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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247016, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339416

ABSTRACT

Abstract Pheretima posthuma (Vaillant, 1868), a native earthworm of Pakistan and Southeast Asia, has wide utilization in vermicomposting and bioremediation process. In this study, P. posthuma coelomic fluid (PCF) and body paste (PBP) was evaluated as antibacterial agent against ampicillin (AMP) resistant five Gram positive and four Gram negative clinical isolates. The antibacterial effect of different doses (i.e. 25-100 µg/ml) of PCF and PBP along with AMP and azithromycin (AZM) (negative and positive controls, respectively) were observed through disc diffusion and micro-dilution methods. All nine clinical isolates were noticed as AMP resistant and AZM sensitive. Antibacterial effects of PCF and PBP were dose dependent and zone of inhibitions (ZI) against all clinical isolates were between 23.4 ± 0.92 to 0 ± 00 mm. The sensitivity profile of PCF and PBP against clinical isolates was noticed as 44.44 and 55.56%, respectively. Both PCF and PBP showed bacteriostatic (BTS) action against S. aureus, S. pyogenes, K. pneumonia, N. gonorrhoeae. Moreover, the cumulative BTS potential of PCF and PBP against all isolates was 66.67 and 55.56%, respectively. The MICs of PCF and PBP were ranged from 50-200 µg/ml against selected isolates. The bacterial growth curves indicated that PCF and PBP inhibited the growth of all isolates at their specific MIC concentrations. However, PBP has better antibacterial potential compared to PCF against selected isolates. Therefore, it is concluded that both PCF and PBP of P. posthuma possess antibacterial and BTS potential against ampicillin resistant clinical isolates. This organism might be considered as a second choice of antibacterial agents and can further be utilized in pharmaceutical industries for novel drug manufacturing by prospecting bioactive potential agents.


Resumo Pheretima posthuma (Vaillant, 1868), uma minhoca nativa do Paquistão e sudeste da Ásia, tem ampla utilização em processos de vermicompostagem e biorremediação. Neste estudo, o fluido celômico de P. posthuma (PCF) e a pasta corporal (PBP) foram avaliados como agente antibacteriano contra cinco isolados clínicos Gram-positivos e quatro Gram-negativos resistentes à ampicilina (AMP). O efeito antibacteriano de diferentes doses (ou seja, 25-100 µg / ml) de PCF e PBP juntamente com AMP e azitromicina (AZM) (controles negativo e positivo, respectivamente) foi observado por meio de métodos de difusão em disco e microdiluição. Todos os nove isolados clínicos foram notados como resistentes a AMP e sensíveis a AZM. Os efeitos antibacterianos de PCF e PBP foram dependentes da dose e a zona de inibição (ZI) contra todos os isolados clínicos foi entre 23,4 ± 0,92 a 0 ± 00 mm. O perfil de sensibilidade do PCF e PBP contra isolados clínicos foi observado como 44,44% e 55,56%, respectivamente. Tanto o PCF quanto o PBP mostraram ação bacteriostática (BTS) contra S. aureus, S. pyogenes, K. pneumonia, N. gonorrhoeae. Além disso, o potencial BTS cumulativo de PCF e PBP contra todos os isolados foi de 66,67% e 55,56%, respectivamente. Os MICs de PCF e PBP variaram de 50-200 µg / ml contra isolados selecionados. As curvas de crescimento bacteriano indicaram que o PCF e o PBP inibiram o crescimento de todos os isolados em suas concentrações específicas de MIC. No entanto, PBP tem melhor potencial antibacteriano em comparação com PCF contra isolados selecionados. Portanto, conclui-se que tanto o PCF quanto o PBP de P. posthuma possuem potencial antibacteriano e BTS contra isolados clínicos resistentes à ampicilina. Esse organismo pode ser considerado como uma segunda escolha de agentes antibacterianos e pode ainda ser utilizado nas indústrias farmacêuticas para a fabricação de novos medicamentos por meio da prospecção de agentes com potencial bioativo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oligochaeta , Staphylococcus aureus , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Ampicillin/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
2.
Cambios rev. méd ; 20(1): 21-25, 30 junio 2021. tabs.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292703

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. La apendicitis aguda es una patología pediátrica quirúrgica que en su fase complicada requiere uso de antibióticos en el postoperatorio; encontrar la mejor opción como experiencia local, fue necesario. OBJETIVO. Comparar un esquema de antibioticoterapia triple vs un doble respecto a variables: demográficas, clínicas y de costos en pacientes pediátricos con apendicitis complicada. MATERIALES y MÉTODOS. Estudio analítico transversal. Población de 133 pacientes y una muestra de 93, operados por apendicitis complicada; 58 recibieron ampicilina + metronidazol + gentamicina y 35 ceftriaxona + metronidazol. Se comparó las variables: estadía hospitalaria, complicaciones y costo monetario de cada esquema. Se realizó en la Unidad de Cirugía Pediátrica del Hospital de Especialidades Carlos Andrade Marín, en el periodo enero de 2017 a octubre de 2018. Los datos fueron analizados con R-Studio 1.8.366 para Windows. RESULTADOS. No hubo diferencia estadística con respecto a: estadía hospitalaria (p=0,261); complicaciones como infección del sitio quirúrgico (p=0,196), re-intervención quirúrgica (p=0,653) y costo (p=0,059). CONCLUSIÓN. Se comparó el esquema de antibioticoterapia triple vs un doble, utilizados en apendicitis complicada en pediatría. No se encontró diferencias estadísticamente significativas en este reporte preliminar, con la diferencia de que con el esquema doble la frecuencia de administración fue menor y se evitó la exposición a los efectos colaterales de los aminoglicósidos.


INTRODUCTION. Acute appendicitis is a pediatric surgical pathology that in its complicated phase requires the use of antibiotics during the postoperative period; finding the best option as local experience was a must. OBJECTIVE. Compare a triple vs a double antibiotic therapy scheme respect demographic, clinical and cost variables in pediatric patients whit complicated apendicitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Cross-sectional analytical study. Population of 133 patients and sample of 93, with complicated appendicitis; 58 received ampicillin + metronidazole + gentamicin and 35 ceftriaxone + metronidazole. The following variables were compared; hospital stay, complications and monetary cost of each scheme. It was performed in the Pediatric Surgery Unit of the Hospital of Specialties Carlos Andrade Marin, during january 2017, through october 2018. The data were analyzed with R-Studio 1.8.366 for Windows. RESULTS. There was no statistical difference regarding hospital stay (p=0.261); complications such as surgical site infection (p=0.196), re-surgical intervention (p=0.653); nor cost (p=0.059). CONCLUSION. Triple vs. Double antibiotic therapy scheme used in complicated appendicitis in pediatrics was compared. No statistically significant differences were found in this preliminary report, how ever with the double scheme the frequency of administration was lower and exposure to side effects of aminoglycosides was avoided.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Appendicitis/complications , Gentamicins , Cephalexin , Ampicillin , Metronidazole , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Pediatrics , Postoperative Complications , General Surgery , Cost-Benefit Analysis
3.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(1): 65-78, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249059

ABSTRACT

Abstract | Introduction: Shigellosis is endemic in low-and middle-income countries, causing approximately 125 million episodes of diarrhea and leading to approximately 160.000 deaths annually one-third of which is associated with children. Objective: To describe the characteristics and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Shigella species recovered in Colombia from 1997 to 2018. Materials and methods: We received isolates from laboratories in 29 Colombian departments. We serotyped with specific antiserum and determined antimicrobial resistance and minimal inhibitory concentrations for ten antibiotics with Kirby-Bauer tests following the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations. Results: We analyzed 5,251 isolates of Shigella spp., most of them obtained from stools (96.4%); 2,511 (47.8%) were from children under five years of age. The two most common species were S. sonnei (55.1%) and S. fbxneri (41.7%). The highest resistance rate was that of tetracycline (88.1%) followed by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (79.3%) and ampicillin (65.5%); 50.8% of isolates were resistant to chloramphenicol, 43.6% to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and less than 1% to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin. In S. sonnei, the most common resistance profile corresponded to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (92%) whereas in S. fbxneri the most common antibiotic profiles were multidrug resistance. Conclusions. In Colombia, children under five years are affected by all Shigella species. These findings should guide funders and public health officials to make evidence-based decisions for protection and prevention measures. The antimicrobial resistance characteristics found in this study underline the importance of combating the dissemination of the most frequently isolated species, S. sonnei and S. ftexneri.


Resumen | Introducción. La shigelosis es endémica en los países de ingresos bajos y medios y ocasiona aproximadamente 125 millones de episodios de diarrea y 160.000 muertes al año, un tercio de los cuales se presenta en niños. Objetivo. Describir las características y los perfiles de resistencia antimicrobiana en aislamientos de Shigella spp. recuperados en Colombia entre 1997 y 2018. Materiales y métodos. Los aislamientos provenían de laboratorios en 29 departamentos de Colombia. La serotipificación se hizo con antisueros específicos de Shigella spp. y, la determinación de los perfiles de resistencia y la concentración inhibitoria mínima de diez antibióticos, por Kirby-Bauer. Resultados. Se estudiaron 5.251 aislamientos de Shigella spp. obtenidos de materia fecal (96,4 %); el 47,8 % de ellos correspondía a niños menores de cinco años. Las especies más frecuentes fueron S. sonnei (55,1 %) y S. ftexneri (41,7 %). Se presentó resistencia a tetraciclina (88,1 %), trimetoprim-sulfametoxasol (79,3 %), ampicilina (65,5 %), cloranfenicol (50,8 %) y amoxicilina-acido clavulánico (43,6 %). La resistencia no superó el 1 % contra cefotaxime, ceftazidima, gentamicina y ciprofloxacina. Para S. sonnei, el perfil de resistencia más frecuente correspondió a trimetoprim-sulfametoxasol, en contraste con S. ftexneri, cuyos perfiles fueron todos multirresistentes. Conclusiones. Los niños menores de cinco años se vieron afectados por todas las especies de Shigella spp., aspecto que los legisladores en salud pública deben considerar a la hora de tomar decisiones en torno a las medidas de prevención y protección frente a esta enfermedad. Las características de resistencia antimicrobiana de los aislamientos de Shigella spp. en Colombia ponen de manifiesto la importancia de combatir la diseminación de las dos especies más frecuentes en casos clínicos, S. sonnei y S. ftexneri.


Subject(s)
Dysentery, Bacillary , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination , Cephalosporins , Chloramphenicol , Fluoroquinolones , Public Health Surveillance , Ampicillin
4.
Rev. Eugenio Espejo ; 15(1): 12-21, 20210102.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145479

ABSTRACT

La elevada incidencia del Enterococcus faecalis en procedimientos odontológicos es un tópico de interés para el área de la salud, esta bacteria resiste a varios antimicrobianos y su proliferación aumenta debido a su baja susceptibilidad a sustancias de uso convencional como el hidróxido de calcio, convirtiéndose en una de las principales causas del fracaso de los tratamientos de conduc- to. La presente investigación evaluó la susceptibilidad in vitro del Enterococcus faecalis cepa ATCC-29212 frente a la combinación de sustancias y antibióticos con el hidróxido de calcio. Se utilizó la técnica de difusión en agar, inoculando el microorganismo en cajas de Petri con agar Cerebro Corazón (BHI), tratado con discos de papel filtro impregnados con 1µl de cada trata- miento por triplicado; T1 (Hidróxido de Calcio + propilenglicol), T2 (Hidróxido de Calcio + paramonoclorofenol), T3 (Hidróxido de Calcio + ampicilina gentamicina + propilenglicol), T4 (Hidróxido de Calcio + Solución Salina Fisiológica), Control positivo (medicamento comercial a base de Hidróxido de Calcio), se incubó a 35°C durante 24h, los halos formados alrededor de cada disco fueron medidos y comparados con la escala de Duraffourd y procesados mediante ANOVA de un factor. Se obtuvo una medida del halo de inhibición de 22,50±3,3 mm, con el trata- miento T3, siendo sumamente sensible. Concluyendo que este resultó el más efectivo en compa- ración el resto de la pruebas in vitro en comparación con el resto de los fármaco investigados.


The high incidence of Enterococcus faecalis in dental procedures is a topic of interest for the health area. This bacterium resists various antimicrobials and its proliferation increases due to its low susceptibility to substances of conventional use such as calcium hydroxide, becoming a of the main causes of root canal failure. The present investigation evaluated the in vitro suscepti- bility of Enterococcus faecalis strain ATCC-29212 to the combination of substances and antibio - tics with calcium hydroxide. The agar diffusion technique was used, inoculating the microorga- nism in Petri dishes with Brain Heart agar (BHI), treated with filter paper disks impregnated with 1µl of each treatment in triplicate; T1 (Calcium Hydroxide + propylene glycol), T2 (Cal- cium Hydroxide + paramonochlorophenol), T3 (Calcium Hydroxide + ampicillin gentamicin + propylene glycol), T4 (Calcium Hydroxide + Physiological Saline Solution), Positive control (Hydroxide-based commercial medicine Calcium), incubated at 35 ° C for 24h, the halos formed around each disc were measured and compared with the Duraffourd scale and processed by one-factor ANOVA. A measure of the inhibition halo of 22.50 ± 3.3 mm was obtained with the T3 treatment, being extremely sensitive. It was concluded that this was the most effective in comparison with the rest of the in vitro tests of the rest of the investigated drugs.


Subject(s)
Calcium Hydroxide , Enterococcus faecalis , Ampicillin , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Gentamicins , Health
5.
Infectio ; 24(3): 196-198, jul.-set. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114866

ABSTRACT

Resumen El género Gemella spp corresponde a cocos gram positivos, anaerobios facultativos, catalasa negativos, no móviles y no formadores de esporas, usualmente comensales de la cavidad oral, que no suelen ser patógenos en pacientes inmunocompetentes. Sin embargo, puede comportarse como germen oportunista en pacientes inmunosuprimidos o con otros factores de riesgo como mala higiene dental, cirugía gastrointestinal, enfermedades metabólicas entre otras, y se asocia con endocarditis, meningitis y en menor medida compromiso pulmonar. La información respecto a la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana es limitada y se asemeja a la de S viridans, por lo que la penicilina y ampicilina son los medicamentos de elección, sin tener claridad en cuanto a duración del tratamiento, usualmente considerando llevar a 4 semanas o hasta el drenaje de la colección. Éste reporte de caso describe una paciente con tuberculosis en tratamiento, que desarrolla una infección invasiva con documentación de empiema y bacteriemia secundaria por Gemella morbillorum, representando la asociación poco común de ésta infección bacteriana con tuberculosis.


Abstract Gemella spp. corresponds to gram positive cocci, facultative anaerobes, negative catalase, non mobile and non spore producers, part of colonizing flora of the oral cavity that are not common pathogens in immunocompetent patients. Nevertheless it may behave as an opportunistic germ in immunosuppressed patients or with other risk factors that include bad dental hygiene, bowel surgery, and metabolic diseases among others. It's associated with infections such as endocarditis, meningitis and less frecuently can implicate the lung. The information regarding antimicrobial susceptibility is limited and resembles S viridans, so penicillin and ampicillin are the medications of choice, without being clear about the duration of treatment, usually giving 4 weeks or until collection drain. This case report describes a patient with known tuberculosis diagnosis and under treatment, that develops an invasive infection with empyema and secondary bloodstream infection by Gemella morbillorum, depicting a previously uncommon but described association of this bacterial infection with tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Tuberculosis , Gram-Positive Cocci , Gemella , Bacterial Infections , Risk Factors , Bacteremia , Sepsis , Empyema , Ampicillin , Infections
6.
Brasília; s.n; 20 maio 2020.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | PIE, LILACS, BRISA, PIE | ID: biblio-1097388

ABSTRACT

O Informe Diário de Evidências é uma produção do Ministério da Saúde que tem como objetivo acompanhar diariamente as publicações científicas sobre tratamento farmacológico e vacinas para a COVID-19. Dessa forma, são realizadas buscas estruturadas em bases de dados biomédicas, referente ao dia anterior desse informe. Não são incluídos estudos pré-clínicos (in vitro, in vivo, in silico). A frequência dos estudos é demonstrada de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, coortes, entre outros). Para cada estudo é apresentado um resumo com avaliação da qualidade metodológica. Essa avaliação tem por finalidade identificar o grau de certeza/confiança ou o risco de viés de cada estudo. Para tal, são utilizadas ferramentas já validadas e consagradas na literatura científica, na área de saúde baseada em evidências. Cabe ressaltar que o documento tem caráter informativo e não representa uma recomendação oficial do Ministério da Saúde sobre a temática. Foram encontrados 16 artigos e 7 protocolos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Disease Progression , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Prednisolone/therapeutic use , Sulbactam/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Clarithromycin/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Oseltamivir/therapeutic use , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Levofloxacin/therapeutic use , Ampicillin/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use
7.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(1): 63-65, Jan.-Feb. 2020.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137139

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Inadvertent epidural drug administration is associated with morbidity and mortality. Several drugs have been administered accidentally through the epidural catheter and most of our knowledge is based on case reports. Case report: A 33 year-old woman presented for delivery. Placement of epidural catheter was requested for labor analgesia and priming dose was administered. Five minutes later, ampicillin 1 g was given through the catheter inadvertently without hemodynamic or neurological changes. Ropivacaine administration was repeated, always with symptomatic relief until delivery. At hospital discharge, she remained without neurological or hemodynamic alterations. Conclusions: The majority of errors are due to syringe and drug exchanges and inadvertent route administration. Erroneous administration into the epidural space can have immediate and late effects and there is no definitive and effective treatment. There are several preventive measures to reduce the potential complications; some opt for watchful waiting, others opt for administering other drugs as a dilution attempted.


Resumo Justificativa: A administração inadvertida peridural de drogas está associada à morbidade e mortalidade. Várias drogas foram administradas acidentalmente pelo cateter peridural e a maior parte do que sabemos se baseia em relatos de caso. Relato de caso: Uma gestante de 33 anos chegou em trabalho de parto. Foi solicitada colocação de cateter peridural para analgesia de parto e a dose inicial foi administrada. Cinco minutos depois, 1 g de ampicilina foi dado através do cateter inadvertidamente, sem alterações hemodinâmicas ou neurológicas. A administração de ropivacaína foi repetida, sempre com alívio dos sintomas até o parto. Na alta hospitalar, a paciente continuava sem alterações neurológicas ou hemodinâmicas. Conclusões: A maioria dos erros é por troca de seringa ou drogas, ou administração de rota inadvertida. A administração errônea no espaço peridural pode apresentar efeitos imediatos e tardios e não há tratamento definitivo ou efetivo. Existem várias medidas preventivas para reduzir complicações potenciais; alguns escolhem observação cuidadosa, outros a administração de outras drogas para tentar a diluição.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Labor, Obstetric , Analgesia, Epidural , Medical Errors , Ampicillin/administration & dosage , Epidural Space
9.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(2): 179-183, jun. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013370

ABSTRACT

Enterococci are intrinsically resistant to several antimicrobial classes and show a great ability to acquire new mechanisms of resistance. Resistance to β-lactam antibiotics is a major concern because these drugs either alone or in combination are commonly used for the treatment of enterococcal infections. Ampicillin resistance, which is rare in Enterococcus faecium occurs in most of the hospital-associated Enterococcus faecium isolates. High-level resistance to ampicillin in E. faecium is mainly due to the enhanced production of PBP5 and/or by polymorphisms in the beta subunit of this protein. The dissemination of high-level ampicillin resistance can be the result of both clonal spread of strains with mutated pbp5 genes and resistance horizontal gene transfer.


Los enterococos son intrínsecamente resistentes a varias clases de antimicrobianos y presentan una gran capacidad para adquirir mecanismos de resistencia. La resistencia a los antibióticos p-lactámicos es preocupante porque estos fármacos solos o combinados se usan comúnmente para el tratamiento de las infecciones enterocócicas. La mayoría de los aislamientos hospitalarios de Enterococcus faecium presentan resistencia a la ampicilina, la cual es rara en Enterococcus faecalis. El alto nivel de resistencia a la ampicilina en E. faecium se debe principalmente a la hiperproducción de PBP5 y/o a polimorfismos en la subunidad beta de esta proteína. La propagación de esta resistencia puede deberse tanto a la diseminación clonal de cepas con genes pbp5 mutados como a la transferencia horizontal de genes.


Subject(s)
Enterococcus faecium/drug effects , Enterococcus faecium/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Ampicillin/antagonists & inhibitors , Ampicillin Resistance/genetics
10.
Infectio ; 23(1): 45-51, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-975562

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La infección de vías urinarias (IVU) es una de las enfermedades más prevalentes en la práctica clínica Objetivo: Identificar los principales agentes etiológicos y la frecuencia de resistencia a antibióticos por parte de microorganismos aislados por urocultivos en pa cientes con IVU en un hospital de primer nivel de atención. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, a partir de una muestra aleatoria de pacientes con IVU en La Virginia, Risaralda, entre el 1 de abril de 2014 a 31 de marzo de 2015. Se evaluaron las bacterias aisladas en la totalidad de urocultivos procesados y los resultados de los antibiogramas. Se establecieron frecuencias y proporciones. Para el análisis de datos, se utilizó SPSS Statistics 22. Se hizo análisis multivariado. Resultados: Se realizaron 1563 urocultivos en el periodo de estudio, de los cuales 329 (21,0%) mostraron crecimiento mayor a 100.000 UFC. Las frecuencias más altas de resistencia para E. coli se observaron para cefalotina (75,8%), ampicilina (72,6%) y trimetoprim/sulfametoxazol (55,3%). De 296 pacientes seleccionados aleatoriamente se halló que la cistitis era la IVU más frecuente (70,3%) y al 50,7% no se les prescribió ningún antimicrobiano. El uso de antiulcerosos se asoció con mayor probabilidad de uso inadecuado del antibiótico (OR:4,28; IC95%:1,070-17,153; p=0,04). Conclusiones: Existe una elevada resistencia bacteriana a los antibióticos de primera línea para el tratamiento de las IVUs, lo que sugiere la importancia de identi ficar los microorganismos y sus perfiles de sensibilidad a antimicrobianos para seleccionar con mejor criterio cual emplear.


Abstract Introduction: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most prevalent diseases in clinical practice. Objective: To identify the main etiologic agents and the frequency of antibiotic resistance by microorganisms isolated from urine culture and sensitivity in patients with IVU in a hospital primary care. Materials and Methods. Descriptive cross-sectional study, from a random sample of patients with UTI in La Virginia, Risaralda, from April 1, 2014 to March 31, 2015. Bacteria isolated from all processed urine cultures and the results of susceptibility were evaluated. Frequencies and proportions were established. For data analysis was used SPSS Statistics 22. Results: A total of 1563 urine cultures were performed in the study period, of which 329 (21.0%) showed further growth to 100,000 UFC. Higher frequencies of resis tance were observed for E. coli to cephalothin (75.8%), ampicillin (72.6%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (55.3%). In the 296 randomized patients it was found that the most common UTI was cystitis (70.3%) and 50.7% were not prescribed any antimicrobial. The use of anti-ulcer is associated with increased probability of inappropriate use of antibiotics (OR:4.28; 95% CI:1.070-17.153; p=0.04). Conclusions: There is a high bacterial resistance to first-line antibiotics for treatment of UTIs, suggesting the importance of identifying microorganisms and their antimicrobial susceptibility profiles to select which use better approach.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Urinary Tract , Urinary Tract Infections , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Cephalosporins , Cystitis , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Sulfamethoxazole , Bacteria , Trimethoprim , Cephalothin , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Selectins , Escherichia coli , Ampicillin , Anti-Infective Agents , Anti-Ulcer Agents
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786158

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the types and antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria in odontogenic abscesses.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pus specimens from 1,772 patients were collected from affected areas during incision and drainage, and bacterial cultures and antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed. The number of antibiotic-resistant bacteria was analyzed relative to the total number of bacteria that were tested for antibiotic susceptibility.RESULTS: Bacterial cultures from 1,772 patients showed a total of 2,489 bacterial species, 2,101 gram-positive and 388 gram-negative. For penicillin G susceptibility tests, 2 out of 31 Staphylococcus aureus strains tested showed sensitivity and 29 showed resistance. For ampicillin susceptibility tests, all 11 S. aureus strains tested showed resistance. In ampicillin susceptibility tests, 46 out of 50 Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae strains tested showed resistance.CONCLUSION: When treating odontogenic maxillofacial abscesses, it is appropriate to use antibiotics other than penicillin G and ampicillin as the first-line treatment.


Subject(s)
Abscess , Ampicillin , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacteria , Drainage , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Humans , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Penicillin G , Pneumonia , Staphylococcus aureus , Suppuration
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741651

ABSTRACT

Lauraceae is a family medicinal plant whose tubers possesses antimicrobial, and cytotoxic, such as antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory special effects and has been used for the medicine in the cure of hepatitis and rheumatism. The antimicrobial activities of bioactive compounds including one neolignan; kunstlerone (1) and two alkaloids include isocaryachine (2) and noratherosperminine (3) as well as crude hexane, methanol and dichloromethane extracts were evaluated. Additionally, the effect of compounds 1, 2 and 3 were evaluated on A549, PC-3, A375, HT-29 and WRL-68 cell lines. In conclusion, kunstlerone 1 showed moderate cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines such as A549, PC-3, A375, HT-29 and WRL-68, respectively with EC₅₀ values of 28.02, 26.78, 33.78, 33.65 and 16.46 µg/mL. The crude methanol extract showed antigrowth activity against S. pyogenes II and B. cereus, with MICs of 256 µg/mL. The compounds kunstlerone (1), isocaryachine (2) and noratherosperminine (3) showed complete inhibition against P. shigelloides, with MIC ≤60 µg/mL compare to ampicillin, as a positive control, which showed antigrowth activity against P. shigelloides at MIC 10 µg/mL.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Ampicillin , Cell Line , Hepatitis , Humans , Lauraceae , Methanol , Methylene Chloride , Plants, Medicinal , Plesiomonas , Rheumatic Diseases
13.
Intestinal Research ; : 192-201, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764140

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cronobacter sakazakii, an emergent pathogen is considered as a major concern to infants and neonates fed on reconstituted powdered infant milk formula. In conjunction with many other factors, biofilm forming capacity adds to its pathogenic potential. In view of the facts that infants are at highest risk to C. sakazakii infections, and emerging antibiotic resistance among pathogens, it is imperative to evaluate probiotic cultures for their efficacy against C. sakazakii. Therefore, pure probiotic strains were isolated from commercial probiotic products and tested for their antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activities against C. sakazakii. METHODS: A total of 6 probiotic strains were tested for their antibiotic susceptibility followed by antimicrobial activity using cell-free supernatant (CFS) against C. sakazakii. The inhibitory activity of CFS against biofilm formation by C. sakazakii was determined using standard crystal violet assay and microscopic observations. RESULTS: All the probiotic strains were sensitive to ampicillin, tetracycline, vancomycin and carbenicillin whereas most of the strains were resistant to erythromycin and novobiocin. Four of the 6 probiotic derived CFS possessed antimicrobial activity against C. sakazakii at a level of 40 μL. A higher biofilm inhibitory activity (>80%) was observed at initial stages of biofilm formation with weaker activity during longer incubation upto 48 hours (50%–60%). CONCLUSIONS: The study indicated the efficacy of isolated commercial probiotics strains as potential inhibitor of biofilm formation by C. sakazakii and could be further explored for novel bioactive molecules to limit the emerging infections of C. sakazakii.


Subject(s)
Ampicillin , Biofilms , Carbenicillin , Cronobacter sakazakii , Cronobacter , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Erythromycin , Gentian Violet , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Milk , Novobiocin , Probiotics , Tetracycline , Vancomycin
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763267

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We studied the pathogens and trends in antibiotic sensitivity pattern in children with urinary tract infection (UTI) over 8 years in order to evaluate adequate treatment. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of medical records of children with UTI from January 2009 to December 2016 in Daegu Fatima Hospital. Uropathogens and antibiotic sensitivity patterns were selected. Only 1 bacterial species with a colony count of ≥105 CFU/mL was considered a positive result. We compared 2 periods group (A: 2009~2012, B: 2013~2016) to investigate trends of antibiotic sensitivity pattern. RESULTS: During the 8 year period, 589 cases are identified (E. coli was cultured in 509 cases, 86.4%). Among all patients, this study investigated the antibiotic sensitivity of E. coli . Antimicrobial susceptibility to ampicillin was steadily low for both periods (A: 32.6%, B: 40.1%, P=0.125), and to amikacin was consistently high for both periods (A: 99.4%, B: 99.3%, P=1.000). Antibiotic sensitivity to third-generation cephalosporin decreased from period A to B (A: 91.7%, B: 75.5%, P=0.000). Antibiotic sensitivity to quinolone significantly decreased from A to B (A: 88.4%, B: 78.2%, P=0.003). The prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli increased from period A to B (A: 6.1%, B: 17.1%, P=0.000). CONCLUSION: This study showed that conventional antibiotic therapy for the treatment of pediatric UTI needs to be reevaluated. A careful choice of antibiotic is required due to the change in antibiotic sensitivity and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.


Subject(s)
Amikacin , Ampicillin , Bacteria , Child , Humans , Medical Records , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Urinary Tract Infections , Urinary Tract
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763266

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aimed to determine characteristics of host, causative organisms, and antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria in pediatric patients with UTI living in metropolitan area of Korea. METHODS: Retrospective investigation was done for the causative organisms of UTI in 683 pediatric cases treated at Ajou University Hospital from 2012 to 2017. Patients were classified into Escherichia coli and non-E.coli group, where E.coli group was subdivided into ESBL(+) and ESBL(−) groups based on whether the bacteria could produce extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). Antibiotic susceptibility of the causative organism was also determined. RESULTS: A total of 683 UTIs occurred in 550 patients, of which 463 (67.8%) were first-time infection and 87 (32.2%) were recurrent ones (2–7 recurrences, 2.52 average), and 64.9% were male and 35.1% were female. The most common causative organism was E.coli (77.2%) and ESBL(+) E.coli was found in 126 cases. The susceptibility of E.coli to 3rd or 4th generation cephalosporin was relatively higher than that to ampicillin or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. ESBL(+) E.coli showed higher resistance rate to 3rd or 4th generation cephalosporin than ESBL(−) E.coli . CONCLUSION: New treatment guideline should be considered due to the incidence of ESBL(+) E.coli increased up to one quarter of UTI cases.


Subject(s)
Ampicillin , Bacteria , beta-Lactamases , Child , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Epidemiologic Studies , Escherichia coli , Female , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Male , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Urinary Tract Infections , Urinary Tract
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762289

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Salmonella is an important pathogen that causes gastroenteritis and sepsis in humans. Recently, changes in serotype prevalence and an increase in antimicrobial resistance have been reported. This study investigated the distribution of Salmonella serotypes and determined the antimicrobial susceptibility of various strains. METHODS: We collected 113 Salmonella isolates other than Salmonella serotype Typhi from 18 university hospitals in 2015. The serotypes were identified by Salmonella antisera O and H according to the Kauffman White scheme. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests for 12 antibiotics were performed using the disk diffusion method or E-test. RESULTS: We identified 22 serotypes. Serotype group B (44.2%) was the most common, followed by groups C (34.5%) and D (21.2%). Salmonella I 4,[5],12:i:- (23.0%), S. Enteritidis (16.8%), and S. Typhimurium (12.4%) were the most common species. Resistance rates for ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were 46.9%, 18.5%, 8.8%, and 5.3%, respectively. The intermediate resistance rate to ciprofloxacin was 29.2%. Six isolates were extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers, including 5 bla(CTX-M-15) and 1 bla(CTX-M-55). CONCLUSION: There have been changes in the serotype prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella in Korea, with a high prevalence of CTX-M 15-positive strains. Continuous monitoring of Salmonella serotypes and antimicrobial resistance is warranted.


Subject(s)
Ampicillin , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Ceftriaxone , Chloramphenicol , Ciprofloxacin , Diffusion , Gastroenteritis , Hospitals, University , Humans , Immune Sera , Korea , Methods , Prevalence , Salmonella , Sepsis , Serogroup , Serotyping
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762288

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistant continues to pose a threat to public health. Therefore, rapid and accurate antimicrobial susceptibility testing is very important. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of the MicroScan system (Beckman Coulter, USA) with newly developed Korean Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Panels (KSCM panels) for antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) against clinical isolates in South Korea. METHODS: Three KSCM panels were designed in this study. For the performance evaluation, a total of 1,325 clinical isolates including 1,027 of Gram-negative bacilli and 298 Gram-positive cocci collected from eight general hospitals in South Korea were used. The results by KSCM panels were compared with those by conventional methods. RESULTS: By KSCM-1 panel for Gram-positive cocci, the rates of categorical agreement (CA) were >90% in all the antimicrobials tested in this study. The rates of major error (ME) were also 90%, ME rates <3%, and VME rates <1.5%. CONCLUSION: The newly developed three KSCM panels for MicroScan system (Beckman Coulter) showed excellent performance in AST against a large number of clinical isolates, and they are applicable to clinical microbiology laboratories.


Subject(s)
Ampicillin , Enterobacteriaceae , Gram-Positive Cocci , Hospitals, General , Hospitals, Teaching , Korea , Public Health , Tetracycline
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739010

ABSTRACT

Infective endocarditis caused by Abiotrophia defectiva is rarely encountered. A 67-year-old male transferred from a local hospital presented with severe dyspnea and pulmonary edema. Preoperative transthoracic echocardiography revealed severe mitral regurgitation with large vegetation. Blood cultures grew A. defectiva, a gram positive, nutritionally deficient streptococcus variant. Emergent mitral valve replacement through right thoracotomy was performed, and after completing six weeks of antibiotic combination therapy (vancomycin, ampicillin, and gentamicin), the patient recovered fully. Because of the need for prompt surgical treatment and long-term antibiotic therapy and lack of laboratory experience with the organism, physicians and laboratory workers should pay close attention to the possibility of A. defectiva infective endocarditis when gram positive cocci are detected in blood cultures.


Subject(s)
Abiotrophia , Adult , Aged , Ampicillin , Dyspnea , Echocardiography , Endocarditis , Endocarditis, Bacterial , Gram-Positive Cocci , Humans , Male , Mitral Valve , Mitral Valve Insufficiency , Pulmonary Edema , Streptococcus , Thoracotomy
20.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 37(2): 104-109, ago. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-959347

ABSTRACT

Resumen Paciente de sexo femenino de 65 años, con antecedentes de hipertensión arterial crónica, resistencia a la insulina, histerectomía total y fractura tibioperonea antigua, es hospitalizada por cuadro febril, sin foco, de 2 meses de evolución, con sospecha de endocarditis por parámetros inflamatorios elevados y soplo diastólico en foco aórtico 2/6. Se estudia con ecocardiograma, transtorácico (ETT) y transesofágico (ETE), que muestra vegetación en velo aórtico coronario izquierdo de 9 mm por 7 mm e insuficiencia aórtica leve, motivo por el cual se toma hemocultivo resultando positivo para Rothia aeria. La paciente evoluciona con embolia de riñón derecho y bazo, y posteriormente, con hemorragia subaracnoidea. Inicia tratamiento antibiótico con ampicilina, vancomicina y gentamicina, con lo cual presenta una evolución satisfactoria y es dada de alta luego de 28 días de hospitalización. Al revisar la literatura, se puede llegar a la conclusión de que la endocarditis por Rothia es extremadamente infrecuente y que, en cuanto al cuadro clínico, tiene tendencia a una forma de presentación subaguda, con presencia de vegetaciones grandes mayores a 10mm y un alto grado de complicaciones neurológicas.


Abstract A 65-year-old female patient, with a history of chronic hypertension, insulin resistance, total histerectomy, and tibioperoneal fracture, is hospitalized for fever of unknown etiology. Basterial endocarditis was suspected due to elevated inflammatory parameters and a 2/6 diastolic murmur present in the aortic focus. Transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography, showed a 9 mm by 7 mm vegetation in the left coronary aortic leaflet of and mild aortic insufficiency, Blood cultures were positive for Rothia aeria. She developed embolism of the right kidney and spleen, and subsequently, a subarachnoid hemorrhage. Antibiotic therapy was initiated with ampicillin, vancomycin and gentamicin, with a satisfactory evolution being discharged after 28 days of hospitalization. When reviewing the literature, it can be concluded that Rothia endocarditis is extremely rare and that, tends to have a subacute presentation with large vegetations, larger than 10 mm, and a high incidence of neurological complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Actinomycetales Infections/complications , Actinomycetales Infections/microbiology , Endocarditis, Bacterial/complications , Endocarditis, Bacterial/microbiology , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/etiology , Actinomycetales Infections/drug therapy , Actinomycetales Infections/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography , Endocarditis, Bacterial/drug therapy , Endocarditis, Bacterial/diagnostic imaging , Ampicillin/therapeutic use , Micrococcaceae , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
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