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Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(2): e20210041, 2022. tab
Article in English | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1286049


Eurytrema coelomaticum is a trematode reported in the pancreatic ducts of ruminants. It is conjectured that may cause disorders in the pancreas, as well as digestive and metabolic processes dependent on them. This study, determined if there is an impairment of exocrine pancreatic function, and correlated it with parasite burden. Pancreas, blood, and fecal samples were collected from 119 bovines at a abattoir. Stool samples were subjected to the gelatin and x-ray film digestion tests (to detect the presence of trypsin in feces). Using blood samples, the following biochemical tests were performed: amylase, lipase, glucose, fructosamine, cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, albumin, and globulins. Analyses were correlated with pancreatic parasite burden. Cattle with a high parasitic load presented higher incidence of negative tests in both gelatin digestion and x-ray film digestion tests (P < 0.001) when compared to non-parasitized animals and those with a low parasitic load. Changes in those tests only occurred if the parasitemia was moderate or severe. The activity of the amylase and lipase enzymes was significantly higher in animals with low parasitemia (P < 0.05), compared to non-parasitized animals and with a high parasitic burden. In this study, in cases of high parasitemia, negative results were observed in both gelatin and x-ray film in the feces digestion tests. However, the low infection of E. coelomaticum, higher levels of serum amylase and lipase that also indicated loss of pancreatic exocrine functions were reported.

Eurytrema coelomaticum, um trematódeo de ductos pancreáticos de ruminantes. Conjectura-se que possa ocasionar transtornos nas funções pancreáticas, mais especificamente nos processos digestivos e metabólicos dependentes destas. Neste estudo, o objetivo foi determinar se há comprometimento da função pancreática exócrina, correlacionado-a a carga parasitária. Foram utilizados pâncreas e respectivas amostras de sangue e fezes de 119 bovinos. As amostras de fezes foram submetidas aos testes de digestão da gelatina em tubo e digestão de filme radiográfico, ambos para detecção de tripsina nas fezes. Foram realizados os seguintes exames bioquímicos em amostras de sangue: amilase, lipase, glicemia, frutosamina, colesterol, triglicerídeos, proteínas totais, albumina e globulinas. Após isto, as análises bioquímicas foram correlacionadas com a quantidade numérica de parasitas encontrados no pâncreas (post-mortem). Houve maior quantidade de testes negativos (digestão do filme radiográfico e prova de digestão da gelatina) nos animais com alta carga parasitária (P < 0.001), quando comparados aos animais não parasitados e com baixa carga parasitária. Portanto, os exames supracitados se alteram somente se a quantidade de parasitas for moderada ou severa. As atividades das enzimas amilase e lipase foram significativamente maiores nos animais que apresentavam baixa parasitemia (P < 0.05), em comparação com os animais com alta carga parasitária e não parasitados. Conclui-se que em quadros de alta parasitemia há alteração significativa nos testes de digestão nas fezes, e que em quadros de baixa parasitemia há alterações significativas nos valores de amilase e lipase séricas, ambos comprovando alterações pancreáticas importantes, de acordo com o quadro de parasitemia.

Animals , Cattle , Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency/parasitology , Pancreatitis/parasitology , Trematode Infections/complications , Trematode Infections/veterinary , Amylases/blood , Lipase/blood , Trematoda , Parasite Load/veterinary
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936348


OBJECTIVE@#To assess the effect of early abdominal puncture drainage (APD) on autophagy and Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway in rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and explore the possibile mechanism.@*METHODS@#Thirty-two male SD rats were randomly divided into sham-operated (SO) group, SAP group with retrograde injection of 4% sodium taurocholate, APD group with insertion of a drainage tube into the lower right abdomen after SAP induction, and APD + ZnPP group with intraperitoneal injection of 30 mg/kg ZnPP 12 h before APD modeling. Blood samples were collected from the rats 12 h after modeling for analysis of amylase and lipase levels and serum inflammatory factors. The pathological changes of the pancreatic tissue were observed with HE staining. Oxidative stress in the pancreatic tissue was detected with colorimetry, and sub-organelle structure and autophagy in pancreatic acinar cells were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The expressions of autophagy-related proteins and Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway were detected using RT-PCR and Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#Compared with those in SAP group, the rats with APD treatment showed significantly alleviated pathologies in the pancreas, reduced serum levels of lipase, amylase and inflammatory factors, lowered levels of oxidative stress, and activated expressions of Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway in the pancreas. The ameliorating effect of ADP was significantly inhibited by ZnPP treatment before modeling. APD obviously reversed mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum damages and p62 accumulation induced by SAP.@*CONCLUSION@#APD treatment can suppress oxidative stress and repair impaired autophagy in rats with SAP by activating the Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway, thereby reducing the severity of SAP.

Animals , Male , Rats , Acute Disease , Amylases/blood , Autophagy , Drainage , Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing) , Lipase/blood , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Oxidative Stress , Pancreas/pathology , Pancreatitis/surgery , Punctures , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Con-ciencia (La Paz) ; 9(2): 1-18, nov. 2021. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354459


INTRODUCCIÓN: la papa es el tubérculo más importante producido a nivel mundial como producto alimenticio. Una de las formas ancestrales de conservación de la papa en los países andinos es la obtención de un producto llamado chuño, obtenido a partir de las denominadas papas amargas. Existen pocos datos respecto a la composición química y nutricional del chuño y sobre los cambios producidos en el almidón durante su elaboración en el proceso de congelado-secado en condiciones específicas de temperatura y exposición a rayos ultravioleta. OBJETIVO: el objetivo del trabajo fue realizar una revisión bibliográfica respecto a cambios producidos en la relación de amilosa y amilopectina, la composición de almidón aislado de papa y la modificación de las características de este almidón en el proceso de elaboración de chuño. METODOLOGÍA: La revisión bibliográfica se ha realizado con la recopilación de tres fuentes referenciales de estudios realizados sobre el chuño y su proceso de elaboración, artículos sobre la estructura del almidón de papa y otros tubérculos del mismo género, artículos de otros productos alimenticios del Altiplano boliviano y peruano, y finalmente la influencia de los cambios de la estructura del almidón en el incremento de la formación de almidón retrogradado. RESULTADOS: la revisión bibliográfica realizada, señala que el proceso de elaboración de chuño eleva el porcentaje de amilosa en el contenido total de almidón, lo cual está relacionado a procesos de exposición a radiación UV y a cambios de temperaturas muy drásticos, que van entre -13,5 ºC y 16 ºC. Este proceso llevaría a la activación de enzimas, como amilasas, para la catálisis de reacciones de ruptura de enlaces como principal ruta del proceso; sin embargo, se podrían evaluar otras causas. CONCLUSIONES: el mayor porcentaje de amilosa permitiría la obtención de altos porcentajes de almidón retrogradado.

INTRODUCTION: the potato is the most important tuber produced worldwide as a food product. One of the ancestral ways of preserving pootatoes in the Andean countries is a product called chuño (traditional Andean freeze and sun-dried potato), obtained from the so-called bitter potatoes. There are few data regarding the chemical and nutritional composition of chuño and the changes produced in the starch during its preparation in the freeze-drying process under specific conditions of temperature and exposure to ultraviolet rays. OBJECTIVE: the objective of this article was to do a bibliographic review regarding changes produced in the amylose and amylopectin ratio, the composition of isolated potato starch and the modification of the characteristics of this starch in the process of making chuño. METHODOLOGY: the literature review methodology has the compilation of three reference sources of studies carried out on chuño and its production process, articles about the structure of potato starch and other tubers, research on other food products from the Bolivian and Peruvian of Altiplano and finally the influence of the changes in starch structure in relation to the increasing of retrograde starch formation. RESULTS: the results show that the process of making chuño increases the percentage of amylose in the total starch content, which is related to the processes of exposure to UV radiation and very drastic temperature changes, ranging between -13, 5 ºC and 16 ºC. This process would lead to the activation of enzymes, such as amylases, for the catalysis of bond breaking reactions as the main route of the process; however, other causes could be evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: the higher percentage of amylose would allow the obtaining of high percentages of retrograded starch.

Starch , Enzymes , Amylases , Amylose , Plant Tubers , Food
Rev. argent. radiol ; 85(2): 41-45, abr. 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1288198


Resumen La pancreatitis aguda es una patología inflamatoria del páncreas que se caracteriza por dolor abdominal y elevación de los niveles séricos de amilasa. Desde el punto de vista imagenológico, se la estudia con tomografía computada (TC), siendo esa la modalidad de elección para evaluar la extensión y la localización de las complicaciones. Según la gravedad, el tiempo de evolución y la extensión, hay distintos tipos de complicaciones y una variedad de hallazgos en TC.

Abstract Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory pathology of the pancreas characterized by abdominal pain and elevated levels of serum amylase. In radiology, it is studied with computed tomography (CT), which is the preferred method to evaluate the extent and location of complications. Depending on the severity, time of evolution, and extent, there are different types of complications and a variety of findings on the CT scan.

Pancreas , Pancreatitis , Tomography , Pathology , Radiology , Time , Abdominal Pain , Lifting , Serum , Selection of the Waste Treatment Site , Gravitation , Amylases , Methods
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 36(supl.1): 102-106, abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251556


Resumen La macroamilasemia debe sospecharse en todo paciente con aumento catalítico de amilasa α plasmática persistente y sin clínica de dolor abdominal, descartando otras etiologías de patología pancreáticas y extrapancreática. La macroamilasemia se caracteriza por la unión de complejos de amilasa α con inmunoglobulina, más frecuente inmunoglobulina A; pueden presentarse 3 tipos de macroamilasemia. Es importante realizar el diagnóstico diferencial de otras patologías que puedan causar el aumento de la amilasa y así evitar los procedimientos innecesarios. Se presenta el caso de un paciente de 53 años, de sexo femenino, que ingresó a emergencia por clínica de dolor abdominal y hiperamilasemia, que fue diagnosticada inicialmente de pancreatitis aguda.

Abstract Macroamylasemia should be suspected in any patient with a persistent catalytic increase of plasma α-amylase but no other clinical signs of abdominal pain after ruling out other causes of pancreatic and extra-pancreatic disease. The binding of α-amylase complexes with immunoglobulin, most commonly immunoglobulin A, characterizes this condition. Macroamylasemia is classified into three kinds. To prevent unnecessary procedures, it is critical to make a differential diagnosis of other conditions that can cause amylase increase. The present article reports the case of a 53-year-old female patient who was admitted to the emergency room with abdominal pain and hyperamylasemia, who was initially diagnosed with acute pancreatitis.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Hyperamylasemia , Pancreatitis , Immunoglobulins , Abdominal Pain , Amylases
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(1): 239-246, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153047


Objetivou-se avaliar o coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente (CDA) dos nutrientes, a palatabilidade das dietas e as características fecais de cães alimentados com uma dieta controle e uma dieta contendo 20% de gérmen desengordurado (GD), com e sem adição de complexo enzimático (amilase, xilanase, betaglucanase e mananase). Para o experimento de digestibidade e das características fecais, foram utilizados 12 cães adultos, distribuídos em delineamento em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2 x 2 (dieta x enzima). O segundo experimento avaliou a palatabilidade, por meio da primeira escolha e da razão de ingestão (RI) da dieta DC vs. 20% de GD, utilizando-se 16 cães. O teste de palatabilidade contou com três dias consecutivos, totalizando 48 repetições. A dieta com inclusão de 20% de GD teve os menores valores de CDA da MS, da EB e da EM (P<0,05). A inclusão do complexo enzimático melhorou o CDA da MS, da EB e da EM (P<0,05). Não foram observadas diferenças nas características fecais (P>0,05). Em relação à palatabilidade, os cães preferiram a dieta 20% de GD, tanto na primeira escolha como na RI (P<0,05). A inclusão de enzimas às dietas melhora a digestibilidade dos nutrientes e da EM, sendo um aditivo com potencial uso na alimentação de cães.(AU)

The objective was to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of nutrients, diet palatability and fecal characteristics of dogs fed diets containing degreased germ (DG), and a control diet (DC) - both with and without the addition of enzyme complex (amylase, xylanase, betaglucanase and mananase). For the digestibility and fecal characteristics experiment 12 adult dogs were used, distributed in a randomized block design, in a 2 x 2 factorial scheme (diet x enzyme). The second experiment evaluated palatability using the first choice and ingestion ratio (IR) of DC diet vs. 20%gD, using 16 dogs. The palatability test had three consecutive days, totaling 48 repetitions. The diet with inclusion of 20% DG had the lowest ADC values of DM, GE and ME (P <0.05). Inclusion of the enzyme complex improved ADC of DM, GE and ME (P <0.05). No differences in fecal characteristics were observed (P >0.05). Regarding palatability, dogs preferred the 20% DG diet in both first choice and IR (P <0.05). Inclusion of enzymes in diets improves nutrient digestibility and ME, being an additive with potential use in dog food.(AU)

Animals , Dogs , N-Acetylneuraminic Acid/administration & dosage , Zea mays/embryology , Enzymes/administration & dosage , Animal Feed/analysis , Feces , Amylases/administration & dosage
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 67(2): 292-296, Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287810


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: To analyze abdominal drain on the first postoperative day and evaluate its predictive nature for the diagnosis of Pancreatic Fistula exclusion, seeking to establish a cutoff point from which lower values demonstrate safety in excluding the possibility of this complication. METHODS: From August 2017 to June 2020, data from 48 patients undergoing pancreatic resection were collected and analyzed from a prospective cohort. The patients were divided into two groups, one group consisting of patients who did not develop PF (Group A), and the other composed of patients who developed PF (Group B). The receiver operation characteristic curve was constructed, and cutoff points were evaluated by calculating sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS: Group A brought 30 patients together (62.5%) and Group B brought 18 patients together (37.5%). The 444 U/L value was the most satisfactory cutoff point for the receiver operation characteristic curve (CI 0.690-0.941), with a sensitivity of 94.4% and a specificity of 60%, thus being able to select 18 of 30 patients who did not succumb to PF. CONCLUSIONS: Abdominal drain on the first postoperative day can be used as a predictive factor in the diagnosis of PF exclusion (CI 0.690-0.941), with the value of 444 U/L being the best performance cutoff point.

Pancreatectomy/adverse effects , Pancreatic Fistula/diagnosis , Pancreatic Fistula/etiology , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Drainage , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Pancreaticoduodenectomy , Amylases
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 64: e21190020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153295


HIGHLIGHTS Screening extremophile Bacillus strains from various Hot Springs Characterization Of Bacillus Strains Producing Highly Thermostable Amylase Genetic identification of the best strains

Abstract Currently thermostable Amylase represents a broad biotechnological interest and desired by a various industries. In this study, forty-six bacterial strains belonging to the genus Bacillus were isolated from various hot springs in the North West of Algeria based on their ability to degrade starch and produce amylase in Starch Agar medium. The majority of isolates showed a positive amylolytic activity. In order to select the most thermostables amylase the effect of temperature on enzymes was estimated, therefore the study of amylase thermostability was culminated by the selection of Four Strains having an interesting optimum of activity and range of stability, reaching 75 °C for the strains HBH1-2, HBH1-3, HBH3-1and 85 °C for the strain HC-2, This indicates that the Enzyme produced by retained strains have optimum activity at high temperature. The identity of the selected strains was established on the basis of the morphological, biochemical characteristics and phylogenetic position as determined by 16S Ribosomal DNA gene sequencing. The whole strains belonged to the genus Bacillus and their phylogeny were also reported in this study.

Bacillus/isolation & purification , Bacillus/classification , Hot Springs/microbiology , Amylases , Phylogeny , Bacillus/genetics , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Algeria , Hot Temperature
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 18(4): 227-230, DEZ 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1361636


A ansa pancreática é uma variação anatômica rara dos ductos pancreáticos. Consiste numa comunicação entre o ducto pancreático principal (Wirsung) e o ducto pancreático acessório (Santorini). Recentemente, estudos têm demonstrado estar essa variação anatômica implicada como fator predisponente e significativamente associada a episódios recorrentes de pancreatite aguda. A pancreatite é uma entidade clínica pouco frequente na infância. Diferente dos adultos, as causas mais comuns incluem infecções virais, por ascaris, medicamentosas, traumas e anomalias estruturais. O objetivo deste estudo foi relatar um caso de pancreatite aguda grave não alcoólica e não biliar, em um paciente jovem de 15 anos, em cuja propedêutica imagenológica evidenciou-se alça, comunicando com os ductos pancreáticos ventral e dorsal, compatível com ansa pancreática.

Ansa pancreatica is a rare anatomical variation of the pancreatic ducts. It consists of communication between the main pancreatic duct (Wirsung) and the accessory pancreatic duct (Santorini). Recently, studies have shown that this anatomical variation is implicated as a predisposing factor and significantly associated with recurrent episodes of acute pancreatitis. Pancreatitis is a rare clinical entity in childhood. Different from that in the adults, the most common causes include viral and ascaris infections, drugs, traumas, and structural abnormalities. The objective of this study was to report a case of a severe non-alcoholic and non-biliary acute pancreatitis in a 15-year-old patient, whose propedeutic imaging showed a loop communicating with the ventral and dorsal pancreatic ducts, consistent with ansa pancreatica.

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Pancreatic Ducts/abnormalities , Pancreatic Ducts/diagnostic imaging , Pancreatitis/etiology , Pancreatitis/diagnostic imaging , Pancreatic Pseudocyst/diagnostic imaging , Pancreatitis/complications , Pancreatitis/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ichthyosis Vulgaris/diagnosis , Ultrasonography , Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic/pathology , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing/etiology , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing/diagnostic imaging , Amylases/blood , Lipase/blood
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(3): 1024-1031, 01-05-2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147195


Halophilic bacteria are microorganisms that grow optimally in the presence of the very high concentration of sodium chloride. Halophiles are vital sources of various enzymes including hydrolases, which are very stable and catalytically highly efficient at high salt concentration and other extreme conditions such as high temperature, pH and presence of organic solvents. Several hydrolases such as amylases, proteases, and lipases have been obtained from halophilic bacteria and are commonly used for various industrial applications. We initiated a screening to isolate and characterize the halophilic bacteria from the Red Sea, which is one of the saltiest bodies of water in the world. Water and soil samples, collected from the Red Sea coast, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, were screened for isolation of halophilic bacteria. Ten bacterial isolates were obtained, which were characterized by biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Hydrolase producing bacteria among the isolates were screened by plate assay on starch and gelatin agar plates for amylase and protease, respectively. Two bacterial isolates i.e. Bacillus glycinifermentans S3 and Enterobacter cloacae W1were found to possess significant amylase and protease activity.

Bactérias halofílicas são microrganismos que crescem de maneira ideal na presença de uma concentração muito alta de cloreto de sódio. Halófilos são fontes vitais de várias enzimas, incluindo hidrolases, que são muito estáveis e cataliticamente altamente eficientes em alta concentração de sal e outras condições extremas, como alta temperatura, pH e presença de solventes orgânicos. Várias hidrolases como amilases, proteases e lipases foram obtidas a partir de bactérias halofílicas e são comumente usadas para várias aplicações industriais. Iniciamos uma triagem para isolar e caracterizar as bactérias halofílicas do Mar Vermelho, que é um dos corpos de água mais salgados do mundo. Amostras de água e solo, coletadas na costa do Mar Vermelho, Jeddah, na Arábia Saudita, foram examinadas quanto ao isolamento de bactérias halofílicas. Foram obtidos dez isolados bacterianos, caracterizados por testes bioquímicos e seqüenciamento do gene 16S rRNA. As bactérias produtoras de hidrolase entre os isolados foram triadas por ensaio em placa em placas de amido e ágar de gelatina para amilase e protease, respectivamente. Verificou-se que dois isolados bacterianos, isto é, Bacillus glycinifermentans S3 e Enterobacter cloacae W1, possuíam significativa atividade de amilase e protease.

Peptide Hydrolases , Halobacteriales , Salinity , Amylases , Hydrolases
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(2): 238-246, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115494


Oryza sativa L. rice has large amounts of proteins and minerals, besides presenting several pigmented varieties. Red rice is distinguishable due to its great nutritional value compared to the regular white variety. Its red pericarp pigmentation is due to the bioactive compounds that are responsible for its health benefits. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical-chemical characterization, antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and antihypertensive capacity of flours of three different red rice cultures (Rubi, Virgínia and Pequeno). All samples presented specific levels of carbohydrates for cereals with low fat content and excellent levels of protein and resistant starch. In addition, the samples had a high antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and antihypertensive capacity. Antihyperglycemic capacities were measured as percent inhibition for amylase (56.7-76.5%) and glycosidase (81.0-76.6%), respectively, and antihypertensive capacity as the percentage inhibition of the angiotensin converting enzyme (38.4-34.7%). In addition, Pequeno flour presented the best results for antioxidant and antihyperglycemic capacity in comparison to the two flours tested. Thus, all red rice flours can be a source of functional compounds when added to food.

El arroz integral (Oryza sativa L.) posee importantes cantidades de proteínas, vitaminas, minerales y fitoquímicos. El arroz rojo se destaca por su gran valor nutricional. La pigmentación roja del pericarpio está asociado al contenido de compuestos bioactivos, que están directamente relacionados a los beneficios de salud humana. Teniendo en cuenta lo antes expuesto se propuso evaluar las caracteristicas físico-químicas, capacidad antioxidante, anti-hiperglucémica y antihipertensiva de las harinas de tres diferentes cultivos de arroz rojo (Rubí, Virginia y Pequeño). Todas las muestras presentaron niveles específicos de carbohidratos para cereales con bajo contenido de grasa y altos contenidos de proteína y almidón resistente. Además, las muestras presentaron una alta capacidad antioxidante, anti-hiperglucémica y antihipertensiva. La capacidad anti-hiperglicémica se midió en porcentaje de inhibidores de α-amilasa (56.7-76.5%) y α-glucosidasa (81.0-76.6%), respectivamente; y capacidad antihipertensiva como el porcentaje de inhibición de la enzima convertidora de la angiotensina (38.4-34.7%). El cultivar Pequeño presentó mayor capacidad antioxidante y anti-hiperglucémica en comparación a los demás cultivares. Así, todas las harinas de arroz rojo pueden ser vehículos de compuestos funcionales en los alimentos.

Oryza/chemistry , Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry , Antihypertensive Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Phenols/analysis , Starch , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Edible Grain , Proanthocyanidins/analysis , Glucosidases/antagonists & inhibitors , Amylases/antagonists & inhibitors
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 44: 41-46, Mar. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087698


Background: The main objective of this study was to isolate fungi associated with Anthopleura xanthogrammica and measure their antimicrobial and enzymatic activities. A total of 93 fungal strains associated with A. xanthogrammica were isolated in this study, of which 32 isolates were identified using both morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis. The antibacterial activities of 32 fungal isolates were tested against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Edwardsiella tarda, Vibrio harveyi, Fusarium oxysporum, and Pyricularia oryzae by agar diffusion assay. Extracellular hydrolytic enzyme activities of the fungal isolates were determined by agar diffusion assays. Enzyme activities were detected from clear halo size. Results: The isolated fungi belonged to 18 genera within 7 taxonomic orders of 1 phylum. The genera Aspergillaceae were the most diverse and common. The antimicrobial activities of 32 isolates were evaluated, and 19 (59.4%) of fungi isolate displayed unique antimicrobial activities. All fungal strains displayed at least one enzyme activity. The most common enzyme activities in the fungi isolates were amylase and protease, while the least common were pectinase and xylanase. Conclusions: This is first report on the sea anemone-derived fungi with antimicrobial and enzyme activities. Results indicated that sea anemone is a hot spot of fungal diversity and a rich resource of bioactive natural products.

Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Sea Anemones/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Phylogeny , Polygalacturonase/metabolism , Aspergillus/enzymology , Aspergillus/genetics , Bacteria/drug effects , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer , Biodiversity , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/genetics , Amylases/metabolism , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18766, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249148


The therapeutic approaches for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus rely most on the usage of oral hypoglycaemic drugs. These drugs have adverse side effects and hence alternative medicines are continuously explored. The present study intends to investigate the antidiabetic potential of the flavonoids present in Gracilaria corticata. The flavonoids were isolated (FEGC) and their inhibitory activity on the carbohydrate hydrolysing enzymes such as α-amylase and α-glucosidase was analysed. The flavonoids were found to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase with an IC50 value of 302 µg and 75 µg respectively. The synergistic effect of FEGC and luteolin was also investigated and the results show that both FEGC and luteolin inhibited synergistically at half their IC50 values. The observations of this study reveal that the flavonoids of G. corticata have potential antidiabetic activity and can act independently or synergistically in the management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Gracilaria/classification , Rhodophyta/adverse effects , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/pathology , Glucosidases/pharmacology , Amylases/adverse effects , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20170521, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132203


Abstract Amylases are enzymes involved in starch hydrolysis, generating the most diverse products, such as maltose, glucose and dextrins. This work aimed the study of the production of amylolytic enzymes via solid-state fermentation (SSF) using "crueira", an essentially starchy cassava residue, as substrate-support and Bacillus sp. as microorganism. For the implementation of the experimental part, a Central Composite Design (CCD) with three variables (initial moisture, pH and temperature) was made. Each test was examined at 24, 48 and 72 hours by the method of starch dextrinizing activity. The optimum production conditions were 60% initial moisture, pH 6 and 37 °C. The maximum yield was 437.76 U/g in 72 hours of fermentation. The optimum temperature of enzyme performance was 65 °C. The pH optimum range was 4 to 6. The Co2 +, Ca2 + and K+ ions positively influenced the activity of enzymes and the Fe2+ ion had no effect on enzymatic activity. On the other hand, the ions Hg2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Mn2+ and Mg2+ adversely influenced enzymatic activity. Therefore, producing amylases from Bacillus sp. and using crueira as a substrate is possible.

Animals , Bacillus/enzymology , Manihot/metabolism , Amylases/biosynthesis , Starch/metabolism , Analysis of Variance , Fermentation
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 175-181, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763411


BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of this study was to describe the diagnostic yield of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in patients with isolated elevated levels of amylase and/or lipase. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted at a large academic medical center from 2000 to 2016. Patients were selected based on having elevated amylase, lipase, or both, but without a diagnosis of pancreatitis or known pancreatobiliary disease. Patients were excluded if they had abnormal liver function tests or abnormal imaging of the pancreas. RESULTS: Of 299 EUS procedures performed, 38 met inclusion criteria. Symptoms were present in 31 patients, most frequently abdominal pain (87%). In 20 patients (53%), initial EUS most commonly found chronic pancreatitis (n=7; 18%), sludge (5; 13%), or new diagnosis of pancreas divisum (3; 8%). In the asymptomatic patients (7), 3 had a finding on EUS, most importantly sludge (2), stone (1), and pancreas divisum (1). No patients were diagnosed with a mass or pancreatic cyst. During the follow up period, 6 patients (22%) had cholecystectomy. CONCLUSIONS: In our study of patients with isolated elevations in amylase and/or lipase without acute pancreatitis who underwent EUS, approximately 50% had a pancreatobiliary finding, most commonly chronic pancreatitis or biliary sludge.

Humans , Abdominal Pain , Academic Medical Centers , Amylases , Bile , Cholecystectomy , Diagnosis , Endosonography , Follow-Up Studies , Lipase , Liver Function Tests , Pancreas , Pancreatic Cyst , Pancreatitis , Pancreatitis, Chronic , Retrospective Studies , Sewage , Ultrasonography
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762721


PURPOSE: To determine the potential protective and therapeutic effects and action mechanism of ruscogenin on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis (AP) model in rats. METHODS: Overall, 32 rats were attenuated to the sham (2-mL/kg/day isotonic solution for 4 weeks), control (20-µg/kg cerulein-induced AP for 12 hours), prophylaxis groups (cerulein-induced AP following 3-mL/kg/day ruscogenin for 4 weeks) and treatment (3-mL/kg/day ruscogenin following cerulein-induced AP for 12 hours). Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis of nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1/neuronal NOS), malondialdehyde (MDA) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). After sacrification, pancreas tissues were collected and prepared for light microscopic (hematoxylin and eosin), immunohistochemical (nuclear factor kappa B) and biochemical analysis (tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-α], interleukin-6 and 1β [IL-6 and IL-1β], CRP, high-sensitivity CRP [hs-CRP] amylase, lipase, and ICAM-1). Ultrastructural analysis was performed by transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: The protective and therapeutic actions of ruscogenin were accomplished by improvements in histopathology, by decreasing blood cytokine levels of CRP, hs-CRP levels, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, ICAM-1, by reducing the pancreatic enzymes amylase and lipase in blood, and by suppressing the expression of nuclear factor kappa B, ICAM-1, and NOS-1, but not MDA in pancreatic tissues. Ruscogenin also improved cerulein-induced ultrastructural degenerations in endocrine and exocrine cells, especially in treatment group. CONCLUSION: The present findings have demonstrated the beneficial protective and therapeutical effects of ruscogenin, nominating it as a highly promising supplementary agent to be considered in the treatment of AP, and even as a protective agent against the damages induced by disease.

Animals , Rats , Amylases , Ceruletide , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 , Interleukin-6 , Lipase , Malondialdehyde , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Necrosis , NF-kappa B , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Pancreas , Pancreatitis , Therapeutic Uses
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760879


Pancreaticopleural fistula (PPF) a fistulous connection between the pancreas and pleural space due to prolonged chronic pancreatitis (CP). PPF is a very rare complication which presents in 0.4% of chronic pancreatitis cases, especially among children. We report a case involving a 3-year-old boy who presented with pleural effusion caused by a PPF, a complication of hereditary pancreatitis, which was, for the first time in Korea, successfully managed with endoscopic treatment. Chest radiography and computed tomography showed massive pleural effusion. Percutaneous catheter drainage was performed. High amylase levels were observed in the pleural fluid and serum, suggesting PPF. The patient was managed with bowel rest and octreotide infusion. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed CP, and pleural effusion was successfully managed with stent placement. PRSS1 genetic screening revealed R122H mutation.

Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Male , Amylases , Catheters , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Drainage , Fistula , Genetic Testing , Korea , Octreotide , Pancreas , Pancreatic Fistula , Pancreatitis , Pancreatitis, Chronic , Pleural Effusion , Radiography , Stents , Thorax
Mycobiology ; : 230-241, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760536


The Great Sebkha of Oran is a closed depression located in northwestern of Algeria. Despite the ranking of this sebkha among the wetlands of global importance by Ramsar Convention in 2002, no studies on the fungal community in this area have been carried out. In our study, samples were collected from two different regions. The first region is characterized by halophilic vegetation and cereal crops and the second by a total absence of vegetation. The isolated strains were identified morphologically then by molecular analysis. The biotechnological interest of the strains was evaluated by testing their ability to grow at different concentration of NaCl and to produce extracellular enzymes (i.e., lipase, amylase, protease, and cellulase) on solid medium. The results showed that the soil of sebkha is alkaline, with the exception of the soil of cereal crops that is neutral, and extremely saline. In this work, the species Gymnoascus halophilus, Trichoderma gamsii, the two phytopathogenic fungi, Fusarium brachygibbosum and Penicillium allii, and the teleomorphic form of P. longicatenatum observed for the first time in this species, were isolated for the first time in Algeria. The halotolerance test revealed that the majority of the isolated are halotolerant. Wallemia sp. and two strains of G. halophilus are the only obligate halophilic strains. All strains are capable to secrete at least one of the four tested enzymes. The most interesting species presenting the highest enzymatic index were Aspergillus sp. strain A4, Chaetomium sp. strain H1, P. vinaceum, G. halophilus, Wallemia sp. and Ustilago cynodontis.

Algeria , Amylases , Aspergillus , Chaetomium , Depression , Edible Grain , Fungi , Fusarium , Lipase , Penicillium , Salt Tolerance , Soil , Trichoderma , Ustilago , Wetlands
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760164


Most cases of hypertriglyceridemia (HTG)-induced gestational pancreatitis occur when a person with hyperlipidemia is overweight due to pregnancy or has secondary triggers associated with triglycerides (TGs). In Korea, 6 cases of HTG-induced gestational pancreatitis have been reported, but none of the affected patients had TG levels below 1,000 mg/dL. A 36-year-old female at 30 weeks of gestation was admitted due to pain in her upper abdomen. Initial biochemical analysis revealed a TG level of 260 mg/dL, an amylase level of 2,951 U/L and a lipase level of 3,500 U/L. Abdominal ultrasonography showed pancreatic swelling with a hypoechogenic rim. After several days, the patient was discharged and had a normal delivery at 38 weeks of gestation. This case report is the first to describe acute pancreatitis occurring in the presence of type IV hyperlipoproteinemia even though the TG level was less than 500 mg/dL, contrary to findings in previously reported cases.

Adult , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Abdomen , Amylases , Hyperlipidemias , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type IV , Hypertriglyceridemia , Korea , Lipase , Overweight , Pancreatitis , Triglycerides , Ultrasonography
Gut and Liver ; : 149-153, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763835


The International Study Group for Pancreatic Fistula (ISGPF) made the first attempt to standardize the outcome measure of fistulas in the field of pancreatic surgery by publishing the definition and classification of postoperative pancreatic fistulas (POPFs) in 2005. POPFs were determined by any measurable volume of fluid output via an operatively placed drain with amylase activity greater than three times the upper normal serum value. Taking into account more than 10 years of reported experience worldwide, the updated definition published in 2016 by the reconvened International Study Group for Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS) attempted to overcome the limits of the previous classification. The crucial concept of POPF clinical significance was introduced by eliminating grade A from the fistula scenario. The wider use of interventional procedures has also made it necessary to recode grade C POPFs, which now have clearer boundaries, toward the worst end of the severity scale. Grade B still represents the most prevalent and heterogeneous category of POPFs, both in terms of clinical burden and management. In the near future, further efforts will be required to better stratify grade B POPFs to standardize treatment strategies and compare outcomes among institutions.

Amylases , Classification , Fistula , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pancreatectomy , Pancreatic Fistula , Pancreaticoduodenectomy , Pancreaticojejunostomy