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Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e05992020, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155526


Abstract INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to determine the role of genes encoding aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AMEs) and 16S rRNA methylase (ArmA) in Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates. METHODS: We collected 100 clinical isolates of A. baumannii and identified and confirmed them using microbiological tests and assessment of the OXA-51 gene. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was carried out using disk agar diffusion and micro-broth dilution methods. The presence of AME genes and ArmA was detected by PCR and multiplex PCR. RESULTS: The most and least effective antibiotics in this study were netilmicin and ciprofloxacin with 68% and 100% resistance rates, respectively. According to the minimum inhibitory concentration test, 94% of the isolates were resistant to gentamicin, tobramycin, and streptomycin, while the highest susceptibility (20%) was observed against netilmicin. The proportion of strains harboring the aminoglycoside resistance genes was as follows: APH(3′)-VIa (aphA6) (77%), ANT(2")-Ia (aadB) (73%), ANT(3")-Ia (aadA1) (33%), AAC(6′)-Ib (aacA4) (33%), ArmA (22%), and AAC(3)-IIa (aacC2) (19%). Among the 22 gene profiles detected in this study, the most prevalent profiles included APH(3′)-VIa + ANT(2")-Ia (39 isolates, 100% of which were kanamycin-resistant), and AAC(3)-IIa + AAC(6′)-Ib + ANT(3")-Ia + APH(3′)-VIa + ANT(2")-Ia (14 isolates, all of which were resistant to gentamicin, kanamycin, and streptomycin). CONCLUSIONS: High minimum inhibitory concentration of aminoglycosides in isolates with the simultaneous presence of AME- and ArmA-encoding genes indicated the importance of these genes in resistance to aminoglycosides. However, control of their spread could be effective in the treatment of infections caused by A. baumannii.

Acinetobacter baumannii/genetics , Bacterial Proteins , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Aminoglycosides/pharmacology , Methyltransferases , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(3): 691-696, July-Sept. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-788958


ABSTRACT This study highlights the prevalence of aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme genes and virulence determinants among clinical enterococci with high-level aminoglycoside resistance in Inner Mongolia, China. Screening for high-level aminoglycoside resistance against 117 enterococcal clinical isolates was performed using the agar-screening method. Out of the 117 enterococcal isolates, 46 were selected for further detection and determination of the distribution of aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme-encoding genes and virulence determinants using polymerase chain reaction -based methods. Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis were identified as the species of greatest clinical importance. The aac(6')-Ie-aph(2")-Ia and ant(6')-Ia genes were found to be the most common aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme genes among high-level gentamicin resistance and high-level streptomycin resistance isolates, respectively. Moreover, gelE was the most common virulence gene among high-level aminoglycoside resistance isolates. Compared to Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis harbored multiple virulence determinants. The results further indicated no correlation between aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme gene profiles and the distribution of virulence genes among the enterococcal isolates with high-level gentamicin resistance or high-level streptomycin resistance evaluated in our study.

Male , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial/drug effects , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/drug effects , Enterococcus/drug effects , Enterococcus/physiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Aminoglycosides/metabolism , Aminoglycosides/pharmacology , Virulence/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , China/epidemiology , Prevalence , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Enterococcus/metabolism , Genes, Bacterial , Anti-Bacterial Agents/metabolism
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34957


BACKGROUND: Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii are a threat to hospitalized patients. We evaluated the effects of antimicrobial combinations on XDR P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii isolates. METHODS: P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii isolates, which were resistant to all antibiotics except colistin (CL), were collected from eight hospitals in Korea. Genes encoding metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) and OXA carbapenemases were detected by PCR in eight P. aeruginosa and 30 A. baumannii isolates. In vitro synergy of antimicrobial combinations was tested by using the checkerboard method. RESULTS: Minimum inhibitory concentrations of beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones were very high, while that of CL was low for majority of XDR P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii isolates. Antimicrobial combinations including Imipenem (IPM)-CL, ceftazidime (CAZ)-CL, and rifampin (RIF)-CL exerted only additive/indifferent effects on majority of XDR P. aeruginosa isolates. Proportions of XDR A. baumannii isolates that showed synergistic and additive/indifferent inhibition after treatment with antimicrobial combinations used are as follows: IPM-ampicillin-sulbactam (AMS), 17% and 80% isolates, respectively; IPM-rifampin (RIF), 13% and 81% isolates, respectively; IPM-CL, 13% and 87% isolates, respectively; and RIF-COL, 20% and 73% isolates, respectively. Significant proportion (19%) of XDR P. aeruginosa isolates produced MBLs, and majority (82%) of A. baumannii isolates produced either MBLs or OXA-23. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that combinations of IPM-AMS, IPM-RIF, IPM-CL, and RIF-CL are more useful than individual drugs for treating 13-20% of XDR A. baumannii infections.

Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Aminoglycosides/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/drug effects , Drug Synergism , Fluoroquinolones/pharmacology , Imipenem/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , beta-Lactamases/genetics
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(4): 1455-1458, Oct.-Dec. 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741300


The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of genes encoding resistance to aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones among twenty-five Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated between 2002 and 2009. In PCR, following genes were detected: ant(2")-Ia in 9 (36.0%), aac(6')-Ib in 7 (28.0%), qnrB in 5 (20.0%), aph(3")-Ib in 2 (8.0%) of isolates.

Humans , Aminoglycosides/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Fluoroquinolones/pharmacology , Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Genes, Bacterial , Genotype , Hospitals, University , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Poland/epidemiology , Pseudomonas Infections/epidemiology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 34(supl.1): 41-49, abr. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-712420


Introduction: Aminoglycosides like streptomycin are well-known for binding at specific regions of ribosome RNA and then acting as translation inhibitors. Nowadays, several pathogens have been detected to acquire an undefined strategy involving mutation at non structural ribosome genes like those acting as RNA methylases. rsmG is one of those genes which encodes an AdoMet-dependent methyltransferase responsible for the synthesis of m 7 G527 in the 530 loop of bacterial 16S rRNA. This loop is universally conserved, plays a key role in ribosomal accuracy, and is a target for streptomycin binding. Loss of the m 7 G527 modification confers low-level streptomycin resistance and may affect ribosomal functioning. Objectives: After taking into account genetic information indicating that some clinical isolates of human pathogens show streptomycin resistance associated with mutations at rsmG , we decided to explore new hot spots for mutation capable of impairing the RsmG in vivo function and of promoting low-level streptomycin resistance. Materials and methods: To gain insights into the molecular and genetic mechanism of acquiring this aminoglycoside resistance phenotype and the emergence of high-level streptomycin resistance in rsmG mutants, we mutated Escherichia coli rsmG and also performed a genotyping study on rpsL from several isolates showing the ability to grow at higher streptomycin concentrations than parental strains. Results: We found that the mutations at rpsL were preferentially present in these mutants, and we observed a clear synergy between rsmG and rpsL genes to induce streptomycin resistance. Conclusion: We contribute to understand a common mechanism that is probably transferable to other ribosome RNA methylase genes responsible for modifications at central sites for ribosome function.

Introducción. Los aminoglucósidos son moléculas antibióticas capaces de inhibir la síntesis de proteínas bacterianas tras su unión al ribosoma procariota. La resistencia a aminoglucósidos está clásicamente asociada a mutaciones en genes estructurales del ribosoma bacteriano; sin embargo, varios estudios recientes han demostrado, de forma recurrente, la presencia de un nuevo mecanismo dependiente de mutación que no involucra genes estructurales. El gen rsmG es uno de ellos y se caracteriza por codificar una metiltransferasa que sintetiza el nucleósido m 7 G527 localizado en el loop 530 del ribosoma bacteriano, este último caracterizado como sitio preferencial al cual se une la estreptomicina. Objetivo. Partiendo de las recientes asociaciones clínicas entre las mutaciones en el gen rsmG y la resistencia a estreptomicina, este estudio se propuso la caracterización de nuevos puntos calientes de mutación en este gen que puedan causar resistencia a estreptomicina usando Escherichia coli como modelo de estudio. Materiales y métodos. Se indagó sobre el mecanismo genético y molecular por el cual se adquiere la resistencia a estreptomicina y su transición a la resistencia a altas dosis mediante mutagénesis dirigida del gen rsmG y genotipificación del gen rpsL . Resultados. Se encontró que la mutación N39A en rsmG inactiva la proteína y se reportó un nuevo conjunto de mutaciones en rpsL que confieren resistencia a altas dosis de estreptomicina. Conclusiones. Aunque los mecanismos genéticos subyacentes permanecen sin esclarecer, se concluyó que dichos patrones secuenciales de mutación podrían tener lugar en otros genes modificadores del ARN bacteriano debido a la conservación evolutiva y al papel crítico que juegan tales modificaciones en la síntesis de proteínas.

Aminoglycosides/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics , Mutation, Missense , Methyltransferases/genetics , Point Mutation , RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional/genetics , RNA, Bacterial/metabolism , /metabolism , Streptomycin/pharmacology , Amino Acid Sequence , Binding Sites/genetics , Catalytic Domain/genetics , Escherichia coli Proteins/chemistry , Escherichia coli Proteins/metabolism , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/enzymology , Methylation , Models, Molecular , Molecular Sequence Data , Methyltransferases/chemistry , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Phylogeny , Protein Conformation , RNA, Bacterial/genetics , /genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism , Ribosomal Proteins/genetics , Ribosomal Proteins/metabolism , S-Adenosylmethionine/metabolism , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Sequence Deletion , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Rev. chil. infectol ; 30(1): 17-22, feb. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-665579


Background: Enterococcus spp. is an important cause of nosocomial infections A number of virulence factors that may enhance its ability to colonize have been described. Enterococcus is capable of acquiring resistance genes, including high-level resistance (HLR) to aminoglycoside antibiotics. Aim: to investigate the prevalence of genes encoding virulence factors in aminoglycosides susceptible and resistant E. faecalis. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 E. faecalis isolates from clinical (n: 52) and poultry samples (n: 28) were included in this study. Bacterial identification was performed by biochemical tests and phenotypificationwas done using the Phene-PlateTM system. Susceptibility to different antimicrobial agents was determined by the agar dilution method. Virulence genes aceI, agg, gelE and efaA were detected by multiplex PCR. Results: All isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and ampicillin. HLR to gentamicin (13.5%) and streptomycin (9.6%) was detected only in clinical isolates. The phenotyping revealed a great diversity of PhP-types, but only one clone with 7 strains of similar characteristics was found. The efaA gen was detected in 100% of the isolates. aceI gene was present in 94.2% and 75%, agg gene in 73.1%, and 67.9%, and gelE gene in 57.5% and 28.6% of the clinical and chicken isolates, respectively. Only 6 strains with HLR to aminoglycosides, belonging to the same phenotype, had the aceI, agg, gelE and efaA genes. Conclusions: E. faecalis with virulence genes and HLR to aminoglycosides were isolated from clinical and chicken samples in Antofagasta. More studies will be necessary to establish an association.

Antecedentes: Enterococcus spp. es una causa importante de infecciones nosocomiales, tanto en Chile como internacional. Se han descrito una serie de factores de virulencia en este microorganismo, que pueden, por ejemplo, aumentar su habilidad para colonizar. Enterococcus tiene capacidad de adquirir genes de resistencia, entre ellos la resistencia de alto nivel (RAN) a los antimicrobianos aminoglucósidos. Objetivo: Investigar la prevalencia de genes de virulencia en cepas de E. faecalis susceptibles y resistentes a aminoglucósidos. Material y Métodos: Un total de 80 cepas de E. faecalis aisladas de muestras clínicas (n: 52) y pollos (n: 28) se incluyeron en este estudio. La identificación se hizo por pruebas bioquímicas y se tipificaron por el sistema Phene-PlateMR. La susceptibilidad a diferentes antimicrobianos fue realizada por test de dilución en agar. Los genes de virulencia aceI, agg, gelE y efaA fueron investigados por RPC múltiple. Resultados: Todas las cepas de E. faecalis fueron susceptibles a vancomicina y ampicilina. Un 13,5% de las cepas clínicas presentaron resistencia de alto nivel a gentamicina y 9,6% a estreptomicina. La tipificación reveló una gran diversidad de fenotipos, pero se encontró un clon con 7 cepas de características similares. El gen efaA estaba presente en 100% de las cepas, gen aceI en 94,2 y 75%, gen agg 73,1 y 67,9% y gen gelE 57,5 y 28,6% de las cepas clínicas y de pollos, respectivamente. Seis cepas con resistencia de alto nivel a aminoglucósidos, que pertenecían a un mismo fenotipo exhibieron los genes efaA, aceI, agg y gelE juntos. Conclusiones: Cepas de E. faecalis que albergan genes de virulencia y con resistencia de alto nivel a aminoglucósidos fueron aisladas de muestras clínicas y de pollos en Antofagasta. Se requieren mayores estudios para establecer una asociación entre estos factores.

Animals , Female , Humans , Aminoglycosides/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Enterococcus faecalis/pathogenicity , Virulence Factors/genetics , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Enterococcus faecalis/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Phenotype , Poultry , Virulence/genetics
IJPR-Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2013; 12 (2): 261-269
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-142645


Severe sepsis and septic shock are major problems as the result of high rates morbidity and mortality in intensive care units [ICUs]. In the presence of septic shock, each hour of delay in the administration of effective antibiotics is associated with a measurable increase in mortality. Aminoglycosides are effective broad-spectrum antibiotics that are commonly used in ICUs for the treatment of life-threatening Gram-negative infections and as a part of empiric therapy for severe sepsis and septic shock. Knowledge of the pharmacokinetic [PK] and pharmacodynamic [PD] properties of the antibiotics used for the management of critically ill patients is essential for selecting the antibiotic dosing regimens and improving patient outcome. Volume of distribution [Vd] and clearance [CL] of aminoglycosides in critically ill patients differs from general population and these parameters change considerably during the therapy. Pathophysiological changes during the sepsis alter the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of many drugs [increase in Vd and variable changes in CL have been reported for aminoglycosides during the sepsis], therefore, dosing regimen optimization is necessary for achieving therapeutic goal, and critically ill patients should receive larger loading doses of aminoglycosides in order to achieve therapeutic blood levels and due to the considerable variation in kinetic parameters, the use of standard doses of aminoglycosides or dosing nomograms is not recommended in these populations

Aminoglycosides/standards , Aminoglycosides , Aminoglycosides/pharmacokinetics , Aminoglycosides/pharmacology , Aminoglycosides/administration & dosage , Shock, Septic/drug therapy , Critical Illness , Treatment Outcome
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-612948


Objective. To identify infection-causing Enterococcus species in Cuban hospitalsand determine their susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs, as well as their resistance mechanisms. Methods. A total of 687 Enterococcus isolates from 30 Cuban hospitals in nine provinces of the country were studied over the period 2000–2009. The species were identified using both the conventional method and the automatic API® system.The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for 13 antimicrobial drugs following the standards recommended by the Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute. The polymerase chain reaction technique was used to characterize the genes that were resistant to aminoglycosides, erythromycin, tetracycline, andglucopeptides. The presence of beta-lactamase was determined by the chromogenic cephalosporin test. Results. The most prevalent species were Enterococcus faecalis (82.9%) and E. faecium (12.2%). Resistance to glucopeptides (1.0%) was mediated by the vanA and vanB genes. The strains resistant to ampicillin (6%) did not produce beta-lactamases. A high percentage of resistance to aminoglycosides was observed. Gentamicin (31.0%) and streptomycin and amikacin (29.1%) were mediated by the aac(6’)Ie-aph(2”)Ia, aph(3’)-IIIa, ant(6)Ia, and ant(3”)(9) genes. A correlation was found between resistance to tetracycline (56.0%) and presence of the tet(M) (75.1%) and tet(L) genes (7.0%), while resistance to erythromycin (34.1%) was due to the erm(B) gene (70.9%). Conclusions. Resistance to vancomycin is infrequent in Cuba, as opposed to a high level of resistance to aminoglycosides, which may be indicative of treatment failures. The microbiology laboratory is a cornerstone of Enterococcus infectionsurveillance, along with ongoing monitoring of the susceptibility of these infections to antimicrobial drugs at a time when resistance of this microorganism is on the rise.

Objetivo. Identificar las especies de Enterococcus causantes de infecciones en hospitales cubanos, su susceptibilidad a los antimicrobianos y sus mecanismos de resistencia.Métodos. Se estudiaron 687 aislamientos de Enterococcus procedentes de 30 hospitalescubanos de nueve provincias del país durante el período de 2000 a 2009. La identificación de las especies se realizó mediante el método convencional y sistema automatizado API®. Laconcentración inhibitoria mínima se determinó para 13 antimicrobianos según las recomendaciones del Instituto de Estándares Clínicos y de Laboratorio. Se determinaron los genes de resistencia a aminoglucósidos, eritromicina, tetraciclina y glucopéptidos mediante reacciónen cadena de la polimerasa. La presencia de betalactamasa se determinó por el método de lacefalosporina cromógena. Resultados. Las especies más prevalentes fueron Enterococcus faecalis (82,9%) y Enterococcus faecium (12,2%). La resistencia a los glucopéptidos (1,0%) estuvo mediada por los genes vanA y vanB y las cepas resistentes a ampicilina (6%) no produjeron betalactamasas. Se observó un alto porcentaje de resistencia a los aminoglucósidos: gentamicina (31,0%) y estreptomicina y amikacina (29,1%) mediada por los genes aac(6’)Ie-aph(2”)Ia, aph(3’)-IIIa, ant(6)Ia, ant(3”)(9). Hubo correlación entre la resistencia a tetraciclina (56,0%) y la presencia de los genes tet(M) (75,1%) y tet(L) (7,0%), mientras que la resistencia a eritromicina (34,1%) obedeció al gen erm(B) (70,9%).Conclusiones. La resistencia a vancomicina es infrecuente en Cuba, a diferencia del alto nivel de resistencia a los aminoglucósidos, que sugiere posibles fracasos terapéuticos. El laboratorio de microbiología constituye un pilar fundamental de la vigilancia de las infecciones por cepas de Enterococcus y el monitoreo continuo de su susceptibilidad a los antimicrobianos,dado el incremento de la resistencia de ese microorganismo en el tiempo.

Humans , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Enterococcus/genetics , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Aminoglycosides/pharmacology , Cuba , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics , Enterococcus faecalis/enzymology , Enterococcus faecalis/genetics , Enterococcus faecalis/isolation & purification , Enterococcus faecium/enzymology , Enterococcus faecium/genetics , Enterococcus faecium/isolation & purification , Enterococcus/enzymology , Enterococcus/isolation & purification , Genes, Bacterial , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Species Specificity , Vancomycin Resistance/genetics
Clinics ; 66(9): 1519-1522, 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-604286


INTRODUCTION: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is one of the primary opportunistic pathogens responsible for nosocomial infections. Aminoglycosides are an import ant component of antipseudomonal chemotherapy. The inactivation of drugs by modifying enzymes is the most common mechanism of aminoglycoside resistance. OBJECTIVES: The inactivation of aminoglycosides by modifying enzymes is the primary resistance mechanism employed by P. aeruginosa. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of aminoglycoside resistance and the prevalence of four import ant modifying enzyme genes (aac (6')-I, aac (6')-II, ant (2")-I, aph (3')-VI) in P. aeruginosa in Iran. METHODS: A total of 250 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were collected from several hospitals in seven cities in Iran. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests (using the disk diffusion method and E-tests) were performed for all 250 isolates. In addition, all isolates were screened for the presence of modifying enzyme genes by polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The resistance rates, as determined by the disk diffusion method, were as follows: gentamicin 43 percent, tobramycin 38 percent, and amikacin 24 percent. Of the genes examined, aac (6')-II (36 percent) was the most frequently identified gene in phenotypic resist ant isolates, followed by ant (2")-I, aph (3')-VI, and aac (6')-I. CONCLUSIONS: Aminoglycoside resistance in P. aeruginosa remains a signific ant problem in Iran. Therefore, there is considerable local surveillance of aminoglycoside resistance.

Female , Humans , Male , Acetyltransferases/genetics , Aminoglycosides/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Kanamycin Kinase/genetics , Nucleotidyltransferases/genetics , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics , Aminoglycosides/metabolism , Anti-Bacterial Agents/metabolism , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Iran , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-164049


The aminoglycoside 6'-N-acetyltransferases of type Ib (aac(6')-Ib) gene confers resistance to amikacin, tobramycin, kanamycin, and netilmicin but not gentamicin. However, some isolates harboring this gene show reduced susceptibility to amikacin. The European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) recommends a revision of the phenotypic description for isolates harboring the aac(6')-Ib gene. In this study, we determined the aminoglycoside susceptibility profiles of 58 AAC(6')-Ib-producing Enterobacter cloacae isolates. On the basis of the CLSI and EUCAST breakpoints, a large proportion (84.5% and 55.2%, respectively) of these 58 isolates were found to be susceptible to amikacin. However, among the isolates that were shown to be anikacin-susceptible according to the CLSI and EUCAST breakpoints, only 30.6% and 18.8% isolates, respectively, could be considered to have intermediate resistance on the basis of the EUCAST expert rules. Further studies should be conducted to determine the aminoglycoside susceptibility profiles of aac(6')-Ib-harboring isolates from various geographic regions and to monitor the therapeutic efficacy of amikacin in infections caused by these isolates.

Acetyltransferases/genetics , Amikacin/pharmacology , Aminoglycosides/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Enterobacter cloacae/genetics , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA
West Indian med. j ; 59(6): 591-596, Dec. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-672686


OBJECTIVE: The epidemiology of Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing E coli and K pneumoniae is complex and varies among hospitals and countries. This study aimed at describing the molecular detection and epidemiology of ESBL subtypes prevalent in clinical isolates of K pneumonia and E coli in Trinidad and Tobago. METHODS: Over 36-months, isolates of E coli and K pneumoniae from clinical specimens of patients processed at a regional tertiary hospital in the country were identified using standard microbiological methods. MicroScan System (Siemens, USA) was used to determine MIC values while E-test (AB Biodisk, Sweden) assays phenotypically confirmed ESBL production. K pneumoniae (n= 65) and E coli (n = 25) isolates confirmed as ESBL producers were further subjected to multiplex PCR and PFGE tests to determine the ESBL subtypes and clonal relatedness. RESULTS: Female patients (67.8%) and urine samples (65%) yielded most ESBL isolates, with over 90% recovered from the hospital s medicine and surgery facilities. All ESBL isolates including all K pneumoniae producing ESBLs were 100% susceptible to carbapenems and amikacin antimicrobials. Polymerase Chain Reaction detected 100% blaTEM genes, 4.1% blaSHV and 37.5% bla cTX-M genes among E coli isolates. Similarly, 84.3% blaTEM, 34.5% blaSHv and 58.8% bla cTX-M genes were detected in K pneumoniae. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) results showed diverse and unrelated clones. CONCLUSIONS: In this the first report of molecular characterization and epidemiology of ESBL subtypes in E coli and K pneumoniae isolates in Trinidad and Tobago, the CTX-M, mainly phylogenetically group 1 type, was most predominant. Most ESBL isolates were still susceptible to carbapenems and aminoglycosides and their spread appears to be polyclonal and clonally unrelated.

OBJETIVO: La epidemiología de E coli y K pneumoniae productores de beta-lactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) es compleja y varía de un hospital o país a otro. Este estudio tiene por objeto describir la detección molecular y la epidemiología de los subtipos de BLEE prevalecientes en aislados clínicos de K pneumonia y E coli en Trinidad y Tobago. MÉTODOS: Por más de 36-meses, se identificaron aislados de E coli y K pneumoniae a partir de especímenes clínicos de pacientes procesados en el hospital universitario regional del país, utilizando métodos microbiológicos estándar. Se utilizó el sistema MicroScan (Siemens, USA) para determinar los valores MIC, en tanto que la prueba del epsilómetro o E-test (biodisco AB, Suecia) confirmó fenotípicamente la producción de BLEE. Los aislados de K pneumoniae (n = 65) y E coli (n = 25) confirmados como productores de BLEE, fueron posteriormente sometidos a pruebas PCR multiplex y PFGE con el propósito de determinar los subtipos BLEE y la relación clonal. RESULTADOS: Las pacientes (67.8%) y las muestras de orinas (65%) arrojaron el mayor número de aislados de BLEE, siendo más del 90% tomados de las instalaciones de medicina y cirugía del hospital. Todos los aislados de BLEE, incluyendo todas las K pneumoniae productoras de BLEE resultaron 100% susceptibles a los agentes antimicrobianos carbapenem y amikacina. La reacción en cadena de la polimerasa detectó 100% de genes blaTEM, 4.1% de genes blaSHV y 37.5% de genes blaCTX-M entre los aislados de E coli. De manera similar, 84.3% de genes blaTEM, 34.5% blaSHV y 58.8% blaCTX-M fueron detectados en K pneumoniae. Los resultados de la electroforesis en gel de campos pulsados (PFGE) mostraron clones diversos y no relacionados. CONCLUSIONES: En este primer reporte de caracterización molecular y epidemiología de subtipos de BLEE en aislados de E coli y K pneumoniae en Trinidad y Tobago, el tipo principalmente filogenéticamente CTX-M grupo 1 fue el de mayor prevalencia. La mayoría de los aislados de BLEE eran todavía susceptibles a los carbapenems y los aminoglucósidos, y su extensión parece ser policlonal y no hallarse clonalmente relacionada.

Female , Humans , Male , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Escherichia coli Infections/genetics , Escherichia coli/enzymology , Escherichia coli/genetics , Klebsiella Infections/epidemiology , Klebsiella Infections/genetics , Klebsiella pneumoniae/enzymology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Aminoglycosides/pharmacology , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Escherichia coli Infections/drug therapy , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Phenotype , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Trinidad and Tobago/epidemiology
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 13(6): 403-407, Dec. 2009. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-546007


This prospective case-control study was conducted from October 2003 to June 2007 to evaluate risk factors for multidrug resistance among extended-spectrum-b-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. (ESBL-EK) isolates in blood cultures. All adult patients (>18 years old) whose blood cultures grew ESBL-EK during the study period were included. An ESBL-EK isolate was defined as MDR if it was resistant to at least one member of following two classes of antibiotics: aminoglycosides (amikacin, gentamicin, or netilmycin) and fluoroquinolones (ofloxacin, or ciprofloxacin). Case patients were those with a MDR ESBL-EK isolate, and control patients were those with a non-MDR ESBL-EK isolate. A total of 94 bloodstream infections, including 37 (39,4 percent) bloodstream infections with ESBL-producing E. coli and 57 (60,6 percent) with ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae,in 86 patients were enrolled. Thirty episodes (31.9 percent) were due to MDR ESBL-EK. The only independent risk factor for MDR ESBL-EK was duration of hospitalization before bacteraemia (OR 3.88; 95 percent CI 1.55-9.71; p=0.004). The rate of multidrug resistance among ESBL-EK bloodstream isolates was high, and duration of hospitalization before bacteraemia was the only indeepended risk factor for the MDR ESBL-EK bloodstream infections.

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Aminoglycosides/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Fluoroquinolones/pharmacology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Bacteremia/microbiology , Case-Control Studies , Cross Infection/microbiology , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Escherichia coli/enzymology , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/enzymology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , beta-Lactamases/biosynthesis
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2008 Oct-Dec; 26(4): 369-71
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-53999


Considering the emergence of high level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR) in enterococci this study was undertaken to determine their status in a rural setting. HLAR by disc diffusion and agar dilution, beta lactamase by nitrocefin disc and vancomycin resistance by agar dilution was determined in 150 enterococcal isolates, as per NCCLS guidelines. Only two species, Enterococcus faecalis (85.5%) and Enterococcus faecium (14.7%) were recovered, mostly from blood. Forty six percent showed HLAR. Multi drug resistance and concomitant resistance of HLAR strains to beta lactams were quite high. None showed beta lactamase activity or vancomycin resistance.

Aminoglycosides/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Enterococcus faecium/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Hospitals, Rural/statistics & numerical data , Humans , India , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 70(6): 924-928, nov.-dez. 2007. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-474095


OBJETIVO: Avaliar a suscetibilidade, in vitro, de Staphylococcus coagulase negativa (SCoN), isolados da conjuntiva e córnea, à meticilina, às fluoroquinolonas e aos aminoglicosídeos. MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas retrospectivamente 707 amostras oculares de SCoN quanto à suscetibilidade aos antimicrobianos pelo teste de disco difusão, durante o período de janeiro de 2000 a dezembro de 2003. RESULTADOS: Houve um aumento do número de SCoN em isolados da conjuntiva (n=57, ano de 2000 e n=153, ano de 2003) e da córnea (n=28, ano de 2000 e n=78, ano de 2003). A freqüência de SCoN resistentes à meticilina isolados da conjuntiva e da córnea, aumentou (1,8 a 19,6 por cento e 14,3 a 29,3 por cento respectivamente) durante o período avaliado. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante nos anos estudados, nos percentuais de SCoN resistentes às fluoroquinolonas, nas conjuntivas (ofloxacina: 1,8 a 7,8 por cento e ciprofloxacina: 3,5 a 9,2 por cento) e nas córneas (ofloxacina: 14,3 a 9,0 por cento e ciprofloxacina:14,3 a 10,3 por cento). Avaliando-se os resultados das amostras isoladas da conjuntiva, observou-se um aumento na resistência à tobramicina: 15,8 a 34,6 por cento; e à gentamicina: 10,5 a 25,5 por cento; mas não houve mudança no perfil de resistência das amostras da córnea à tobramicina: 28,6 a 26,9 por cento e à gentamicina: 21,4 a 23,1 por cento). CONCLUSÃO: Houve diminuição na suscetibilidade in vitro dos SCoN para meticilina, tobramicina e gentamicina. As fluoroquinolonas, representadas pela ofloxacina e ciprofloxacina, demonstraram ter um padrão estável de suscetibilidade in vitro.

PURPOSE: To assess the in vitro susceptibility of conjunctival and corneal coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) to methicillin, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides. METHODS: A total of 707 conjunctival and corneal CoNS disk diffusion test results were retrospectively analyzed, from January 2000 through December 2003. RESULTS: From 2000 to 2003, there was an increase in number of CoNS isolated from conjunctiva (n=57 to n=153) and cornea (n=28 to n=78). The frequency of conjunctival and corneal methicillin-resistant CoNS also increased (1.8 to 19.6 percent and 14.3 to 29.3 percent, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference between fluoroquinolones-resistant CoNS percentages in conjunctiva (ofloxacin: 1.8 to 7.8 percent and ciprofloxacin: 3.5 to 9.2 percent) and cornea (ofloxacin: 14.3 to 9.0 percent and ciprofloxacin: 14.3 to 10.3 percent). Evaluating the results of the conjunctival samples, there was increased resistance to tobramycin (15.8 to 34.0 percent) and to gentamycin (10.5 to 25.5 percent). There was no change in resistance of corneal isolates to tobramycin (28.6 to 26.9 percent) and to gentamycin (21.4 to 23.1 percent). CONCLUSIONS: there was a decrease in in vitro CoNS susceptibility to methicillin, tobramycin and gentamycin. Fuoroquinolones represented by ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin demonstrated stable in vitro susceptibility.

Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Conjunctivitis/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , In Vitro Techniques , Keratitis/microbiology , Staphylococcus/drug effects , Aminoglycosides/pharmacology , Chi-Square Distribution , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Fluoroquinolones/pharmacology , Retrospective Studies , Staphylococcus/enzymology , Time Factors
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-46672


The present study was conducted to detect aerobic causative agents of urinary tract infection (UTI) and their antibiogram pattern. This study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS), Imphal, Manipur, India. A total of 1,109 clean catched midstream urine samples were collected, out of which 459 (40.4%) samples grew potential pathogens causing UTI. Escherichia coli were the predominant 334 (72.8%) bacterial pathogen followed by Klebsiella species 66 (14.4%), non lactose fermenters 19 (4.1%), Pseudomonas species 16 (3.5%) and others. Most of the strains of E. coli were resistance to Ciprofloxacin whereas sensitive to Aminoglycoside. Most of the urinary isolates showed high degree of resistance to Tetracycline, Norfloxacin and Cotrimoxazole. Gentamycin was the drug of choice for most of the strains.

Aminoglycosides/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Ciprofloxacin/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Gentamicins/pharmacology , Humans , India , Klebsiella/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pseudomonas/drug effects , Urinary Tract Infections/microbiology
Rev. méd. Chile ; 135(5): 566-572, mayo 2007. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-456672


Background: Infectious diseases produced by Enterococcus spp, must be treated with a synergistic combination between a penicillin and an aminoglycoside. High level resistance to aminoglycosides is a serious therapeutic problem, since it predicts the loss of synergistic activity of this antimicrobial combination. Aim: To investigate the presence of genes encoding aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AMEs) among strains of Enterococcus spp with high level of resistance to aminoglycosides. Material and methods: The genes encoding some of the AMEs were investigated among 305 aminoglycoside-resistant strains of Enterococcus spp isolated in hospitals of the VIII region of Chile, by dot blot hybridization and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCS). Results: High level resistance to some aminoglycosides was observed in 104 strains (34.1 percent) and 93 of these harbored at íeast one of the genes encoding the investigated AMEs. Three genes were detected: aac(6)Ie-aph(2")Ia (14.8 percent) encoding for the enzyme AAC(6)Ie-APH(2")Ia (resistance to all aminoglycosides, except streptomycin); aph(3)IIIa (26 percent), and ant(6)la (28.5 percent) encoding for the phosphorylating enzymes APH(3)Ilia (resistance to kanamycin, amikacin and neomycin), and ANT(6)-la (resistance only to streptomycin), respectively. None of the strains harbored the gene ant (4) which encode for the enzyme ANT (4). Conclusion: The low frequency of strains harbouring the bifunctional enzyme (<15 percent), conferring an extended resistance profile to aminoglycosides, allows us to propose the empirical use of aminoglycoside-aminocyclitols, associated to a penicillin, in the treatment of serious infections produced by species of enterococci.

Humans , Aminoglycosides/metabolism , Anti-Bacterial Agents/metabolism , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Enterococcus/enzymology , Acetyltransferases/genetics , Aminoglycosides/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Chile , Enterococcus/drug effects , Enterococcus/genetics , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Hospitals , Molecular Sequence Data , Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor)/genetics
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 100(7): 789-793, Nov. 2005. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-419708


The role of intracellular free polyamine (putrescine and spermidine) pools in multiple resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics was investigated among in vitro selected kanamycin-resistant Escherichia coli J53 mutants expressing diminished oligopeptide-binding protein (OppA) levels and/or defective ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity. The results suggest that diminished OppA content, but not defective ODC activity expression, increased the relative concentration of free spermidine as compared to the wild type strain. Moreover, by adding exogenous polyamines or polyamine synthesis inhibitors to cultures with different mutant strains, a direct relationship between the intracellular OppA levels and resistance to kanamycin was revealed. Collectively these results further suggest a complex relation among OppA expression, aminoglycoside resistance and polyamine metabolism.

Aminoglycosides/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Polyamines/metabolism , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/drug effects , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Escherichia coli/enzymology , Escherichia coli/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial , Immunoblotting , Ornithine Decarboxylase/metabolism , Putrescine/metabolism , Spermidine/metabolism
J Indian Med Assoc ; 2005 Jan; 103(1): 31-2, 34, 36-7
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-97084


A prospective study was conducted to determine clinical and bacteriologic features and antibiotic resistance pattern of enterococci isolated from cases of bacteraemia over a 7-month period. A total of 103 patients were identified during the study period whose blood culture was found to be positive for Enterococcus species. Bacteraemia was nosocomially acquired in 100 patients and community acquired in three. Enterococcus faecalis was isolated in 99 patients and E faecium in four. Bacteraemia was polymicrobial in 34 patients. Majority of patients had serious underlying diseases and were on prior therapy with cephalosporins. A source of bacteraemia was found in 59 patients (57.2%); intravascular catheters being the most common identifiable source. Overall mortality rate was 5.8%. High level aminoglycoside resistance was found in 76 (73.8%) of the enterococcal isolates. Vancomycin resistance was not found in any of the isolates. Bacteraemia due to enterococci is emerging as a significant clinical problem in hospital settings. A watchful vigilance is therefore required as regards their antibiotic resistance pattern particularly high level aminoglycoside resistance and vancomycin resistance. In addition hospital practices like prolonged use of in situ catheters and inadvertent antibiotic usage need to be minimised.

Adolescent , Adult , Aminoglycosides/pharmacology , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Child , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Enterococcus faecalis , Enterococcus faecium , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Humans , India , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies