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1.
Vet. zootec ; 31: 1-9, 2024. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1552927

ABSTRACT

A amiloidose renal familiar é uma doença incomum em cães, que afeta os rins e está associada ao acúmulo anormal de proteínas amiloides, com capacidade de promover danos orgânicos progressivos com comprometimento de funcionalidade. Caracterizada pela presença de conteúdo proteináceo glomerular, a amiloidose frequentemente está associada a quadros de falência renal, com presença de sinais clínicos variados, sendo uma condição grave e complexa. O presente artigo tem como objetivo descrever os achados clínico-laboratoriais, de imagem e histopatológicos de amiloidose familiar em dois cães da raça Shar-pei. Os animais apresentavam parentesco direto e evidenciavam sinais de cansaço, prostração e emagrecimento progressivo. As evidências clínico-laboratoriais e ultrassonográficas sugeriram a presença de glomerulonefropatia, sendo essa confirmada por exame histopatológico. Os dois cães, diante da gravidade do quadro, foram a óbito. A análise histopatológica evidenciou deposição de material proteináceo fibrilar na região glomerular e tubular, bem como infiltrado linfoplasmocítico, característicos de amiloidose renal. É essencial lembrar que a amiloidose renal familiar em cães é uma doença complexa e que as origens devem ser investigadas. O tratamento é desafiador, diante da inexistência de um manejo terapêutico definido para a doença, sendo este muitas vezes ineficaz. A empatia e o cuidado no manejo dessa condição podem ajudar a melhorar a qualidade de vida do paciente e fornecer conforto ao proprietário durante esse processo desafiador.


Family renal amyloidosis is an uncommon disease in dogs, which affects the kidneys and is associated with abnormal accumulation of amyloid proteins, capable of promoting progressive organic damage with impairment of functionality. Characterized by the presence of glomerular proteinaceous content, amyloidosis is often associated with renal failure, with the presence of varied clinical signs, being a serious and complex condition. This article aims to describe the clinical, laboratory, imaging and histopathological findings of familial amyloidosis in two Shar-pei dogs. The animals were directly related and evidenced signs of tiredness, prostration and progressive weight loss. Clinical, laboratory and ultrasonographic evidence suggested the presence of glomerulonephropathy, which was confirmed by histopathological examination. The two dogs, given the severity of the condition, died. Histopathological analysis showed deposition of fibrillar proteinaceous material in the glomerular and tubular region, as well as lymphoplasmocytic infiltrate, characteristic of renal amyloidosis. It is essential to remember that family renal amyloidosis in dogs is a complex disease and that the origins must be investigated. The treatment is challenging, given the lack of a defined therapeutic management for the disease, which is often ineffective. Empathy and care in managing this condition can help improve the patient's quality of life and provide comfort to the owner during this challenging process.


La amiloidosis renal familiar es una enfermedad poco común en perros, que afecta a los riñones y se asocia con la acumulación anormal de proteínas amiloides, con capacidad de promover daño orgánico progresivo con compromiso de la funcionalidad. Caracterizada por la presencia de contenido proteico glomerular, la amiloidosis suele asociarse a insuficiencia renal, con la presencia de signos clínicos variados, siendo una afección grave y compleja. El presente artículo tiene como objetivo describir los hallazgos clínico-laboratorios, imagenológicos e histopatológicos de la amiloidosis familiar en dos perros Sharpei. Los animales estaban directamente emparentados y presentaban signos de cansancio, postración y pérdida progresiva de peso. Los datos clínico-laboratorios y ecográficos sugirieron la presencia de glomerulonefropatía, la cual fue confirmada mediante examen histopatológico. Los dos perros, dada la gravedad del cuadro, fallecieron. El análisis histopatológico mostró depósito de material proteico fibrilar en la región glomerular y tubular, así como infiltrado linfoplasmocitario, característico de la amiloidosis renal. Es fundamental recordar que la amiloidosis renal familiar en perros es una enfermedad compleja y que es necesario investigar sus orígenes. El tratamiento es un desafío, dada la falta de un manejo terapéutico definido para la enfermedad, que muchas veces resulta ineficaz. La empatía y el cuidado en el manejo de esta afección pueden ayudar a mejorar la calidad de vida del paciente y brindar comodidad al propietario durante este desafiante proceso.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Amyloidogenic Proteins/analysis , Amyloidosis/veterinary , Kidney Diseases/veterinary , Kidney Glomerulus/pathology
2.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (En línea) ; 43(4): 209-213, dic. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1537564

ABSTRACT

La amiloidosis siempre ha representado un desafío diagnóstico. En el año 2020, el Grupo de Estudio de Amiloidosis (GEA), confeccionó la Guía de Práctica Clínica para el Diagnóstico de Amiloidosis. Nuevas líneas de investigación se han desarrollado posteriormente. Esta revisión narrativa tiene como intención explorar el estado del arte en el diagnóstico de la amiloidosis. En pacientes con amiloidosis se recomienda la tipificación de la proteína mediante espectrometría de masa, técnica de difícil ejecución por requerir de microdisectores láser para la preparación de la muestra. Algunas publicaciones recientes proponen otros métodos para obtener la muestra de amiloide que se va a analizar, permitiendo prescindir de la microdisección. Por otra parte, en pacientes con Amiloidosis ATTR confirmada, la recomendación de secuenciar el gen amiloidogénico se encontraba destinada a los casos sospechosos de ATTR hereditaria (ATTRv,), pero actualmente esta se ha extendido a todos los pacientes sin importar la edad. En lo que respecta a los estudios complementarios orientados al diagnóstico de compromiso cardíaco, se ha propuesto el uso de la inteligencia artificial para su interpretación, permitiendo la detección temprana de la enfermedad y el correcto diagnóstico diferencial. Para el diagnóstico de neuropatía, las últimas publicaciones proponen el uso de la cadena ligera de neurofilamento sérica, que también podría resultar un indicador útil para seguimiento. Finalmente, con referencia a la amiloidosis AL, la comunidad científica se encuentra interesada en definir qué características determinan el carácter amiloidogénico de las cadenas livianas. La N-glicosilación de dichas proteínas impresiona ser uno de los determinantes en cuestión. (AU)


Amyloidosis has always represented a diagnostic challenge. In 2020, the Amyloidosis Study Group (ASG) developed the "Clinical Practice Guideline for the Diagnosis of Amyloidosis". New lines of research have subsequently emerged. This narrative review aims to explore the state of the art in the diagnosis of amyloidosis diagnosis. In patients with amyloidosis, protein typing by mass spectrometry is recommended, a technique hard to perform because it requires laser microdissection for sample preparation. Recent publications propose other methods to obtain the amyloid sample to be analyzed, making it possible to dispense with microdissection. On the other hand, in patients with confirmed TTR amyloidosis (aTTR), the recommendation to sequence the amyloidogenic gene was intended for suspected cases of hereditary aTTR but has now been extended to all patients regardless of age. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Amyloid Neuropathies, Familial/diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Amyloidosis/diagnosis , Mass Spectrometry , Biopsy , Glycosylation , Artificial Intelligence , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Diagnosis, Differential , Electrocardiography , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
3.
Diagn. tratamento ; 28(3): 108-11, jul-set de 2023. Ilus 3, tab 1
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1517916

ABSTRACT

Contexto: Amiloidose é um grupo de doenças caracterizadas pelo depósito de proteínas fibrilares, denominadas substância amiloide. Podem ser divididas em formas localizadas ou sistêmicas, sendo que dentre as localizadas, a forma nodular é a mais rara. Descrição do caso: Relatamos o caso de amiloidose primária localizada cutânea nodular que se apresentou com nódulos violáceos no dorso, e placas acastanhadas na região cervical há 8 anos sem evidências de envolvimento sistêmico. Discussão: Como cerca de 1% a 7% dos casos de amiloidose nodular localizada cutânea podem evoluir com envolvimento sistêmico, o seguimento dos pacientes faz-se necessário. O tratamento não é obrigatório, a retirada das lesões pode ser feita se o paciente o desejar, contudo as recidivas são frequentes. Conclusões: Mesmo possuindo baixa prevalência, a amiloidose nodular deve ser reconhecida pelo risco de progredir para acometimento sistêmico e associação com discrasias plasmocitárias, como mieloma múltiplo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Plasma Cells , Plasmacytoma , Congo Red , Immunoglobulin Light-chain Amyloidosis , Amyloidosis
4.
Journal of Southern Medical University ; (12): 660-666, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986976

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To quantitatively assess cardiac functions in patients with cardiac amyloidosis (CA) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) using cardiac magnetic resonance-feature tracking (CMR-FT) technique and evaluate the prognostic value of CMR-FT in patients with CA.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively collected the data from 31 CA patients with systemic amyloidosis confirmed by Congo red staining and serum immunohistochemistry after extracardiac tissue biopsy undergoing CMR at our hospital from March, 2013 to June, 2021.Thirty-one age and gender matched patients with asymmetric left ventricular wall hypertrophy and 31 healthy individuals without organic or functional heart disease served as the controls.Radial, circumferential and longitudinal strains and strain rates of the left ventricle at the global level and in each myocardial segment (basal, middle and apical) were obtained with CMR-FT technique and compared among the 3 groups.The predictive value of myocardial strains and strain rates for all-cause mortality in CA patients was analyzed using a stepwise COX regression model.@*RESULTS@#The left ventricular volume, myocardial mass, ejection fraction and cardiac output differed significantly among the groups (P < 0.05).Except for apical longitudinal strain, the global and segmental strains were all significantly lower in CA group than in HCM group (P < 0.05).The global and segmental strains were all significantly lower in CA group than in the healthy individuals (P < 0.05).The basal strain rates in the 3 directions were significantly lower in CA group than in the healthy individuals (P < 0.05), but the difference in apical strain rates was not statistically significant between the two groups.Multivariate stepwise COX analysis showed that troponin T (HR=1.05, 95%CI: 1.01-1.10, P=0.017) and middle peak diastolic circumferential strain rate (HR=6.87, 95%CI: 1.52-31.06, P=0.012) were strong predictors of death in CA patients.@*CONCLUSION@#Strain and strain rate parameters derived from CMR-FT based on cine sequences are new noninvasive imaging markers for assessing cardiac impairment in CA and cardiac function changes in HCM, and provide independent predictive information for all-cause mortality in CA patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Retrospective Studies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Function, Left , Stroke Volume , Amyloidosis/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Prognosis , Predictive Value of Tests
5.
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 671-677, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985756

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the histological features and clinical manifestations in different types of cardiac amyloidosis to improve diagnostic accuracy. Methods: The histopathological features and clinical manifestations of 48 patients diagnosed with cardiac amyloidosis by Congo red stain and electron microscopy through endomyocardial biopsy were collected in West China Hospital of Sichuan University from January 2018 to December 2021. Immunohistochemical stains for immunoglobulin light chains (κ and λ) and transthyretin protein were carried out, and a review of literature was made. Results: The patients age ranged from 42 to 79 years (mean 56 years) and the male to female ratio was 1.1 to 1.0. The positive rate of endomyocardial biopsy was 97.9% (47/48), which was significantly higher than that of the abdominal wall fat (7/17). Congo red staining and electron microscopy were positive in 97.9% (47/48) and 93.5% (43/46), respectively. Immunohistochemical stains showed 32 cases (68.1%) were light chain type (AL-CA), including 31 cases of AL-λ type and 1 case of AL-κ type; 9 cases (19.1%) were transthyretin protein type (ATTR-CA); and 6 cases (12.8%) were not classified. There was no significant difference in the deposition pattern of amyloid between different types (P>0.05). Clinical data showed that ATTR-CA patients had less involvement of 2 or more organs and lower N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) than the other type patients (P<0.05). The left ventricular stroke volume and right ventricular ejection fraction of ATTR-CA patients were better than the other patients (P<0.05). Follow-up data of 45 patients was obtained, and the overall mean survival time was 15.6±2.0 months. Univariate survival analysis showed that ATTR-CA patients had a better prognosis, while cardiac amyloidosis patients with higher cardiac function grade, NT-proBNP >6 000 ng/L, and troponin T >70 ng/L had a worse prognosis (P<0.05). Multivariate survival analysis showed that NT-proBNP and cardiac function grade were independent prognostic factors for cardiac amyloidosis patients. Conclusions: AL-λ is the most common type of cardiac amyloidosis in this group. Congo red staining combined with electron microscopy can significantly improve the diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis. The clinical manifestations and prognosis of each type are different and can be classified based on immunostaining profile. However, there are still a few cases that cannot be typed; hence mass spectrometry is recommended if feasible.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Prealbumin/metabolism , Stroke Volume , Cardiomyopathies/pathology , Congo Red , Ventricular Function, Right , Amyloidosis/pathology , Prognosis
6.
Rev. urug. cardiol ; 38(1): e301, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | BNUY, UY-BNMED, LILACS | ID: biblio-1442150

ABSTRACT

La amiloidosis cardíaca es una miocardiopatía restrictiva infiltrativa secundaria al depósito extracelular de amiloide. Las diferentes técnicas de imagen cardíaca permiten la evaluación de forma no invasiva. El ecocardiograma juega un rol central en la evaluación diagnóstica, pronóstica y ayuda a guiar el tratamiento. El objetivo de este artículo de revisión es describir las diferentes herramientas que nos brinda la ecocardiografía, poniendo énfasis en el strain por speckle tracking y describir su rol en el diagnóstico de esta patología.


Cardiac amyloidosis is an infiltrative restrictive cardiomyopathy secondary to extracellular amyloid deposition. Different cardiac imaging techniques allow noninvasive evaluation. Echocardiography plays a central role in diagnostic and prognostic evaluation and helps to guide treatment. The aim of this review is to describe the different tools provided by echocardiography, with emphasis on speckle tracking strain and to describe its role in the diagnosis of this pathology.


A amiloidose cardíaca é uma cardiomiopatia restritiva infiltrativa secundária ao depósito de amiloide extracelular. Diferentes técnicas de imagem cardíaca permitem fazer uma análise não invasiva. A ecocardiografia desempenha um papel central no diagnóstico e na avaliação prognóstica e ajuda a orientar o tratamento. O objetivo deste artigo de revisão é descrever as diferentes ferramentas proporcionadas pela ecocardiografia, com ênfase no strain por speckle tracking, e descrever o seu papel no diagnóstico desta patologia.


Subject(s)
Echocardiography, Doppler/methods , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Amyloidosis/diagnostic imaging , Prognosis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Echocardiography, Transesophageal/methods
7.
Rev. urug. cardiol ; 38(1): e302, 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1522875

ABSTRACT

La amiloidosis cardíaca (AC) es una enfermedad con mal pronóstico si el tratamiento no se inicia de forma temprana, por lo que una de las asignaturas pendientes en esta enfermedad consiste en realizar un diagnóstico precoz. El electrocardiograma (ECG) es una prueba diagnóstica de bajo costo y amplia disponibilidad que nos permite sospechar esta enfermedad, dado que resulta normal en < 5% de los pacientes. El hallazgo clásico es la presencia de bajos voltajes en relación con la gran hipertrofia que se observa en las pruebas de imagen, así como el conocido patrón de pseudoinfarto. Ambos hallazgos son más frecuentes en el subtipo de amiloidosis por cadenas ligeras, que era el más frecuentemente diagnosticado en el pasado. Sin embargo, con la expansión del diagnóstico no invasivo del subtipo a transtiretina, su identificación ha crecido de forma exponencial y se convirtió en el más diagnosticado con más frecuencia en nuestro medio. Se debe prestar especial atención a todos estos hallazgos electrocardiográficos, con el fin de que esta prueba diagnóstica de sencilla obtención pueda contribuir de forma importante a la sospecha y al diagnóstico precoz de la AC.


Cardiac amyloidosis (CA) is a serious disease with a poor prognosis if treatment is not started early, so one of the pending issues in this condition is to make an early diagnosis. The electrocardiogram (EKG) is an inexpensive and widely available diagnostic test that can offer differential data when suspecting this disease, being normal in < 5% of these patients. The classic EKG finding is the presence of low voltages in relation to the large hypertrophy seen on imaging tests, as well as the well-known pseudoinfarct pattern. Both findings are more frequent in the light chain subtype of CA, which was the most frequently diagnosed in the past. However, with the growth of noninvasive diagnostic tests, the identification of the transtyretin subtype has grown exponentially, becoming the most frequently diagnosed in our setting. Special attention should be paid to all these electrocardiographic findings, so that this simple diagnostic test can make an important contribution to the early suspicion and diagnosis of CA.


A amiloidose cardíaca (AC) é uma doença grave com um mau prognóstico no caso de não se iniciar tratamento de forma precoce, pelo que a necessidade de um pronto diagnóstico é imperiosa. Quando se suspeita desta doença, o eletrocardiograma (ECG) é um teste de diagnóstico pouco dispendioso e disponível em todo o mundo, que pode fornecer dados discriminativos importantes, sendo normal em menos de 5% dos casos. O achado clássico do ECG é a presença de baixas voltagens em relação à grande hipertrofia vista na imagem, bem como o conhecido padrão de pseudoinfarte. Ambos os resultados são mais frequentes no subtipo a cadenas ligeras, o mais frequentemente diagnosticado no passado. No entanto, com o aumento dos testes de diagnóstico não-invasivos, o diagnóstico ddo subtipo a transtirretina, o mais cresceu de forma exponencial, tornando-se o mais frequentemente diagnosticado no nosso meio. Deve ser dada especial atenção a todos estes achados eletrocardiográficos já que esta prova de diagnóstico de fácil obtenção pode contribuir de forma importante para a suspeição de diagnóstico precoce de AC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Electrocardiography , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Amyloidosis/diagnosis
8.
Rev. urug. cardiol ; 37(1): e304, jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1410055

ABSTRACT

Las amiloidosis son un grupo heterogéneo de patologías caracterizado por el depósito extracelular de proteínas fibrilares anormalmente plegadas que se depositan en los tejidos y ocasionan su disfunción. La calidad y expectativa de vida depende del órgano afectado y del grado de compromiso, la afectación cardíaca es la principal determinante de la sobrevida y calidad de vida. El diagnóstico requiere la biopsia tisular y tipificación de la proteína. Su detección tardía se asocia a inferior pronóstico y sobrevida. La forma más común de amiloidosis es la causada por depósito de cadenas livianas monoclonales (AL), para la cual nuevos agentes de inmuno y quimioterapia dirigidas a suprimir la clona de células plasmáticas han demostrado mejorar la sobrevida. Para la amiloidosis por transtiretina (ATTR), segunda en frecuencia, existen terapias estabilizadoras de la proteína y terapias dirigidas a detener su síntesis a través del silenciamiento genético. Esta revisión se dirige a describir las bases hematológicas útiles para el cardiólogo clínico.


The amyloidoses are a heterogeneous group of diseases caused by the extracellular deposition of abnormally folded fibrillar proteins in organs and tissues, causing their dysfunction. The quality and life expectancy depend on the affected organ, with cardiac involvement being the main determinant of survival and quality of life. Diagnosis requires tissue biopsy and protein typing. Its late detection is associated with a lower prognosis and survival. The most common form of amyloidosis is caused by monoclonal light chain (AL) deposition, for which new immunological agents and chemotherapy aimed at suppressing plasma cell cloning have been shown to improve survival. For transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTR), the second in frequency, there are protein-stabilizing therapies and therapies aimed at stopping its synthesis through genetic silencing. This review focuses on the hematological bases for the clinical cardiologist.


As amiloidoses são um grupo heterogêneo de patologias caracterizadas pela deposição extracelular de proteínas fibrilares anormalmente dobradas, que se depositam nos tecidos, causando sua disfunção. A qualidade e expectativa de vida dependem do órgão afetado e do grau de comprometimento, sendo o acometimento cardíaco o principal determinante da sobrevida e qualidade de vida. O diagnóstico requer biópsia tecidual e tipagem de proteínas. Sua detecção tardia está associada a um menor prognóstico e sobrevida. A forma mais comum de amiloidose é causada pela deposição monoclonal de cadeia leve (AL), para a qual novos agentes imuno e quimioterápicos destinados a suprimir a clonagem de plasmócitos demonstraram melhorar a sobrevida. Para a amiloidose por transtirretina (ATTR), segunda em frequência, existem terapias estabilizadoras de proteínas e terapias destinadas a interromper sua síntese por meio do silenciamento genético. Esta revisão enfoca a amiloidose sistêmica, com foco em bases hematológicas úteis para o cardiologista clínico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amyloidosis/diagnosis , Biopsy , Diagnosis, Differential
9.
Rev. urug. cardiol ; 37(1): e305, jun. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | UY-BNMED, LILACS, BNUY | ID: biblio-1415362

ABSTRACT

La amiloidosis cardíaca es una entidad con creciente reconocimiento, la variedad por transtiretina es la que más se diagnostica en la tercera edad de la vida. Hay reciente disponibilidad de fármacos que mejoran el pronóstico y la calidad de vida de los pacientes. Presentamos un caso de amiloidosis por transtiretina donde se usó por primera vez en nuestro país el fármaco tafamidis aprobado para el tratamiento de esta enfermedad.


Cardiac amyloidosis is an entity on increasing recognition, transthyretin variety is the most diagnosed in the third age. There is a recent availability of drugs that can improve the prognosis and quality of life of these patients. We present a case of transthyretin amyloidosis and the first use of tafamidis in our country.


A amiloidose cardíaca é uma entidade em crescente reconhecimento, a variedade transtiretina é a mais diagnosticada em idosos. Há disponibilidade recente de medicamentos que melhoram o prognóstico e a qualidade de vida dos pacientes. Apresentamos um caso de amiloidosis transteretina onde o medicamento tafamidis aprovado para esta doença foi utilizado pela primeira vez em nosso país.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Benzoxazoles/administration & dosage , Amyloidosis/diagnostic imaging , Cardiomyopathies , Amyloidosis/drug therapy
11.
Rev. méd. Maule ; 37(1): 24-34, jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395911

ABSTRACT

Amyloidosis is a low-frequency disease that can cause compromise of different systems. We report a case of heart failure in an 81-year-old woman secondary to amyloidosis, in which the echocardiogram was a valuable diagnostic tool.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Pericardial Effusion/diagnosis , Pericardial Effusion/therapy , Amyloidosis , Radiography, Thoracic , Immunoglobulin Light Chains , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Electrocardiography , Computed Tomography Angiography , Heart Failure/etiology
13.
Rev. urug. cardiol ; 37(1): e302, jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1390042

ABSTRACT

Las amiloidosis son enfermedades causadas por el depósito patológico extracelular de un material proteico fibrilar e insoluble denominado amiloide, que puede estar vinculado a cadenas livianas (AL) o transtirretina (TTR). La amiloidosis cardíaca provoca una cardiomiopatía restrictiva de carácter progresivo caracterizada por falla cardíaca con función sistólica relativamente preservada, que se asocia a elevada mortalidad. Aunque el diagnóstico definitivo tradicionalmente se basa en la biopsia endomiocárdica, los avances en imagenología han mejorado su abordaje y la reciente introducción de terapias especificas permiten augurar cambios significativos en el pronóstico. El tratamiento difiere según el tipo de amiloide involucrado y su resultado depende de la instauración precoz de este, por lo cual resulta esencial un diagnóstico preciso y temprano. El centellograma cardíaco con fosfatos marcados (99mTc-PYP u otros), ampliamente disponible y de relativo bajo costo, se considera en la actualidad como una "biopsia molecular no invasiva" para el diagnóstico de la amiloidosis tipo ATTR, que debe ser usado en conjunto con la investigación de proteínas monoclonales en pacientes con sospecha clínica de la enfermedad.


Amyloidoses are diseases caused by the extracellular deposition of a fibrillar and insoluble protein material called amyloid, which can be linked either to light chains (AL) or transthyretin (TTR). Cardiac amyloidosis causes a progressive restrictive cardiomyopathy characterized by heart failure with relatively preserved systolic function, which is associated with high mortality. Although a definitive diagnosis is traditionally based on endomyocardial biopsy, advances in cardiac imaging have improved its approach, and the recent introduction of specific therapies predicts significant changes in prognosis. Since treatment differs according to the type of amyloid involved and the results depend on a prompt implementation, an accurate and early diagnosis is essential. Cardiac scintigraphy with labeled phosphates (99mTc-PYP or others), widely available and relatively inexpensive, is currently considered a "noninvasive molecular biopsy" for the diagnosis of ATTR type amyloidosis, which should be used in conjunction with investigation of monoclonal proteins in patients with clinical suspicion of the disease.


As amiloidoses são doenças causadas pela deposição patológica extracelular de um material proteico fibrilar e insolúvel, denominado amiloide, que pode estar ligado a cadeias leves (AL) ou transtirretina (TTR). A amiloidose cardíaca causa cardiomiopatia restritiva progressiva caracterizada por insuficiência cardíaca com função sistólica relativamente preservada, que está associada a alta mortalidade. Embora o diagnóstico definitivo seja tradicionalmente baseado na biópsia endomiocárdica, os avanços nos exames de imagem aprimoraram sua abordagem e a recente introdução de terapias específicas pode predizer mudanças significativas no prognóstico. O tratamento varia de acordo com o tipo de amiloide envolvida e seu resultado depende do início precoce, por isso um diagnóstico preciso e precoce é essencial. A cintilografia cardíaca com fosfatos marcados (99mTc-PYP ou outros), amplamente disponível e relativamente econômico, é atualmente considerada uma "biópsia molecular não invasiva" para o diagnóstico de amiloidose do tipo ATTR, que deve ser usada em conjunto com a investigação de proteínas monoclonais em pacientes com suspeita clínica da doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Radionuclide Imaging/methods , Technetium Tc 99m Pyrophosphate , Radiopharmaceuticals , Amyloidosis/diagnostic imaging , Cardiomyopathies/diagnostic imaging , Radioactive Tracers , Predictive Value of Tests
14.
Rev. urug. cardiol ; 37(1): e403, jun. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1390043

ABSTRACT

Dada su epidemiología, la amiloidosis cardíaca se ha vuelto un desafío diagnóstico del siglo XXI. La resonancia cardíaca se ha transformado en una herramienta diagnóstica y pronóstica fundamental en la práctica clínica diaria. En este artículo de revisión resumimos el conocimiento, primero abordando la técnica en sí, desde protocolos generales a específicos para su diagnóstico. Posteriormente, y tomando estas herramientas, sistematizamos la utilidad diagnóstica, pronóstica y terapéutica, con base en la practicidad y evidencia científica más recientes, otorgando la posibilidad de utilizar y abordar desde un correcto diagnóstico por imagen diferentes aspectos de esta enfermedad prevalente.


Given its epidemiology, cardiac amyloidosis has become a diagnostic challenge of the twenty-first century. Cardiac resonance has become a fundamental diagnostic and prognostic tool in daily clinical practice. In this review article we summarize the knowledge, first addressing the technique itself, from general to specific protocols for its diagnosis. Subsequently, and taking this tool we systematize the diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic utility, based on the most recent practicality and scientific evidence, granting the possibility of using and addressing from a correct diagnostic imaging different aspect of this prevalent disease.


Dada a sua epidemiologia, a amiloidose cardíaca tornou-se um desafio do século XXI. A ressonância cardíaca tornou-se uma ferramenta diagnóstica e prognóstico fundamental na prática clínica diária. Neste artigo de revisão resumimos primeiro o conhecimento abordando a própria técnica, desde protocolos gerais até específicos para seu diagnóstico. Posteriormente, e tomando essa ferramenta sistematizamos a utilidade diagnóstica, prognóstica e terapêutica, com base na praticidade e evidência científica mais recentes, concedendo a possibilidade de utilização e abordagem de uma imagem diagnóstica correta de diferentes aspectos desta doença prevalente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Amyloidosis/diagnostic imaging , Cardiomyopathies/diagnostic imaging
15.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 150(5): 688-690, mayo 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1409851

ABSTRACT

We report a 35-year-old sportive man who was admitted to the emergency department for worsening of acute spontaneous abdominal pain appearing at rest. He only referred having lifted a tree trunk the day before, but he was used to perform such physical efforts. The clinical course at the emergency department was marked by the development of severe anemia secondary to a progressive splenic hematoma and acute pulmonary distress. The patient benefited from total splenectomy. Laboratory data showed hypogammaglobulinemia, proteinuria and the anatomopathological examinations of both spleen and kidneys were consistent with light chain amyloidosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Splenic Rupture/surgery , Splenic Rupture/complications , Amyloidosis/complications , Amyloidosis/diagnosis , Rupture, Spontaneous , Splenectomy , Abdominal Pain
17.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(2): 433-434, 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364329
18.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(2): 422-432, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364337

ABSTRACT

Resumo Fundamento Amiloidose sistêmica é uma doença com manifestações clínicas diversas. O diagnóstico envolve suspeita clínica, aliada a métodos complementares. Objetivo Descrever o perfil clínico, laboratorial, eletrocardiográfico e de imagem no acometimento cardíaco da amiloidose sistêmica. Métodos Estudo de uma amostra de conveniência, analisando dados clínicos, laboratoriais, eletrocardiográficos, ecocardiográficos, medicina nuclear e ressonância magnética. Considerou-se significância estatística quando p < 0,05. Resultados Avaliaram-se 105 pacientes (com mediana de idade de 66 anos), sendo 62 homens, dos quais 83 indivíduos apresentavam amiloidose por transtirretina (ATTR) e 22 amiloidose por cadeia leve (AL). Na ATTR, 68,7% eram de caráter hereditário (ATTRh) e 31,3% do tipo selvagem (ATTRw). As mutações mais prevalentes foram Val142Ile (45,6%) e Val50Met (40,3%). O tempo de início dos sintomas ao diagnóstico foi 0,54 e 2,15 anos nas formas AL e ATTR (p < 0,001), respectivamente. O acometimento cardíaco foi observado em 77,9% dos ATTR e 90,9% dos AL. Observaram-se alterações de condução atrioventricular em 20% e intraventricular em 27,6% dos pacientes, sendo 33,7 % na ATTR e 4,5% das AL (p = 0,006). A forma ATTRw apresentou mais arritmias atriais que os ATTRh (61,5% x 22,8%; p = 0,001). Ao ecocardiograma a mediana da espessura do septo na ATTRw x ATTRh x AL foi de 15 mm x 12 mm x 11 mm (p = 0,193). Observou-se BNP elevado em 89,5% dos indivíduos (mediana 249 ng/mL, IQR 597,7) e elevação da troponina em 43,2%. Conclusão Foi possível caracterizar, em nosso meio, o acometimento cardíaco na amiloidose sistêmica, em seus diferentes subtipos, através da história clínica e dos métodos diagnósticos descritos.


Abstract Background Systemic amyloidosis is a disease with heterogeneous clinical manifestations. Diagnosis depends on clinical suspicion combined with specific complementary methods. Objective To describe the clinical, laboratory, electrocardiographic, and imaging profile in patients with systemic amyloidosis with cardiac involvement. Methods This study was conducted with a convenience sample, analyzing clinical, laboratory, electrocardiographic, echocardiographic, nuclear medicine, and magnetic resonance data. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results A total of 105 patients were evaluated (median age of 66 years), 62 of whom were male. Of all patients, 83 had transthyretin (ATTR) amyloidosis, and 22 had light chain (AL) amyloidosis. With respect to ATTR cases, 68.7% were the hereditary form (ATTRh), and 31.3% were wild type (ATTRw). The most prevalent mutations were Val142Ile (45.6%) and Val50Met (40.3%). Time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis was 0.54 and 2.15 years, in the AL and ATTR forms, respectively (p < 0.001). Cardiac involvement was observed in 77.9% of patients with ATTR and in 90.9% of those with AL. Alterations were observed in atrioventricular and intraventricular conduction in 20% and 27.6% of patients, respectively, with 33.7% in ATTR and 4.5% in AL (p = 0.006). In the ATTRw form, there were more atrial arrhythmias than in ATTRh (61.5% versus 22.8%; p = 0.001). On echocardiogram, median septum thickness in ATTRw, ATTRh, and AL was 15 mm, 12 mm, and 11 mm, respectively (p = 0.193). Elevated BNP was observed in 89.5% of patients (median 249, ICR 597.7), and elevated troponin was observed in 43.2%. Conclusion In this setting, it was possible to characterize cardiac involvement in systemic amyloidosis in its different subtypes by means of clinical history and the diagnostic methods described.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Cardiology , Amyloid Neuropathies, Familial/diagnostic imaging , Amyloidosis/diagnostic imaging , Cardiomyopathies/diagnostic imaging , Referral and Consultation , Brazil , Prealbumin/genetics , Echocardiography
19.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 330-335, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935090

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics, treatment response, and prognosis of newly diagnosed symptomatic multiple myeloma (MM) patients with systemic light chain amyloidosis (AL) . Methods: The clinical data of 160 patients with newly diagnosed MM treated at the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University from January 1, 2017 to October 31, 2018, were retrospectively analyzed. According to the histopathological biopsy results of bone marrow, skin, and other tissues, the patients were divided into two groups according to whether amyloidosis was combined or not, namely, the MM+AL group and the MM group. The clinical characteristics and treatment responses of the two groups were compared. Results: Among the 160 patients with newly diagnosed MM, there were 42 cases in the MM+AL group and 118 cases in the MM group. In terms of clinical features, the involved light chain and non-involved light chain (dFLC) in the MM+AL group was significantly higher than that in the MM group (P=0.039) . After induction treatment, the MM+AL group had a higher overall response rate (85.7%vs 79.7%, P<0.05) and higher excellent partial response (76.2%vs 55.1%, P<0.05) . After a median follow-up of 26 (0.25-41) months, there was no significant difference in the progression free survival and overall survival (OS) between the two groups (P>0.05) . The OS of patients in autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation group was better than that in non transplantation group (P<0.05) .The prognosis of patients with cardiac involvement in the MM+AL group was significantly worse than that in the MM group and MM+AL group without cardiac involvement (P<0.001) , with a median OS of only 13 months. Conclusion: The differential diagnosis between the MM+AL and MM groups requires histopathology, particularly for patients with significantly increased dFLC. The overall remission rate of patients in MM+AL group after 4 courses of induction chemotherapy was higher than that in MM group. The prognosis of patients with cardiac involvement in MM+AL group was poor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amyloidosis/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin Light Chains , Immunoglobulin Light-chain Amyloidosis/therapy , Multiple Myeloma/therapy , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
20.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 316-322, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935088

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the value of (11)C-PiB PET/MRI for evaluating organ involvement in patients with primary light chain amyloidosis (pAL) . Methods: The clinical data of 20 patients with pAL and 3 healthy volunteers from January 2019 to October 2021 were retrospectively analyzed. The correlation between the organ involvement evaluated by clinical standards and PET/MRI was compared. The relationship between cardiac-related biological indicators, disease stage, and the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) were analyzed. The relationship between 24-hour urinary protein quantification and kidney SUVmax was analyzed. Results: ①In 20 patients (18 newly diagnosed patients and 2 non-newly diagnosed patients) ,(11)C-PiB positive uptake was observed in the heart (15 patients, 75%) , lung (8 patients, 40%) , bone marrow (10 patients, 50%) , muscle (10 patients, 50%) , tongue muscle (7 patients, 35%) , thyroid (6 patients, 30%) , salivary gland (4 patients, 20%) , spleen (2 patients, 10%) , and stomach wall (1 patient, 5%) . ②Organ involvement on (11)C-PiB PET/MRI showed good correlations with the clinical evaluation criteria for the heart and bone marrow. The positive rate of PET/MRI evaluation in the lung, spleen, gland, muscle, and tongue muscle was significantly higher than the clinical criteria. However, (11)C-PiB PET/MRI has limitations in the evaluation of the nervous system and fat tissue. ③To analyze the relationship between cardiac-related biological indexes and the SUVmax of the heart in 13 newly diagnosed patients. Patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <50% and interventricular septal thickness (ISV) ≥1.2 cm showed a higher SUVmax than patients with LVEF ≥50% and ISV<1.2 cm (P<0.05) .There are significant differences in the SUVmax of the heart between the Mayo2004 stage and the Mayo2012 stage. The later the disease stage, the higher the SUVmax (P<0.05) . The SUVmax of the heart was positively correlated with cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) (P<0.01) .There was no significant correlation between renal SUVmax and 24-hour urine protein (P>0.05) . Conclusion: Whole body (11)C-PiB PET/MRI, as a visualization system of amyloid protein, is used to qualitatively evaluate organ involvement, which can improve the level of early non-invasive diagnosis. Whole body (11)C-PiB PET/MRI can be used to perform quantitative evaluation of organ levels, especially the heart, which is expected to evaluate organ function and predict disease prognosis more accurately.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amyloidosis/diagnostic imaging , Aniline Compounds , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Positron-Emission Tomography , Retrospective Studies , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
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