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Int. j. high dilution res ; 19(1/2): 39-55, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146517


The ultra-high dilutions (UHDs) have been widely used in the field of human, animal and plant treatment. In the present research, the effects of the potentized ultra-high dilutions (UHDs) on physiological and biochemical variations in Oryza sativaL. (rice) were investigated. Methods: To study the effect of UHDs (Calendula officinalisCalen. and Arnica montanaArn.) on the physiological and biochemical variations of the Oryza sativaL. (rice), 28 experiments were designed and statistically analyzed using the Design Expert 7.0.1 software over the general factorial design methodology. Three qualitative factors were studied including the UHDs/placebo usage, sterile/non-sterile experimental condition and the type and timing of the UHDs usage. The validated analysis was subjected to more extended studies on the variations in physiological growth, carbohydrate, protein content, pigment production, and amino acid patterns. To evaluate the effects of UHDs on rice, a desirable response percentage was formed from a number of healthy seedling productions, and the height percentage of the aerial parts and main roots were studied. Results: The statistical analysis resulted in a prediction model which was more than 97% correlates with experimental results. The results showed that the UHDs increased the pH variations, carbohydrate, protein and pigment levels each by ~2.5, ~1.5, ~1.4, and ~1.4 folds, respectively. Also compared to placebo, the amount and proportionof amino acids has significantly varied, showing a statistical effect on the germination and seedling growth of the rice, as well as the stress conditions caused by the sterilization process, seedlings entrance into the light and their transition into hydroponic culture medium.Conclusion: The use of UHDs leads to an increase in the production of chlorophyll, as well as carbohydrate and protein content. Moreover, it causes significant variations in the amino acid profile and the production of amino acids along with the photosynthesis, germination, and metabolism processes.(AU)

Oryza/physiology , High Potencies , Arnica , Calendula , Homeopathy/methods , Oryza/growth & development , Oryza/metabolism , Sterilization , Analysis of Variance , Germination/drug effects , Seedlings/drug effects , Amino Acids/analysis
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879913


OBJECTIVE@#To explore effects of different delivery and storage conditions on concentrations of amino acids and carnitines in neonatal dried blood spots (DBS), so as to provide evidence for improving accurate and reliable detection by tandem mass spectrometry.@*METHODS@#A total of 1 254 616 newborn DBS samples in Newborn Screening Center of Zhejiang Province were delivered and stored at room temperature (group A, @*RESULTS@#The concentrations of amino acids and carnitines in the three groups were skewed, and the differences in amino acid and carnitine concentrations among groups were statistically significant (all @*CONCLUSIONS@#Cold-chain logistics system and storage in low temperature and low humidity can effectively reduce degradation of some amino acids and carnitines in DBS, improve the accuracy and reliability of detection, and thus ensures the quality of screening for neonatal metabolic diseases.

Amino Acids/analysis , Carnitine/analysis , Dried Blood Spot Testing/standards , Humans , Humidity , Infant, Newborn , Neonatal Screening , Reproducibility of Results , Specimen Handling/standards , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Temperature , Time Factors
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2020. 236 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1290815


Os aminoácidos tipo micosporinas (MAAs) são compostos, produzidos por algumas espécies de cianobactérias e outros microorganismos, principalmente quando são expostos a radiação ultravioleta (UVR). Estes compostos, que vêm demonstrando funções fotoprotetoras e antioxidantes, têm sido pesquisados para aplicação em protetores solares e em produtos antienvelhecimento. O presente estudo focou na caracterização de cianobactérias e outros organismos quanto à produção de MAAs com potencial aplicação em cosméticos. Neste estudo foram desenvolvidos diversos métodos para identificação (via HPLC-DAD-MS/HRMS), purificação (via HPLC-DAD) e quantificação de MAAs (via LC-MS/MS). Pelo método de identificação de MAAs verificou-se que, das 75 cianobactérias estudadas, 27 cepas (38%) sintetizam MAAs. A cepa Oscilatoria sp. CMMA 1600 produziu a maior diversidade de MAAs. 10 MAAs diferentes foram identificados incluindo um MAA de massa molecular 316 Da. Através de dados espectroscópicos obtidos via HPLC-DAD-HRMS e RMN 1D e 2D confirmou-se que se tratava da micosporina-glicina-alanina. A biossíntese natural deste composto por cianobactérias foi relatada pela primeira vez neste estudo. Quanto à quantificação de MAAs, o protocolo de extração otimizado possibilitou uma excelente recuperação dos compostos de interesse, além de ser bastante simples e não utilizar solventes poluentes. As análises via LC-MS/MS foram realizadas através de experimentos de MRM em modo positivo usando uma coluna de fase reversa. O método validado permitiu determinar e quantificar com precisão os MAAs porphyra-334, shinorina e micosporina-glicina-alanina em corridas de apenas 6 minutos, com limites de deteção inferiores a 0,005 µ -1. Aplicando o método de LC-MS/MS realizaram experimentos de indução de MAAs através de exposição à UVR tendo-se observado um aumento da concentração de MAAs nas cepas que já sintetizam estes compostos e, outras cepas começaram a produzir pelo menos um MAA. As cepas de S. torques-reginae (ITEP-024 e ITEP-026) produziram a maior concentração de MAAs. A cepa ITEP-024 foi ainda exposta a diferentes radiações tendo-se observado que a UVB é que mais influencia a produção de MAAs. Neste estudo foi demonstrado o potencial das cianobactérias como produtores de MAAs que podem ser utilizados como fotoprotores em protetores solares

Mycosporines and mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are UV-absorbing compounds produced by cyanobacteria and other organisms, especially upon exposer to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). These compounds are photoprotective and some have additional antioxidant functíons useful to the natural cosmetics market. This study aims to identify MAAs-producing cyanobacteria with potential applicatíons in cosmetics. A HPLC-DAD-MS/HRMS method for the identification of MAAs was developed. Out of the 75 cyanobacteria studied, 27 strains (38%) synthesized MAAs. Oscilatoria sp. CMMA 1600, from homocyte type, produced the greatest diversity of MAAs. 10 different MAAs were identified including a MAA with molecular weight of 316 Da. The chemical structure of mycosporine-glycine-alanine was confirmed by 1D/2D NMR and HRMS analyses. This compound has never been reported from a natural source. In this study, a validated LC-MS/MS quantification method for MAAs is also presented. An easy-to-handle and rapid extraction procedure was developed which uses only water and volatile additives as the extractor solvents. The LC-MS/MS method was performed using multiple reaction monitoring in positive mode with a reverse-phase column. The method enabled the accurate determination and quantification of the MAAs porphyra-334, shinorine and mycosporine-glycine-alanine in a 6 minutes running time, with limits of detection < 0.005 µ MAAs induction experiments were performed through UVR exposure. MAAs are constitutively produced by some cyanobacteria and production was further enhanced following UVirradiance. Other strains start to produce at least one MAA after UV-irradiance. Sphaerospermopsis torques-reginae strain (ITEP-024 and ITEP-026) produced the highest concentration of these photoprotective compounds. S. torques-reginae ITEP 024 strain was further exposed to different radiation compositíons. MAAs were significantly influenced by UVB. In this study, the potential of cyanobacteria as MAA producers, that can be used as photoprotectors in sunscreens, has been demonstrated

Health Strategies , Cyanobacteria/classification , Cosmetics/classification , Amino Acids/analysis , Ultraviolet Rays , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Monitoring , Validation Study
Rev. chil. nutr ; 46(6): 783-791, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058142


ABSTRACT The need to obtain nutritious foods from new sources and lower waste in industry has created a high interest in studying different parts of plants or foods that today are considered waste, but could be considered by-products with high nutritional value with potential use in human diets. Pumpkin seeds are commonly considered as waste but they have a high content of fatty and amino acids, which when used as a by-product or ingredient can add value to food products. The aim of this work was to perform a wide review of the nutritional and functional properties of Cucurbita maxima seeds and their potential medicinal influence.

RESUMEN La necesidad de obtener alimentos nutritivos de nuevas fuentes y menores desperdicios en la industria ha generado un gran interés en el estudio de diferentes partes de plantas o alimentos que hoy en día se consideran desechos, pero que podrían considerarse subproductos con alto valor nutricional y uso potencial en alimentación humana. Las semillas de calabaza se consideran comúnmente como desechos, pero tienen un alto e importante contenido de ácidos grasos y aminoácidos, que cuando se utilizan como subproducto o ingrediente pueden aportar un alto valor agregado a los productos alimenticios. El objetivo de este trabajo es realizar una amplia revisión de las propiedades nutricionales y funcionales de las semillas de Cucurbita maxima y su potencial influencia medicinal asociada a ellas.

Seeds/chemistry , Cucurbita/chemistry , Functional Food , Plant Oils/chemistry , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/analysis , Flour , Amino Acids/analysis , Minerals/analysis , Nutritive Value
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 90(1): 325-332, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886914


ABSTRACT We aimed to evaluate the frequency of bee pollen production, its botanical origin and chemical composition when collected in different seasons. Our results indicate that higher proteins (22.80 ± 3.09%) and flavonoids (2789.87 ± 1396.00 μg 100g-1) levels were obtained in the winter season, which also showed greater pollen production (134.50 ± 35.70 grams) and predominance of the Myrtaceae family. As for spring we found high concentrations of lipids (4.62 ± 2.26%) and low ash content (2.22 ± 0.39%). Regarding the amino acid composition and vitamin C content, we found no differences between the averages throughout the seasons. Our results highlight the importance of understanding not only the botanical origin and the chemical composition of bee pollen, but also the harvesting frequency of this product by bees, so that it becomes possible to supplement the colonies in times of natural food resources shortage.

Animals , Pollen/physiology , Pollen/chemistry , Seasons , Bees/physiology , Magnoliopsida/physiology , Pollen/classification , Ascorbic Acid/analysis , Reference Values , Flavonoids/analysis , Proteins/analysis , Analysis of Variance , Amino Acids/analysis , Lipids/analysis , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 29: 32-38, sept. 2017. tab, ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1017075


Background: We aimed to test the possibility of improving polypeptide production from soybean meal fermentation by engineered Aspergillus oryzae strains. Four different protease genes were cloned and transformed into wild-type A. oryzae, and the engineered A. oryzae strains were then used for soybean meal fermentation. Results: The results showed different degrees of improvement in the protease activity of the four transformants when compared with wild-type A. oryzae. A major improvement in the polypeptide yield was achieved when these strains were used in soybean meal fermentation. The polypeptide conversion rate of one of the four transformants, A. oryzae pep, reached 35.9%, which was approximately twofold higher than that exhibited by wild-type A. oryzae. Amino acid content analysis showed that the essential amino acid content and amino acid composition of the fermentation product significantly improved when engineered A. oryzae strains were used for soybean meal fermentation. Conclusions: These findings suggest that cloning of microbial protease genes with good physicochemical properties and expressing them in an ideal host such as A. oryzae is a novel strategy to enhance the value of soybean meal.

Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Aspergillus oryzae/enzymology , Aspergillus oryzae/genetics , Peptide Hydrolases/genetics , Soybeans , Transformation, Genetic , Genetic Engineering , Cloning, Molecular , Fermentation , Flour , Amino Acids/analysis
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1,supl): 695-704, May. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886666


ABSTRACT Both the scientific community and society have shown interest in improving the content of amino acids, carbohydrates and mineral nutrients in maize because it represents an important staple food in many developing countries. Earlier studies demonstrated that the treatment of seeds using ascorbic acid (AsA-seed priming) enhanced soluble carbohydrates, proteins and soluble amino acids for other species. AsA seed priming in maize showed the potential for reducing abiotic stresses. The effects on grain quality have not been previously demonstrated. This study investigated the impacts of AsA seed priming on maize kernel quality of seeds produced by the plants generated from the primed seeds, based on the amino acid profile and carbohydrate and mineral nutrient contents. AsA seed priming improved the maize kernel quality with respect to the ascorbate content, boron allocation, total carbohydrate content and increased soluble amino acid levels, including serine, tyrosine, alanine, valine, glutamate, arginine, proline, aspartate, lysine and isoleucine, whereas soluble methionine was decreased. Therefore, AsA seed priming can represent a potential technique for improving maize grain quality.

Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Seeds/drug effects , Carbohydrates/analysis , Zea mays/chemistry , Amino Acids/analysis , Minerals/analysis , Zea mays/drug effects
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 69(2): 437-444, mar.-abr. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-833951


Objetivou-se determinar a composição química, os valores energéticos e os coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal verdadeira de aminoácidos de sojas integrais tostadas de cinco regiões. No primeiro experimento, foram utilizados 288 pintos de corte machos da linhagem Cobb 500, com 13 dias de idade e peso médio de 420,0±5,0g. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente ao acaso, com seis tratamentos (cinco sojas integrais e uma ração referência) e oito repetições de seis aves. No segundo experimento, foram utilizados 288 frangos de corte machos da linhagem Cobb 500, com 24 dias de idade e peso médio de 865,0±20,0g. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente ao acaso, com seis tratamentos (cinco sojas integrais e uma ração isenta de proteína à base de amido) e oito repetições de seis aves. Não houve diferença em relação aos teores de EMAn e de CEMAn (P>0,05) entre as sojas integrais. Os valores médios de EMAn, CEMAn situaram-se entre 3152 e 3399kcal/kg e 61,15 e 65,08%, respectivamente. No entanto, houve diferença (P<0,05) entre os CAE, CANE e CPB das sojas integrais, e a amostra cinco obteve os menores valores. Os valores médios para os CAE e CANE da soja integral são de 88,96% e 87,53%, respectivamente.(AU)

The goal of this paper was to determine the chemical composition, the energy values and the amino acid true ileal digestibility coefficients of toasted full-fat soybeans from 5 regions. In the first experiment, 288 chicken broilers from Cobb 500 lineage with 13 days old and average weight of 420.0±5.0g were used. The experimental design was completely randomized with 6 treatments (5 full-fat soybean diets and 1 basal diet) and 8 replicates of 6 birds. In the second experiment, 288 chicken broilers from Cobb 500 lineage with 24 days old and average weight of 865.0±20.0g were used. The experimental design was completely randomized with 6 treatments (5 full-fat soybean diets and 1 protein-free diet based on starch) and 8 replicates of 6 birds. There was no difference regarding the AMEn and AMECn contents (P>0.05) among the full-fat soybeans. The average values of AMEn, AMECn were between 3152-3399 kcal/kg and 61.15 to 65.08%, respectively. However, there were differences (P<0.05) between CEA, CENA and CPC of full-fat soybeans, and sample 5 obtained the lowest values. The average values for CEA and CENA of the full-fat soybean are 88.96% and 87.53%, respectively.(AU)

Animals , Amino Acids/analysis , Chickens/metabolism , Energy Metabolism , Food/analysis , Soybeans/chemistry , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Diet/veterinary
Journal of Veterinary Research. 2017; 72 (1): 33-42
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-187520


Background: Despite the fact that immune responses are influenced by dietary nutrients, feed formulation is mainly based on the productive responses, so the immunity indexes were ignored

Objectives: This study was carried out to determine the effects of diets formulation based on different expression systems of energy and amino acids of feeds and requirements on performance and immune responses of Arian chicks

Methods: A total of 1440 Arian chicks were fed eight diets arranged in a 2x2x2 factorial design with 2 systems of energy expression [AMEn and TMEn], 2 methods of amino acids content of feeds [TAA[f] and DAA[f] and 2 methods of amino acids requirement [TAA[r] and DAAr[r] from 1 to 42 days of age. Each treatment was replicated six times with each replicate consisting of 15 males and 15 females

Results: The results showed that when the Feed formulation was based on TMEn and DAA, the productive parameters increased compared with AMEn and TAA [p<0.05]

Conclusions: Selection for increase the growth rate in poultry, improve metabolic and physiological processes in order to use the feed. Therefore, lower proportions of nutrients will be allocated to other vital systems. However, the most suitable immune responses were observed in chicks that were fed diets which were set based on AMEn and received high level of amino acids. There is a negative correlation between immune responses and productive parameters. It is recommended that in normal conditions TMEn and DAA be used and in stress conditions AMEn and DAA[p]xTAA[r] be added to feed formulation

Animals , Food, Formulated , Energy Intake , Amino Acids/analysis , Nutritional Requirements
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 67(6): 1675-1683, nov.-dez. 2015. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-768154


Com o objetivo de determinar a exigência de lisina digestível para poedeiras semipesadas no período de 50 a 66 semanas de idade, foi realizado experimento utilizando-se 150 poedeiras Shaver Brown, distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos (níveis de lisina digestível: 0,79; 0,82; 0,85; 0,88 e 0,91%), seis repetições e cinco aves por unidade experimental. Foram avaliados a produção de ovos, peso médio e a massa de ovos, consumo de ração e de lisina, conversão alimentar por massa e por dúzia de ovos, gravidade específica, unidade Haugh, o índice de gema e albúmen, porcentagem de albúmen, gema e casca. O consumo de ração, a conversão alimentar por massa e dúzia de ovos, a produção, o peso e a massa de ovos não foram influenciados (P>0,05) pelos níveis de lisina digestível. Houve aumento linear no consumo de lisina (P<0,01) com o incremento dos níveis desse aminoácido nas rações. As porcentagens de albúmen, gema e casca não foram influenciadas (P>0,05) pelos níveis de lisina digestível estudados. Os níveis de lisina influenciaram de forma quadrática (P>0,05) a unidade Haugh e o índice de albúmen, sendo estimados os níveis de 0,884 e 0,868% de lisina digestível, respectivamente. Para o índice de gema, a associação do modelo quadrático ao Linear Response Plateau (LRP) estimou o nível de 0,903% de lisina digestível. Quando o objetivo é maximizar a qualidade interna dos ovos, recomenda-se o nível dietético de 0,884%, 0,868% e 0,903% de lisina digestível para unidade Haugh, índice de albúmen e índice de gema, respectivamente.

With the objective of determining the requirement of digestible lysine for brown-egg laying hens in the period from 50 to 66 weeks of age, an experiment was carried out using 150 Shaver Brown laying hens, distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments (digestible lysine levels: 0.79, 0.82, 0.85, 0.88 and 0.91%), six replications and five birds per experimental unit. The production of eggs, weight and the egg mass, feed intake and lysine, feed mass and dozen eggs, specific gravity, Haugh unit, yolk and albumen index, percentage of albumen, yolk and bark were analyzed. Feed intake, feed conversion per dozen of eggs s and per egg mass, egg production, egg weight and egg mass were not influenced (P>0.05) by digestible lysine levels. There was a linear increase in lysine intake (P<0.01) with increasing levels of this amino acid in the diets. The albumen, yolk and shell percentages were not influenced (P>0.05) by studied digestible lysine levels. Lysine levels had a quadratic effect (P>0.05) Haugh unit and albumen index being estimated as 0.884 and 0.868% digestible lysine levels, respectively. For yolk index, the association of the quadratic model to Linear Response Plateau (LRP) estimated the level of 0.903% digestible lysine. When the aim is to maximize the internal egg quality, a dietary level of 0.884%, 0.868% and 0.903% digestible lysine for Haugh unit, albumen index and yolk index, respectively is recommended.

Animals , Chickens/metabolism , Lysine/administration & dosage , Lysine/analysis , Eggs/analysis , Animal Feed/analysis , Amino Acids/analysis , Food Quality
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 28(4): 421-430, Jul.-Aug. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755161


Objective Although deficient in all indispensable amino acids, gelatin is used in protein-restricted diets. Food efficiency and protein quality of casein and gelatin mixtures in low protein diets in Wistar rats were investigated. Methods The rats were treated with protein-restricted diets (10.0 and 12.5%) containing casein (control diets), casein with gelatin mixtures (4:1 of protein content), and gelatin as sources of protein. The food conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, relative and corrected protein efficiency ratio, true protein digestibility, and hepatic parameters were estimated. Results After 28 days of the experiment, food efficiency of 10.0% casein/gelatin diet decreased when compared to that of 10.0% casein diet, and the protein efficiency ratio of the casein/gelatin mixtures (10.0%=2.41 and 12.5%=2.03) were lower than those of the casein (10.0%=2.90 and 12.5%=2.32). After 42 days of the experiment, the weight of the liver of the animals treated with 10.0 and 12.5% casein/gelatin diets, and the liver protein retention of the 12.5% casein/gelatin diet group of animals were lower than those of the control group. Conclusion Gelatin decreases food efficiency and high-quality protein bioavailability in protein-restricted diets. .

Objetivo A gelatina é deficiente em todos os aminoácidos indispensáveis, mas é usada em dietas com restrição de proteína. A eficiência alimentar e a qualidade da proteína de misturas de caseína com gelatina em dietas com baixo teor de proteína foram investigadas em ratos Wistar. Métodos Ratos foram tratados com dietas restritas em proteína (10,0 e 12,5%), contendo, como fonte de proteína: caseína (dieta controle), misturas de caseína com gelatina (4:1 do teor de proteína) e gelatina. Foram estimados os seguintes índices: taxa de conversão alimentar, quociente de eficiência proteica, quociente de eficiência proteica relativo e corrigido, digestibilidade verdadeira da proteína e parâmetros hepáticos. Resultados Após 28 dias de experimento, a eficiência alimentar da dieta caseína:gelatina a 10,0% diminuiu em comparação com a dieta de caseína a 10,0%, e o quociente de eficiência proteica das misturas caseína: gelatina (10,0%=2,41 e 12,5%=2,03) foi menor do que aqueles da caseína (10,0%=2,90 e 12,5%=2,32). Após 42 dias de experimento, o peso do fígado dos animais tratados com mistura caseína:gelatina a 10,0 e 12,5% e a retenção proteica no fígado dos animais do grupo caseína: gelatina a 12,5% diminuíram em comparação ao grupo-controle. Conclusão Gelatina reduz a eficiência alimentar e a biodisponibilidade de proteína de alta qualidade em dietas restritas em proteínas. .

Animals , Male , Rats , Biological Availability , Caseins/analysis , Gelatin/analysis , Amino Acids/analysis , Rats, Wistar
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 35(2): 61-70, jul.-dez. 2014. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-768376


O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a redução da proteína bruta em rações sobre o balanço de nitrogênio, pH urinário e parâmetros sanguíneos de suínos na fase inicial. O peso médio inicial dos animais foi de 18,5 ± 0,73kg. Foram realizados dois experimentos de digestibilidade, sendo um em condições de ambiente de estresse (28,77˚C) e outro conforto térmico (18,13˚C). Em ambos os experimentos os animais foram distribuídos em um delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com quatro níveis de proteína bruta (20,5;19,4; 18,3 e 17,2%) e quatro repetições, totalizando 16 unidades experimentais em cada experimento, sendo cada uma representada por um animal, totalizando 32 animais. A metodologia utilizada foi a coleta total de fezes, e a urina coletada e filtrada diariamente. Para avaliar os parâmetros sanguíneos, as amostras foram obtidas mediante punção na veia jugular. Os parâmetros avaliados foram nitrogênio ingerido, excretado nas fezes e na urina, absorvido, retido, retido/absorvido, excreção total, utilização líquida de proteína, pH da urina, colesterol, triglicerídeos, glicose, uréia e creatinina no plasma sanguíneo. Conclui-se que a redução do nível de proteína da dieta, de 20,5 a 17,2%; é uma alternativa eficiente para reduzir a quantidade de nitrogênio excretado pelos suínos em condição de estresse térmico. Para condição de conforto térmico os suínos apresentaram maiores concentrações de creatinina e colesterol plasmático.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the reduction of crude protein diets on nitrogen balance, urinarypH and blood parameters of starter pigs. The average initial weight of the animals was 18.5 ± 0.73 kg. Two digestibility experiments were conducted, one in environmental conditions of stress (28.77 ˚ C) and another in thermal comfort condition (18.13 ˚ C). In both experiments, the animals were distributed in randomized blockswith four decreasing levels of crude protein (20.5, 19.4, 18.3 and 17.2%) and four replications, totaling 16experimental units in each experiment, each represented by an animal, totaling 32 animals. The methodology used was the total collection of feces and urine was collected and filtered daily. To assess blood parameters, samples were obtained by jugular vein puncture. The parameters evaluated were ingested nitrogen, excreted in feces and urine, absorbed, retained, retained/absorbed, total excretion, net protein utilization, urine pH,cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, urea and creatinine in blood plasma. It is concluded that reducing the levelof protein in the diet, 20.5 to 17.2%; is an efficient alternative to reduce the amount of nitrogen excreted bypigs in heat stress condition. In thermal comfort condition pigs showed higher concentration of creatinine and serum cholesterol.

Animals , Amino Acids/analysis , Nitrogen/metabolism , Animal Feed/analysis
Rev. bras. enferm ; 67(6): 957-964, Nov-Dec/2014.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-732825


Objetivo: identificar as necessidades e as preocupações prioritárias, manifestadas pelos pais no desempenho do seu papel, em três etapas do ciclo vital: adolescência, idade produtiva e idade madura. Metodologia: estudo exploratório com abordagem qualitativa, desenvolvido com quatorze pais residentes em um município no extremo sul do Brasil. Os dados foram coletados entre maio e agosto de 2011, por meio de entrevista em profundidade. Através da técnica da análise textual discursiva e da matriz construída com base na teoria bioecológica de Bronfenbrenner, foram construídas três categorias: Necessidades/preocupações do pai, geradas em sua relação com o mundo do trabalho; Necessidades/preocupações que emergem da relação de cuidado com os filhos e Preocupações dos pais com relação ao futuro dos filhos. Conclusão: identificou-se que a preocupação com o futuro dos filhos foi apontada por pais de todas as faixas-etárias investigadas. .

Objective: this study aimed to identify priority needs and concerns expressed by fathers in the performance of their role in three stages of the life cycle: adolescence, productive age, and mature age. Methodology: this is an exploratory study with a qualitative approach, conducted with fourteen fathers residing in a municipality in the extreme south of Brazil. The data were collected between May and August 2011 by means of the in-depth interview. Through the technique of written discourse analysis and the array built upon Bronfenbrenner's bioecological theory, we obtained three categories: fathers' needs/concerns, generated in their relationship with the world of work; needs/concerns that emerged from the relationship of care with the children; and fathers' concerns about the future of the children. Conclusions: we identified that the concern with the future of the children was pointed out by fathers of all age groups investigated. .

Objetivo: identificar las necesidades y preocupaciones prioritarias, manifestadas por los padres en el desempeño de su función, en tres etapas del ciclo de vida: adolescencia, edad productiva y edad madura. Metodología: estudio exploratorio con abordaje cualitativo, desarrollado con catorce padres residentes en un municipio en el extremo sur de Brasil. Los datos fueran colectados entre mayo y agosto de 2011, a través de entrevistas en profundidad. A través de la técnica de análisis textual y discursiva e de la matriz construida basada en la teoria bioecologica de Bronfenbrenner, fueran construidas tres categorías: Necesidades/ preocupaciones de lo padre, generado en suya relación con el mundo de lo trabajo; Necesidades/preocupaciones que emergen de la relación de cuidado con hijos e preocupaciones de los padres con lo futuro de los hijos. Conclusión: Se identifico que la preocupación con el futuro de los hijos fue apuntado por los padres de todas las edades averiguadas. .

Coenzyme A Ligases/isolation & purification , Phenylacetates/metabolism , Pseudomonas/enzymology , Amino Acids/analysis , Chromatography, Gel , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Ion Exchange , Coenzyme A Ligases/biosynthesis , Coenzyme A Ligases/metabolism , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Kinetics , Molecular Weight , Pseudomonas/growth & development , Substrate Specificity , Thermodynamics , Ultracentrifugation
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 65(2): 505-512, abr. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-673128


Estimou-se a exigência de treonina digestível (ThrD) para codornas de corte (Coturnix coturnix sp.) em fase de crescimento no período de 15 a 35 dias de idade. Foram utilizadas 1020 codornas com 15 dias de idade, não sexadas, distribuídas em um delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso, com seis porcentagens de adição de treonina digestível - 0,93; 1,00; 1,07; 1,14; 1,21 e 1,28% na dieta - , cinco repetições e 34 codornas por unidade experimental. Não houve efeito sobre o desempenho, o rendimento e a composição química da carcaça e sobre o balanço de nitrogênio com o aumento da porcentagem de treonina digestível na dieta. Houve aumento linear no consumo de treonina e no custo da ração por quilograma de peso vivo ganho com o aumento da porcentagem de treonina digestível. Concluiu-se que o melhor nível de treonina digestível avaliado foi suficiente para atender as exigências de codornas de corte, no período de 15 a 35 dias de idade.

The digestible threonine (DThr) requirements for meat quails (Coturnix coturnix sp) during growing phase from 15 to 35 days of age were estimated, using 1,020 quails with 15 days of age, of both sexes, distributed in a completely randomized design, with six levels of digestible threonine - 0.93; 1.00; 1.07; 1.14; 1.21 and 1.28% in diet, five replications and 34 quails per experimental unit. There was no effect on performance variables, carcass yield and chemical composition and nitrogen balance with the studied increase in digestible threonine levels. There was a linear increase in threonine intake andfeed cost per kilogram of body weight gain with increasing levels of digestible threonine. It was concluded that the best level of threonine evaluated was sufficient to meet the requirements of meat quails, in the period from 15 to 35.

Animals , Amino Acids/analysis , Body Composition/physiology , Nitrogen/analysis , Threonine/analysis , Coturnix/classification
Egyptian Journal of Histology [The]. 2013; 36 (2): 459-469
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-170258


Understanding the biochemical composition of good batches of mullet eggs is a beginning of an investigative process that may one day make it easier to distinguish good eggs from undesirable ones. The present study was conducted to investigate the variations, if any, in the reproductive biology and biochemical composition of wild-caught and pond-reared broodstock of Mugil cephalus. Important biochemical constituents [protein, lipids, amino acids and fatty acids] in gonads and freshly spawned eggs of both wild and cultured female broodstock of M. cephalus were analysed. The results showed that the ovarian activity of cultured prespawning females was lower than that of wild females. The activation and fertilization rates of spawned eggs varied between wild and cultivated mullet females. In addition, there was malformation during the embryonic development of fertilized eggs obtained from cultivated females. There was a significant difference in biochemical contents - namely, amino acids and fatty acids - in gonads and spawned eggs between the two stocks, which seems to be due to differences in habitat conditions, mainly salinity and ion concentrations. With such information, we may be able to enhance the survival of mullet eggs through proper control of husbandry practices including environmental parameters, nutrition and methods for spawning

Environment , Ecosystem , Amino Acids/analysis , Fatty Acids/analysis , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 46(2): 195-203, jun. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-657442


La aplicación de la espectrometría de masas en tandem en el diagnóstico de los errores innatos del metabolismo ofrece la posibilidad de ampliar el número de enfermedades que son tamizadas durante el periodo neonatal. Esta tecnología permite detectar, con gran sensibilidad, especificidad y rapidez, más de 30 enfermedades metabólicas en un mismo ensayo a partir de un único disco de sangre seca sobre papel de filtro. Para esto se realiza el análisis combinado del perfil de aminoácidos y acilcarnitinas sin requerir, generalmente, de sistemas de cromatografía adicionales. El procesamiento analítico que actualmente se utiliza en los diferentes laboratorios de tamiz es relativamente homogéneo.

The use of tandem mass spectrometry in the diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism has the potential to expand newborn screening programmes to include many different diseases. This technique can quickly detect, with great specificity and sensibility, more than 30 diseases using the same punch of dried blood in filter paper through the combined analysis of acylcarnitines and amino acid mass spectra profile. The detection of a particular disease this way could be made without the need of a chromatographic system. The analytical analyses in current use by different screening laboratories are very similar.

A aplicação da espectrometria de massas em tandem no diagnóstico dos erros inatos do metabolismo oferece a possibilidade de ampliar os programas de screening neonatal para incluir maior número de doenças. Esta tecnologia permite detectar, com grande sensibilidade, especificidade e rapidez, mais de 30 doenças metabólicas em um mesmo ensaio a partir de um único disco de sangue seco sobre papel de filtro. Para isso é realizada a análise combinada do perfil de aminoácidos e acilcarnitinas sem precisar, geralmente, de sistemas de cromatografia adicionais. O processamento analítico que atualmente è utilizado nos diferentes laboratórios de screening é relativamente homogêneo.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Metabolic Diseases/blood , Metabolic Diseases/diagnosis , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Amino Acids/analysis , Metabolism, Inborn Errors
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 44(7): 725-728, July 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-595700


In a prospective case-control study, we compared the amniotic fluid amino acid levels in non-immune hydrops fetalis (NIHF) and normal fetuses. Eighty fetuses underwent amniocentesis for different reasons at the prenatal diagnosis unit of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Dicle University. Forty of these fetuses were diagnosed with NIHF. The study included 40 women each in the NIHF (mean age: 27.69 ± 4.56 years) and control (27.52 ± 5.49 years) groups, who had abnormal double- or triple-screening test values with normal fetuses with gestational ages of 23.26 ± 1.98 and 23.68 ± 1.49 weeks at the time of sample collection, respectively. Amniotic fluid amino acid concentrations (intra-assay variation: 2.26-7.85 percent; interassay variation: 3.45-8.22 percent) were measured using EZ:faast kits (EZ:faast GC/FID free (physiological) amino acid kit; Phenomenex, USA) by gas chromatography. The standard for quantitation was a mixture of free amino acids from Phenomenex. The levels of 21 amino acids were measured. The mean phosphoserine and serine levels were significantly lower in the NIHF group, while the taurine, α-aminoadipic acid (aaa), glycine, cysteine, NH4, and arginine (Arg) levels were significantly higher compared to control. Significant risk variables for the NIHF group and odds coefficients were obtained using a binary logistic regression method. The respective odds ratios and 95 percent confidence intervals for the risk variables phosphoserine, taurine, aaa, Arg, and NH4 were 3.31 (1.84-5.97), 2.45 (1.56-3.86), 1.78 (1.18-2.68), 2.18 (1.56-3.04), and 2.41 (1.66-3.49), respectively. The significant difference between NIHF and control fetuses suggests that the amniotic fluid levels of some amino acids may be useful for the diagnosis of NIHF.

Adult , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Amino Acids/analysis , Amniotic Fluid/chemistry , Hydrops Fetalis , Epidemiologic Methods , Gestational Age , Hydrops Fetalis/etiology , Hydrops Fetalis , Ultrasonography, Prenatal
Veterinary Medical Journal. 2011; 59 (3): 183-195
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-126587


Mycoplasma gallisepticum [MG] infection in chicken and turkey is still one of the important reasons causing economic losses in poultry. The current study concerned with rapid detection and molecular characterization of MG isolates. The all samples positive by culture were positive by PCR and rt- PCR. Five isolated [four from chicken and one from turkey] were sequenced for mgc2 gene. The present molecular study proved that four wild-type MG strains. [Eis 3- C-10, Eis 4- C-10, Eis 5- C-10 were recovered from chicken and one [Eis 6-T-10] was recovered from turkey. While Eis 7-C-10 [vaccinal F-strain] was isolated from commercial layer flock vaccinated with F- strain vaccine. We concluded that mgc2 gene was able to distinguish between MG wild - type and vaccinal strains

Chickens , Turkeys , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Amino Acids/analysis
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 9(5)sept. 2010. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-613659


Evaluation of amino and fatty acids compositions in Haruan Traditional Extracts (HTE) was done using HPLC and GC methods. The HTE contained at least 17 amino acids with glutamic acid, glycine, leusine, aspartic acid, proline, alanine and arginine are the most, with values 1.87 - 43.13 mg/g, 21.80 - 80.85 mg/g, 7.85- 40.19 mg/g, 13.85 - 44.07 mg/g, 9.49 - 45.46 mg/g, 11.38 - 35.25 mg/g and 5.99 - 21.79 mg/g, respectively. Meanwhile, the highest percentage of fatty acids is palmitic acid; 3.54 - 26.84 percent of total protein. The others major fatty acids are stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid with values 3.25 - 15.90 percent, 1.40 - 27.68 percent, 0.51 - 7.82 percent of total protein, respectively. HTE also found to have 4 extra bioactive compounds labelled as 1 to 4 on chromatographic tracing which in line with previously finding. It is concluded that the HTE is containing all the important amino acids plus some fatty acids, which is the basis to conduct antioxidant composition in both fresh Haruan and the HTE which was claimed to have wound healing properties. Comparative study was also carried out in various other extraction protocols, including commercial product.

Evaluación de las composiciones de aminoácidos y ácidos grasos en Haruan Extractos tradicional (HTE) se realizó mediante métodos de HPLC y GC. La HTE contenía al menos 17 aminoácidos con ácido glutámico, glicina, leucina, ácido aspártico, prolina, alanina y arginina como mayoritarios, con valores de 1.87 - 43.13 mg/g, 21.80 - 80.85 mg/g, 7.85 - 40.19 mg/g, 13.85 - 44.07 mg/g, 9.49 - 45.46 mg/g, 11.38 - 35.25 mg/g and 5.99 - 21.79 mg/g, respectivamente. Mientras tanto, el mayor porcentaje de ácidos grasos es el ácido palmítico; 3.54 - 26.84 por ciento de la proteína total. Otros ácidos grasos importantes son el ácido esteárico, ácido oleico y ácido linoleico con valores de 3.25 - 15.90 por ciento, 1.40 - 27.68 %, 0.51 - 7.82 por ciento de la proteína total, respectivamente. HTE también encontró cuatro compuestos bioactivos adicionales etiquetados de 1 a 4 en el seguimiento cromatográfico que está de acuerdo con resultados previos. Se concluye que la HTE contiene todos los aminoácidos importantes además de algunos ácidos grasos, que es la base para llevar a cabo la composición antioxidante, tanto en fresco Haruan y la HTE que se afirma poseen propiedades curativas. Estudios comparativos se llevaron a cabo con otros protocolos de extracción, incluido el producto comercial.

Animals , Fatty Acids/analysis , Amino Acids/analysis , Tissue Extracts/chemistry , Fishes , Chromatography, Gas , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Rev. biol. trop ; 58(1): 103-118, mar. 2010. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-637811


Coral reefs are impacted by a range of environmental variables that affect their growth and survival, the main factors being the high irradiance and temperature fluctuations. Specimens of Pocillopora capitata Verrill 1864 were exposed to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) for 32h under laboratory conditions. We examined lipid peroxidation (MDA), antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT, GPx and GST), chlorophyll a (Chl a), carotenoid pigments (CPs), mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), and expulsion of zooxanthellae. Our results revealed that corals exposed to UVR had relatively low levels of carotenoids and antioxidant enzyme activities compared to those exposed to PAR, as well as lower CPs/Chl a ratios. Although MAAs and CPs are rapidly produced as non-enzymatic antioxidants in response to UVR in corals, these were not sufficient, even in the dark phase of the experiment, to mitigate the damage caused by formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which caused breakdown of the symbiotic relationship between the zooxanthellae and the host animal to an extent 33 times greater than in the PAR treatment. In this study, it could be possible to distinguish that, parallel to the short-term adjustments, such as the amount of pigment in the algae or the sensitivity of the photosynthetic response reported in other species of coral, P. capitata exhibits at the enzymatic level a series of responses oriented to resist the effects derived from the propagation of ROS and, thus, to adapt to and maintain its reproductive capacity in shallow oceanic environments that commonly exhibit high UVR levels. Nevertheless, as a result of the inappropriate location of the artificial intercommunication structure of the Juluapan Lagoon with respect to the arrecifal area of study and therefore of the tides influence, other variables, such as the changes in short-term in turbidity, sediment inputs, nutrients, temperature and osmolarity, can act in combination and cause irreversible damage. The implementation of a management plan for the coralline reefs of the Mexican Pacific coast is required. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (1): 103-118. Epub 2010 March 01.

Los arrecifes de coral se ven afectados por una serie de variables ambientales que afectan su crecimiento y supervivencia, siendo los principales factores la alta irradiación y las fluctuaciones de temperatura. Los especímenes de Pocillopora capitata Verrill 1864 fueron expuestos a radiación activa fotosintéticamente (PAR) y radiación ultravioleta (RUV) por 32h en condiciones de laboratorio. Nosotros determinamos las concentraciones de peroxidación lipídica (MDA), actividades de enzimas antioxidantes (SOD, CAT, GPx y GST), clorofila a (Chl a), pigmentos carotenoides (CPS), aminoácidos tipo micosporina (MAAS), y la expulsión de las zooxantelas. Nuestros resultados muestran que los corales expuestos a los rayos UV presentaban niveles relativamente bajos de carotenoides y actividad de las enzimas antioxidantes en comparación con los expuestos al PAR, así como tasas de CPs/Chl a bajas. Aunque MAAs y CPs se producen rápidamente como antioxidantes no enzimáticos en respuesta a la radiación ultravioleta en los corales, éstos no fueron suficientes, incluso en la fase oscura del experimento, para mitigar los daños causados por la formación de especies reactivas de oxígeno (ROS), lo que provocó una ruptura en la relación simbiótica entre las zooxantelas y el coral con una relación 33 veces mayor que en el tratamiento de PAR. A nivel enzimático, P capitata presentó una serie de ajustes orientados a resistir los efectos derivados de la propagación de ROS y con ello favorecer su adaptación y capacidad reproductiva en ambientes oceánicos caracterizados por altos niveles de UVR.

Animals , Anthozoa/radiation effects , Photosynthesis/radiation effects , Reactive Oxygen Species/radiation effects , Ultraviolet Rays , Amino Acids/analysis , Anthozoa/chemistry , Carotenoids/analysis , Chlorophyll/analysis , Lipid Peroxidation/radiation effects , Oxidoreductases/analysis , Time Factors