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1.
An. bras. dermatol ; 97(1): 89-92, Jan.-Feb. 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360083

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cutaneous leishmaniasis represents a public health problem that affects 85 countries. It is an endemic disease in Brazil, having an important socioeconomic impact. An exuberant case of cutaneous leishmaniasis is reported herein. A 28-year-old male patient with Down syndrome had had verrucous plaques on the back for over a year, with progressive growth. PCR of a lesion sample was positive for Leishmania braziliensis. The patient's condition was classified as atypical cutaneous leishmaniasis. He was successfully treated with amphotericin B and miltefosine. The treatment remains a challenge, given the toxicity and low cure rate of the currently recommended drugs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Leishmania braziliensis , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/epidemiology , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Endemic Diseases
3.
Rev. Asoc. Odontol. Argent ; 109(1): 59-63, ene.-abr. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1281778

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Describir el diagnóstico y el tratamiento interdisciplinario de un caso clínico de histoplasmosis. Caso clínico: Un paciente masculino de 39 años, con antecedentes de consumo de drogas, alcohol, tabaquismo crónico y VIH+ sin adherencia al tratamiento, acudió al Servicio de Odontología por una interconsulta del Servicio de Clínica Médica para la evaluación de lesiones erosivas en paladar duro y blando, reborde alveolar anterior, dorso lingual y lesión tumoral en encía anterosuperior. El diagnóstico definitivo se obtuvo por medio del análisis de muestras de biopsia transbronquial, lavado broncoalveolar y biopsia de lesión en piel. El paciente recibió tratamiento sistémico con antimicóticos (anfotericina B e itraconazol según esquema) y tratamiento local con colutorio de clorhexidina al 0,12% y 100.000 UI de nistatina en suspensión. Al momento del alta, presentaba una considerable mejoría de su estado general y de las lesiones orales, con disminución de sintomatología dolorosa. Se indicó turno para control a los 7 días de forma ambulatoria, al cual el paciente no asistió. El abordaje interdisciplinario y el análisis de los diferentes aspectos socioeconómicos, culturales, ambientales y sistémicos del paciente facilitaron el diagnóstico temprano de la enfermedad (AU)


Aim: To describe the diagnosis and interdisciplinary treatment of a clinical case of histoplasmosis. Clinical case: 39-year-old male patient with a history of drug abuse, alcohol, and chronic smoking, HIV+ without treatment compliance, attends the dental department referred by the medical department for the diagnosis of erosive lesions in the hard and soft palate, anterior alveolar ridge, lingual dorsum and tumor lesion in the anterosuperior gingiva. The definitive diagnosis was obtained by the analysis of transbronchial biopsy, bronchoalveolar lavage and skin lesion biopsy. The patient received systemic treatment with antifungals (amphotericin b, itraconazole according to protocol), and local treatment with 0.12% chlorhexidine mouthwash and 100,000 IU nystatin suspension. At the time of medical discharge, the patient presented a considerable improvement in his general condition and of the oral lesions with a reduced pain. A 7 days recall was prescribed, however the patient failed to attend. The interdisciplinary approach to the patient and the analysis of the different socio-economic, cultural, environmental and systemic aspects of the patient facilitates the early diagnosis of the disease (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Oral Manifestations , HIV , Dental Care for Chronically Ill , Histoplasmosis , Argentina , Biopsy , Amphotericin B , Nystatin , Immunosuppression Therapy/adverse effects , Itraconazole , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Dental Service, Hospital , Early Diagnosis , Mouth Mucosa/injuries , Antifungal Agents
4.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 41(1): 26-30, mar. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178336

ABSTRACT

El pioderma gangrenoso ampollar es una variedad infrecuente de pioderma gangrenoso, que se asocia en el 50-70% de los casos con trastornos oncohematológicos. Se comunica el caso de una paciente de 59 años, que consultó por fiebre y ampollas purpúricas de rápida progresión, con compromiso cutáneo mucoso. Con sospecha de una enfermedad neutrofílica, ampollar, o infección por gérmenes oportunistas, se realizó biopsia de piel para estudio histopatológico, inmunofluorescencia directa y cultivo. Los cultivos y la inmunofluorescencia directa fueron negativos, y la anatomía patológica reveló un denso infiltrado inflamatorio con predominio neutrofílico en dermis. Ante el diagnóstico de pioderma gangrenoso ampollar, se realizó una punción-aspiración de médula ósea cuyo resultado fue compatible con leucemia mieloide aguda. Se instauró tratamiento con corticosteroides sistémicos, a pesar de lo cual la paciente evolucionó desfavorablemente y falleció a los 15 días de su ingreso hospitalario. Este caso ilustra la asociación de esta enfermedad cutánea con trastornos oncohematológicos y el mal pronóstico que esto implica a corto plazo. (AU)


Bullous pyoderma gangrenosum is an infrequent type of pyoderma gangrenosum, associated with onco hematological diseases in 50-70% of cases. We present the case of a 59-year-old patient with fever and mucocutaneous hemorrhagic bullous of rapid progression. A biopsy for histopathology, direct immunofluorescence (DIF) and skin culture was made, considering the possibility of neutrophilic dermatoses, bullous dermatosis or an opportunistic infection. The results of both the culture and the DIF were negative. The histopathological examination of the specimen revealed a dense dermal polymorphic infiltrate composed primarily of neutrophils. Considering bullous pyoderma gangrenosum as a potential diagnosis, a bone-marrow biopsy was performed. This study revealed an acute myeloid leukemia. Although systemic corticosteroid therapy was begun, the patient presented an unfavorable evolution that led to her death 15 days after her admission at the hospital. This case shows the association between bullous pyoderma gangrenosum and onco hematological diseases. In addition, it highlights the poor prognosis related to these diseases in the short term. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/pathology , Pyoderma Gangrenosum/diagnosis , Paraneoplastic Syndromes/pathology , Respiration, Artificial , Azacitidine/therapeutic use , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/pathology , Acyclovir/administration & dosage , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Vancomycin/administration & dosage , Cardiotonic Agents/therapeutic use , Ceftazidime/administration & dosage , Amphotericin B/administration & dosage , Imipenem/administration & dosage , Sweet Syndrome/etiology , Pyoderma Gangrenosum/etiology , Pyoderma Gangrenosum/pathology , Pyoderma Gangrenosum/drug therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Meropenem/administration & dosage
5.
ABCS health sci ; 46: e021203, 09 fev. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147180

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The resistance of fungal species to drugs usually used in clinics is of great interest in the medical field. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate susceptibility and in vitro response of species of Trichophyton spp. to antifungal drugs of interest in clinical medicine. METHODS: 12 samples of clinical isolates from humans were used, nine of T. mentagrophytes and three of T. tonsurans. Susceptibility tests were performed according to the agar diffusion (AD) and broth microdilution (BM) methods. RESULTS: In the AD method, the species T. tonsurans presented a percentage of sensitivity of 33% in relation to amphotericin B and 66% to itraconazole, with 100% resistance to ketoconazole and fluconazole. T. mentagrophytes also showed 100% resistance to ketoconazole in this technique, with 11% sensitivity to ketoconazole, 22% to itraconazole and 22% of samples classified as sensitive dose dependent. In the MC method, the species T. tonsurans presented a sensitivity percentage of 66%, 55% and 33% in relation to ketoconazole, fluconazole and itraconazole, respectively. The T. mentagrophytes species presented sensitivity percentages of 11%, 11%, 33% and 55% for amphotericin B, itraconazole, ketoconazole and fluconazole, respectively. CONCLUSION: There was resistance in vitro of the species of T. mentagrophytes and T. tonsurans against the antifungal fluconazole and relative resistance against ketoconazole in the AD method. In BM, however, important percentages of sensitivity were observed for the two species analyzed in relation to the antifungals fluconazole and ketoconazole when compared to itraconazole and amphotericin B.


INTRODUÇÃO: A resistência de espécies fúngicas às drogas usualmente empregadas no meio clínico é motivo de grande interesse na área médica. OBJETIVO: Avaliar susceptibilidade e resposta in vitro de espécies de Trichophyton spp. a drogas antifúngicas de interesse em clínica médica. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizadas 12 amostras de isolados clínicos de humanos, sendo nove de T. mentagrophytes e três de T. tonsurans. Foram realizados testes de susceptibilidade segundo os métodos de difusão em ágar (DA) e microdiluição em caldo (MC). RESULTADOS: No método de DA, a espécie T. tonsurans apresentou percentual de sensibilidade de 33% em relação à anfotericina B e de 66% ao itraconazol, com 100% de resistência frente ao cetoconazol e ao fluconazol. A espécie T. mentagrophytes também apresentou 100% de resistência frente ao cetoconazol nesta técnica, com 11% de sensibilidade ao cetoconazol, 22% ao itraconazol e 22% das amostras classificadas como sensível dose dependente. No método de MC, a espécie T. tonsurans apresentou percentual de sensibilidade de 66%, 55% e 33% em relação ao cetoconazol, fluconazol e itraconazol, respectivamente. A espécie T. mentagrophytes apresentou percentuais de sensibilidade de 11%, 11%, 33% e 55% para anfotericina B, itraconazol, cetoconazol e fluconazol, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: Houve resistência in vitro das espécies do T. mentagrophytes e T. tonsurans frente ao antifúngico fluconazol e resistência relativa frente ao cetoconazol no método de DA. Na MC, no entanto, foram observados importantes percentuais de sensibilidade das duas espécies analisadas frente aos antifúngicos fluconazol e cetoconazol quando comparadas ao itraconazol e à anfotericina B.


Subject(s)
Trichophyton/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Disease Susceptibility/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Tinea/microbiology , Tinea/drug therapy , Colony Count, Microbial , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Itraconazole/pharmacology , Ketoconazole/pharmacology
7.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 9(1): 1-4, 2021. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352545

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Mucormycosis is an infection caused by the ubiquitous saprophyte fungi with rapid and aggressive progression, especially in immunocompromised patients. Case report: A 57-year-old woman diagnosed with rhino-orbital mucormycosis presented with decreased renal function after treatment with amphotericin B deoxycholate which was discontinued. Renal function improved after amphotericin B lipid-complex, being also treated with itraconazole, and otorhinolaryngological surgery. Conclusion: The use of Amphotericin B deoxycholate may result in adverse effects. In this situation, Amphotericin B lipid formulation is usually the drug of choice.


Introdução: A mucormicose é uma infecção causada por fungos saprófitos com progressão rápida e agressiva, principalmente em pacientes imunocomprometidos. Relato de caso: Uma paciente de 57 anos, do sexo feminine, com diagnóstico de mucormicose rinorbital apresentou diminuição da função renal após tratamento com anfotericina B desoxicolato que foi descontinuada. A função renal foi recuperada após troca da terapia por anfotericina B complexo lipídico, sendo tratada também com itraconazol e cirurgia otorrinolaringológica. Conclusão: O uso de anfotericina B desoxicolato pode resultar em efeitos adversos. Nestas situações a formulação lipídica da anfotericina B é geralmente a droga de escolha.


Subject(s)
Amphotericin B , Mucormycosis , Therapeutics , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Renal Insufficiency , Infections , Lipids
8.
Vive (El Alto) ; 3(9): 227-246, dic. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252340

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: las infecciones fúngicas ocasionadas por levaduras del género Cándida son extremadamente comunes en mujeres de edad reproductiva, y constituyen un motivo de atención medica de salud. OBJETIVO: evaluar la susceptibilidad de Cándidas spp, mediante el método colorimétrico (Integral Yeast System Plus). MÉTODO: fue de tipo descriptivo, transversal; se recopiló información mediante observación directa en campo y el análisis documental para obtener información bibliográfica de tipo secundaria. RESULTADOS: de los 72 casos encontrados de Cándida Albicans revela que son susceptibles a la anfotericina B (2ug/ml); de los 5 casos encontrados de Cándida Krusei revela que son sensibles a la Anfotericina B (2ug/ml); De 1 caso encontrado de Cándida Parapsilosis revela sensibilidad en la Nistatina (1.25ug/ml). En este estudio la prevalencia de la infección por Cándida fue del (44.98%). CONCLUSIONES: Cándida Albicans fue la especie más común aislada en las mujeres embarazadas representando un 72%, En la evaluación de la susceptibilidad a través del kit Integral System Yeast Plus se obtuvo que Cándida Albicans es susceptible a Anfotericina B, Flucitosina entre otros, en Cándida Glabrata se obtuvo que es sensible a la Nistatina, Anfotericina B, susceptible entre otros, en Cándida Krusei se obtuvo que es sensible a la Anfotericina B, Clotrimazol, Miconazol, susceptibles a la Nistatina, Voriconazol y resistente a la Flucitosina, Ketoconazol, Itraconazol y Fluconazol.


INTRODUCTION: fungal infections caused by yeast of the genus Candida are extremely common in women of reproductive age, and constitute a reason for medical health care. OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the susceptibility of Candida spp, using the colorimetric method (Integral Yeast System Plus). METHOD: it was descriptive, transversal; Information was collected through direct observation in the field and documentary analysis to obtain secondary bibliographic information. RESULTS: of the 72 cases found, Candida Albicans reveals that they are susceptible to amphotericin B (2ug / ml); of the 5 cases found, Candida Krusei reveals that they are sensitive to Amphotericin B (2ug / ml); Of 1 case found of Candida Parapsilosis reveals sensitivity in Nystatin (1.25ug / ml). In this study, the prevalence of Candida infection was (44.98%). CONCLUSIONS: Candida Albicans was the most common species isolated in pregnant women, representing 72%. In the evaluation of susceptibility through the Integral System Yeast Plus kit it was obtained that Candida Albicans is susceptible to Amphotericin B, Flucytosine among others, in Candida Glabrata was obtained that it is sensitive to Nystatin, Amphotericin B, susceptible among others, in Candida Krusei it was obtained that it is sensitive to Amphotericin B, Clotrimazole, Miconazole, susceptible to Nystatin, Voriconazole and resistant to Flucytosin, Ketoconazole, Itraconazole and Fluconazole.


INTRODUÇÃO: as infecções fúngicas causadas por leveduras do gênero Candida são extremamente comuns em mulheres em idade reprodutiva e constituem motivo de cuidados médicos. OBJETIVO: avaliar a suscetibilidade de Candida spp, por meio do método colorimétrico (Integral Yeast System Plus). MÉTODO: foi descritivo, transversal; as informações foram coletadas por meio de observação direta em campo e análise documental para obtenção de informações bibliográficas secundárias. RESULTADOS: Dos 72 casos encontrados, Cândida Albicans revelou ser suscetíveis à anfotericina B (2ug /ml); dos 5 casos encontrados, Candida Krusei revela que são sensíveis à Anfotericina B (2ug / ml); de 1 caso encontrado de Candida Parapsilosis revela sensibilidade na Nistatina (1,25ug / ml). Neste estudo, a prevalência de infecção por Candida foi (44,98%). CONCLUSÕES: Cândida Albicans foi a espécie mais comum isolada em gestantes, representando 72%. Na avaliação da susceptibilidade através do kit Integral System Yeast Plus foi obtido que Candida Albicans é suscetível à Anfotericina B, Flucitosina entre outras, em Cândida Glabrata foi obtido que é sensível a Nistatina, Anfotericina B, suscetível entre outras, em Candida Krusei foi obtido que é sensível a Anfotericina B, Clotrimazol, Miconazol, suscetível a Nistatina, Voriconazol e resistente a Flucitosina, Cetoconazol, Itraconazol e Fluconazol.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Candida , Candida albicans , Amphotericin B , Colorimetry , Candida glabrata , Pregnant Women , Fluconazole , Prevalence , Clotrimazole , Itraconazole , Voriconazole , Flucytosine , Candida parapsilosis , Infections , Miconazole
9.
Rev. Ciênc. Méd. Biol. (Impr.) ; 19(3): 489-494, dez 5, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358023

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: investigar a suscetibilidade de cepas fúngicas de Candida parapsilosis isoladas de sangue humano frente ao timol, bem como seu mecanismo de ação. Metodologia: foram utilizadas técnicas de microdiluição em placas de 96 poços para determinar a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) e concentração fungicida mínima (CFM). Além disso, foram realizados testes com o sorbitol e o ergosterol para investigar a ação do timol na parede e na membrana celular fúngica respectivamente. Resultados: nos testes de CIM e CFM, foi observado que as cepas de C. parapsilosis são resistentes ao fluconazol e a anfotericina B, no entanto, o timol desempenhou efeito fungicida com razão CFM/CIM entre 1 e 2. Além disso, a CIM do timol não aumentou quando o sorbitol ou o ergosterol foi adicionado no meio, sugerindo fortemente que este monoterpeno não age na parede celular fúngica ou por ligação ao ergosterol na membrana plasmática. Conclusão: portanto, esses resultados contribuem para a elucidação do mecanismo de ação do timol, sugerindo outros possíveis alvos de interação fármaco-receptor. No entanto, mais investigações de caráter enzimático e molecular em modelos in vitro são necessários para que se possa elucidar completamente o modo de ação desse promissor monoterpeno.


Objective: to investigate the susceptibility of fungal strains of Candida parapsilosis isolated from human blood against thymol, as well as its mechanism of action. Methodology: microdilution techniques were used in 96-well plates to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). In addition, tests were performed with sorbitol and ergosterol to investigate the action of thymol on the wall and on the fungal cell membrane respectively. Results: in the CIM and CFM tests, it was observed that C. parapsilosis strains are resistant to fluconazole and amphotericin B, however, thymol had a fungicidal effect with MFC/MIC ratio between 1 and 2. In addition, thymol MIC did not increase when sorbitol or ergosterol was added in the medium, strongly suggesting that this monoterpene does not act on the fungal cell wall or by binding to ergosterol on the plasma membrane. Conclusion: therefore, these results contribute to the elucidation of the mechanism of action of thymol, suggesting other possible targets of drug-receptor interaction. However, further investigations of enzymatic and molecular character in in vitro models are necessary to fully elucidate the mode of action of this promising monoterpene.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thymol , Fluconazole , Amphotericin B , Candidiasis, Invasive , Candida parapsilosis , Anti-Infective Agents , Antifungal Agents , Sorbitol , Ergosterol
10.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 72(3): e524, sept.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156542

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Leishmaniasis is a tropical and subtropical disease highly reported in Southeast Asia, East Africa, Latin America, and the Mediterranean basin, with an incidence of two million new cases by year and 500,000 cases of visceral leishmaniasis. One of the more severe and rare complications of visceral leishmaniasis is hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated with visceral leishmaniasis Methods: We performed a literature review based on the case reports indexed in MEDLINE/PubMed. Results: Twenty-five cases were included; 52 percent under two years of age. All cases presented splenomegaly and 84 percent hepatomegaly. Cytopenias were described in all patients: 100 prcent thrombocytopenia, 96 percent anemia, and 84 percent leukopenia or neutropenia. Hypertriglyceridemia and hypofibrinogenemia were found in 68 percent and 32 percent, respectively, and hyperferritinemia in 80 percent. Additionally, hemophagocytosis was documented in 84 percent, with Leishmania detection in 92 percent. All patients were treated against Leishmania: 80% with liposomal amphotericin B. regarding the treatment for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis; corticosteroid were used in 36 percent, endovenous immunoglobulin in 28 percent, cyclosporine in 28 prcent and etoposide in 16 percent The complications reported included gastrointestinal hemorrhage (8 percent), disseminated intravascular coagulation (8 percent), autoimmune hemolytic anemia (12 percent), multiple-organ dysfunction/septic shock (12 prcent), petechial rash (16 percent), and four patients deceased. Variables such as fever (p=0.031), hemoglobin level (p=0.031), platelet count (p=0.0048), and ferritin (p=0.0072) were associated with mortality Conclusions: During visceral leishmaniasis, the hemophagocytic syndrome is a rare condition that mainly affects pediatric patients, but with excellent outcomes using liposomal amphotericin B. However, there is a lack of strong evidence to make a recommendation(AU)


Introducción: La leishmaniasis es una enfermedad tropical y subtropical con una elevada incidencia, dos millones de casos nuevos por año y 500 000 de leishmaniasis visceral. La linfohistiocitosis hemofagocítica es una complicación grave y rara de la leishmaniasis visceral. Objetivo: Describir las características clínicas de la linfohistiocitosis hemofagocítica asociada con leishmaniasis visceral. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica basada en los informes de casos indexados en MEDLINE/PubMed. Se identificaron 34 publicaciones; después de analizarlas en función de los criterios de inclusión se trabajó con 22 trabajos. Resultados: En los trabajos incluidos se informaron 25 casos; el 52 por ciento fueron pacientes menores de 2 años. Todos presentaron esplenomegalia y 84 por ciento hepatomegalia. Se describieron citopenias en todos los pacientes: 100 por ciento trombocitopenia, 96 por ciento anemia y 84 por ciento leucopenia o neutropenia. Se encontró hipertrigliceridemia e hipofibrinogenemia en 68 por ciento y 32 por ciento, respectivamente, e hiperferritinemia en 80 por ciento. Todos los pacientes fueron tratados contra leishmania, 80 por ciento con anfotericina B liposomal. Las complicaciones incluyeron: hemorragia gastrointestinal, coagulación intravascular diseminada, anemia hemolítica autoinmune, falla multiorgánica/shock séptico, erupción petequial y cuatro pacientes fallecieron. Conclusiones: En la leishmaniasis visceral, el síndrome hemofagocítico es una afección poco frecuente que afecta principalmente a pacientes pediátricos. Para el tratamiento, usando la anfotericina B liposomal se obtienen excelentes resultados; sin embargo, la evidencia es insuficiente para hacer una recomendación(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/epidemiology , Neglected Diseases/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology
11.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 79(5): 315-319, set.-out. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137981

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To report etiological diagnosis, predisposing risk factors, therapeutic strategies and visual outcome of patients treated at the Department of Ophthalmology of Federal University of São Paulo. Methods: This is a retrospective, descriptive, and observational study from medical and laboratory records of the Department of Ophthalmology of Federal University of São Paulo, including all patients with culture proven fungal keratitis in 5 years, from October 2012 through October 2017. Results: There were 2260 fungi microbiologic test requests. Of these, 140 samples had positive cultures for fungi and sixty-six patients were followed at our clinic. Forty-five patients (68.2%) were men, and the mean age was 48.06 (±17.39) years. Fusarium spp. was the most frequently isolated fungus (32 cases; 48.5%), followed by Candida parapsilosis (12 cases; 18.2%). Thirty-four patients (51.5%) underwent intracameral injection of amphotericin B (5 µg per 0.1 ml). In 11 patients (32.3%), infection was eradicated after intracameral amphotericin B associated to topical antifungal treatment and, in 23 patients (67.7%), therapeutic keratoplasty was needed. No complication related to intracameral amphotericin B injection was observed in this series. Forty-three patients (65.1%) ended up with therapeutic keratoplasty. Three patients (4.5%) evolved to evisceration or enucleation. At the last follow-up visit, 53 patients (80.3%) had visual acuity worse than 20/200. Conclusion: Despite current antifungals drugs and distinct administration strategies, fungal keratitis remains challenging. Delayed antifungal therapy may explain poor clinical outcomes. Intracameral amphotericin B associated to topical antfungal treatment seems to be a safe and helpful alternative for non-responsive fungal keratitis. But it is important to formulate other treatment strategies, hence to improve patients' outcomes, since most patients ended-up with significant visual impairment even after current treatment.


Resumo Objetivo: Descrever diagnósticos etiológicos, fatores de risco, estratégias terapêuticas e resultados visuais de pacientes com ceratite fúngica tratados no Departamento de Oftalmologia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo retrospectivo, descritivo e observacional, a partir da análise de prontuários médicos e laboratoriais do Departamento de Oftalmologia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo, incluindo todos os pacientes com ceratite fúngica comprovada por cultura no período de outubro de 2012 a outubro de 2017. Resultados: Foram realizadas 2260 solicitações de testes microbiológicos. Destas, 140 amostras apresentaram culturas positivas para fungos, e 66 pacientes foram acompanhados em nosso serviço. Quarenta e cinco pacientes (68,2%) eram do sexo masculino, e a média de idade foi de 48,06 (± 17,39) anos. Fusarium spp. foi o fungo mais freqüentemente isolado (32 casos; 48,5%), seguido por Candida parapsilosis (12 casos; 18,2%). Trinta e quatro pacientes (51,5%) foram submetidos à injeção intracameral de anfotericina B (5 µg por 0,1 ml). Destes, 11 pacientes (32,3%) tiveram a infecção erradicada. Nos outros 23 pacientes (67,7%), o transplante terapêutico foi necessário. Nenhuma complicação relacionada à injeção intracameral de anfotericina B foi observada neste estudo. No total, 43 pacientes (65,1%) evoluíram para transplante terapêutico, e 3 pacientes (4,5%) foram submetidos à evisceração ou enucleação. Cinquenta e três pacientes (80,3%) apresentaram acuidade visual final pior que 20/200. Conclusões: Apesar dos diversos medicamentos antifúngicos atuais e vias de administração, o tratamento das ceratites fúngicas permanece desafiador. O atraso no início do tratamento adequado pode justificar o desfecho clínico desfavorável de grande parte dos pacientes. A injeção intracameral de anfotericina B mostrou-se uma alternativa terapêutica segura para ceratites fúngicas refratárias. Mas outras estratégias de tratamento devem ser formuladas, visando melhorar os resultados visuais dos pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Corneal Transplantation , Candida parapsilosis/isolation & purification , Fusarium/isolation & purification , Keratitis/microbiology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Brazil , Medical Records , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Observational Study
12.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(5): 789-796, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137325

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Although it is the most common agent among the fungal causes of endocarditis, Candida albicans endocarditis is rare. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of amphotericin B in the treatment of C. albicans endocarditis beyond a systematic review. Data search: Articles in English, Spanish and Portuguese, conducted in the following databases: MEDLINE, LILACS, IBECS and SciELO, in humans and published in the last 25 years. Study selection: Observational studies, clinical trials, and case series providing data on the amphotericin B use in patients with a C. albicans endocarditis diagnosis without age limitations. Data synthesis: From the initial search (n=79), 25 articles were fully evaluated, of which 19 were excluded for meeting one or more exclusion criteria, remaining five articles (two observational studies and three case series). Patients using amphotericin B demonstrated improvement in survival rates, and its main use was in association with the surgical method as well as with caspofungin association. Conclusion: Literature lacks evidence to conclude about efficacy and safety of amphotericin B in the treatment of fungal endocarditis. Randomized clinical trials are necessary to provide better evidence on the subject.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Child , Candida albicans , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Endocarditis/microbiology , Endocarditis/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies
13.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 79(4): 266-269, July-Aug. 2020. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137972

ABSTRACT

Resumo É apresentado o caso de uma paciente do sexo feminino, 77 anos, internada por pielonefrite e tratada com antibóticos de amplo espectro, tendo desenvolvido endoftalmite endógena bilateral presumida por Candida. Foi submetida à vitrectomia via pars plana e injeção intravítrea de anfotericina B, além de voriconazol oral. São abordados, ainda, os aspectos clínicos da endoftalmite endógena por meio de revisão da literatura.


Abstract A 77 year-old female patient suffering from pyelonephritis developed bilateral endogenous endophthalmitis presumed by Candida after have been treated with global spectrum antibiotics. Early vitrectomy and intravitreal amphotericin B injection were performed, in addition to oral voriconazole. Clinical aspects of endogenous endophthalmitis are also pointed out by a literature review.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Vitrectomy , Candida albicans , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Endophthalmitis/surgery , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Intravitreal Injections , Voriconazole/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
15.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 24(1): 3-7, jan-abr. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095737

ABSTRACT

Criptococose é uma doença grave que afeta tanto imunocomprometidos quanto imunocompetentes, com isso analisar a virulência é fundamental para novas terapêuticas. Objetivo: Analisar a capacidade de virulência e susceptibilidade aos antifúngicos de Cryptococcus spp. isolados de líquor de pacientes de hospital do norte do Paraná. Métodos: A partir de dois isolados clínicos C. neoformans e C. gattii, realizou-se a confirmação da identificação. Para a virulência, avaliou-se o tamanho da cápsula, capacidade de sobrevivência após exposição a neutrófilos, produção de melanina e urease. No antifungigrama por difusão em disco utilizou-se: anfotericina B, cetoconazol, voriconazol, itraconazol e miconazol. Resultados: C. gattii destaca-se por maior desenvolvimento da cápsula além da melhor capacidade de sobreviver a fagocitose em relação ao C. neoformans. No antifungigrama, ambos os isolados se apresentam sensíveis às drogas estudadas. Conclusão: Esses achados contribuem para a compreensão das diferentes patogêneses entre C. gattii e C. neoformans.


Cryptococcosis is a serious disease that can affect both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals, thus the virulence analysis is fundamental for the development of new treatments. Objective: To analyze the virulence and susceptibility of Cryptococcus spp. isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of patients from a hospital in the north of Paraná. Methods: From two clinical isolates, C. neoformans and C. gattii were confirmed and identified. For virulence, capsule size, survival capacity after exposure to neutrophils, melanin production and urease were evaluated. In the disc-diffusion method, the following antifungals were used: amphotericin B, ketoconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole and miconazole Results: It was observed that C. gattii presents greater results for development of the capsule beside presenting the best ability to survive phagocytosis in relation to C. neoformans. In the disc-diffusion method, both isolates presented sensitivity to the studied drugs. Conclusion: These findings contribute to the understanding of the different pathogens between C. gattii and C. neoformans.


Subject(s)
Cryptococcosis/virology , Virulence Factors/analysis , Antifungal Agents/analysis , Phagocytosis , Urease/urine , Yeasts/virology , Capsules/analysis , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Amphotericin B/analysis , Itraconazole , Cryptococcus neoformans/virology , Agar/analysis , Cryptococcus gattii/virology , Voriconazole , Melanins/analysis , Miconazole , Neutrophils/virology
16.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(1): 25-28, mar. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102210

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la zigomicosis es una infección fúngica poco frecuente, con alta tasa de mortalidad y de mal pronóstico. Afecta principalmente a pacientes inmunocomprometidos. La asociación con el síndrome hemofagocítico es extremadamente inusual, más aún en pacientes inmunocompetentes, con pocos ejemplos registrados en la literatura. Caso clínico: se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino inmunocompetente de 40 años con diagnóstico de mucormicosis y síndrome hemofagocítico que evoluciona desfavorablemente, con fallo multiorgánico, a pesar de los esfuerzos médicos. Conclusión: la asociación de mucormicosis con síndrome hemofagocítico en un paciente inmunocompetente es extremadamente rara; existen pocos casos informados en Latinoamérica. Debemos tener presente esta asociación, ya que requiere un tratamiento agresivo y soporte vital avanzado. (AU)


Introduction: zygomycosis is a rare fungal infection that carries with high mortality rates. This poor prognosis, rapidly progressive infection mainly affects immunocompromised patients. The association with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is extremely unusual, even more in immunocompetent patients, with few cases reported. Case: we present the case of an immunocompetent male patient who was diagnosed with zygomycosis and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Despite medical efforts he developed multiorganic failure. Conclusion: the association of mucormycosis with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in an immunocompetent patient is exceptional with few cases reported in Latin America. We must always suspect this association considering they require aggressive treatment and advanced life support. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Zygomycosis/diagnosis , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Pancytopenia/blood , Psychomotor Agitation , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Norepinephrine/administration & dosage , Norepinephrine/therapeutic use , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Exophthalmos/diagnostic imaging , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Colistin/therapeutic use , Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination/administration & dosage , Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination/therapeutic use , Zygomycosis/etiology , Zygomycosis/mortality , Zygomycosis/epidemiology , Delirium , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/etiology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/mortality , Fever , Meropenem/therapeutic use , Immunocompetence/immunology , Jaundice , Mucormycosis/complications , Multiple Organ Failure/diagnosis
17.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 138(1): 40-46, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099387

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Statins are used as cholesterol-lowering drugs and may also have direct antimicrobial effects. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate synergic interactions between simvastatin and both amphotericin B and fluconazole, against environmental strains of Cryptococcus neoformans isolated from captive birds' droppings. DESIGNAND SETTING: Experimental study conducted at Federal University of Piauí, Parnaíba, in collaboration with Federal University of Triângulo Mineiro, Uberaba, Brazil. METHODS: Statin susceptibility tests of Cryptococcus neoformans samples were performed as prescribed in standards. Interactions of simvastatin with amphotericin and fluconazole were evaluated using the checkerboard microdilution method. Presence of these interactions was quantitatively detected through determining the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI). RESULTS: Isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans were obtained from 30 of the 206 samples of dry bird excreta (14.5%) that were collected from pet shops and houses. Ten isolates were selected for susceptibility tests. All of them were susceptible to amphotericin and fluconazole. All presented minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) > 128 µg/ml and, thus, were resistant in vitro to simvastatin. An in vitro synergic effect was shown through combined testing of amphotericin B and simvastatin, such that six isolates (60%) presented FICI < 0.500. Two isolates showed considerable reductions in MIC, from 1 µg/ml to 0.250 µg/ml. No synergic effect was observed through combining fluconazole and simvastatin. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that simvastatin should be considered to be a therapeutic alternative, capable of potentiating the action of amphotericin B. However, further studies are necessary to clarify the real effect of simvastatin as an antifungal agent.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Simvastatin/pharmacology , Cryptococcus neoformans , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Fluconazole , Prospective Studies , Drug Synergism , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20180463, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057304

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The therapeutic efficacy of daily amphotericin B infusion is related to its maximum concentration in blood; however, trough levels may be useful in intermittent regimens of this antifungal drug. METHODS : High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the minimum concentration (Cmin) of amphotericin B in the serum of patients receiving deoxycholate (D-Amph) or liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) for the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis (n=28), histoplasmosis (n=8), paracoccidioidomycosis (n=1), and leishmaniasis (n=1). RESULTS: Daily use of D-Amph 30 to 50 mg or L-AmB 50 mg resulted in a similar Cmin, but a significant increase ocurred with L-AmB 100 mg/day. The geometric mean Cmin tended to decrease with a reduction in the dose and frequency of intermittent L-AmB infusions: 357 ng/mL (100 mg 4 to 5 times/week) > 263 ng/mL (50 mg 4 to 5 times/week) > 227 ng/mL (50 mg 1 to 3 times/week). The impact on Cmin was variable in patients whose dose or therapeutic scheme was changed, especially when administered the intermittent infusion of amphotericin B. The mean Cmin for each L-AmB schedule of intermittent therapy was equal or higher than the minimum inhibitory concentration of amphotericin B against Cryptococcus isolates from 10/12 patients. The Cmin of amphotericin B in patients with cryptococcal meningitis was comparable between those that survived or died. CONCLUSIONS: By evaluating the Cmin of amphotericin B, we demonstrated the therapeutic potential of its intermittent use including in the consolidation phase of neurocryptococcosis treatment, despite the great variability in serum levels among patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amphotericin B/blood , Deoxycholic Acid/blood , Antifungal Agents/blood , Paracoccidioidomycosis/drug therapy , Leishmaniasis/drug therapy , Amphotericin B/administration & dosage , Amphotericin B/pharmacokinetics , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/drug therapy , Deoxycholic Acid/administration & dosage , Deoxycholic Acid/pharmacokinetics , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/pharmacokinetics
19.
São Paulo; s.n; s.n; 2020. 81 p. tab, graf.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1290784

ABSTRACT

Muitos pacientes acometidos por infecções fúngicas sucumbem devido a não eficácia dos antibióticos ou por toxicidade dos mesmos. Anfotericina B é um dos antifúngicos mais eficientes do mercado apesar de sua alta toxicidade, tem estrutura poliênica e é um composto insolúvel em água, sendo necessário o uso de adjuvantes e novas tecnologias para preparo de formulações eficazes. Cetoconazol é um composto imidazólico, também com ação antifúngica de grande espectro de ação e difícil solubilização em meio aquouso, porém solúvel somente em baixos valores de pH. Estudos têm demonstrado a utilização de bixina na preparação de dispersões aquosas de compostos insolúveis ou pouco solúveis em água. Bixina é o principal composto das cascas de semente de Bixa orellana (urucum), sendo um carotenoide insolúvel em água, porém, permite preparações na forma de nanodispersões aquosas com incorporação de fármacos apolares ou lipofílicos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi preparar anfotericina B e cetoconazol na forma de nanodispersões a partir de bixina, utilizando pullulan e trealose como adjuvantes e avaliar estabilidade e eficácia antimicrobiana por ensaios físico-químicos e microbiológicos. Pullulan é um polissacarídeo constituído por unidades de maltotriose, com propriedades adesivas e capacidade de formar biofilmes, enquanto trealose é um composto com duas unidades de glicose, com boa estabilidade em faixas de pH de 3 a 10 e capaz de suportar altas temperaturas, como processos de esterilização por calor úmido. Ensaios físico-químicos demonstraram boa manutenção das características das preparações propostas neste projeto, como, por exemplo, diâmetro hidrodinâmico e potencial zeta das estruturas das nanodispersões de bixina e antifúngicos e também eficácia antimicrobiana frente a Candida albicans ATCC 10231. Os resultados apresentam perspectivas para aprimoramentos de formulações com fármacos pouco solúveis ou insolúveis em água, pesquisa de novos biomateriais e outras aplicações nas áreas farmacêutica e cosmética


Many patients with fungal infections succumb due to ineffectiveness or toxicity of antibiotics. Amphotericin B is one of the most efficient antifungals on the market despite its high toxicity. It presents polyenic structure and is a water-insoluble compound. In this case, it is necessary to use adjuvants and new technologies to prepare effective formulations. Ketoconazole is an imidazolic compound, also with broad spectrum antifungal action and difficult solubilization in aqueous medium but it is soluble at low pH values. Studies have demonstrated the use of bixin in the preparation of aqueous dispersions of insoluble or poorly soluble compounds in water. Bixin is the main compound of Bixa orellana (annatto) seed husks, being a water-insoluble carotenoid, but it allows preparations in the form of aqueous nanodispersions with incorporation of apolar or lipophilic drugs. The objective of this work was to prepare amphotericin B and ketoconazole as nanodispersions from bixin, using pullulan and trehalose as adjuvants and to evaluate them under aspects of stability and efficacy by physicochemical and microbiological assays. Pullulan is a polysaccharide consisting of maltotriose units with adhesive properties and ability to form biofilms, while trehalose is a compound with two glucose units with good stability at pH ranges from 3 to 10 and capable of withstanding high temperatures such as processes of sterilization by moist heat. Physicochemical tests demonstrated good maintenance of the characteristics of the preparations proposed in this project, such as hydrodynamic diameter and zeta potential of bixin and antifungal nanodispersions and also antimicrobial efficacy against Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The results present prospects for improvement. of poorly soluble or water-insoluble drug formulations, research on new biomaterials and other applications in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields


Subject(s)
Trehalose , Amphotericin B/agonists , Growth and Development , Ketoconazole/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Patients , Pharmaceutical Preparations/analysis , Antifungal Agents/pharmacokinetics
20.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e17509, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132046

ABSTRACT

Amphotericin B is a broad spectrum antifungal agent used to treat fungal infections. Organogel is a semisolid preparation in which the apolar phase gets immobilized within spaces of the three-dimensional structure. The current study aimed at the formulation and comparative evaluation of sorbitan monostearate organogels and pluronic lecithin organogels (PLO). Different compositions of span 60 based organogels were prepared by varying the concentrations of the span 60 and PLO gels were prepared by varying the concentration of Pluronic F 127. The developed organogels were subjected to various characteristics such as pH, viscosity, spreadability, extrudability, and drug release studies. The optimized formulations were evaluated against Candida albicans and carried out ex vivo release study. The optimized formulation was selected from span 60 based organogels, and pluronic lecithin organogels were S1 and P1, respectively. The optimized formulation (S1) showed effective inhibition against Candida albicans. The skin irritation test was carried out on albino mice for optimized formulations and results showed that no irritation to the skin. Based on the results, organogels prepared by sorbitan monostearate showed better antifungal activity, and also all the formulations were found to be stable and safe throughout the study period.


Subject(s)
Skin , Candida albicans/classification , Amphotericin B/agonists , Growth and Development , Antifungal Agents/analysis , Viscosity , Drug Liberation , Mycoses/pathology
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