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1.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 146(12): 1481-1485, dic. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-991360

ABSTRACT

We report a 45-year-old male with AIDS who had a Cryptococcus neoformans central nervous system infection. He was treated with amphotericin B deoxycholate subsequently changed to voriconazole due to systemic toxicity of the former. Plasma levels of voriconazole were insufficient with a standard dose (0.7 μg/mL), therefore, the dose was increased thereafter to reach appropriate levels (4.5 μg/mL). Anti-retroviral therapy was started five weeks after voriconazole initiation with non-interacting drugs and he was discharged after a favorable evolution. He was re-admitted three months later due to seizures; a brain magnetic resonance showed new sub-cortical nodules. After excluding alternative causes and demonstrating fungal eradication, an immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) event was suspected and treated with a short course of steroids. His evolution was satisfactory.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Amphotericin B/adverse effects , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/drug therapy , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Deoxycholic Acid/adverse effects , Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome/chemically induced , Voriconazole/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/adverse effects , Amphotericin B/administration & dosage , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/diagnostic imaging , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/diagnostic imaging , Deoxycholic Acid/administration & dosage , Drug Combinations , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(4): 673-678, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951612

ABSTRACT

Abstract Amphotericin B is a fungicidal substance that is treatment of choice for most systemic fungal infections affecting immunocompromised patients. However, severe side effects have limited the utility of this drug. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal effect of the combination of amphotericin B with black tea or white tea and protective of citotoxic effect. The present study shows that white and black teas have additive effects with amphotericin B against some species Candida. In addition, the combination of white and black tea with amphotericin B may reduce the toxicity of amphotericin B to red blood cells. Our results suggest that white and black tea is a potential agent to combine with amphotericin for antifungal efficacy and to reduce the amphotericin dose to lessen side effects.


Resumo A anfotericina B é o tratamento de escolha para a maioria das infecções fúngicas sistémicas que afetam os doentes imunocomprometidos. No entanto, efeitos secundários graves têm limitado a utilidade desta droga. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito antifúngico da combinação de anfotericina B com chá preto ou chá branco, bem como o efeito citotóxico desta combinação sobre hemáceas. O presente estudo demonstra que o chá branco e preto de Camellia sinensis têm efeitos aditivos com anfotericina B contra algumas espécies de Candida sp. Além disso, a combinação de chá branco e preto com anfotericina B pode reduzir a toxicidade da anfotericina B em hemáceas. Nossos resultados sugerem que o chá branco e preto são agentes potenciais para associação com anfotericina B contribuindo para eficácia antifúngica, bem como redução de toxicidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Candida/drug effects , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Camellia sinensis/adverse effects , Erythrocytes/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Amphotericin B/adverse effects , Hemolysis/drug effects , Antifungal Agents/adverse effects
3.
Rev. Nac. (Itauguá) ; 10(1): 17-35, 20180600.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDNPAR | ID: biblio-914219

ABSTRACT

Introducción En las últimas décadas, el agente de elección para el tratamiento de la mayoría de las micosis sistémicas ha sido la anfotericina B que, a pesar de los efectos tóxicos, sigue teniendo un papel importante en el tratamiento de las infecciones micóticas. Objetivo Determinar los efectos adversos asociados al empleo de anfotericina B en neonatos del Servicio de Neonatología del Hospital Nacional de Itauguá, en el periodo 2013 - 2015. Materiales y métodos Estudio de serie de casos, retrospectivo, de recién nacidos con tratamiento con anfotericina B. Resultados: Entre 28 recién nacidos tratados con anfotericina B, hubo mayor prevalencia en el sexo masculino. Con respecto a la edad más de la mitad de los recién nacidos fueron pre-término en el grupo estudiado. Hubo predominio de bajo peso al nacer (32,14%). Los factores de riesgo arrojaron que 53,5% no contaba con antecedentes de sepsis. La edad media de inicio de anfotericina fue 19±9 días, más de la mitad de los neonatos utilizó dosis progresiva de 0,5 mg/kp/día a 1 mg/kp/día, en 24 hs.El 96,4% recibió infusión de anfotericina B de 4 horas, 1 caso requirió 6 horas. Entre los efectos secundarios, 35,7% de los pacientes presentó anemia, el disturbio hidroelectrolítico más frecuente fue la hipokalemia, entre los signos se destacaron la taquicardia e hipotensión. Conclusiones Los efectos secundarios más llamativos encontrados durante el tratamiento con anfotericina B fueron la anemia, alteraciones de Sodio y Potasio


Introduction In recent decades, the agent of choice for the treatment of most systemic mycoses has been amphotericin B which, despite the toxic effects, continues to play an important role in the treatment of fungal infections. Objective To determine the adverse effects associated with the use of amphotericin B in neonates of the Neonatology Service of the National Hospital of Itauguá, in the period 2013 - 2015. Materials and methods: retrospective case series study of newborns treated with amphotericin B. Results Among 28 newborns treated with amphotericin B, there was a higher prevalence in males. With regard to age, more than half of the newborns were pre-term in the group studied. There was a predominance of low birth weight (32.14%). The risk factors showed that 53.5% did not have a history of sepsis. The mean age of onset of amphotericin was 19 ± 9 days, more than half of the infants used progressive dose from 0.5 mg / kp / day to 1 mg / kp / day, in 24 hours. 96.4% received infusion of amphotericin B for 4 hours, 1 case required 6 hours. Among the side effects, 35.7% of the patients presented anemia, the most frequent water and electrolyte disturbance was hypokalemia, among the signs were tachycardia and hypotension. Conclusions The most striking side effects found during treatment with amphotericin B were anemia, Sodium and Potassium alterations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Amphotericin B/adverse effects , Deoxycholic Acid/adverse effects , Mycoses/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents/adverse effects , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Infant, Premature , Amphotericin B/administration & dosage , Retrospective Studies , Deoxycholic Acid/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage
4.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(1): 67-74, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842815

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION Despite their high toxicity, antimonials and amphotericin B deoxycholate are commonly used for treating visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Few studies showing conflictive data about their efficacy and adverse events in pediatric population are available. This study aimed to evaluate efficacy and safety of amphotericin B deoxycholate vs. that of N-methylglucamine antimoniate in treating pediatric VL in Brazil. METHODS This was a randomized, open-label, 2-arm and controlled pilot clinical trial. Treatment naïve children and adolescents with VL without signs of severe illness were treated with N-methylglucamine antimoniate (20mg/kg/day for 20 days) or amphotericin B deoxycholate (1 mg/kg/day for 14 days). All patients were diagnosed with positive direct examination and/or positive PCR for Leishmania spp. performed in bone marrow samples. The primary efficacy end-point was VL cure determined after 180 days of completion of treatment. The analysis was performed using intention-to-treat (ITT) and per protocol (PP) analyses. RESULTS In total, 101 volunteers were assessed. Efficacy was similar for both groups. The antimonial (n=51) and amphotericin B groups (n=50) had a cure rate of 94.1% and 100%, and 94% and 97.9% according to ITT and PP analyses, respectively. All patients reported adverse events (AE). Serious AE incidence was similar in both groups. Five individuals were excluded from the study because of severe adverse events. CONCLUSIONS N-methylglucamine antimoniate and amphotericin B deoxycholate have similar efficacy and adverse events rate in pediatric patients with VL.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Organometallic Compounds/therapeutic use , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Deoxycholic Acid/therapeutic use , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/drug therapy , Meglumine/therapeutic use , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use , Organometallic Compounds/adverse effects , Pilot Projects , Amphotericin B/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Deoxycholic Acid/adverse effects , Drug Combinations , Meglumine Antimoniate , Meglumine/adverse effects , Antiprotozoal Agents/adverse effects
5.
Lima; s.n; ene. 2016. tab, ilus.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-848070

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: Antecedentes: El presente informe expone la evaluación del medicamento Formulaciones Lipídicas respecto a su uso en pacientes con meningitis meníngea que hayan presentado eventos adversos serios al uso de Amfotericina B Deoxicolato. Aspectos Generales: La criptococosis es una infección micótica sistémica causada principalmente por hongos encapsulados del genero Cryptococcus, incluyendo Cryptococcus neoformans y Cryptococcus gattii (C. neoformans y C. gattiirespectivamente). Ambos se encuentran ampliamente distribuidos en la naturaleza. C. neoformans afecta principalmente a personas inmunocomprometidas y C. gattii a pacientes inmunocompetentes expuestos a al nicho ecológico del hongo. El hongo viaja a través de las vías respiratorias hacia los pulmones generando una infección local y diseminándose posteriormente a otros órganos del resto del cuerpo como el cerebro. La mayoría de los pacientes presenta defectos de la inmunidad celular, siendo el virus de inmunodeficiencia adquirida (VIH) el factor de riesgo más importante. Tecnologia Sanitaria de Interés: La terapia estándar de tratamiento para CM con Amfotericina B Deoxicolato está asociada al desarrollo de toxicidad y eventos adversos serios como la nefrotoxicidad, hipokalemia y anemia. Esto se debe a que la Amfotericina B contenida en AMB, es un compuesto que disminuye el flujo plasmático renal produciendo isquemia y reducción del filtrado glomerular por aumento de la resistencia arteriolar. Además, interactúa con los esteroides de las membranas de las células renales y aumenta la permeabilidad a diferentes moléculas intracelulares. Esto puede producir la destrucción de células tubulares e intersticiales de la médula renal. generando así falla renal. La molécula Deoxicolato sería también tóxica al producir un efecto similar en la función renal. METODOLOGÍA: Estratégia de Búsqueda: De las tres Formulaciones Lipídicas, solo se dispone del Amfotericina B Complejo Lipídico (ABCL) y Amfotericina B liposomal (L-AMB) en el mercado peruano, razón por la cual se orientó la búsqueda de la literatura con respecto a la eficacia y seguridad de ABCL o L-AMB en pacientes con diagnóstico de criptococosis meníngea (CM) y que hayan presentado eventos adversos serios al uso de Amfotericina B Deoxicolato. Para la búsqueda primaria se revisó la información disponible por entes reguladoras y normativas como la Food and Drug Administration (FDA), y la Dirección General de Medicamentos y Drogas (DIGEMID). Seguidamente, se buscaron Guías de Práctica Clínica a través de los metabuscadores: Translating Research into Practice (TRIPDATABASE), National Library of Medicine (Pubmed-Medline) y Health Systems Evidence (HSE), así como en la página de The National Guideline of Clearinghouse. RESULTADOS: Tras la búsqueda bibliográfica no se encontró evidencia científica que sustente la eficacia y seguridad de ABCL o L-AMB en pacientes con diagnóstico de CM y que hayan presentado eventos adversos serios al tratamiento con AMB. Al no encontrar evidencia directa en nuestra población de interés, se consideró la revisión de evidencia indirecta que evalúe la eficacia y seguridad de ABCL o L-AMB en pacientes con CM que no hayan presentado \r\neventos adversos al tratamiento con CM. Así, se encontraron una guía de práctica clínica, una revisión sistemática, tres ensayos clínicos y otros estudios primarios en revisiones narrativas. También se revisaron los estudios brindados por los médicos asistenciales de la Red Sabogal. CONCLUSIONES: En la presente evaluación de tecnología sanitaria no se ha encontrado evidencia directa que muestre que las Formulaciones Lipídicas de Amfotericina B ofrecen beneficios para los pacientes con diagnóstico de criptococosis meníngea (CM) que hayan presentado eventos adversos serios al uso de Amfotericina B Deoxicolato (AMB). Sin embargo, se ha identificado evidencia indirecta proveniente de un ensayo clínico aleatorizado que evalúa la seguridad y eficacia de Amfotericina B liposomal (L-AMB) en pacientes con CM que no han presentado eventos adversos serios al tratamiento con AMB para los desenlaces secundarios. Los pacientes de la población de interés de la presente evaluación, han sido tratados previamente con la terapia estándar con AMB, habiendo desarrollado eventos adversos serios como nefrotoxicidad debido al medicamento AMB. Así. \r\ndebido a que el desarrollo de nefrotoxicidad puede llevar al paciente a requerir diálisis, se requiere alternativas terapéuticas más seguras para preservar la función renal. El Instituto de Evaluaciones de Tecnologías en Salud e Investigación - IETSI. aprueba por el periodo de un año a partir de la fecha de publicación del presente Dictamen Preliminar el uso de Amfotericina B liposomal, para el manejo de los pacientes con diagnóstico de criptococosis meníngea y que hayan presentado eventos adversos serios al uso de Amfotericina Deoxicolato. Dado que la evidencia que respalda este uso de Amfotericina B liposomal as aún limitada, se establece que el efecto de Amfotericina B liposomal se evaluará con los datos de los pacientes que lo hayan recibido por el periodo de vigencia de este Dictamen, para determinar el impacto de su uso en los desenlaces de interés de este Dictamen. Esta información será tomada en cuenta en la reevaluación de este medicamento para efectos de un nuevo dictamen al terminar la vigencia del presente Dictamen Preliminar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lipids/administration & dosage , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/diet therapy , Amphotericin B/adverse effects , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Treatment Outcome
6.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(1): 33-38, Jan-Feb/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-736362

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Visceral leishmaniasis is an endemic protozoan found in Brazil. It is characterized by fever, pallor, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, and progressive weakness in the patient. It may lead to death if untreated. The drug of choice for treatment is meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime®). The aim of this study was to evaluate patients with visceral leishmaniasis according to criteria used for diagnosis, possible reactions to Glucantime® and blood pressure measured before and after treatment. Methods: 89 patients admitted to the Teaching Hospital Dr. Hélvio Auto (HEHA) in Maceió-AL, in the period from May 2006 to December 2009 were evaluated. Data were collected on age, sex, origin, method of diagnosis, adverse effects of drugs, duration of hospitalization, duration of treatment and dosage up to the onset of adverse effects. Results: There was a predominance of child male patients, aged between one and five years old, from the interior of the State of Alagoas. Parasitological diagnosis was made by bone marrow aspirate; three (3.37%) patients died, 12 (13.48%) had adverse reactions and treatment was changed to amphotericin B, and 74 (83.14%) were cured. Changes that led to replacing Glucantime® were persistent fever, jaundice, rash, bleeding and cyanosis. Conclusion: During the study, 89 patients hospitalized for VL were analyzed: 74 were healed, 12 were replaced by amphotericin B treatment and three died. Most of them were under five years old, male and came from the interior. The dosage and duration of treatment with Glucantime® were consistent with that advocated by the Ministry of Health. Persistence of fever, jaundice, rash, cyanosis and bleeding were the reactions that led the physician to modify treatment. No change was observed in blood pressure before and after treatment. This study demonstrated the work of a hospital, a reference in the treatment of leishmaniasis, which has many patients demanding its services in this area. It demonstrates that this disease is still important today, and needs to be addressed properly to prevent injury and death due to the disease.


A Leishmaniose visceral é doença infecciosa causada por protozoários das espécies chagasi e donovani sendo transmitida pela picada de insetos fêmea dos gêneros Lutzomyia e Phlebotomos. Constitui doença febril, determinando amplo aspecto de manifestações clínicas e prognóstico variável, que pode levar à morte se não for tratada. É doença endêmica encontrada no Brasil e nos últimos anos verificou-se intenso processo de urbanização da endemia e aumento da letalidade por leishmaniose visceral. O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar pacientes com leishmaniose visceral de acordo com os critérios utilizados para o diagnóstico, possíveis reações ao Glucantime® e pressão arterial, medidos antes e após o tratamento. Métodos: Foram avaliados 89 pacientes internados no Hospital Universitário Dr. Hélvio Auto (HEHA), em Maceió-AL, no período de maio de 2006 a dezembro de 2009. Foram coletados dados sobre idade, sexo, origem, método de diagnóstico, efeitos adversos da droga, duração da hospitalização, duração do tratamento e dose até o aparecimento de efeitos adversos. Resultados: Houve predomínio de crianças do sexo masculino, com idade entre um e cinco anos, a partir do interior do Estado de Alagoas. O diagnóstico parasitológico foi feito pelo aspirado de medula óssea, três (3,37%) pacientes morreram, 12 (13,48 %) apresentaram reações adversas e o tratamento foi alterado para anfotericina B, e 74 (83,14 %) foram curados. As alterações que levaram à substituição de Glucantime® foi febre persistente. A dosagem e duração do tratamento com Glucantime® foi seguido como preconizado pelo Ministério da Saúde. A persistência de febre, icterícia, prurido, cianose e sangramento foram as reações que levaram o médico a modificar o tratamento. Nenhuma mudança foi observada na pressão arterial antes e após o tratamento. O estudo realizado demonstrou o perfil de um Hospital, que recebe grande demanda de casos de leishmaniose visceral. Isso demonstra que essa doença continua sendo importante na atualidade, precisando ser abordada de maneira adequada, evitando assim agravos e mortes pela doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/drug therapy , Meglumine/therapeutic use , Organometallic Compounds/therapeutic use , Amphotericin B/adverse effects , Antiprotozoal Agents/adverse effects , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Meglumine/adverse effects , Organometallic Compounds/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
7.
Clin. biomed. res ; 35(2): 65-82, 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-780253

ABSTRACT

A incidência de infecções fúngicas invasivas tem aumentado, como consequência do contingente cada vez maior de pacientes com imunossupressão. O tratamento de infecções fúngicas com anfotericina B (AmB) está associado a efeitos adversos importantes, como nefrotoxicidade e toxicidade hematológica. Nesta revisão buscou-se abordar os estudos sobre AmB nas diferentes formulações, focando em suas características farmacológicas e toxicidade. Formulações lipídicas de AmB estão associadas a um risco menor de nefrotoxicidade, entretanto ainda há controvérsia sobre diferenças entre as duas formulações lipídicas de AmB disponíveis. Diferenças em relação ao perfil imunomodulatório e ligação a lipoproteínas podem explicar parte das diferenças clínicas existentes entre as formulações de AmB. A maioria dos estudos clínicos que avaliou a nefrotoxicidade associada à AmB em diferentes formulações não utilizou critérios validados para classificação do dano renal, o que dificulta sua comparação. A toxicidade hematológica relacionada ao uso de AmB é um fenômeno descrito desde os primórdios do seu uso clínico, entretanto poucos dados existem sobre sua frequência, fatores de risco e impacto nos desfechos clínicos. Dados precisos, e adequados ao contexto local, sobre a toxicidade de AmB nas suas diferentes formulações são necessários para uma adequada avaliação dos aspectos de farmacoeconomia e custo-efetividade...


Invasive fungal infections have emerged in recent years, as a consequence of increasing numbers of immunosuppressed patients. Treatment of these conditions with amphotericin B (AmB) has been associated with important side effects, such as nephrotoxicity and hematological toxicity. In this review we aimed to assess studies about different formulations of AmB, focusing on pharmacological properties and toxicity. Lipid formulations of AmB have been linked to a lower risk of nephrotoxicity; however, there is still controversy about differences between the two available lipid formulations. Differences in immunomodulatory profile and lipoprotein binding could partly explain clinical inequalities among AmB formulations. Most clinical trials that evaluated AmB-associated nephrotoxicity did not use validated criteria for renal injury classification, impairing comparability. Hematological toxicity associated with AmB treatments is an occurrence described since the beginning of its clinical use; nevertheless, few data exist about its frequency, risk factors, and clinical impact. Clear and more precise information, derived from local studies, is needed to an adequate evaluation about pharmacoeconomic aspects of AmB treatment and cost-effectiveness of lipid formulations...


Subject(s)
Humans , Amphotericin B/adverse effects , Amphotericin B/toxicity , Blood Chemical Analysis , Kidney Diseases/chemically induced
8.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 34(4): 506-513, oct.-dic. 2014. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-730933

ABSTRACT

La histoplasmosis es una afección polifacética producida por el hongo dimorfo Histoplasma capsulatum , cuyas esporas son inhaladas y llegan al pulmón, órgano primario de infección. La forma meníngea, considerada como una de las manifestaciones más graves de esta micosis, suele presentarse en individuos con alteraciones en la inmunidad celular: pacientes con síndrome de inmunodeficiencia humana adquirida, con lupus eritematoso sistémico o con trasplante de órgano sólido, así como en lactantes, debido a su inmadurez inmunológica. La forma de presentación más usual es de resolución espontánea y se observa en individuos inmunocompetentes que se han expuesto a altas concentraciones de conidias y fragmentos miceliares del hongo. En estas personas, la afección se manifiesta por trastornos pulmonares y por la posterior diseminación a otros órganos y sistemas. Se presenta un caso de histoplasmosis del sistema nervioso central en un niño inmunocompetente.


Histoplasmosis is a multifaceted condition caused by the dimorphic fungi Histoplasma capsulatum whose infective spores are inhaled and reach the lungs, the primary organ of infection. The meningeal form, considered one of the most serious manifestations of this mycosis, is usually seen in individuals with impaired cellular immunity such as patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, systemic lupus erythematous or solid organ transplantation, and infants given their immunological immaturity. The most common presentation is self-limited and occurs in immunocompetent individuals who have been exposed to high concentrations of conidia and mycelia fragments of the fungi. In those people, the condition is manifested by pulmonary disorders and late dissemination to other organs and systems. We report a case of central nervous system histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent child.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Male , Diagnostic Errors , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Meningitis, Fungal/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Amphotericin B/adverse effects , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Cerebrospinal Fluid/microbiology , Device Removal , Headache/etiology , Histoplasma/immunology , Histoplasma/isolation & purification , Histoplasmin/blood , Histoplasmin/cerebrospinal fluid , Histoplasmosis/complications , Histoplasmosis/cerebrospinal fluid , Histoplasmosis/drug therapy , Hydrocephalus/diagnosis , Hydrocephalus/etiology , Hydrocephalus/surgery , Hypokalemia/etiology , Immunocompetence , Itraconazole/therapeutic use , Meningitis, Fungal/complications , Meningitis, Fungal/cerebrospinal fluid , Meningitis, Fungal/drug therapy , Meningitis, Fungal/microbiology , Migraine Disorders/diagnosis , Prosthesis-Related Infections/etiology , Prosthesis-Related Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/etiology , Staphylococcus epidermidis/drug effects , Vancomycin Resistance , Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt/adverse effects
9.
Actual. SIDA. infectol ; 22(85): 64-68, set.2014.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-780406

ABSTRACT

La criptococosis es una de las infecciones oportunistas más frecuentes en pacientes con infección por HIV. La toxicidad de la anfotericina B y el aislamiento de un número creciente de cepas resistentes a fluconazol determinan la necesidad de tratamientos alternativos y estrategias novedosas. Este artículo presenta un paciente HIV positivo con criptococosis meníngea sin negativización de los aislamientos de Cryptococcus neoformans con el tratamiento convencional de inducción con anfotericina B más fluconazol, y respuesta favorable al sustituir este último antifúngico por voriconazol...


Cryptococcosis is one of the most common opportunistic infections in patientes with HIV infection. The toxicity of amphotericin B and isolation of an increasing number of strains resistant to fluconazole dictate the need for alternative treatments and novel strategies. This paper presents an HIV positive patient with cryptococcal meningitis without negativisation Cryptococcus neoformans isolates with conventional induction therapy with amphotericin B plus fluconazole, and favorable to the latter replaced by voriconazole antifungal response...


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Amphotericin B/adverse effects , Amphotericin B/toxicity , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Cryptococcus neoformans/pathogenicity , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Histoplasmosis/pathology , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/pathology , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/pathology , HIV Seropositivity/pathology
10.
Infectio ; 17(4): 201-204, oct.-dic. 2013. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: lil-705233

ABSTRACT

La leishmaniasis cutánea es una zoonosis producida por diferentes especies del parásito del género Leishmania . Existen 2 tipos de leishmaniasis, la que se conoce como del nuevo mundo y la del viejo mundo, que son causadas por diferentes especies. La forma de leishmaniasis más común en nuestro medio es la cutánea, rara vez con compromiso sistémico aun en pacientes HIV positivos. El tratamiento consiste en Glucantime, alternativamente miltefosine, los cuales tienen una toxicidad signifi cativa y pueden fallar en un número sustancial de casos. La opción de tratamiento para estos pacientes es la anfotericina B, de las cuales la forma liposomal tiene menor toxicidad renal pero un alto costo y difi cultades para su disponibilidad. Se reporta el caso de un paciente con enfermedad renal crónica y leishmaniasis cutánea, en quien estaba contraindicado el Glucantime y presentó falla terapéutica con miltefosine. Recibió tratamiento con anfotericina B liposomal en una dosis única de 15 mg/kg con adecuada tolerancia, deterioro no signifi cativo de la función renal y resolución de las lesiones cutáneas hasta los 30 y 60 días de seguimiento.


Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a zoonosis caused by various species of Leishmania parasite. There are two types, known as New World and Old World leishmaniasis, which are caused by different species. The most common form of leishmaniasis in our area is mucocutaneous, which rarely has systemic involvement, even in HIV-positive patients. Glucantime is the first choice of therapy, or alternatively miltefosine, both of which have significant toxicity and can fail in a substantial number of cases. The alternative choice of treatment for these patients is amphotericin B, from which the liposomal form has less renal toxicity but a high cost and low availability. We report the case of a patient with chronic renal disease and cutaneous leishmaniasis, in whom Glucantime was contraindicated and therapeutic failure with miltefosine occurred. He was treated with liposomal amphotericin B in a single dose of 15mg/kg with adequate tolerance, no significant deterioration of renal function and resolution of skin lesions after 30 and 60 days of follow up.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Amphotericin B , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous , Zoonoses , Amphotericin B/adverse effects , Amphotericin B/pharmacokinetics , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Meglumine Antimoniate
11.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 110(1): 46-51, feb. 2012. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-616562

ABSTRACT

Las infecciones fúngicas han aumentado últimamente y el espectro de especies se ha modificado, en especial por el aumento del número de pacientes inmunocomprometidos. La anfotericina B es un antimicótico de amplio espectro; ha sido, durante los últimos 50 años, el fármaco de elección para el tratamiento antifúngico empírico y frente al aislamiento de hongos sensibles. Sin embargo, su uso se asocia con efectos adversos como fiebre, escalofríos, náuseas y vómitos (dependientes de la infusión) y, más significativamente, con nefrotoxicidad. Existen en la actualidad tres presentaciones farmacéuticas con lípidos que aumentan el índice terapéutico. A pesar de su uso extenso, existen aún interrogantes acerca de las dosis óptimas y costos que justifiquen su empleo en la edad pediátrica. No hay trabajos de alta calidad de evidencia sobre infecciones fúngicas documentadas en pediatría que comparen las cuatro presentaciones farmacéuticas disponibles. No obstante, pareciera que todas tienen similar eficacia. Los elevados costos de las anfotericinas asociadas a lípidos limitan su uso; sin embargo, la reducción de costos asociados a la menor nefrotoxicidad debería considerarsecuando se analizan los aspectos económicos de su indicación


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Amphotericin B/adverse effects , Amphotericin B/toxicity , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Economics, Pharmaceutical , Pharmacokinetics , Kidney
12.
Indian J Cancer ; 2012 Jan-Mar; 49(1): 107-113
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-144560

ABSTRACT

Background: In patients with persistent fever and netropenia, amphotericin B is administered empirically for early treatment and prevention of systemic fungal infections. Despite this treatment, there are chances of breakthrough fungal infections and drug is also toxic. Materials and Methods: A multicentric, randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted to compare liposomal amphotericin B two doses with conventional amphotericin B as empirical antifungal therapy. Results: The average body weight of patients was 26.4±14.8 (n=22), 32.9±19.4 (n=23) and 37.9±20.0 (n=20) kg in 1 mg, 3 mg Fungisome (liposomal amphotericin B) and 1 mg/kg/day conventional amphotericin B group, respectively. The mean age was 16.2±13.4, 16.0±10.9 and 22.7±16.2 yrs in 1 and 3 mg/kg/day Fungisome and 1 mg/kg/day conventional AMP B group, respectively. The average duration of treatment with 1 mg and 3 mg/kg/day Fungisome and 1 mg/kg/day conventional amphotericin B was 17±9.8, 16.2±8.3, and 14.7±10.7 days, respectively. The time to resolve fever was 13.3±10.2, 10.9±7.1, 10.1±6.7 days, and for absolute neutrophil count (ANC) to be above 500 cells per microliter, it took 13.4±9.6, 10.6±7.6 and 7.3±3.4 days, respectively. Liposomal formulations were well-tolerated compared to conventional amphotericin B. Conclusions: This small randomized study showed that the indigenous liposomal formulation Fungisome TM appears to be equally efficacious and safer than conventional amphotericin B. Also, the lower dose Fungisome (1 mg/kg/day) appears to be equally efficacious and was well-tolerated as compared to higher dose Fungisome (3 mg/kg/day). Treatment cost would be a major factor for limiting use of higher dose of Fungisome.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Amphotericin B/administration & dosage , Amphotericin B/adverse effects , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/adverse effects , Child , Child, Preschool , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Humans , India , Male , Middle Aged , Mycoses/drug therapy , Neutropenia/drug therapy , Neutropenia/pathology , Safety , Treatment Outcome
13.
Caracas; s.n; ago, 2011. 239 p. ilus, tab, graf. (IFT4872011615727).
Thesis in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1178397

ABSTRACT

El fracaso terapéutico en leishmaniasis a menudo esta asociado a resistencia a los medicamentos por parte de los parásitos. Hasta ahora no se ha evaluado sistemáticamente si este fenotipo compromete u optimiza el metabolismo o la efectividad en leishmania, es decir, su competencia y adaptabilidad. Durante su ciclo de vida los parásitos deben ajustarse a condiciones de vida extremas, lo cual no es gratuito. Al presentarse conflictos que comprometen propiedades de leishmania esenciales para su supervivencia, surge un costo de adaptación. Sin embargo, tales compensaciones son el precio a pagar que garantizan la co-evolucion del binomio hospedero-parásito y el mantenimiento de la diversidad genética de leishmania. Comprender ese costo es imprescindible a fin de diseñar medidas de prognosis y control exitosas. Adicionalmente, el método vigente y confiable para evaluar resistencia en leishmania es el método in vitro macrofago-amastigote, el cual es oneroso y laborioso. Como parte de un proyecto sobre quimo-resistencia en Leismania, planteamos evaluar posibles parámetros bioquímicos que pudieran servir como marcadores celulares a ser usados para identificar parásitos con fenotipo quimioresistentes en aislados de pacientes y compararlos con cepas de referencia. Los resultados sugieren que algunos aislados:a) tienen incrementada la expresión transportadores ABC, b) utilizan glucosa de forma diferencial, c) tienen un potencial de membrana menos polarizado y d) expresan diferente sensibilidad a inhibidores clásicos de la función mitocondrial. En conjunto, los datos indican que los aislados estudiados expresan los mismos cambios fisiológicos ya descritos en parásitos de referencia quimioresistentes. Es decir, que los cambios explorados podrían constituir un patrón general asociado a este fenómeno leishmania, lo cual los valida como marcadores celulares de resistencia. En conclusion, se propone un nuevo enfoque al problema del tratamiento de la enfermedad ya que, además de las estrategias clásicas, se añadirían herramientas de pronostico del éxito de la quimioterapia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Leishmaniasis, Diffuse Cutaneous/drug therapy , ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Leishmania/drug effects , Membrane Potentials , Parasites/drug effects , Phenotype , Prognosis , Genetic Variation/drug effects , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Drug Resistance/drug effects , Biomarkers , Amphotericin B/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Leishmaniasis, Diffuse Cutaneous/prevention & control , Glucose/analysis , Leishmania/genetics , Membrane Potentials/drug effects
14.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 21(4): 623-628, jul. 2010.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-869506

ABSTRACT

La estructura renal es sensible a la acción de fármacos, especialmente en el túbulo proximal y distal, que están constituidos por células especializadas con gran actividad metabólica dedicada al transporte de solutos. En esta comunicación se describen diversos fármacos que interfieren con el túbulo-intersticio renal en forma aguda o crónica, se explican los mecanismos de daño renal y las formas de evitarlos en el momento del uso clínico de nefrotóxicos. También se hace referencia a aquellos fármacos cuya eliminación es principalmente por filtración glomerular, por lo que su administración debe ajustarse al cálculo de esta variable funcional para evitar toxicidades en órganos y tejidos, incluido el riñón.


Kidney structure and function, especially at the proximal and distal tubule, are sensitive to the toxic action of different substances that are actively transported at those levels. This Communication describes the most common drugs that damage, in an acute or chronic form, the tubuleinterstitial segment of the renal tissue and describe some ways to prevent nephrotoxicity. Also, the paper refers to a second mechanism of damage due to drug accumulation when administered to patients with some degree of renal dysfunction. To avoid renal toxicity the prescription must be adjusted to a calculated renal clearance obtained previous drug administration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Kidney Diseases/chemically induced , Aminoglycosides/adverse effects , Amphotericin B/adverse effects , Renal Insufficiency/chemically induced , Contrast Media/adverse effects , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/adverse effects , Glomerular Filtration Rate
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 43(2): 188-193, Mar.-Apr. 2010. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-545785

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: A leishmaniose visceral é uma doença infecciosa sistêmica de ampla distribuição geográfica, caracterizada pelo alto potencial de letalidade. Visando contribuir com a redução da mortalidade, bem como auxiliar profissionais da saúde no manejo clínico dos pacientes portadores desse agravo, este trabalho teve como objetivo investigar as características clínicas e laboratoriais dos casos que evoluíram para o êxito letal em hospitais de Campo Grande, MS, nos anos de 2003 a 2008. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados 55 prontuários de pacientes que tiveram a leishmaniose visceral como causa de óbito. RESULTADOS: Dos 55 pacientes estudados, 37 eram procedentes do município de Campo Grande, sendo 41 (74,5 por cento) do sexo masculino, com predominância da faixa etária acima dos 40 anos. Quanto ao quadro clínico, a febre esteve presente em 89,1 por cento dos casos. A duração da doença desde o início dos sintomas até a hospitalização variou em média 78,2 dias. A leucopenia ocorreu em 85,5 por cento dos pacientes. Comorbidades estiveram presentes em 39 (70,9 por cento) pacientes, sendo a desnutrição e o etilismo as mais frequentes. A confirmação do diagnóstico ocorreu em média 6,7 dias após a internação. O antimoniato pentavalente foi a droga mais utilizada, com 87,5 por cento dos pacientes apresentando algum tipo de reação adversa. Infecções bacterianas ocorreram em 36 pacientes e, em 27 (49 por cento), foram uma das causas do óbito. CONCLUSÕES: Os dados indicam que a identificação precoce dessas características clínicas e laboratoriais no primeiro atendimento ao paciente é de fundamental importância para se reduzir a mortalidade por meio da instituição de medidas terapêuticas e profiláticas eficazes.


INTRODUCTION: Visceral leishmaniasis is a systemic infectious disease of broad geographical distribution, characterized by high potential for lethality. With the purpose of contributing towards reducing mortality and helping healthcare professionals in clinical management of patients with this disease, this paper aimed to investigate the clinical and laboratory characteristics of cases with a fatal outcome in hospitals in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, between 2003 and 2008. METHODS: Fifty-five medical files on patients who died due to visceral leishmaniasis were analyzed. RESULTS: Among the 55 patients studied, 37 were from the municipality of Campo Grande; 41 (74.5 percent) were males; and age over 40 years predominated. The patients presented with fever in 89.1 percent of the cases. The duration of the illness from the onset of symptoms to hospitalization was 78.2 days on average. Leukopenia was seen in 85.5 percent of the patients. Comorbidities were present in 39 (70.9 percent) patients; malnutrition and alcoholism were the most frequent of these. Confirmation of the diagnosis occurred on average 6.7 days after admission. Pentavalent antimoniate was the drug most used, and 87.5 percent of the patients presented some type of adverse reaction. Bacterial infections occurred in 36 patients and were one of the causes of death in 27 (49 percent). CONCLUSIONS: The data showed that early identification of these clinical and laboratory characteristics, at the time when patients are first attended, is extremely important for reducing mortality through instituting efficient therapeutic and prophylactic measures.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/mortality , Amphotericin B/adverse effects , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antiprotozoal Agents/adverse effects , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/blood , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/drug therapy , Meglumine/therapeutic use , Organometallic Compounds/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Young Adult
16.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 27(1): 25-33, feb. 2010. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-537163

ABSTRACT

Amphotericin B deoxycholate is associated with infusion-related toxicity and renal toxicity. Purpose: To evaluate medical indications of this compound in a tertiary care center, analyze adverse reactions, infusion protocols and outcome of treated patients. Patients and methods: Retrospective analysis of 39 treatments indicated in 33 patients during 2007, exploring indications, infusion protocols and renal protective measures, infusion-related adverse reactions, nephrotoxicity, hypokalemia and outcomes. Results: On average, therapy lasted 12 days (2 to 39) and reached 600 mg of accumulated dose (100 to 1950) respectively. 24-hours infusions were applied in 63.2 percent of prescriptions and 35.9 percent received a 4-6 hour infusion schedule. In addition, 36.8 percent received daily a saline infusion before amphotericin. Adverse reactions were observed in 40 percent of treatments, predominating fever (25 percent). Nonetheless, nephrotoxicity was infrequent (9.4 percent), of low magnitude, only affecting patients without previous renal disease, and not requiring dialysis. Hypokalemia developed in 21.6 percent of treatments. More than half of medical indications were empirical (59 percent), for presumed infections by either filamentous fungi or yeasts. In the subgroup with microbiological information, main indications were invasive aspergillosis (15.4 percent of total), systemic candidiasis (12.8 percent) or meningeal cryptococcosis (10.3 percent). A favorable response was registered in 41 percent, and only 48.5 percent of patients survived. In a multivariate analysis, only age > 60 years remained as an independent factor for developing infusion-related adverse reactions. In the same manner, a SOFA score > 3 and corticosteroids administration at the same time than amphotericin B, were independently associated to a fatal outcome. Conclusion: infusion-related adverse reactions are frequent during amphotericin B deoxycholate therapy, but renal...


Anfotericina B deoxicolato se asocia a reacciones adversas durante la infusión y a nefrotoxicidad. Objetivo: Evaluar las indicaciones de anfotericina B deoxicolato en un hospital universitario, las reacciones adversas asociadas, los protocolos de administración y el desenlace de los pacientes tratados. Pacientes y Métodos: Se efectuó un estudio retrospectivo con el total de tratamientos efectuados durante el año 2007 en el Hospital Clínico de la Universidad de Chile, identificando 39 tratamientos en 33 pacientes. Se analizaron las indicaciones, dosis, protocolos de administración, efectos adversos relacionados a la infusión (fiebre, calofríos, vómitos o flebitis), nefrotoxicidad, hipokalemia y además la evolución de los pacientes. Resultados: La duración promedio del tratamiento fue de 12 días (2-39) con una dosis acumulada promedio de 600 mg totales (100-1.950 mg). Un 63,2 por ciento de los tratados recibió infusiones de 24 horas y 35,9 por ciento, infusiones de 4 a 6 horas. Además, 36,8 por ciento fue sometido a precargas salinas. Un 40 por cientoo de los tratamientos se acompañó de reacciones adversas asociadas a la infusión, predominando la fiebre (25 por ciento). Sin embargo, la nefrotoxicidad fue de baja magnitud (9,4 por cientoo), sólo presente en pacientes sin falla renal previa y en ningún caso determinó el inicio de diálisis. La hipokalemia se presentó en ocho tratamientos (21,6 por ciento). Más de la mitad de las indicaciones fueron empíricas (59 por cientoo), ya fuese para el tratamiento presunto de hongos filamentosos (aspergilosis o mucormicosis) o levaduras (candidiasis sistémica). En el subgrupo con datos micro-biológicos, las principales indicaciones fueron aspergilosis invasora (15,4 por ciento de los 39 tratamientos), candidiasis sistémica (12,8 por ciento) o criptococosis meníngea (10,3 por ciento). Un 41 por cientoo de los pacientes tuvo una respuesta favorable a los tratamientos y sólo 48,5 por cientoo sobrevivió...


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Amphotericin B/adverse effects , Antifungal Agents/adverse effects , Deoxycholic Acid/adverse effects , Mycoses/drug therapy , Amphotericin B/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Chile , Drug Combinations , Deoxycholic Acid/administration & dosage , Hospitals, University , Kidney Diseases/chemically induced , Mycoses/classification , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Young Adult
17.
Bol. micol ; 24: 89-94, dic. 2009. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-585749

ABSTRACT

La anfotericina B es un antifúngico ampliamente usado en infecciones sistémicas por hongos levaduriformes y filamentosos, entre ellas las meningitis por Cryptococcus neoformans. Sus reacciones adversas pueden ser inmediatas o dosis y tiempo dependiente. En nuestro trabajo en el hospital C. van Buren de Valparaíso, se revisaron 27 fichas de pacientes que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión (24 hombres y 3 mujeres). El principal síntoma de la meningitis por Crytococcus fue la cefalea (96,3 por ciento). En 25 casos hubo confirmación con tinta china y/o cultivo. Durante el tratamiento con anfotericina B la hipokalemia fue la reacción adversa que se presento con mayor frecuencia (83 por ciento) y la nefrotoxicidad en un 59,1 por ciento. La dosis acumulada administrada fue en promedio 525 mg, suspendiendo generalmente su administración cuando se lograba una mejoría clínica junto a esterilidad del LCR (tinta china y/o cultivo negativo). Un 33,3 por ciento de los pacientes con diagnostico de meningitis por C. neoformans falleció por distintas complicaciones.


Amphotericin B is a antifungal drug widely used in systemic infections by filamentous and levaduriform fungi, as in meningitis by Cryptococcus neoformans. Its adverse reactions can be immediate or dose and time dependent. In our paper, 27 patient files were reviewed in C. van Buren hospital of Valparaíso and all of them met the criteria for inclusion (24 men and 3 women). In 96.3 percent of cases, headaches were the main symptom of meningitis caused by Cryptococcus. Twenty five cases were confirmed by the use of chinese ink and/or by culture. During the treatment with amphotericin B, the most frequent changes were hypokalemia (83 percent) and nefrotoxicity in 59.1 percent. The average of cumulative dose administered was 525 mg and was suspended when a clinical recovery was achieved next to a sterile cefalorraquid liquid (negative to chinese ink and/or culture). 33.3 percent of the patients diagnosed with meningitis by C. neoformans died due to different complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Amphotericin B/administration & dosage , Amphotericin B/adverse effects , Amphotericin B/history , Amphotericin B/toxicity , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , HIV Infections , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/complications , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/diagnosis , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/history , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/therapy , Chile
19.
Arq. ciênc. saúde ; 15(3): 139-141, jul.-set. 2008.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-522545

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Estudos têm demonstrado que a Leishmania sp. causa glomerulonefrites mesangial, membranoproliferativa focal e difusa, e nefrite intersticial. Estas alterações podem levar à ocorrência de proteinúria, alterações do sedimento urinário e perda da função renal. Como medicação de primeira escolha para o tratamento de LVA é recomendado o antimonial pentavalente, que possui boa eficácia, mas apresenta riscos de cardiotoxicidade, nefrotoxicidade e hepatotoxicidade. A Anfotecina B é utilizada como segunda escolha, mas esta droga também é nefrotóxica. O objetivo do presente trabalho é relatar o comprometimento da função renal em um paciente com diagnóstico de LVA, e que desenvolveu pancreatite após o tratamento com glucantime e apresentou melhoras nesse quadro após uso de anfotericina B, apresentando, porém, um quadro de nefrotoxicidade devido ao uso da segunda droga. Materiais e metodologia: Estudo retrospectivo de prontuário do caso de um paciente do sexo masculino, 64 anos, com diagnóstico de leishmaniose visceral. Na admissão apresentava creatinina sérica de 1,2mg/dL, uréia de 30 mg/dL, potássio de 4,6 mEq/L, proteinúria de 3+ e hematúria com 10 hemácias/campo. Após o tratamento com glucantime houve redução dos níveis de creatinina e desaparecimento da proteinúria. Porém, houve o aparecimento de pancreatite, com amilase 351mg/dL e lipase 1421 mg/dL. Devido a este efeito adverso, desencadeado pelo antimonial, foi utilizada a anfotericina B, que provocou uma piora da função renal, com creatinina 1,8 mg/dL. Após ajuste do intervalo entre as doses de anfotericina B houve normalização da função renal. Este caso ilustra os efeitos adversos relacionados ao tratamento da LVA. Conclusão: É necessário instituir um monitoramento laboratorial sistematizado da função renal e dos níveis séricos da amilase/lipase em pacientes que estejam sob tratamento de leishmaniose com antimonial pentavalente ou anfotericina B.


Introdution: Studies have shown that Leishmania sp causes glomurelonephritis characterized by mesangialcell proliferation, focal and diffuse membranoproliferative glomerulonephrittis and interstitial nephritis. These alterations may lead to the occurrence of proteinurea, alterations in urinary sedimentation and loss of renalfunction. Pentavalent antimoniate is recommended as a first choice in the treatment of AVL; this drug isefficient, but it presents the risk of cardiotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Amphotericin B is used as a second choice drug, but it is also nephrotoxic and may cause reactions. The objective of the present report is to demonstrate the impairment of renal function in a patient with visceral leishmaniasis who developed pancreatitis after treatment with glucantime and improved after treatment with amphotericin B, presenting, however, a case of nephrotoxicity due to the use of this second drug. Materials and methods: We report acase of a 64 year-old male patient, diagnosed with visceral leishmaniasis. On admission the patient presented creatinine 1.2mg/dL, urea 30 mg/dL, potassium 4.6 mEq/L, proteinurea 3+ and hematuria 10/field. After treatment with antimoniate a decrease in creatinine levels and the disappearance of proteinurea were observed; however, the patient developed pancreatitis, and an increase in the levels of amylase 351 mg/dL and lipase 1421 mg/dLwas verified. Due to this adverse effect triggered by the antimonial, amphotericin B was used, which provokeda worsening of the renal function, with creatinine 1.8mg/dL. After adjusting the interval between doses of amphotericin B, renal function returned to normality. This case illustrates the adverse effects related to the treatment of AVL. Conclusion: There must be a laboratorial follow up of the renal function and sera levels of amylase and lipase in patients under treatment with pentavalente antimoniate or anfotericin B.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Amphotericin B/adverse effects , Antimony/adverse effects , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/drug therapy , Pancreatitis/chemically induced , Kidney
20.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 11(2): 203-207, Apr. 2007. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-454721

ABSTRACT

Several formulae have been developed in an attempt to reduce the toxicity of amphotericin B (AmB), but their high costs preclude widespread use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of amphotericin B in a fat emulsion, i.e. Intralipid (AmB-IL), in 37 AIDS patients with cryptococcal meningitis (CM). We retrospectively reviewed data collected in a non-comparative open study between January 1999 and December 2001. The therapeutic cure was defined as complete resolution or improvement of the clinical symptoms or complete absence or improvement of the mycological alterations of the CSF. The outcomes were evaluated at 2 weeks, induction phase (IP), and at the end of treatment or consolidation phase (CP) with the last available CSF. Prior to the diagnosis of CM, 72 percent of patients had had one or more OI and 67.57 percent had a concomitant OI. The median CD4-cell count was 32 cells/mm³, the median leukocyte count in the CSF was 29 cells/mm³ and the median cumulative dose of AmB-IL was 1,200 mg (300-2,500). The therapeutic cure was 57.14 percent in the IP and 64.86 percent in the CP. During IP, 9 patients died (24.32 percent) and 4 (10.81 percent) during the CP (p=0.2). Thus, the overall mortality rate was 35.14 percent. AmB-IL, an inexpensive preparation, might be an alternative to conventional AmB. Some questions remain such as its compatibility, stability and level of toxicity. The benefit is especially important in developing countries, where no drugs other than AmB are available to treat systemic fungal infections.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents , Amphotericin B/administration & dosage , Meningitis, Cryptococcal/drug therapy , Antifungal Agents , Amphotericin B/adverse effects , Fat Emulsions, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
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