supplemented with balanced food; Met-Lys: same as control and supplemented with adjusted rumen protected Met and Lys. For Met and Lys supply predicted values, it was taking in account the average of the dry matter intake (DMI) of the herd, based in offer and foraging control and values of microbial protein data. Observed values were determined based in the individual DMI intake, using external and internal markers and the individual microbial protein production. A t-paired-sample test was performed and the efficiency of the model's prediction was determined using the mean square prediction error (MSPE) and the concordance coefficient (CCC). Results. Significant differences were found between the predicted and observed values for DMI forage, digestible microbial protein and microbial protein production, supply and the balance of Lys and Met. The CCC for Lys and Met balance were low (0.10), the MSPE was high except for the total DMI with a moderate concordance (0.63) and low MSPE (4.42). Conclusions. These results indicate a lack of precision of the tools, which underestimates the supply and balance of amino acids in individual grazing cows.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Cattle , Amino Acids, Essential , Lysine , Methionine
5.
Rev. MVZ Córdoba ; 24(3): 7322-7327, sep.-dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115257

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo. Evaluar la reducción de los niveles de proteína bruta sin alterar la relación de aminoácidos esenciales en pollos de engorde criollos de uno a 42 días de edad. Materiales y métodos. Se realizaron dos ensayos que comprendieron la fase inicial (un a 21 días) y crecimiento (22 a 42 días). Se utilizaron 630 pollos de la línea Redbro de un día de edad, distribuidos en un diseño completamente al azar, con cinco tratamientos y seis repeticiones de 21 aves cada una, totalizando 30 unidades experimentales distribuidas en corrales con abrigo. Los niveles reducidos de la proteína bruta para la fase inicial fueron: 21.5; 21.0; 20.5; 20.0 y 19.5% y para la fase de crecimiento: 19.0; 18.5; 18.0; 17.5 y 17.0%. En todos los tratamientos se mantuvo la proporción mínima entre aminoácidos esenciales y lisina. Las características de desempeño evaluadas fueron: ganancia de peso, consumo de ración y conversión alimenticia. Resultados. No hubo diferencia (p>0.05) en la reducción de proteína bruta para ninguna de las variables en todas las fases, excepto para conversión alimenticia (p<0.05) en la fase de crecimiento que mejoró con 18.2% de proteína bruta. Conclusiones. Los niveles de proteína bruta para pollos criollos de engorde de la línea Redbro, pueden ser reducidos a 19.5 y 18.2% para la fases inicial y de crecimiento, respectivamente, siempre cuando se mantengan las relaciones adecuadas de aminoácidos con lisina digestible y se atiendan las exigencias de los aminoácidos limitantes.


ABSTRACT Objective . To evaluate the reduction of crude protein levels, without altering the ratio of essential amino acids, of free-range chickens, of one at 42 days old. Materials and methods. Two trials were performed comprising the initial phase (one to 21 days) and growth (22 to 42 days). A total of 630 chicks of the Redbro line of one day old, were distributed in a completely randomized design with five treatments and six replicates of 21 birds each, totaling 30 experimental units consisting of a shelter area and corrals. The levels reduced of crude protein for the initial phase were: 21.5, 21.0, 20.5, 20.0 and 19.5% and for the growth phase: 19.0, 18.5, 18.0, 17.5 and 17.0%. In all the treatments were maintained the minimum ratio between essential amino acids and lysine. The performance characteristics evaluated were: weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion. Results. There was no effect (p>0.05) of the crude protein reduction for any of the variables in all phases, except for feed conversion (p<0.05) that improved with 18.20% in the growth phase. Conclusions. Crude protein levels for chickens of the Redbro line, can be reduced to 19.5% and 18.2% for the initial and growth phases, respectively, provided that the ideal amino acid ratios are maintained with digestible lysine and meet the requirements of limiting amino acids.


Subject(s)
Chickens , Amino Acids, Essential
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764307

ABSTRACT

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignant tumor of the liver and the third most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. HCC is caused by infection of hepatitis B/C virus and liver dysfunctions, such as alcoholic liver disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and cirrhosis. Amino acids are organic substances containing amine and carboxylic acid functional groups. There are over 700 kinds of amino acids in nature, but only about 20 of them are used to synthesize proteins in cells. Liver is an important organ for protein synthesis, degradation and detoxification as well as amino acid metabolism. In the liver, there are abundant non-essential amino acids, such as alanine, aspartate, glutamate, glycine, and serine and essential amino acids, such as histidine and threonine. These amino acids are involved in various cellular metabolisms, the synthesis of lipids and nucleotides as well as detoxification reactions. Understanding the role of amino acids in the pathogenesis of liver and the effects of amino acid intake on liver disease can be a promising strategy for the prevention and treatment of liver disease. In this review, we describe the biochemical properties and functions of amino acids and to review how they have been applied to treatment of liver diseases.


Subject(s)
Alanine , Amino Acids , Amino Acids, Essential , Aspartic Acid , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Fibrosis , Glutamic Acid , Glycine , Hepatitis , Histidine , Liver Diseases , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic , Liver , Metabolism , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Nucleotides , Serine , Therapeutic Uses , Threonine
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763718

ABSTRACT

Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are essential amino acids that are not synthesized in our body; thus, they need to be obtained from food. They have shown to provide many physiological and metabolic benefits such as stimulation of pancreatic insulin secretion, milk production, adipogenesis, and enhanced immune function, among others, mainly mediated by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. After identified as a reliable marker of obesity and type 2 diabetes in recent years, an increasing number of studies have surfaced implicating BCAAs in the pathophysiology of other diseases such as cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and even neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease. Here we discuss the most recent progress and review studies highlighting both correlational and potentially causative role of BCAAs in the development of these disorders. Although we are just beginning to understand the intricate relationships between BCAAs and some of the most prevalent chronic diseases, current findings raise a possibility that they are linked by a similar putative mechanism.


Subject(s)
Adipogenesis , Alzheimer Disease , Amino Acids, Branched-Chain , Amino Acids, Essential , Cardiovascular Diseases , Chronic Disease , Heart Failure , Insulin , Metabolism , Milk , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Obesity , Sirolimus
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A very low protein diet (VLPD) with ketoacid analogs of essential amino acids (KA/EAA) administration can remarkably influence protein synthesis and metabolic disturbances of patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), and may also slow the decline in renal function. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was carried out to monitor renal progression and metabolic and nutritional status among 140 patients with CKD stage III or IV. One group (n = 70) was on a low protein diet (LPD) with 0.6 g of protein intake, and another group (n = 70) was on a VLPD with 0.3 g of protein and KA/EAA supplementation of 100 mg/kg/day for 12 months. RESULTS: At 12-month follow-up, estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) significantly decreased from 41.6 ± 10.2 to 36.4 ± 8.8 mL/min/1.73 m2 (P 10% annually (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.42; 95% confidence interval, 0.23–0.79; P = 0.006) and significant correlations were found between using VLPD plus KA/EEA and increased GFR. CONCLUSION: VLPD supplementation with KA/EAA is associated with delayed renal progression while preserving the nutritional status in the patients with CKD. Co-administration of VLPD and KA/EAA may prove an effective alternative to conservative management of CKD.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids, Essential , Cohort Studies , Diet, Protein-Restricted , Follow-Up Studies , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Incidence , Nutritional Status , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Retrospective Studies
9.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(3): 489-495, mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-965022

ABSTRACT

The objective was to verify the effectiveness of ketoanalogues in dogs with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) stage 3. Controlled randomized clinical trial was performed with twenty dogs with CKD stage 3. Animals were subjected to: Group 1 (control): conventional therapy (CT) for CKD; Group 2: CT and 60mg/kg, OA, q48h of keto-supplementa; Group 3, CT and 60mg/kg, OA, q24h of keto-supplementa; and Group 4, CT and 120mg/kg, OA, q12h of keto-supplementa. All dogs received canine renal diet. Animals were evaluated at the beginning of therapy and after 15 and 30 days. Complete blood count (CBC), serum urea, creatinine, phosphorus, calcium, potassium and sodium and urine protein/creatinine (UPC) ratio were analyzed. The use of ketoanalogues in dogs with CKD stage 3 during the period of 30 days showed no efficacy, in any of the studies dosages, to improve signs and symptoms of the disease, improve the values of CBC, reduce serum urea and creatinine, normalize electrolytes or reduce UPC. It is concluded that the use of ketoanalogues does not impact the clinical outcomes in dogs with CKD stage 3.(AU)


O objetivo foi de verificar a eficácia da suplementação com cetoanálogos em cães com Doença Renal Crônica (DRC) grau 3. Um ensaio clínico controlado e randomizado foi realizado com 20 cães com DRC grau 3. Os animais foram divididos em 4 grupos: grupo 1 (controle): terapia convencional (TC) para DRC; grupo 2: TC e 60mg/kg, VO, q48h de cetoanálogoa; grupo 3: TC e 60mg/kg, VO, q24h de cetoanálogoa; e grupo 4, TC e 120mg/kg, VO, q12h de cetoanálogoa. Todos os cães receberam ração renal para cães. Os animais foram avaliados no início da terapia e após 15 e 30 dias. Hemograma completo, ureia, creatinina, fósforo, cálcio, potássio e sódio séricos e a razão proteína creatinina (RPC) urinária foram analisados. Foi verificado que o uso dos cetoanálogos em cães com DRC grau 3 durante 30 dias não mostrou eficácia, em nenhuma das dosagens utilizadas, em melhorar os sinais clínicos e sintomatologia da doença, os valores do hemograma e ureia e creatinina séricos, normalizar eletrólitos e reduzir RPC. Concluiu-se que o uso de cetoanálogos não impacta na melhora de sintomatologia clínica em cães com CKD grau 3. Como esse parece ser o primeiro ensaio clínico sobre cetoanálogos em cães com CKD, mais estudos podem ser necessários com maior acompanhamento e maiores grupos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Dogs/abnormalities , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/veterinary , Clinical Study , Amino Acids, Essential/administration & dosage , Keto Acids/administration & dosage
10.
IJB-Iranian Journal of Biotechnology. 2017; 15 (2): 102-110
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-192448

ABSTRACT

Background: Rice seed proteins are lacking essential amino acids [EAAs]. Genetic engineering offers a fast and sustainable method to solve this problem as it allows the specific expression of heterologous EAA-rich proteins. The use of selectable marker gene is essential for generation of transgenic crops, but might also lead to potential environmental and food safety problems. Therefore, the production of marker-free transgenic crops is becoming an extremely attractive alternative and could contribute to the public acceptance of transgenic crops


Objectives: The present study was conducted to examine whether AmA1 can be expressed specifically in rice seeds, and generate marker-free transgenic rice with improved nutritive value


Materials and Methods: AmA1 was transferred into rice using Agrobacterium-mediated co-transformation system with a twin T-DNA binary vector and its integration in rice genome was confirmed by southern blot. Transcription of AmA1 was analyzed by Real-Time PCR and its expression was verified by western analysis. Protein and amino acid content were measured by the Kjeldahl method and the high-speed amino acid analyzer, respectively


Results: Five selectable marker-free homozygous transgenic lines were obtained from the progeny. The expression of recombinant AmA1 was confirmed by the observation of a 35 kDa band in SDS-PAGE and western blot. Compared to the wild-type control, the total protein contents in the seeds of five homozygous lines were increased by 1.06 tilde 12.87%. In addition, the content of several EAAs, including lysine, threonine, and valine was increased significantly in the best expressing line


Conclusions: The results indicated that the amino acid composition of rice grain could be improved by seed-specific expression of AmA1


Subject(s)
Amaranthus , Agrobacterium , Amino Acids, Essential , Genes, Plant
11.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 68(4): 983-990, jul.-ago. 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-792485

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a morfometria intestinal por meio da inclusão de níveis de treonina digestível na dieta de codornas para corte em crescimento. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial: quatro níveis nutricionais e três segmentos do intestino com dez repetições. Foram coletadas amostras dos três segmentos do intestino delgado. As variáveis estudadas foram área e altura das vilosidades intestinais, profundidade de cripta e relação vilo e cripta. No estudo da altura da vilosidade, foi obtida interação significativa para todas as idades estudadas. A profundidade da cripta em codornas de corte aos 21 dias de idade mostrou-se significativa para as variáveis inclusão de treonina na dieta e para a porção do intestino estudada. Na profundidade da cripta aos 42 dias, ficou evidenciada uma interação significativa entre níveis de inclusão de treonina na dieta e porção do intestino delgado. No estudo da relação altura de vilosidade e profundidade de cripta em codornas aos 21 dias de idade, foram encontrados resultados significativos para a interação tratamento e porção do intestino. Aos 21 e aos 42 dias de idade, a suplementação de 1,04 e 0,78%, respectivamente, de treonina digestível na dieta promove melhores resultados para morfometria intestinal.(AU)


The aim of the study was to evaluate intestinal morphology data by including different levels of threonine in the diet of meat quails in the growing phase. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial arrangement: four nutritional levels and three intestinal segments with ten repetitions. Samples were collected to obtain morphometry data (villi and crypt) of the three segments of the small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum). In the study of the intestinal villus height a highly significant interaction was obtained for all ages studied. A crypt depth was evidenced at 42 days with a significant interaction between levels of inclusion of threonine in the diet and small intestine. In the study of the relationship villus height and depth crypt quails at 21 days of age, the results were significant for the interaction treatment (T) and part of the intestine. At 21 and 42 days of age, supplementation of 1.04 and 0.78% respectively of threonine in the diet promotes better outcomes for intestinal morphology.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Coturnix/physiology , Intestines/anatomy & histology , Threonine , Amino Acids, Essential , Poultry
12.
s.l; s.n; feb. 2016.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-847970

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Antecedentes: El presente informe expone la evaluación del producto nutricional Fórmula Nutricional a base de Aminoácidos Esenciales (AAE) respecto a su uso en pacientes con diagnóstico de Defecto del Ciclo de la Urea (DCU). Aspectos Generales: El ciclo de la urea es la vía metabólica por la cual el amonio, proveniente de la degradación de las proteínas, es transformado en urea para poder ser eliminada del \r\norganismo. Cinco son las enzimas que se encargan de llevar a cabo este procesamiento: carbamilfosfato sintetasa (CPS), ornitina transcarbamilasa (OTC), argininasuccinato sintetasa (ASS), argininasuccinato liasa (ASL) y arginasa (ARG). Una sexta enzima, N-acetilglutamato sintetasa, provee un cofactor necesario para la síntesis de carbamilfosfato, no es considerada una enzima directa del ciclo de la urea. Los defectos del ciclo de la urea corresponden a la deficiencia congénita completa o parcial de alguna de las enzimas de este ciclo. Una triada característica representa a estos errores innatos del metabolismo, todos cursan con niveles de amonio muy elevado, encefalopatía progresiva que causa daño neurológico y alcalosis respiratoria. Tecnología Sanitaria de Interés: Fórmula a Base de Aminoacidos Esenciales: La fórmula a base de AAE es una formula diseñada como parte de la alimentación esencial para niños con DCU. Contiene una mezcla de aminoácidos enriquecidos con cistina y tirosina, además de grasas, vitaminas, minerales y elementos traza en cantidades acordes para la edad. Esta fórmula puede combinarse con leche materna o una formula maternizada estándar según la tolerancia del paciente. METODOLOGÍA: Estrategia de Búqueda: La búsqueda de la literatura respecto a los efectos del uso de la fórmula a base de AAE para pacientes con diagnóstico de DCU se realizó en las bases: MEDLINE, Translating Research into Practice (TRIPDATABASE) y Cochrane Library. La búsqueda de GPC se realizó en las páginas de internet de la National Institute for Health and Care Excellence \r\n(NICE), la Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) y el repositorio creado por la agencia para la investigación en salud y calidad (Agency for Healthcare Research and uality (AHRQ). Adicionalmente, se hizo una búsqueda en la página de registro de nsayos clínicos www.clinicaltrials.gov, para poder identificar ensayos en desarrollo o que se hayan realizado y no estén publicados. RESULTADOS: Sinopsis de la Evidencia: Se realizó la búsqueda de la evidencia científica que sustente el uso de una fórmula a base de AAE para pacientes con diagnóstico de DCU. Guías Clínicas: la búsqueda identificó una guía para el diagnóstico y manejo del DCU; Evaluaciones de tecnología sanitaria: no se identificó alguna evaluación de la \r\nsuplementación con AAE en pacientes con DCU; Revisiones sistemáticas: no se identificó alguna revisión acerca de los efectos de la suplementación con AAE en pacientes con DCU; Ensayos clínicos: \r\nno se identificó algún ensayo clínico que evaluara los efectos de la suplementación con AAE en pacientes con DCU; Estudios observacionales: se incluyeron x estudios descriptivos acerca; Ensayos Clínicos registrados en www.clinicaltrials.gov: no se identificaron estudios que tengan como objetivo evaluar los efectos de la suplementación con AAE en pacientes con DCU, en su lugar se identificó registros. CONCLUSIONES: En la presente evaluación de tecnología sanitaria identificó evidencia de muy baja calidad respecto al uso de fórmulas en base a AAE para el manejo de pacientes con DCU. La escasa información proviene de algunos estudios descriptivos de series de casos. En estos estudios se revela que existe una gran variabilidad en los criterios utilizados para la prescripción de los AAE y en la forma de administrarlos. El DCU es una enfermedad rara, por lo que la disponibilidad de pacientes para realizar un ensayo clínico es muy baja. Se requieren estudios observacionales bien diseñados para conocer diversos aspectos de esta condición, incluyendo el diagnostico, evolución y tratamiento. Hasta el momento no existe evidencia de suficiente calidad que sustente un claro beneficio del uso de fórmulas en base a AAE como parte del manejo a largo plazo del DCU. En su lugar, el criterio aceptado actualmente para sustentar el beneficio de la suplementación con AAE procede de un razonamiento de asociación biológicamente plausible. Concretamente, el menor contenido de \r\nnitrógeno de estas fórmulas disminuiría la carga de amonio y por tanto el daño neurológico en etapas tempranas del desarrollo. Sin embargo, este razonamiento basado en la plausibilidad biológica requiere \r\nser comprobado en el campo clínico, pero debido a la ocurrencia rara de esta condición, una estrategia de investigación constituye los estudios observacionales con recolección sistemática de la información y de largo plazo. Sus resultados ayudaran a mostrar los beneficios de las diferentes intervenciones del manejo de la DCU, incluyendo el uso de AAE. Por lo expuesto, el Instituto de Evaluación de Tecnologías en Salud e \r\nInvestigación-IETSI, aprueba temporalmente el uso de la formula en base a AAE para el manejo de pacientes con DCU. Dado que la evidencia que respalda el uso de fórmulas a base de AAE para el manejo de pacientes con DCU es aún limitada, se establece que los efectos de la aprobación de su uso, se evaluarán con los datos de los pacientes que hayan recibido la formula a base de AAE por el lapso de un año para determinar el \r\nimpacto de su uso en varios desenlaces clínicos. Esta información será tomada en cuenta en la re-evaluación de este medicamento para efectos de un nuevo dictamen al terminar la vigencia del presente Dictamen Preliminar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Amino Acids, Essential/administration & dosage , Urea Cycle Disorders, Inborn/drug therapy , Health Evaluation , Peru , Technology Assessment, Biomedical
13.
Rev. MVZ Córdoba ; 21(1): 5137-5144, Jan.-Apr. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: lil-797426

ABSTRACT

Objective. This study aimed to determine the marginal efficiency of threonine utilization in growing pigs by using the nitrogen balance technique. Materials and methods. Twelve castrated pigs with an average live weight of 72±2 kg were housed in metabolic cages maintained in a temperature controlled room of 22±3°C. The treatments consisted of four diets calculated to meet 30, 45, 60 and 70% of the nutritional requirements of standardized ileal digestible threonine. The amino acids others than threonine were maintained at least 15% above threonine requirements, expressed in terms of ideal levels. The amount of feed supplied was calculate to provide 2.6 times the metabolizable energy requirements for maintenance and adjusted daily according to an expected daily gain rate of 0.8 kg. Results. Pigs consumed 1.65 g kg-1 BW0.75 nitrogen daily, on average and 61% was retained and, as a result, 39% was excreted, being 31% through the feces and the remainder (69%) in the urine. The pigs showed a linear retention of threonine in response to the increase of standardized threonine intake. For each gram of standardized threonine intake 0.37 g were lost during the metabolism. Conclusions. It is concluded that for calculating nutritional requirements of standardized threonine of pigs by the factorial method, it is possible to use the utilization marginal efficiency of 0.63.


Objetivo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la eficiencia marginal del uso de treonina para cerdos en fase de crecimiento, por medio de la técnica de balance de nitrógeno. Material y métodos. Fueron utilizados doce cerdos machos castrados con peso promedio de 72±2 kg alojados en jaulas metabólicas climatizadas a una temperatura ambiente de 22±3°C. Los tratamientos consistieron en cuatro dietas calculadas para 30, 45, 60 y 70% de las necesidades nutricionales de treonina digestible estandarizada. Los demás aminoácidos se añadieron a las dietas para lograr una proporción de al menos 15% de sus necesidades expresadas con relación a la treonina. La cantidad de alimento proporcionado se calculó para suministrar 2.6 veces la energía metabolizable y ajustada todos los dias, según una tasa de ganancia media diaria de 0.8 kg. Resultados. Los cerdos consumieron 1.65 g kg-1 PV0.75 de nitrógeno por dia. En promedio 61% de nitrógeno ingerido se conservó y 39% fue excretado por el animal. El 31% se excretó en las heces y el resto (69%) en la orina. Los cerdos mostraron una retención lineal de treonina, con relación al aumento en la ingesta de treonina digestible estandarizada. Por cada gramo de treonina digestible estandarizada ingerido 0.37 g se perdieron durante el metabolismo. Conclusiones. Se concluye que, para el cálculo de las necesidades nutricionales de treonina digestible estandarizada para cerdos por método factorial, es posible utilizar la eficiencia marginal del uso de treonina a 0.63.


Subject(s)
Diet , Amino Acids, Essential , Livestock Industry , Nitrogen , Nutritional Requirements , Proteins
14.
Rev. med. Risaralda ; 20(1): 29-33, ene.-jun. 2014.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: lil-729645

ABSTRACT

La caseína hace parte de las proteínas secretadas en la leche de la mayoría de los mamíferos, es una fosfoproteína producida por cuatro genes que codifican para las caseínas a s1, a s2, β y κ, las cuales se organizan en forma de micelas o unidades solubles. Las caseínas tienen un alto contenido de aminoácidos esenciales que se separan de la parte acuosa por acción de enzimas como la quimosina, la cual precipita la proteína en la elaboración quesos. Dentro de la caseínas de la leche, la kappa-caseína tiene gran influencia en la composición de la leche en relación con su capacidad de coagulación, tiempo de formación del cuajo, tasa de formación de la cuajada, y vigor del coágulo en la producción de queso para consumo humano. El conocimiento de los factores que definen el nivel de kappa caseína en la leche es de relevancia para los productores y procesadores, puesto que la elevación de su contenido puede derivar en un mayor rendimiento del producto para la elaboración de derivados lácteos y, a su vez, en un mayor beneficio económico.


Casein is a phosphoprotein secreted in the milk of most mammal species. It belongs to a group of proteins coded by four genes, namely a s1, a s2, β and κ, which are organized in micelles or soluble units. Proteins from this group have a high content of essential amino acids. These molecules are separated by precipitation from the aqueous part by enzymes, such as chymosin, during the production of cheese. Moreover, the caseins, kappa-casein plays a major role on milk coagulation, thus, influencing the rennet formation time, the curd production rate and the consistency of cheese made for human consumption. Knowledge on the factors involved in regulating kappa-casein levels in milk, is of the most relevant aspects to milk producers and dairy product manufacturers given that an increase in its content, may improve milk yield and finally, economic profit.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cattle , Proteins , Caseins , Dairy Products , Milk , Phosphoproteins , Cheese , Chymosin , Amino Acids, Essential
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 45(10): 875-890, Oct. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-647756

ABSTRACT

Skeletal muscle is the major deposit of protein molecules. As for any cell or tissue, total muscle protein reflects a dynamic turnover between net protein synthesis and degradation. Noninvasive and invasive techniques have been applied to determine amino acid catabolism and muscle protein building at rest, during exercise and during the recovery period after a single experiment or training sessions. Stable isotopic tracers (13C-lysine, 15N-glycine, ²H5-phenylalanine) and arteriovenous differences have been used in studies of skeletal muscle and collagen tissues under resting and exercise conditions. There are different fractional synthesis rates in skeletal muscle and tendon tissues, but there is no major difference between collagen and myofibrillar protein synthesis. Strenuous exercise provokes increased proteolysis and decreased protein synthesis, the opposite occurring during the recovery period. Individuals who exercise respond differently when resistance and endurance types of contractions are compared. Endurance exercise induces a greater oxidative capacity (enzymes) compared to resistance exercise, which induces fiber hypertrophy (myofibrils). Nitrogen balance (difference between protein intake and protein degradation) for athletes is usually balanced when the intake of protein reaches 1.2 g·kg-1·day-1 compared to 0.8 g·kg-1·day-1 in resting individuals. Muscular activities promote a cascade of signals leading to the stimulation of eukaryotic initiation of myofibrillar protein synthesis. As suggested in several publications, a bolus of 15-20 g protein (from skimmed milk or whey proteins) and carbohydrate (± 30 g maltodextrine) drinks is needed immediately after stopping exercise to stimulate muscle protein and tendon collagen turnover within 1 h.


Subject(s)
Humans , Athletes , Amino Acids, Essential/administration & dosage , Dietary Proteins/administration & dosage , Exercise/physiology , Muscle Proteins/metabolism , Muscle, Skeletal/metabolism , Recommended Dietary Allowances , Amino Acids, Essential/pharmacokinetics , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Milk Proteins/administration & dosage , Muscle Proteins/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Physical Endurance/physiology , Protein Biosynthesis/physiology
16.
Rev. GASTROHNUP ; 14(1): 31-33, ene.15, 2012.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-645117

ABSTRACT

Los niños con cáncer se ven muy comprometidos en su alimentación en cuanto al consumo de proteínas y calorías. Las proteínas deben ser consumidas en cantidades suficientes de acuerdo a lo recomendado por la nutricionista infantil en su plan de alimentación. Las necesidades calóricas del niño con cáncer dependen de la edad, el peso, el estado nutricional, la actividad, el tipo de cáncer, las complicaciones y el estado del niño, entre otros, por lo que la nutricionista infantil junto con el pediatra, indicarán cómo ofrecer estas calorías al niño.


Children with cancer are very committed to their food in the consumption of protein and calories. Protein should be eaten in sufficient quantities in accordance with the recommendations of child nutrition in your food plan. Caloric needs of children with cáncer depends on age, weight, utritional status, type of cancer, complications and the child's condition, amongothers, so the child nutritionist with the pediatrician,tell you how to deliver these calories a child.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Neoplasms/classification , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Nutritionists/education , Nutritionists/supply & distribution , Proteins/administration & dosage , Proteins/classification , Proteins/pharmacology , Proteins , Amino Acids, Essential/administration & dosage , Amino Acids, Essential/classification , Amino Acids, Essential , Meat/classification , Fabaceae/classification
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-651206

ABSTRACT

This study was performed to examine the characteristics of protein of red crab (Chionoecetes japonicus) shell powder hydrolyzed by commercial proteases. Red crab shell was digested by commercial proteases, such as Protamex (P), Neutrase (N), Flavourzyme (F), Alcalase (A), Protease M (PM) and Protease A (PA). Protein yield analyzed by Biuret assay, absorbance at 280 nm and brix revealed that PA was the enzyme having the highest proteolytic activity. SDS PAGE showed that molecular weight of proteins produced by protease treatments was various and below 150 kDa. Combinational treatment of proteases (PA + P, PA + PM, PA + F, PA + A) was tried whether these increase protein hydrolysis from red crab shell powder compared to a PA single treatment. Soluble protein content was similar, but amino acid concentration by combinational treatments was higher than PA single treatment [PA + P 247.4 mg/g > PA + F (206.4 mg/g) > PA + A (133.4 mg/g) > PA + PM (59.1 mg/g) > PA (54.9 mg/g)]. Amino acid composition by combinational treatments was slightly different. Most abundant essential amino acids were phenylalanine, glycine, alanine, and leucine, whereas tyrosine and cystine were not detected.


Subject(s)
Alanine , Amino Acids, Essential , Biuret , Cystine , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Endopeptidases , Glycine , Hydrolysis , Leucine , Metalloendopeptidases , Molecular Weight , Peptide Hydrolases , Phenylalanine , Proteins , Subtilisins , Tyrosine
18.
Mycobiology ; : 257-265, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729509

ABSTRACT

L-Phenylalanine is one of the essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized in mammals in adequate amounts to meet the requirements for protein synthesis. Fungi and plants are able to synthesize phenylalanine via the shikimic acid pathway. L-Phenylalanine, derived from the shikimic acid pathway, is used directly for protein synthesis in plants or metabolized through the phenylpropanoid pathway. This phenylpropanoid metabolism leads to the biosynthesis of a wide array of phenylpropanoid secondary products. The first step in this metabolic sequence involves the action of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL). The discovery of PAL enzyme in fungi and the detection of 14CO2 production from 14C-ring-labeled phenylalanine and cinnamic acid demonstrated that certain fungi can degrade phenylalanine by a pathway involving an initial deamination to cinnamic acid, as happens in plants. In this review, we provide background information on PAL and a recent update on the presence of PAL genes in fungi.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids, Essential , Cinnamates , Deamination , Fungi , Mammals , Phenylalanine , Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase , Plants , Resin Cements , Shikimic Acid
19.
Rev. biol. trop ; 58(4): 1561-1576, dic. 2010. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-638020

ABSTRACT

Apparent digestion coefficients for dry matter, protein and essential amino acids in terrestrial ingredients for Pacific shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae). Protein quality mainly depends on the essential amino acid (EAA) profile, but also on its bioavailability, because EAA digestibility is generally lower than the analyzed amounts. This information is needed in the aquaculture industry for aquafeed formulation. For this purpose, the apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, protein, and essential amino acids of eight feedstuffs of terrestrial origin were determined for the juvenile whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (15-19g), using 1% chromic oxide as an inert marker. A reference diet was formulated and produced in the laboratory. Eight experimental diets were prepared each with 30% of one of the experimental ingredients added to the reference diet: casein, porcine byproduct meal poultry byproduct meal, corn meal, wheat gluten meal, soybean paste, sorghum meal, and wheat meal. The experiment consisted of a single-factor, completely randomized design with three replicates per treatment. Samples of ingredients, diets and feces were analyzed for nitrogen and amino acids. For amino acid assay, we used reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. To avoid partial loss of methionine and cystine, samples of ingredients, diets, and feces were oxidized with performic acid to methionine sulfone and cysteic acid prior to acid hydrolysis. The apparent dry matter and protein digestive utilization coefficients varied from 68% to 109% and from 70% to 103%, respectively. Apparent digestibility of protein for casein, soy paste, wheat meal and wheat gluten were very high (over 90%), corn gluten and poultry byproducts meal showed high protein digestibility (over 80%), but porcine byproducts meal and sorghum meal had low digestibility (76% and 70%, respectively). There was a reasonable, but not total, correspondence between apparent protein digestibility and average essential amino acid digestibility coefficients, except for arginine in corn gluten, phenylalanine and leucine in sorghum meal, phenylalanine in soy paste and lysine in wheat meal and poultry by-product meal. The most digestible feed ingredients for whiteleg shrimp were: wheat gluten, wheat meal and soy paste; poultry byproduct meal and corn gluten were less digestible and the lowest digestibility occurred in porcine byproduct meal and sorghum meal. Feedstuffs exhibited great variability in dry matter, protein and amino acid digestive utilization coefficients, which should be considered when formulating shrimp feeds. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4): 1561-1576. Epub 2010 December 01.


Los aminoácidos esenciales y su disponibilidad son importantes en la formulación de alimentos. La digestibilidad de materia seca (DAMS), proteína (DAP) y aminoácidos esenciales (DAAA) fueron determinados (triplicado) para el camarón blanco del Pacífico, Litopenaeus vannamei (15-19g), usando una dieta de referencia con 30% (de cada ingrediente). Los ingredientes evaluados fueron: caseína (CAS), harinas de subproductos avícolas (HSPA) y porcícolas (HSPP), gluten de maíz (GLM) y trigo (GLT), pasta de soya (PS), harinas de sorgo (HS) y trigo (HT). La DAMS y DAP variaron entre 68%-109% y 70%-103%, respectivamente. La DAP en CAS, PS, HT y GLT fue mayor al 90%, en GLM y HSPA superior a 80%; HSPP (76%) y HS (70%) tuvieron menor digestibilidad. Hubo concordancia entre DAP y DAAA, excepto para Arg en GLM, Fen y Leu en HS, Fen en PS y Lis en HT y HSPA. Se encontró una gran variabilidad en la DAMS, DAP y DAAA en los ingredientes, lo que debe ser tomado en cuenta al formular alimentos para camarón.


Subject(s)
Animals , Amino Acids, Essential/analysis , Animal Feed/analysis , Dietary Proteins/analysis , Digestion/physiology , Penaeidae/physiology , Energy Intake , Nutritive Value
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-177187

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Malnutrition is a strong predictor of increased morbidity and mortality in patients on maintenance dialysis. Although a number of studies were performed to determine effective treatment, there is no proven medication for malnutrition. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of keto acids (ketosteril(R)) on serum albumin levels in hemodialysis patients with hypoalbuminemia. METHODS: Hemodialysis patients with hypoalbumineia (serum albumin < or = 3.8 g/dL) were enrolled. Exclusion criteria were previous supplementation of keto acids before the initiation of dialysis, acute infection, liver cirrhosis, malignancy and persistent hypercalcemia. Patients were treated with ketosteril for 6 months and serum albumin levels were compared to age- and gender-matched hemodialysis patients. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the baseline serum albumin levels between ketosteril group (n=19) and the control group (n=19). After 6 months, the mean (+/-SD) serum albumin level in the ketosteril group rose from 3.46+/-0.40 g/dL to 3.66+/-0.37 g/dL (p=0.01), but not the control group. However, the difference between the two groups was not significant (p=0.06). Multivariate analysis showed that the ketosteril supplementation (p=0.03) and the baseline serum albumin level (< or = 3.4 g/dL, p=0.04) were predictors of increased serum albumin. There was no severe hypercalcemia during the study period. CONCLUSION: There was an improvement of serum albumin levels in hemodialysis patients with hypoalbuminemia after the supplementation of keto acids.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids, Essential , Dialysis , Humans , Hypercalcemia , Hypoalbuminemia , Keto Acids , Liver Cirrhosis , Malnutrition , Multivariate Analysis , Renal Dialysis , Serum Albumin
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