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Electron. j. biotechnol ; 44: 41-46, Mar. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087698


Background: The main objective of this study was to isolate fungi associated with Anthopleura xanthogrammica and measure their antimicrobial and enzymatic activities. A total of 93 fungal strains associated with A. xanthogrammica were isolated in this study, of which 32 isolates were identified using both morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis. The antibacterial activities of 32 fungal isolates were tested against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Edwardsiella tarda, Vibrio harveyi, Fusarium oxysporum, and Pyricularia oryzae by agar diffusion assay. Extracellular hydrolytic enzyme activities of the fungal isolates were determined by agar diffusion assays. Enzyme activities were detected from clear halo size. Results: The isolated fungi belonged to 18 genera within 7 taxonomic orders of 1 phylum. The genera Aspergillaceae were the most diverse and common. The antimicrobial activities of 32 isolates were evaluated, and 19 (59.4%) of fungi isolate displayed unique antimicrobial activities. All fungal strains displayed at least one enzyme activity. The most common enzyme activities in the fungi isolates were amylase and protease, while the least common were pectinase and xylanase. Conclusions: This is first report on the sea anemone-derived fungi with antimicrobial and enzyme activities. Results indicated that sea anemone is a hot spot of fungal diversity and a rich resource of bioactive natural products.

Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Sea Anemones/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Phylogeny , Polygalacturonase/metabolism , Aspergillus/enzymology , Aspergillus/genetics , Bacteria/drug effects , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer , Biodiversity , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/genetics , Amylases/metabolism , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 31(1): e1345, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-885761


ABSTRACT Background: The value of drain amylase on the first postoperative day after pancreatic resections has been described as an efficient predictor of pancreatic fistula. In spite of this, the cut-off point below which the drains can be removed early remains controversial. Aim: Validate the use of the amylase on the 1st postoperative day in the correlation with pancreatic fistula and define the value at which early drain removal is safe. Method: Were included patients undergoing Whipple surgery in the period of 2007 to 2016. Group 1 enrolled the ones who did not develop fistula and those who developed biochemical fistula for less than seven days postoperatively and group 2 included patients who developed persistent biochemical fistula between seven and 21 days and those with grade B and C fistula. Results: Sixty-one patients were included, 41 comprised group 1 and 20 group 2. The incidence of abdominal collections, need for reoperation and time of hospitalization were for group 1 and 2, respectively: 17.1%, 17.1% and 9.5 days, and 65%, 40% and 21.1 days. The median of the amylase from the drain at 1st postoperative day was in group 1 and 2, respectively: 175 U/l and 3172.5 U/l (p=0.001). Using a cut-off of 180 to predict the group to which the patient would belong there was obtained sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 100%, 48.8%, 50% and 100% respectively. Conclusion: It was validated the cut-off value of 180 U/l as appropriate to early drain removal.

RESUMO Racional: O valor da amilase do dreno no primeiro dia pós-operatório após ressecções pancreáticas é descrito como eficiente preditor de fístula pancreática. Entretanto, o valor abaixo do qual os drenos podem ser removidos precocemente permanece controverso. Objetivo: Validar o uso da amilase do primeiro dia pós-operatório na correlação com a fístula pancreática e definir o valor em que seja segura a retirada precoce do dreno. Método: Foram incluídos pacientes submetidos à operação de Whipple no período de 2007 a 2016. No grupo 1 entraram os que não desenvolveram fístula e os que desenvolveram fístula bioquímica por menos de sete dias de pós-operatório e no grupo 2 os que desenvolveram fístula bioquímica persistente entre 7 e 21 dias e aqueles com fístula grau B e C. Resultados: Sessenta e um pacientes foram incluídos, sendo 41 do grupo 1 e 20 do grupo 2. A incidência de coleções abdominais, necessidade de reoperação e tempo de internação foram para o grupo 1 e 2, respectivamente 17,1%, 17,1% e 9,5 dias, e 65%, 40% e 21,1 dias. A mediana da amilase no grupo 1 e 2, respectivamente foi de 175 U/l e 3172,5 U/l (p=0,001). Utilizando o ponto de corte de 180 para predizer o grupo a que o paciente pertenceria, obteve-se sensibilidade, especificidade, valor preditivo positivo e valor preditivo negativo de: 100%, 48,8%, 50% e 100% respectivamente. Conclusão: Esta amostra pôde validar o ponto de corte de 180 U/l como adequado para a retirada precoce do dreno.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Postoperative Care/methods , Drainage , Pancreatic Fistula/diagnosis , Pancreaticoduodenectomy , Amylases/analysis , Amylases/metabolism , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(3): 903-910, July-Sept. 2014. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-727019


A soil screened Bacillus flexus XJU-1 was induced to simultaneously produce alkaline amylase, alkaline lipase and alkaline protease at their optimum levels on a common medium under submerged fermentation. The basal cultivation medium consisted of 0.5% casein, 0.5% starch and 0.5% cottonseedoil as an inducer forprotease, amylase, and lipase, respectively. The casein also served as nitrogen source for all 3 enzymes. The starch was also found to act as carbon source additive for both lipase and protease. Maximum enzyme production occurred on fermentation medium with 1.5% casein, 1.5% soluble starch, 2% cottonseed oil, 2% inoculum size, initial pH of 11.0, incubation temperature of 37 °C and 1% soybean meal as a nitrogen source supplement. The analysis of time course study showed that 24 h was optimum incubation time for amylase whereas 48 h was the best time for both lipase and protease. After optimization, a 3.36-, 18.64-, and 27.33-fold increase in protease, amylase and lipase, respectively was recorded. The lipase was produced in higher amounts (37.72 U/mL) than amylase and protease about 1.27 and 5.85 times, respectively. As the 3 enzymes are used in detergent formulations, the bacterium can be commercially exploited to secrete the alkaline enzymes for use in detergent industry. This is the first report for concomitant production of 3 alkaline enzymes by a bacterium.

Amylases/metabolism , Bacillus/enzymology , Bacillus/metabolism , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Detergents/metabolism , Endopeptidases/metabolism , Enzyme Inhibitors/metabolism , Lipase/metabolism , Bacillus/growth & development , Bacillus/isolation & purification , Carbon/metabolism , Culture Media/chemistry , Fermentation , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Nitrogen/metabolism , Soil Microbiology , Temperature , Time Factors
Acta gastroenterol. latinoam ; 43(4): 294-300, 2013 Dec.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1157399


The present tests were undertaken in order to analyze in male Wistar rats the changes in the exocrine and endocrine pancreas and on the interactions that normally evolve in the insulo-pancreon-axis. To evaluate this by a single i.p. Boots secretin injection, glycemia (G), amylasemia (A) and lipasemia (L) were determined. In bile-pancreatic secretion, we analyzed, pre and post-secretin, the following parameters: volume (V), bicarbonate output (BO), amylase output (AO) and lipase output (LO). Three groups of tests were done: a) control (C); b) streptozotocin-treated non-diabetic-rats (St-ND) and c) streptozotocin-treated diabetic animals (St-D) which showed morning glycemia values higher than 16.0 mmol/l. Four months later, under Tiopental i.p anesthesia, a bile-pancreatic fistula was done. Following a 30 min basal period, Boots secretin (20 CU/kg) was i.p injected. Bile-pancreatic secretion put in evidence a significant fall of BO in both St-ND and St-D series. In controls, AO revealed a post-secretin increase of 160

, while in the St-D rats showed a depression of 41

. The behavior of L was different, being augmented (+27

) in the C, while in the St-D rats the response was significantly higher (+95

). In bile-pancreatic-secretion, the fall of BO and AO in the St-ND and St-D series in respect to the C, are probably consequence of the diminishing potentiating effects exerted normally by insulin on the secretin-induced water and bicarbonate secretion of the pancreon units. In contrast, the rising of LO in the St-D, an expression of an enhancing pancreocyte’s synthesis and secretion of lipase. The blood changes of A (depression) and of L (increase) in respect to the C values, although without reaching significant level, mirror those observed in bile-pancreatic secretion.

Bile/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Pancreas/metabolism , Amylases/metabolism , Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/enzymology , Streptozocin , Lipase/metabolism , Male , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Secretin/metabolism
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-60798


BACKGROUND/AIMS: Metal stent insertion through percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) track is an important palliative treatment modality for malignant biliary obstruction. Acute pancreatitis is one of serious complications of biliary metal stenting. The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk of pancreatitis for patients who underwent metal stent insertion via PTBD track. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 90 consecutive patients who received metal stent insertion via PTBD track from Jan. 2002 to Dec. 2007 was carried out. Patients were devided into the transpapillary and non-transpapillary group, and the risks of pancreatitis were compared. The effects of preliminary endoscopic sphincterectomy (EST) was also investigated in transpapillary group. RESULTS: The rate of pancreatitis was higher in transpapillary group compared to nontranspapillary group (odd ratio 1.87, 95% CI 0.516-6.761), but it showed no stastically significance (p=0.502). In transpapillary group, patients who received preliminary EST showed lower rate of pancreatitis (odd ratio 0.91, 95% CI 0.656-1.273), but it showed no stastically significance (p=0.614). CONCLUSIONS: Metallic stent insertion through the intact sphincter of Oddi might have a risk of developing pancreatitis. Further study is needed to elucidate the mechanism of pancreatitis and the way of prevention.

Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Amylases/metabolism , Cholestasis/diagnosis , Drainage , Female , Humans , Jaundice, Obstructive/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Pancreatitis/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Sphincterotomy, Endoscopic , Stents/adverse effects
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 20(4): 362-369, out.-dez. 2008. tab, ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-506836


OBJETIVOS: A elevação da lipase e amilase séricas são frequentemente encontradas em doentes internados em unidade de terapia intensiva sem que exista doença pancreática prévia, constituindo um desafio diagnóstico e terapêutico. Baseados nesta evidência os autores propuseram-se a determinar a incidência de hiperlipasemia assintomática nos doentes críticos, fatores desencadeantes e evolução clínica destes doentes. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo dos doentes internados na unidade de terapia intensiva de 1 de janeiro a 31 de dezembro de 2006, excluídas internações por pancreatite aguda, história de patologia pancreática, insuficiência renal ou falta de dados. Pacientes foram distribuídos em dois grupos (com e sem hiperlipasemia) e feita comparação considerando diversas variáveis clínicas, laboratoriais, imagiológicas. Análise estatística: SPSS 13; testes t de Student e qui² (IC 95 por cento), com significância estatística se p<0.05. RESULTADOS: Incluidos 102 doentes, a hiperlipasemia esteve presente em 39.2 por cento deles. Lipase média de 797U/L. Os doentes com hiperlipasemia tiveram mais dias de internação (p<0.001), nutrição parenteral (p<0.001), ventilação mecânica (p=0.04), temperatura >38 ºC (p<0.001), hiperamilasemia (p<0.05), hiperbilirrubinemia (p=0.003) e elevação das transaminases (p=0.001), sem diferença significativa em diagnósticos, sexo, idade, APACHE II, SOFA, SAPS, mortalidade, hipotensão, fosfatase alcalina, hemoglobina, lactato, tolerância à nutrição enteral e utilização de propofol. O estudo radiológico revelou alterações morfológicas do pâncreas em dois doentes com hiperlipasemia. CONCLUSÕES: A elevação da lipase sérica foi frequente, relacionou-se com internação prolongada, mas não se acompanhou de aumento dos índices de gravidade clínica ou mortalidade. Foi mais frequente nos doentes submetidos a nutrição parenteral. Uma minoria preencheu os critérios de pancreatite aguda.

OBJECTIVES: Elevated lipase and amylase are commonly found in patients in intensive care unit without a previously recognized pancreatic illness, constituting a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The authors therefore proposed to determine the frequency of asymptomatic high serum lipase in critically ill patients, involved risk factors and outcome. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients admitted in an intensive care unit from January 1 to December 31, 2006, excluding admissions for acute pancreatitis, history of pancreatic disease, renal insufficiency or lacking of data. Patients were divided in two groups (with and without high serum lipase) that were compared for clinical, laboratory and radiological variables. Statistical analysis: SPSS 13; Student's t test and Chi-square test (CI 95 percent) with statistical significance if p< 0.05). RESULTS: 102 patients were included with high serum lipase was present in 39.2 percent of patients, mean lipase of 797U/L. Patients with high serum lipase had longer hospital stay (p< 0.001), parenteral nutrition (p< 0.001), ventilator support (p=0.04), fever (p< 0.001), hyperamylasemia (p<0.05), hyperbilirrubinemia (p=0.003) and rise of transaminases (p=0.001), with no significant differences in diagnosis, gender, age, APACHE II, SOFA, SAPS, mortality, hypotension, alkaline phosphatase, hemoglobin, lactate, tolerance to enteral nutrition and use of propofol. Imaging study revealed pancreatic alterations in two patients with high serum lipase. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated lipase was commonly found in critical patients, it related with longer length of stay but was not accompanied by increased clinical severity or mortality. It was more frequent with parenteral nutrition. A minority of patients met the criteria of acute pancreatitis.

Humans , Male , Female , Amylases/metabolism , Intensive Care Units , Lipase/metabolism , Pancreatitis
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 311-321, 2008.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-30669


PURPOSE: The sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA), encoded by ATP2A2, is an essential component for G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-dependent Ca(2+) signaling. However, whether the changes in Ca(2+) signaling and Ca(2+) signaling proteins in parotid acinar cells are affected by a partial loss of SERCA2 are not known. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In SERCA2(+/-) mouse parotid gland acinar cells, Ca(2+) signaling, expression levels of Ca(2+) signaling proteins, and amylase secretion were investigated. RESULTS: SERCA2(+/-) mice showed decreased SERCA2 expression and an upregulation of the plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase. A partial loss of SERCA2 changed the expression level of 1, 4, 5-tris-inositolphosphate receptors (IP(3)Rs), but the localization and activities of IP3Rs were not altered. In SERCA2(+/-) mice, muscarinic stimulation resulted in greater amylase release, and the expression of synaptotagmin was increased compared to wild type mice. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that a partial loss of SERCA2 affects the expression and activity of Ca(2+) signaling proteins in the parotid gland acini, however, overall Ca(2+) signaling is unchanged.

Amylases/metabolism , Animals , Blotting, Western , Calcium/metabolism , Calcium Signaling/drug effects , Carbachol/pharmacology , Immunohistochemistry , Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptors/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Parotid Gland/metabolism , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases/genetics , Signal Transduction/drug effects
J Environ Biol ; 2007 Jul; 28(3): 577-82
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113549


Under the reutilization and recycling strategy of industrial effluents, treated distillery and sugar factory mixed effluent was used in petridish culture experiments to investigate its effect on seed germination and seedling growth in wheat, garden pea, black gram and mustard. The seed germination and seedling growth were significantly reduced with increase in concentration of the effluent. The fresh matter was found significantly increased in barley (1.16 g per seedling in 25% dilution level of effluents in comparison to 0.93 in control), while other higher dilution levels reduce it. Wheat, garden pea, black gram, mustard invariably showed inhibition in fresh weight. Dry weight was found consistently reduced or unchanged in different treatments. Total chlorophyll contents in barley were significantly increased in different treatments (2.351 and 2.721 mg/g fresh weight of tissue at 25, 50% dilution levels in comparison to 1.781 of control) while in other crop it was reduced alloverthe treatments. Amylase activity in wheat, garden pea, black gram and mustard was reduced in all the treatments. Only in barley its level was enhanced from 0.76 to 0.85, 0.96, 0.81 in 25, 50, 75% dilution levels of the effluent mixture respectively Based on the data of different crops barley was found to be highly tolerant as the 25 and 50% dilution levels of combined effluents. It showed no change in germination %, while seedling growth was increased in lower dilution levels of combined effluent as compared to control Barley>garden pea>wheat>black gram>mustard gradually showed increased level of sensitivity respectively Most detrimental effects were seen in mustard. This toxicity might be due to excess of nutrients, beyond the limits of tolerance. Therefore, the higher concentration of mixed effluent was not advisable for irrigation purpose, however it could be used for irrigation purpose after proper treatment and dilution (one part treated effluent and five parts of available irrigation water), as this dilution level was found growth and yield promotory

Alcoholic Beverages , Amylases/metabolism , Magnoliopsida/growth & development , Chlorophyll/metabolism , Conservation of Natural Resources , Crops, Agricultural/growth & development , Dietary Sucrose , Germination , Industrial Waste/adverse effects , Seedlings/growth & development , Sweetening Agents , Waste Disposal, Fluid
J Environ Biol ; 2007 Apr; 28(2 Suppl): 409-14
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113228


The experiment was performed to study the seed germination and seedling growth in wheat under the influence of different concentrations of copper. The germination %, plumule and radicle length, and number of lateral roots decreased with increase in copper concentration (5, 25, 50 and 100 mgl(-1)). Total chlorophyll contents declined on 14th day from 1.605 of control to 1.581, 1.242, 1.275 and 1.107 mg g(-1) fresh weight in respective treatments. Similarly, on 21st day the decline in total chlorophyll contents was 1.288, 1.123, 1.077 and 0.985 mg g(-1) fresh weight in respective treatments against 1.724 of control. Likewise the pheophytin contents also declined showing the same pattern. However, carotenoid contents increased in different treatments, ranging between 0.366 to 0.464 mg g(-1) fresh weight in comparison to control (0.328) on 14th day, but showed adverse effects on 21st day as the carotenoid contents decreased in different copper treatments. The activity of amylase was found to be gradually reduced 14th day from 29.73 of control to 27.80, 27.33, 21.86 and 20.00 mg g(-1) and at 21st day from 14.40 of control to 11.46, 11.01, 9.86 and 5.60 mg g(-1) fresh weight with increase in concentrations of copper The catalase activity increased 14th day from 97.33 of control to 134.66, 161.33, 216.00 and 232.00 and on 21st day from 140.00 of control to 245.33, 274.66, 278.66 and 300.66 ml H2O2 hydrolyzed/g fresh weight in different increased concentrations of copper Similarly the peroxidase activity was also increased with increase in copper concentration. Likewise fresh weight and moisture contents decreased with increase in copper concentration. The dry weight was increased with increase in concentration of copper treatment. Total protein contents were initially decreased on 14th day from 80.69 of control to 66.75, 60.41, 56.41 and 48.48 microg/mg and on 21st day 81.37 of control to 67.06, 62.31, 54.92 and 46.47 microg/mg fresh weight in different copper concentrations respectively Sugar contents were significantly decreased in all the doses of copper on both 14th and 21st days i.e. (5.53 of control to 4.76, 3.69, 3.68 and 2.86 microg/mg in different copper treatments on 14th day and 4.81 of control to 4.49, 3.40, 2.79 and 2.15 microg/mg on 21st day respectively.

Amylases/metabolism , Carbohydrate Metabolism/drug effects , Catalase/metabolism , Chlorophyll/metabolism , Copper/toxicity , Germination/drug effects , Peroxidase/metabolism , Proteins/metabolism , Seedlings/drug effects , Seeds/drug effects , Soil Pollutants/toxicity , Triticum/drug effects
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-88688


An elderly lady with amylase-rich ascites is presented, whose isoenzyme estimation revealed salivary type amylase. Tumour hyperamylasemia is an important group among the nonpancreatic causes of elevated amylase.

Amylases/metabolism , Ascites/diagnosis , Ascitic Fluid/enzymology , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Hyperamylasemia/diagnosis , Isoenzymes/metabolism , Middle Aged , Ovarian Neoplasms/diagnosis , Saliva/enzymology
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 70-77, 2006.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-116917


Synaptotagmin is a Ca2+ sensing protein, which triggers a fusion of synaptic vesicles in neuronal transmission. Little is known regarding the expression of Ca2+ - dependent synaptotagmin isoforms and their contribution to the release of secretory vesicles in mouse and rat parotid acinar cells. We investigated a type of Ca2+ - dependent synaptotagmin and Ca2+ signaling in both rat and mouse parotid acinar cells using RT-PCR, microfluorometry, and amylase assay. Mouse parotid acinar cells exhibited much more sensitive amylase release in response to muscarinic stimulation than did rat parotid acinar cells. However, transient [Ca2+]i increases and Ca2+ influx in response to muscarinic stimulation in both cells were identical, suggesting that the expression or activity of the Ca2+ sensing proteins is different. Seven Ca2+ - dependent synaptotagmins, from 1 to 7, were expressed in the mouse parotid acinar cells. However, in the rat parotid acinar cells, only synaptotagmins 1, 3, 4 and 7 were expressed. These results indicate that the expression of Ca2+ - dependent synaptotagmins may contribute to the release of secretory vesicles in parotid acinar cells.

Synaptotagmins/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Rats , Protein Isoforms/metabolism , Parotid Gland/cytology , Muscarinic Agonists/pharmacology , Mice , Exocytosis/drug effects , Carbachol/pharmacology , Calcium/metabolism , Animals , Amylases/metabolism
Neotrop. entomol ; 34(3): 443-450, May-June 2005. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-421422


Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky é uma das principais pragas do milho armazenado, sendo controlado, principalmente, com inseticidas. Porém, devido às conseqüências indesejáveis desses químicos sobre o meio ambiente e a saúde humana, outras táticas de controle têm sido investigadas, especialmente o desenvolvimento de plantas resistentes. A presença de inibidores de amilase nos grãos de milho pode interferir na digestão do inseto. Esta pesquisa foi desenvolvida com o objetivo de avaliar a resistência de híbridos de milho ao ataque de S. zeamais, correlacionada com a presença de inibidores de amilase e com a composição nutricional dos grãos. Adultos do gorgulho-do-milho foram expostos a amostras de grãos de diferentes híbridos a 27 ± 1°C e 75 ± 5 por cento de UR. Avaliou-se o ciclo biológico, peso dos adultos, índice de suscetibilidade e consumo dos grãos. Os resultados foram correlacionados com a composição dos grãos (teores de umidade, cinzas, lipídios, proteínas e carboidratos) e com a atividade de inibidores de amilase. A atividade inibidora de amilase foi determinada incubando-se o inibidor com 0,2 unidades de amilase durante 30 min. a 25°C, medindo-se posteriormente a atividade amilásica residual pelo método iodométrico. Dos parâmetros nutricionais avaliados, somente o conteúdo de lipídios correlacionou-se significativamente com o índice de suscetibilidade (r = 0,46). Os inibidores de amilase obtidos pela extração com etanol ou tampão correlacionaram-se negativa e significativamente com o índice de suscetibilidade (r = -0,58), sugerindo que esses inibidores contribuem para a resistência de híbridos de milho ao ataque de S. zeamais.

Coleoptera/parasitology , Amylases/metabolism , Pest Control, Biological/methods
J Environ Biol ; 2005 Apr; 26(2): 197-204
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113430


Different dilution levels of tannery treated effluent and their corresponding concentration of chromium (Cr6+) were studied in a petridish culture experiment on seed germination and seedling growth in radish (Raphanus sativus L). The different concentrations of Cr6+ (2, 5 and 10 ppm) and treated tannery effluent (10, 25 and 50%) showed reduction in seedling growth and related enzymatic activities with increase in concentration of Cr6+ in treatments and effluent both. The low concentration of chromium (2 ppm) and effluent dilution (10%) showed significant growth reduction separately. At this concentration of chromium and effluent dilution chlorophyll content, amylase, catalase and protein contents remained unchanged while with increase in Cr6+ concentration (>2ppm) and effluent dilution (> 10%) in treatments showed growth inhibitory effects.

Amylases/metabolism , Biomass , Catalase/metabolism , Chlorophyll/metabolism , Chromium/toxicity , Germination/drug effects , Industrial Waste , Plant Roots/drug effects , Raphanus/drug effects , Seeds/drug effects , Tanning , Waste Disposal, Fluid , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity , alpha-Amylases/metabolism , beta-Amylase/metabolism
J Environ Biol ; 2004 Oct; 25(4): 489-95
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113535


The fungi Botryodiplodia theobromae and Rhizopus oryzae produce extracellular amylase when grown on a liquid medium containing 2% (WN) soluble starch or cassava starch residue(CSR) (as starch equivalent), a waste generated after extraction of starch from cassava, as the sole carbon source. Using CSR as the sole carbon source, the highest amylase activity of 3.25 and 3.8 units (mg, glucose released x ml(-1) x h(-1)) were obtained in shake flask cultures during the late stationary phase of growth of B. theobromae and R. oryzae, respectively. These values were slightly lower than the values obtained using soluble starch as the carbon source. Maximum enzyme synthesis in CSR incorporated medium occurred at the growth temperature of 30 degrees C and pH 6.0. Presence of inorganic NH4+ salts like ammonium acetate and ammonium nitrate in culture medium yielded more amylase than the other nitrogen sources. Amylase(s) production in the controlled environment of a Table-Top glass Jar Fermenter (2-L capacity) was 4.8 and 5.1 units for B. theobromae and R. oryzae, respectively using CSR as the carbon substrate. It is concluded that CSR, a cheap agricultural waste obtained after starch extraction from cassava could replace soluble starch as carbon substrate for commercial production of fungal amylase(s).

Amylases/metabolism , Ascomycota/metabolism , Bioreactors , Carbon/metabolism , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Manihot , Nitrogen/metabolism , Rhizopus/metabolism , Starch , Temperature
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2004 May; 42(5): 491-4
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-61432


Final instar larvae of S. mauritia treated topically on day 0, 1, 2 and day 3 with a daily dose of 20 microg juvenile hormone analogue (JHA) showed an increase in most of the nutritional parameters such as approximate digestibility, efficiency of conversion of ingested food, consumption index and growth rate. Also, the activities of digestive enzymes amylase, invertase, trehalase and protease increased significantly in JHA treated larvae. The supernumerary larvae formed after JHA treatments showed an increase in the activities of digestive enzymes. Neck-ligated larvae treated with 10 microg JHA exhibited a significant increase in the activities of trehalase and protease. The results demonstrate that treatments of JHA increase the activities of digestive enzymes in the last instar larvae of S. mauritia.

Amylases/metabolism , Animals , Endopeptidases/metabolism , Feeding Behavior/drug effects , Juvenile Hormones/chemistry , Larva/drug effects , Spodoptera , Time Factors , Trehalase/metabolism , beta-Fructofuranosidase/metabolism
Braz. oral res ; 18(1): 69-74, jan.-mar. 2004. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-362054


Foram avaliados alguns aspectos clínicos e algumas propriedades bioquímicas salivares de 21 pacientes, antes e após o tratamento radioterápico para câncer de cabeça e pescoço (grupo experimental) e de 21 pacientes sem câncer (grupo controle). O fluxo salivar foi avaliado pelo tempo necessário (segundos) para produção estimulada de 2 ml de saliva e a capacidade tamponante determinada frente à utilização de um método colorimétrico simples. A concentração de proteína total salivar foi determinada pelo método de Bradford4. A atividade da amilase foi mensurada através dos açúcares redutores liberados e quantificados pelo método do ácido dinitrossalicílico utilizando a glicose como substrato. O perfil eletroforético foi avaliado em gel de poliacrilamida (SDS-PAGE 12%) para amostras salivares contendo 5 mg de proteína. Foi observada, no grupo experimental, redução estatisticamente significativa (p < 0,01) para o fluxo salivar (162,47 s ± 28,30 antes e 568,71 s ± 79,75 após) e para a capacidade tamponante (pH 5,45 ± 0,14 antes e 4,40 ± 0,15 após). Não foi observada alteração estatisticamente significativa na concentração de proteína. A atividade específica da a-amilase foi significativamente diminuída (p < 0,01) (856,6 ng/mg ± 88,0 antes e 567,0 ng/mg ± 120,6 após). No perfil eletroforético, foram observadas diferenças nas bandas protéicas, principalmente na faixa de peso molecular de 72.000 a 55.000 Da. Clinicamente, os pacientes com xerostomia induzida pela radioterapia apresentaram aumento de lesões na mucosa.

Humans , Amylases/metabolism , Head and Neck Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Saliva/chemistry , Salivary Proteins and Peptides/analysis , Xerostomia/metabolism , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Saliva , Salivary Glands/chemistry , Salivary Glands/radiation effects , Salivation/physiology
J Environ Biol ; 2003 Oct; 24(4): 453-60
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113330


The present investigation reports the results of the effect of cadmium and mercury individually on seed germination, seedling growth, number of lateral roots, fresh and dry weights and seedling metabolism in Solanum melongena. Effect of different concentrations of these two heavy metals (Cadmium--50, 100, 300, 500, 700, 1000, 3000, 5000, 7000 and 9000 ppm and Mercury--5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 ppm) and durations for 6, 12 and 24 h were employed for all seedling parameters of brinjal. Both Cd and Hg showed drastic effects at high concentrations and longer duration with regard to seedling growth and metabolism.

Amylases/metabolism , Biomass , Cadmium/toxicity , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Endopeptidases/metabolism , Germination/drug effects , Mercury/toxicity , Seedlings/drug effects , Solanum melongena/drug effects , Time Factors
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-96871


BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pancreatic acini of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats release amylase less than normal acini on cholecystokinin (CCK) stimulation. Pancreatic enzyme secretion has been closely related to the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) of the acinar cell. In the present study, sequential changes of the intracellular calcium signal which probably underlie the altered enzyme secretion in response to CCK-8 were investigated using pancreatic acini from diabetic rats. METHODS: Diabetic rats were prepared by single intravenous injection of STZ (70 mg/kg). Stimulating experiments with CCK-8 were performed 7 days later. Pancreatic acini were isolated by collagenase digestion. Amylase release and [Ca2+]i were measured by colorimethod and calcium imaging, respectively. The geometry of intracellular calcium signal was analyzed. RESULTS: Normal acini exhibited concentration-dependent [Ca2+]i increase and regular oscillatory calcium signal on CCK-8 stimulation. Amylase release was also concentration-dependent. However, diabetic acini showed significantly less [Ca2+]i increase, prolonged time to peak [Ca2+]i, decreased calcium spikes number, and decreased amylase release compared with normal acini. The decreased [Ca2+]i in diabetic acini was restored significantly by insulin treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Relatively decreased amylase release in diabetic pancreatic acini in response to CCK, appears to be associated with altered calcium signal due to insulin deficiency.

Amylases/metabolism , Animals , Calcium Signaling/drug effects , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Pancreas/cytology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sincalide/pharmacology
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2002 Jan; 40(1): 83-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-56087


Six sets of feeding experiments were carried out using formulated diets containing prawn head waste (PW), chicken intestine waste (CW), banana flower (BF), cauliflower waste (CAU) Dolicos lab lab (DLL) and groundnut leaf (GNL) in four levels of inclusion (15, 30, 45 and 60%) to assess the pattern of distribution and activities of digestive enzymes like cellulase, amylase, maltase, invertase, protease and lipase in the digestive tracts of Labeo rohita fingerlings. A control group of fish was fed with diets containing antibiotics to destroy the digestive tract microflora which may induce digestive functions. In general, the activity of digestive enzymes depended on the amount and type of the ingredients present in the diets ingested by the fish. Test animals showed both endogenous and bacterial cellulase activities which suggests the necessity for including cellulose (plant protein source) as dietary ingredient. Occurrence of higher amount of cellulase in the foregut and amylase in the fore and midgut influenced by DNL and GNL diets revealed the possibility of including less than 40% of the respective ingredients in the diet of rohu. Maltase and invertase were highly influenced by GNL, DLL and BF diets than PW and CW diets. More than 40% inclusion of PW and CW was found to increase protease and lipase secretion in the midgut and hindgut regions. The higher secretion of lipase in the midgut suggested the physiological versatility for lipid digestion in rohu fingerlings.

Amylases/metabolism , Animals , Cellulase/metabolism , Cyprinidae/growth & development , Dietary Proteins/administration & dosage , Digestive System/enzymology , Endopeptidases/metabolism , Food, Formulated , Glycoside Hydrolases/metabolism , Lipase/metabolism , Proteins/metabolism , alpha-Glucosidases/metabolism , beta-Fructofuranosidase