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1.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 47(1): e2271, ene.-mar. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1289566

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El amoníaco constituye riesgo de emergencia química en el Policlínico Docente Julián Grimau del municipio Arroyo Naranjo, lo que hace necesario asumir una estructura organizacional que viabilice la respuesta médica frente a este tipo de eventos. Objetivo: Diseñar una propuesta de estructura organizacional del policlínico Julián Grimau para la respuesta médica ante emergencias químicas por amoníaco. Métodos: Se realizó una investigación en sistemas y servicios de salud, entre septiembre de 2017 y diciembre de 2018, en el Policlínico Docente Julián Grimau. Se analizaron documentos relacionados con las acciones médicas en las emergencias químicas en la atención primaria de salud. Se empleó el método sistémico estructural-funcional para diseñar la estructura organizacional, y el informante clave para su concreción. Resultados: Se propone una estructura organizacional de la respuesta médica a emergencias químicas por amoníaco en el Policlínico Docente Julián Grimau que se conformó por nueve áreas: punto de recepción (1), tratamiento especial (2), clasificación (3), tratamiento de urgencia al intoxicado grave (4), tratamiento de urgencia al intoxicado leve (5), aseguramiento al diagnóstico (6), aseguramiento médico material (7), el área de fallecidos (8) y asintomáticos (9). Conclusiones: La estructura organizacional de la respuesta médica a emergencias químicas por amoníaco en el Policlínico Docente Julián Grimau quedó conformada en áreas con sustento en los principios clínicos, evolutivos y de tratamiento del paciente intoxicado agudo, donde se aprovechan las potencialidades orgánicas y funcionales de la institución. Se caracteriza por ser sistémica, flexible, objetiva, participativa, oportuna, adecuada y selectiva(AU)


Introduction: At Julián Grimau Teaching Polyclinic in Arroyo Naranjo municipality, ammonia is a risk of chemical emergency. Hence, it is necessary for the medical response to these situations to implement an organizational structure. Objective: Design a proposal of organizational structure in Julián Grimau Polyclinic for the medical response to chemical emergency by ammonia. Methods: A research was carried out on health systems and services, from September 2017 to December 2018, in Julián Grimau Teaching Polyclinic. A documentary analysis related to medical actions in chemical emergencies was conducted in primary health care's level. In addition, the following methods were used: structural-functional system for the design of the organizational structure and the key informant for its concretion. Result: It is proposed an organizational structure of the medical response to chemical emergencies by ammonia in the Polyclinic, that was formed by nine areas: reception point (1), special treatment (2), classification (3), emergency treatment to severe poisoned patient (4), emergency treatment to slightly poisoned patient (5), logistics for the diagnosis (6), medical-material logistics (7), deceased´s area (8), and asymptomatic patients (9). Conclusions: The organizational structure of the medical response to chemical emergencies by ammonia in Julián Grimau Teaching Polyclinic was formed of areas secured by principles of clinical, evolutive and of acute poisoned patient´s treatment where the organic and functional potentials of the institution are seized. Hence, this proposal is flexible, objective, participatory, timely, adequate and selective(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Primary Health Care , Emergency Medical Services , Ammonia/poisoning
2.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21200262, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285560

ABSTRACT

HIGHLIGHTS Fluoxetine increases the metabolic rate and excretion of ammonia in both species. O:N ratio in fish showed higher values in the highest concentrations of fluoxetine. The LC50 - 96 hour values of Palaemon pandaliformis represented greater toxicity. Both species are a good biological model for fluoxetine exposure studies.


Abstract Fluoxetine is an emerging pollutant that acts as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and being a hydrolytic molecule that is photolytically stable and accumulaties in biological tissues, its disposal in the aquatic environment can interfere with the physiology of fish and shrimp. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze the effects of fluoxetine on routine metabolism (metabolic rate, specific ammonia excretion and O:N ratio) of Deuterodon iguape and Palaemon pandaliformis. For this, five groups of each species, were exposed to different concentrations of fluoxetine for 24 hours (D. iguape) and 2 hours (P. pandaliformis). The results demonstrated that in D. iguape exposure to fluoxetine significantly increased both the metabolic rate by 75%, 85%, 55% and 50% for concentrations of 0.05; 0.1; 0.5 and 1.0 mgL-1, respectively, and the specific ammonia excretion by 40%, 48% and 20% for concentrations of 0.05; 0.1 and 0.5 mgL-1, respectively, when compared with their control. The O:N ratio was statistically greater in concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0 mgL-1. Concerning P. pandaliformis, exposure to fluoxetine increased metabolic rate at concentrations 30.0 and 60.0 µgL-1, and also increased specific ammonia excretion at concentrations 10.0, 30.0 and 60.0 µgL-1, when compared with the control group. It was concluded that exposure to fluoxetine increases the routine metabolism of both species and that at the concentration 1.0 mgL-1, Deuterodon iguape required different energy substrates.


Subject(s)
Fluoxetine/metabolism , Palaemonidae/drug effects , Ammonia/metabolism , Models, Biological
3.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190118, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132178

ABSTRACT

Abstract Aquaponics is a system that integrates aquaculture with plant production in which two species are benefited, and there is water saving. In this study was carried out with an aquaponic system to verify the interaction between the growth of the halophytes Batis maritime, Sarcocornia neei, and Sporobolus virginicus associated with white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei rearing. We also investigated if there were different responses of physicochemical variables of the water in the experimental shrimp culture ponds integrated into the growth of plants and control ponds, without plants, throughout a 56-day period. The treatment experiment and control presented a statistically significant difference in total dissolved solids, salinity, total suspended solids, ammonia, orthophosphate, and nitrite. In the experimental treatment, with the presence of plants and recirculating water, a reduction of total suspended solids, ammonia and orthophosphate was observed. The rate of shrimp production was not significantly different between treatments, and the performance was similar to that of other studies. The biomass gain of the halophyte B. maritima was 876.6 grams in 0.5 m² and of S. neei was 48.8 grams in 0.16 m². All plants of the species S. virginicus died during the experiment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Water/chemistry , Chenopodiaceae/growth & development , Penaeidae/growth & development , Salt-Tolerant Plants/growth & development , Phosphates , Aquaculture , Hydroponics , Biomass , Chenopodiaceae/metabolism , Ammonia , Nitrites
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(3): 423-431, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001462

ABSTRACT

Abstract The usage of aquatic plants represents an alternative in the treatment of residues originating from swine. In these systems, one of the N removal methods is the ammonium (NH4 +) uptake and volatilization of ammonia (NH3). In this way, the objective of this work was to evaluate the volatilization rates of NH3 in waste treatment systems swine fluids (SSF) with aquatic macrophytes, as well as the concentration of NH 4+ present in the swine fluids. The experiment was carried out at Campus II/UNOESTE. The treatment systems were composed of 16 boxes of PVC and characterized as: T1 = Control sample 50% of SSF/50% of water; T2 = 50% SSF/50% water + Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms; T3 = 50% SSF/50% water + Pistia stratiotes L.; T4 = 50% SSF/50% water + Salvinia auriculata Aubl. The design was randomized blocks, with 4 treatments and 4 replicates. The hydrogen potential (pH) and the NH4 + content of the effluent were analyzed weekly, and the volatilization of NH 3 by means of collectors installed in each treatment unit. The presence of aquatic macrophytes promoted the reduction of NH4+ concentration and of the pH values ​​of swine fluids, and this resulted in the reduction of NH3 volatilization rates to the environment, with emphasis on the system with Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, which presented the lowest rate of volatilization.


Resumo A utilização de plantas aquáticas representa uma alternativa no tratamento de resíduos oriundos da suinocultura. Nestes sistemas, uma das formas de remoção de nitrogênio (N) é a absorção de amônio (NH4+) pelas plantas, entretanto, também ocorre a volatilização de amônia (NH3). Dessa forma, o objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar as taxas de volatilização de NH3 em sistemas de tratamentos de dejetos líquidos de suínos (DLS) com macrófitas aquáticas, bem como a concentração de NH4+ presente nos dejetos. O experimento foi realizado em área de ambiente aberto no Campus II/UNOESTE. Os sistemas de tratamento foram constituídos de 16 caixas de PVC e caracterizados como: T1 = Testemunha 50% de DLS/50% de água; T2 = 50% de DLS/50% de água + Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms; T3 = 50% de DLS/50% de água + Pistia stratiotes L.; T4 = 50% de DLS/50% de água + Salvinia auriculata Aubl. O delineamento adotado foi em blocos casualizados, com 4 tratamentos e 4 repetições. Foram analisados o potencial hidrogeniônico (pH) e o teor de NH4 + do efluente semanalmente, e a volatilização de NH3 por meio de coletores instalados em cada unidade de tratamento. A presença das macrófitas aquáticas proporcionou a redução da concentração de NH4+ e dos valores de pH dos dejetos líquidos de suínos, e isto resultou na redução das taxas de volatilização de NH 3 ao meio ambiente, com destaque ao sistema com Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, que apresentou a menor taxa de volatilização.


Subject(s)
Animals , Waste Disposal, Fluid , Araceae/metabolism , Eichhornia/metabolism , Ammonia , Manure/analysis , Swine , Volatilization , Biodegradation, Environmental , Random Allocation , Water Consumption (Environmental Health) , Industrial Waste/analysis , Animal Husbandry
5.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(3): 713-722, may./jun. 2019. graf, ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048629

ABSTRACT

The properly measurement of gas emissions and nutrient availability to crops using technologies such as polymer-coated urea are required to monitored the possible nitrogen (N) fertilizer pollution in the environment. This study aimed to evaluate N loss through ammonia volatilization from polymer-coated and conventional urea in maize field trials under two different environments. The study was carried out in Chapadão do Sul and Selvíria State of Mato Grosso do Sul evaluating the first and second harvest of maize plants. Nitrogen fertilizers were applied as polymer-coated, conventional urea and control plots were used as reference to evaluate N loss through volatilization (3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 days after fertilizer application). The peak of ammonia volatilization was observed during the first three days after fertilizer application corresponding up to 44% of total N supplied. Polymer-coated urea had promising results showing less ammonia volatilization during the first crop. However, the same result was not observed for second crop.


A necessidade de mensurar adequadamente a emissão de gases e também o fornecimento de nutrientes às culturas por tecnologias como o revestimento da ureia com polímeros são necessários para monitar a possível poluição de fertilizantes nitrogenados no ambiente. Assim, o objetivo desse trabalho foi determinar as perdas de nitrogênio (N) por volatilização pela ureia convencional e ureia revestida compolímero, em duas épocas de cultivo do milho (Zea mays L.), em duas regiões do cerrado brasileiro. Os trabalhos foram desenvolvidos em Chapadão do Sul e Selvíria, Mato Grosso do Sul - Brasil, na cultura do milho "primeira safra" e "segunda safra", respectivamente. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pela ureia e ureia revestida por polímero aplicada em cobertura além de um tratamento controle (sem N) em função de épocas de monitoramento das perdas de N por volatilização (3, 6, 9, 12 e 15 dias após a adubação) com 5 repetições. Foi mensurado as perdas de N por volatilização nas respectivas épocas e o total acumulado no período. O pico de volatilização ocorreu durante os três primeiros dias, atingindo patamares de até 44% do total de N fornecido. O revestimento da ureia com polímeros apresentou resultados promissores, diminuindo as perdas de N-NH3 por volatilização no milho "primeira safra". Todavia, os resultados obtidos no milho "segunda safra" não permitem generalizar tais benefícios.


Subject(s)
Polymers , Urea , Zea mays , Fertilizers , Ammonia , Grassland
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741368

ABSTRACT

Hyperammonemia can be caused by several genetic inborn errors of metabolism including urea cycle defects, organic acidemias, fatty acid oxidation defects, and certain disorders of amino acid metabolism. High levels of ammonia are extremely neurotoxic, leading to astrocyte swelling, brain edema, coma, severe disability, and even death. Thus, emergency treatment for hyperammonemia must be initiated before a precise diagnosis is established. In neonates with hyperammonemia caused by an inborn error of metabolism, a few studies have suggested that peritoneal dialysis, intermittent hemodialysis, and continuous renal replacement therapy (RRT) are effective modalities for decreasing the plasma level of ammonia. In this review, we discuss the current literature related to the use of RRT for treating neonates with hyperammonemia caused by an inborn error of metabolism, including optimal prescriptions, prognosis, and outcomes. We also review the literature on new technologies and instrumentation for RRT in neonates


Subject(s)
Ammonia , Astrocytes , Brain Edema , Coma , Diagnosis , Edema , Emergency Treatment , Humans , Hyperammonemia , Infant, Newborn , Metabolism , Metabolism, Inborn Errors , Peritoneal Dialysis , Plasma , Prescriptions , Prognosis , Renal Dialysis , Renal Replacement Therapy , Urea
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763401

ABSTRACT

Sarcopenia (loss of muscle mass and/or strength) frequently complicates liver cirrhosis and adversely affects the quality of life; cirrhosis related liver decompensation and significantly decreases wait-list and post-liver transplantation survival. The main therapeutic strategies to improve or reverse sarcopenia include dietary interventions (supplemental calorie and protein intake), increased physical activity (supervised resistance and endurance exercises), hormonal therapy (testosterone), and ammonia lowering agents (L-ornithine L-aspartate, branch chain amino acids) as well as mechanistic approaches that target underlying molecular and metabolic abnormalities. Besides other factors, hyperammonemia has recently gained attention and increase sarcopenia by various mechanisms including increased expression of myostatin, increased phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2a, cataplerosis of α ketoglutarate, mitochondrial dysfunction, increased reactive oxygen species that decrease protein synthesis and increased autophagy-mediated proteolysis. Sarcopenia contributes to frailty and increases the risk of minimal and overt hepatic encephalopathy.


Subject(s)
Ammonia , Aspartic Acid , Fibrosis , Hepatic Encephalopathy , Hyperammonemia , Liver , Liver Cirrhosis , Metabolism , Motor Activity , Myostatin , Peptide Initiation Factors , Phosphorylation , Proteolysis , Quality of Life , Reactive Oxygen Species , Sarcopenia , Testosterone
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764981

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) is a rare, but potentially life threatening neurological condition in children. This study aimed to investigate its clinical spectrum, diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma, and prognosis. METHODS: Twelve children with ANE were included in the study. The diagnosis was made by clinical and radiological characteristics from January 1999 to December 2017 and their clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 12 children aged 6 to 93 months at onset (5 male: 7 female) were evaluated. The etiology was found in 4 of them (influenza A, H1N1; coxsackie A 16; herpes simplex virus; and RANBP2 gene/mycoplasma). The most common initial presentations were seizures (67%) and altered mental status (58%). The majority of the subjects showed elevation of aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase with normal ammonia and increased cerebrospinal fluid protein without pleocytosis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed increased T2 signal density in bilateral thalami in all patients, but the majority of the subjects (67%) also had lesions in other areas including tegmentum and white matter. Despite the aggressive immunomodulatory treatments, the long-term outcome was variable. One child and two sisters with genetic predisposition passed away. CONCLUSION: ANE is a distinctive type of acute encephalopathy with diverse clinical spectrum. Even though the diagnostic criteria are available, they might not be watertight. In addition, treatment options are still limited. Further studies for better outcome are needed.


Subject(s)
Ammonia , Aspartic Acid , Brain Diseases , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Child , Diagnosis , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , Leukocytosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Seizures , Siblings , Simplexvirus , White Matter
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758417

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Owing to the increased agricultural use of the herbicide glufosinate ammonium (GLA), the incidence of GLA poisoning has recently increased. Therefore, we investigated the possible predictive factors associated with severe complications following GLA poisoning. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of medical records was conducted based on 76 patients who had visited our regional emergency medical center with GLA poisoning from 2006 to 2017. Severe complications were defined as respiratory failure requiring intubation, systolic blood pressure less than 90 mmHg, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) less than 8, and presence of seizure. RESULTS: Age, ingested amount and ingested amount per weight were significantly greater in the severe group (p<0.001). PSS grade 2 or higher was more common in the severe group (p<0.001), and In addition, the APACHE II score was significantly higher in the severe group (p<0.001), as were the SOFA scores (p=0.002). Serum ammonia levels were significantly higher in the severe group (p=0.007), while MDRD-GFR was smaller in the severe group (p=0.002). The spot urine protein levels were significantly higher in the severe group (p=0.005), as was the urine protein to creatinine ratio (p=0.001). Upon multivariate analysis, the amount ingested per weight and PSS grade 2 or higher were identified as significant predictors. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that MDRD-GFR was significantly lower in the severe group after GLA poisoning. PSS grade 2 or higher and ingested amount per weight may be useful to evaluate the severity of complications after GLA poisoning.


Subject(s)
Ammonia , Ammonium Compounds , APACHE , Blood Pressure , Creatinine , Emergencies , Glasgow Coma Scale , Humans , Incidence , Intubation , Medical Records , Multivariate Analysis , Poisoning , Respiratory Insufficiency , Retrospective Studies , Seizures
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761790

ABSTRACT

Hydrogen sulfide is well-known to exhibit anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective activities, and also has protective effects in the liver. This study aimed to examine the protective effect of hydrogen sulfide in rats with hepatic encephalopathy, which was induced by mild bile duct ligation. In this rat model, bile ducts were mildly ligated for 26 days. Rats were treated for the final 5 days with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS). NaHS (25 µmol/kg), 0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, or silymarin (100 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally once per day for 5 consecutive days. Mild bile duct ligation caused hepatotoxicity and inflammation in rats. Intraperitoneal NaHS administration reduced levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, which are indicators of liver disease, compared to levels in the control mild bile duct ligation group. Levels of ammonia, a major causative factor of hepatic encephalopathy, were also significantly decreased. Malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, catalase, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels were measured to confirm antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. N-Methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors with neurotoxic activity were assessed for subunit NMDA receptor subtype 2B. Based on these data, NaHS is suggested to exhibit hepatoprotective effects and guard against neurotoxicity through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Ammonia , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Bile Ducts , Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium , Catalase , Hepatic Encephalopathy , Hydrogen Sulfide , Inflammation , Ligation , Liver , Liver Diseases , Malondialdehyde , Models, Animal , N-Methylaspartate , Necrosis , Peroxidase , Rats , Silymarin , Sodium
11.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(4): 770-776, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974307

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Anaerobic digestion is important for the management of livestock manure with high ammonia level. Although ammonia effects on anaerobic digestion have been comprehensively studied, the molecular mechanism underlying ammonia inhibition still remains elusive. In this study, based on metatranscriptomic analysis, the transcriptional profile of microbial community in anaerobic digestion under low (1500 mg L-1) and high NH4 + (5000 mg L-1) concentrations, respectively, were revealed. The results showed that high NH4 + concentrations significantly inhibited methane production but facilitated the accumulations of volatile fatty acids. The expression of methanogenic pathway was significantly inhibited by high NH4 + concentration but most of the other pathways were not significantly affected. Furthermore, the expressions of methanogenic genes which encode acetyl-CoA decarbonylase and methyl-coenzyme M reductase were significantly inhibited by high NH4 + concentration. The inhibition of the co-expressions of the genes which encode acetyl-CoA decarbonylase was observed. Some genes involved in the pathways of aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis and ribosome were highly expressed under high NH4 + concentration. Consequently, the ammonia inhibition on anaerobic digestion mainly focused on methanogenic process by suppressing the expressions of genes which encode acetyl-CoA decarbonylase and methyl-coenzyme M reductase. This study improved the accuracy and depth of understanding ammonia inhibition on anaerobic digestion.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/genetics , Bacteria/metabolism , Ammonia/metabolism , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacteria/classification , Transcription, Genetic , Bioreactors/microbiology , Fatty Acids, Volatile/metabolism , Microbiota , Anaerobiosis , Methane/metabolism
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715446

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate brain regional homogeneity (ReHo) changes of multiple sub-frequency bands in cirrhotic patients with or without hepatic encephalopathy using resting-state functional MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study recruited 46 cirrhotic patients without clinical hepatic encephalopathy (noHE), 38 cirrhotic patients with clinical hepatic encephalopathy (HE), and 37 healthy volunteers. ReHo differences were analyzed in slow-5 (0.010−0.027 Hz), slow-4 (0.027−0.073 Hz), and slow-3 (0.073−0.198 Hz) bands. Routine analysis of (0.010−0.080 Hz) band was used as a benchmark. Associations of abnormal ReHo values in each frequency band with neuropsychological scores and blood ammonia level were analyzed. Pattern classification analyses were conducted to determine whether ReHo differences in each band could differentiate the three groups of subjects (patients with or without hepatic encephalopathy and healthy controls). RESULTS: Compared to routine analysis, more differences between HE and noHE were observed in slow-5 and slow-4 bands (p 12, overall corrected p < 0.05). Sub-frequency band analysis also showed that ReHo abnormalities were frequency-dependent (overall corrected p < 0.05). In addition, ReHo abnormalities in each sub-band were correlated with blood ammonia level and neuropsychological scores, especially in the left inferior parietal lobe (overall corrected p < 0.05 for all frequency bands). Pattern classification analysis demonstrated that ReHo differences in lower slow-5 and slow-4 bands (both p < 0.05) and higher slow-3 band could differentiate the three groups (p < 0.05). Compared to routine analysis, ReHo features in slow-4 band obtained better classification accuracy (89%). CONCLUSION: Cirrhotic patients showed frequency-dependent changes in ReHo. Sub-frequency band analysis is important for understanding HE and clinical monitoring.


Subject(s)
Ammonia , Benchmarking , Brain , Classification , Healthy Volunteers , Hepatic Encephalopathy , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Parietal Lobe
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715160

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Glufosinate ammonium poisoning can cause seizures, even after a symptom-free period. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between serum neuron specific enolase (NSE) level and the occurrence of seizures in patients with acute glufosinate ammonium poisoning. METHODS: For this retrospective observational study, data from patients diagnosed with acute glufosinate ammonium poisoning were collected between January 2016 and June 2016. Serum NSE was measured within 2 hours of arrival at the emergency department. The patients were divided into a seizure group and a non-seizure group. RESULTS: The seizure group included eight of the 15 total patients (53.3%). The serum NSE level was significantly higher in the seizure group than in the non-seizure group (32.4±11.9 ng/mL vs. 19.5±5 ng/mL, p=0.019). The amount of glufosinate ingested and initial and peak serum ammonia levels were significantly higher in the seizure group than in the non-seizure group. There was no significant difference in the area under the curve of the serum NSE level or the initial and peak serum ammonia levels in terms of predicting the occurrence of seizures. CONCLUSION: In acute glufosinate poisoning, initial serum NSE levels may help in prediction of seizures.


Subject(s)
Ammonia , Ammonium Compounds , Biomarkers , Emergency Service, Hospital , Herbicides , Humans , Neurons , Observational Study , Phosphopyruvate Hydratase , Poisoning , Retrospective Studies , Seizures
14.
Kosin Medical Journal ; : 96-104, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715144

ABSTRACT

Liver transplantation is a current definitive treatment for those with end-stage liver disease. Hepatic encephalopathy is a common complication of hepatic failure, which can be improved and aggravated by various causes. It is important to differentiate hepatic encephalopathy from other diseases causing brain dysfunction such as cerebral hemorrhage, which is also related to high mortality after liver transplant surgery. A 37-year-old patient was presented with acute liver failure and high ammonia levels and seizure-like symptoms. Computed tomography (CT) of his brain showed mild brain atrophy, regarded as a symptom of hepatic encephalopathy, and treated to decrease blood ammonia level. Deceased donor liver transplantation was performed and liver function and ammonia level normalized after surgery, but the patient showed symptoms of involuntary muscle contraction and showed loss of pupil reflex and fixation without recovery of consciousness. Brain CT showed brain edema and bilateral cerebral infarction, and the patient died after a few days. The purpose of this case report is to emphasize the importance of preoperative neurological evaluation, careful transplantation decision, and proper perioperative management of liver transplantation in patients with acute hepatic encephalopathy.


Subject(s)
Adult , Ammonia , Atrophy , Brain , Brain Edema , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Cerebral Infarction , Consciousness , Hepatic Encephalopathy , Humans , Liver Diseases , Liver Failure , Liver Failure, Acute , Liver Transplantation , Liver , Mortality , Muscle, Smooth , Pupil , Reflex , Seizures , Tissue Donors
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728814

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Early prediction of prognosis of children resuscitated from cardiac arrest is a major challenge. We investigated the utility of electroencephalography (EEG) and laboratory studies for predicting of neurologic outcome in children resuscitated from cardiac arrest. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed medical records of patients who were resuscitated from cardiac arrest from 2006 to 2015 at the Gil Medical Center. Patients aged one month to 18 years were included. EEG analysis included background scoring, reactivity and seizure burden. EEG background was classified score 0 (normal/organized), score 1 (slow and disorganized), score 2 (discontinuous or burst suppression), and score 3 (suppressed and featureless). Neurologic outcome was evaluated by Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category (PCPC) at least 6 months after cardiac arrest. RESULTS: Total 26 patients were evaluated. Nine patients showed good neurologic outcome (PCPC 1, 2, 3) and 17 patients showed poor neurologic outcome (PCPC 4, 5, 6). Patients of poor neurologic outcome group showed EEG background score 3 in 88.2%, whereas 44.4% in patients of good neurologic outcome group (P=0.028). Electrographic ictal discharges except non-convulsive status epilepticus were presented in 44.4% of good neurologic outcome group and 5.9% of poor neurologic outcome group (P=0.034). Ammonia and lactate levels were higher and pH levels were lower in poor outcome group than good neurologic outcome group. CONCLUSION: Suppressed and featureless EEG background is associated with poor neurologic outcome and electrographic seizures are associated with good neurologic outcome.


Subject(s)
Ammonia , Child , Electroencephalography , Heart Arrest , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Lactic Acid , Medical Records , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Seizures , Status Epilepticus
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775184

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The ammonia contained in tobacco fillers and mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke accelerates nicotine dependence in cigarette smokers. Ammonia has been included in the non-exhaustive priority list of 39 tobacco components and emissions of cigarette published by the World Health Organization (WHO) Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation. The development of a simple ammonia detection method will contribute to the establishment of tobacco product regulation under tobacco control policies and allow surveys to be conducted, even by laboratories with small research budgets.@*METHODS@#We developed a simple colorimetric method based on the salicylate-chlorine reaction and absorption spectrometry with two reagents (sodium nitroprusside and sodium dichloroisocyanurate). To compare this method to conventional ion chromatography, we analyzed the ammonia levels in tobacco fillers extracted from 35 Japanese commercially marketed cigarette brands manufactured by four tobacco companies (Japan Tobacco (JT) Inc., British American Tobacco (BAT), Philip Morris Japan, and Natural American Spirit). We also analyzed the ammonia levels in the sidestream smoke from cigarettes of the brands that were found to contain high or low tobacco filler ammonia levels.@*RESULTS@#The ammonia levels in the reference cigarette (3R4F) measured by our method and ion chromatography were similar and comparable to previously reported levels. The ammonia levels in tobacco fillers extracted from 35 cigarette brands ranged from 0.25 to 1.58 mg/g. The mean ammonia level of JT cigarette brands was significantly higher (0.83 ± 0.28 mg/g) than that of Natural American Spirit cigarette brands (0.30 ± 0.08 mg/g) and lower than those in the other two cigarette brands (1.11 ± 0.19 mg/g for BAT and 1.24 ± 0.15 mg/g for Philip Morris) (p < 0.001 by Bonferroni test). The ammonia levels in the sidestream smoke of CABIN, Marlboro Black Menthol, American Spirit Light, and Seven Stars were 5.89 ± 0.28, 5.23 ± 0.12, 6.92 ± 0.56, and 4.14 ± 0.19 mg/cigarette, respectively. The ammonia levels were higher in sidestream smoke than in tobacco filler.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Our simple colorimetric could be used to analyze ammonia in tobacco fillers and sidestream smoke. There were significant differences between the ammonia levels of the 35 commercially marketed cigarette brands in Japan manufactured by four tobacco manufacturers. Over 90% of the ammonia in sidestream smoke was in gaseous phase.


Subject(s)
Ammonia , Colorimetry , Methods , Japan , Smoke , Spectrophotometry , Methods , Tobacco , Chemistry , Tobacco Products
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787322

ABSTRACT

A salivary testing instrument has an advantage that the method is simple and can be performed in a short time. However, it is necessary to verify the factors that affect the reliability of the result, because the device is easy to use and even saliva collection is simple. The aim of this study was to compare the difference of the test results according to the measurement time in order to analyze the time factor of the external variable among the factors that may affect the measurement results of the salivary testing instrument. The relationship between the measured values of the salivary testing instrument to identify the internal variables was analyzed. Saliva was collected from 20 randomly selected patients regardless of age, sex, or diseases. The mean age was 46.6 years, 10 males and 10 females. The saliva collected was directly measured with the salivary testing instrument as group I. The saliva samples were placed in air in a paper cup for 10 minutes, and then measured as group III. Then group I was remeasured after 30 minutes and assigned as group II. Group III was remeasured after 30 minutes and called as group IV. As a result, all of the cariogenic bacteria, acidity, buffer capacity, blood, leukocyte, protein and ammonia, except buffer capacity, showed statistically significant changes in group II and IV. This means that the reliability of the test results is poor if the measurement time is not observed. Cariogenic bacteria were correlated with leukocyte and protein, buffer capacity was related to acidity, protein, and protein was related to buffer capacity and leukocyte. In conclusion, the result according to the measurement time as the external variable was different, which means that time must be strictly monitored when testing saliva. It is also necessary to take into account the relevance of the correlations between the internal variables and the clinical data.


Subject(s)
Ammonia , Bacteria , Female , Humans , Leukocytes , Male , Methods , Saliva , Time Factors
18.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 101-106, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974326

ABSTRACT

Abstract In the Southern Hemisphere, ruminants are mostly raised in grazing systems where animals consume forage and are supplemented with low amounts of concentrates. Concentrates are usually given separately and are rapidly ingested. This practice leads to changing rumen environment conditions during the day, may alter the rumen microbial metabolism and could affect host performance. The native ruminal Prevotella bryantii strain 3C5 was administered every 48 h to wethers under experimental conditions simulating Southern-Hemisphere feeding to evaluate its potential as a rumen fermentation modulator. The inoculum potential was assessed on day 17. The ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), volatile fatty acids and ruminal pH were monitored on a 24-h basis 19 days after the beginning of the experiment, and the microbial community structure was assessed by pyrosequencing. The administration of P. bryantii modified the fermentation products and daily pH values compared to the control. The NH3-N concentration in the rumen of treated animals was significantly higher than that of the untreated animals. Modification of the ruminal environment and fermentation pathways was achieved without altering the general structure of the microbial community or the potential methane production. P. bryantii 3C5 could be considered in potential probiotic formulations for ruminants in semi-intensive systems.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rumen/microbiology , Prevotella/metabolism , Rumen/metabolism , Rumen/chemistry , Sheep , Prevotella/genetics , Digestion , Fatty Acids, Volatile/metabolism , Fermentation , Ammonia/metabolism , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Models, Biological
19.
Braz. j. biol ; 77(3): 558-565, July-Sept. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888796

ABSTRACT

Abstract In response to growing worldwide market demand, intensive shrimp farming, based on high feed, has developed over the past decade. The nitrogenous compounds mainly generated by animal excretion can cause deterioration of water quality and produce chronic or even acute toxicity to aquatic animals. As prevention, theoretical safety levels have been estimated from acute toxicity tests and they are traditionally used to prevent toxic effects on biota. However, are those concentrations of nitrogenous compounds really safe to Farfantepenaeus paulensis? The current study aimed to investigate the lethal and sublethal effects of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate to juvenile F. paulensis based on safety levels. Each experiment was performed independently in 100 L tanks for 30 days. The survival rates and wet weight of all shrimps were recorded every 10 days. The concentrations tested for ammonia, nitrite and nitrate were respectively: treatment "T1/4", a quarter of the safety level (0.91 mg/L TA-N, 2.55 mg/L NO2--N and 80.7 mg/L NO3--N); treatment "TSL", the safety level (3.65 mg/L TA-N, 10.2 mg/L NO2--N and 323 mg/L NO3--N); and treatment "T2X", twice the safety level (7.30 mg/L TA-N, 20.4 mg/L NO2--N and 646 mg/L NO3--N). For F. paulensis cultivation, the real safety level for nitrite was estimated to be 2.55 mg/L NO2--N. For ammonia and nitrate, the recommended concentrations were <0.91 mg/L TA-N corresponding to 0.045 mg/L NH3-N and <80.7 mg/L NO3--N, respectively.


Resumo Em resposta à crescente demanda do mercado mundial, a carcinicultura intensiva tem se desenvolvido ao longo da última década. Os compostos nitrogenados gerados principalmente pela excreção dos animais podem causar a deterioração da qualidade da água e produzir toxicidade crônica ou mesmo aguda para os animais cultivados. Como prevenção, os níveis de segurança teóricos são estimados a partir de testes de toxicidade aguda e são tradicionalmente usados para evitar efeitos tóxicos sobre a biota. No entanto, as estimativas das concentrações dos compostos nitrogenados são realmente seguras para Farfantepenaeus paulensis? O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar os efeitos letais e subletais da amônia, nitrito e nitrato em juvenis de camarão marinho F. paulensis com base em níveis de segurança. Cada experimento foi realizado de forma independente em tanques com capacidade de 100 L durante 30 dias. As taxas de sobrevivência e peso úmido de todos os camarões foram registrados a cada 10 dias. As concentrações testadas para amônia, nitrito e nitrato foram respectivamente: "T1/4", um quarto do nível de segurança (0,91 mg/L N-AT, 2,55 mg/L de N-NO2- e 80,7 mg/L N-NO3-); "TSL", nível de segurança (3,65 mg/L N-AT, 10,2 mg/L de N-NO2- e 323 mg/L N-NO3-); e "T2X", duas vezes o nível de segurança (7,30 mg/L N-AT, 20,4 mg/L de N-NO2- e 646 mg/L de N-NO3-). Para a criação de F. paulensis, o nível de segurança real para nitrito foi estimado em 2,55 mg/L N-NO2-. Para amônia e nitrato, concentrações recomendadas foram: <0,91 mg/L N-AT correspondente a 0,045 mg/L N-NH3 e <80,7 mg/L N-NO3-, respectivamente.


Subject(s)
Animals , Penaeidae/drug effects , Ammonia/toxicity , Nitrates/toxicity , Nitrites/toxicity , Aquaculture , Penaeidae/growth & development , Penaeidae/physiology , Toxicity Tests, Chronic/veterinary , Longevity
20.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(3): 515-521, July-Sept. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889145

ABSTRACT

Abstract Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were immobilized by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and sodium alginate. The immobilization conditions and ammonia oxidation ability of the immobilized bacteria were investigated. The following immobilization conditions were observed to be optimal: PVA, 12%; sodium alginate, 1.1%; calcium chloride, 1.0%; inoculum concentration, 1.3 immobilized balls/mL of immobilized medium; pH, 10; and temperature, 30 °C. The immobilized ammonia-oxidizing bacteria exhibited strong ammonia oxidation ability even after being recycled four times. The ammonia nitrogen removal rate of the immobilized ammonia-oxidizing bacteria reached 90.30% under the optimal immobilization conditions. When compared with ammonia-oxidizing bacteria immobilized by sodium alginate alone, the bacteria immobilized by PVA and sodium alginate were superior with respect to pH resistance, the number of reuses, material cost, heat resistance, and ammonia oxidation ability.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/chemistry , Microbiological Techniques/methods , Ammonia/metabolism , Oxidation-Reduction , Polyvinyl Alcohol/chemistry , Temperature , Bacteria/metabolism , Microbiological Techniques/economics , Microbiological Techniques/instrumentation , Cells, Immobilized/metabolism , Cells, Immobilized/chemistry , Glucuronic Acid/chemistry , Alginates/chemistry , Hexuronic Acids/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
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