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Neotrop. ichthyol ; 20(1): e210099, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1365206


The doncella Pseudoplatystoma punctifer is an economically and ecologically important catfish in the Amazon basin. However, little is known about its age, growth and population dynamics parameters. This study aims to validate the formation of growth marks in vertebrae of individuals collected from two rivers systems of the Peruvian Amazon (Amazon-Marañón-Ucayali and Putumayo) and compare growth parameters using the von Bertalanffy growth function between sexes and systems. A total of 372 individuals from the Amazon-Marañón-Ucayali (AMU) system and 93 from the Putumayo River were analyzed. The formation of one growth ring per year was validated and the individual ages ranged from zero to nine years old. Females grew significantly larger than males in both systems. Both females and males grew significantly better in the AMU system than in the Putumayo River. Maximum observed length and size at maturity in the AMU system were lower than those reported in previous studies in the area, and together with an important proportion of juveniles in the catches, suggest that the species is heavily exploited. Further studies on the reproductive biology and population dynamics of the doncella are needed in order to implement management measures more in line with the current situation.(AU)

La doncella Pseudoplatystoma punctifer es un bagre de importancia económica y ecológica en la cuenca Amazonica. Pese a ello, poco se conoce acerca de parámetros de edad, crecimiento y dinámica poblacional. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo validar la formación de marcas de crecimiento en vértebras de individuos colectados en dos sistemas fluviales de la Amazonia Peruana (Amazonas-Marañón-Ucayali y Putumayo) y comparar los parámetros de crecimiento usando la función de von Bertalanffy entre sexos y sistemas. Fueron analizados 372 individuos del sistema Amazonas-Marañón-Ucayali (AMU) y 93 del Putumayo. Se validó la formación de un anillo de crecimiento por año, la edad osciló entre cero y nueve años. Las hembras fueron significativamente más grandes que los machos en ambos sistemas. Para ambos sexos el crecimiento fue significativamente mayor en el sistema AMU que en el Putumayo. Las máximas tallas y edades de primera madurez observadas en el sistema AMU fueron menores a las reportadas en estudios previos en el área, y junto con un considerable porcentaje de juveniles presentes en las capturas, se sugiere que la especie está siendo fuertemente explotada. Son necesarios estudios de biología reproductiva y dinámica poblacional de doncella para implementar medidas de manejo acordes a la situación actual.(AU)

Animals , Catfishes/growth & development , Anacardium , Amazonian Ecosystem , Rivers
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 80(Único): 1-8, dez. 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1358996


Este trabalho teve como objetivo a caracterização nutricional (umidade, proteínas, lipídeos, cinzas e açúcares totais), quantificação do Valor Energético Total (VET) e determinação do teor de carotenoides totais dos frutos de cajuzinho do cerrado (Anacardium humile A.St.-Hil.), curriola (Pouteria ramiflora (Mart.) Radlk) e inharé (Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul), do Cerrado mato grossense. No intuito de oferecer uma alternativa de dieta nutritiva e incentivar o reaproveitamento de alimentos, foram analisadas polpas e cascas destes frutos. O cajuzinho do cerrado apresentou expressiva quantidade de carotenoides totais nas polpas (5,95 mg/100g) e cascas (6,55 mg/100g). Já a curriola apresentou um valor considerável de cinzas (0,66%) nas polpas e mostraram quantidade significativa de Valor Energético Total (80,96 Kcal/100g). O inharé destacou-se por apresentar elevado teor de proteínas nas cascas (3,76%) e polpas (3,19%). Estes resultados mostraram que polpas e cascas dos frutos analisados, podem ser utilizadas como fonte de nutrientes ou como ingredientes na elaboração de novos alimentos com potencial funcional. Este é o primeiro estudo que avalia o potencial nutricional e carotenoides totais nas cascas destes frutos do Cerrado mato grossense. (AU)

This study aimed at performing the nutritional characterization (moisture, protein, lipid, ashes and total sugar), quantification of the Total Energy Value (TEV) and determination of carotenoid content of cajuzinho do cerrado (Anacardium humile A.St.-Hil.), curriola (Pouteria ramiflora (Mart.) Radlk) and inharé (Brosimum gaudichaudii Trécul), of the Midwestern Cerrado. Aiming at offering a nutritious alternative of diet and motivating the reuse of foods, the pulps and peels of fruits were analyzed. Cajuzinho do cerrado showed expressive amount of total carotenoids in the pulps (5.95 mg/100g) and peels (6.55 mg/100g). The curriola presented a considerable amount of ash (0.66%) in the pulps and a significant amount of Total Energy Value (80.96 Kcal/100g). On the other hand, the inharé had a high amount of protein in the peels (3.76%) and pulps (3.19%). These results showed that pulps and peels of the analyzed fruits can be used as source of nutrients or as ingredients in the manufacture of new functional foods. This is the first report which evaluates the nutritional potential and total carotenoids in peels of fruits from Midwestern Cerrado. (AU)

Grassland , Brosimum gaudichaudii , Anacardium , Pouteria , Food Composition , Fruit
Braz. j. biol ; 80(1): 147-157, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089287


Abstract The genus Dirphia Hübner, [1819] presents Neotropical distribution. This genus, besides causing accidents of interest in public health, is a potential defoliator pest of cultivated plants, among them the cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale L.), a crop of great economic importance. This study describes the biology, external morphology of the immature stages of Dirphia moderata Bouvier, 1929 including the first instar larva chaetotaxy. The egg stage had an average duration of 15 days, larval stage 45 days and pupa 60 days, totaling 120 days in average temperature of 28.8 °C and 59.5% relative humidity. Six instars were confirmed by the Dyar rule, with a growth rate of cephalic capsule K = 1.4 times per ínstar. The results found in the first ínstar chaetotaxy follow the general pattern known for Hemileucinae.

Resumo O gênero Dirphia Hübner, [1819] apresenta distribuição Neotropical. Esse gênero, além de causar acidentes de interesse na saúde pública, é uma potencial praga desfolhadora de plantas cultivadas, entre elas o cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L.), cultura de grande importância econômica. Esse estudo descreve a biologia e morfologia externa dos estágios imaturos de Dirphia moderata Bouvier, 1929 incluindo a quetotaxia da larva de primeiro instar. O estágio de ovo teve duração média de 15 dias, estágio larval de 45 dias e pupa de 60 dias, totalizando 120 dias em temperatura média de 28,8 °C e 59,5% de umidade relativa. Seis ínstares foram confirmados pela regra de Dyar, com razão de crescimento da cápsula cefálica K = 1,4 vezes a cada ínstar. Os resultados encontrados na quetotaxia do primeiro instar segue o padrão geral conhecido para Hemileucinae.

Animals , Anacardium , Lepidoptera , Pupa , Temperature , Larva
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): 6-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785459


BACKGROUND: The prevalence of peanut allergy (PA) among children has increased significantly over the past decade. Even though the prevalence of PA in Singapore is considered low, peanut is the top trigger for food-induced anaphylaxis in Singaporean children.OBJECTIVE: To describe the demographic characteristics and clinical features of children with PA.METHODS: This is a 5-year retrospective review of children diagnosed with PA based on clinical history coupled with a positive skin prick test to peanut or positive oral food challenge results.RESULTS: There were 269 patients (53.9% males) with a clinical diagnosis of PA. The median age at first allergic presentation for the PA group was 24 months old, with interquartile range of 13–39 months. The most common form of peanut introduced was roasted peanut. The rate of peanut anaphylaxis was 7.1%. Concomitant tree nut sensitization was found in 32.3% of this cohort, predominantly to cashew nut. Majority of them have a personal history of atopy – 75.8% with eczema, 63.6% with allergic rhinitis, and 19.7% with asthma.CONCLUSION: This is the first large review of peanut-allergic children in Singapore. Prospective population-based studies are needed to establish the true prevalence and risk factors associated with the development of this potentially life-threatening condition.

Anacardium , Anaphylaxis , Arachis , Asia , Asthma , Child , Cohort Studies , Diagnosis , Eczema , Humans , Nuts , Peanut Hypersensitivity , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Rhinitis, Allergic , Risk Factors , Singapore , Skin , Trees
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 35(6): 1932-1940, nov./dec. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1049172


Anacardium genus, Anacardiaceae, stands out for the presence of phenolic compounds. One of its species, investigated for its different potential uses, is Anacardium humile; however, little is known about its allelopathic effects. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the chemical profile and evaluate the herbicide potential of your leaves in the germination of seeds and growth of seedlings of Lactuca sativa(lettuce), Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) and Senna obtusifolia (sicklepod), both in vitro and in greenhouse. Leaves of A. humile were obtained from 20 matrices of Cerrado fragments in the municipality of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil. A voucher specimen was deposited at the herbarium (no. 8448). The aqueous extract was obtained from dried and crushed leaves using the extraction method of ultrasonic bath (30 min) with subsequent static maceration. After solvent evaporation, 12.78 g of extract were obtained. The chemical profile of the aqueous extract included determination of total phenolic and flavonoid contents, pH, electrical conductivity, and soluble solids concentration. For the in vitro bioassays, the extract was used at different concentrations, namely, 25, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg mL-1. In greenhouse, the substrates were prepared using 950 g of vermiculite and 50 g of A. humile leaf powder at the following ratios: (950/50) (5%), 900/100 (10%), 800/200 (20%), and a control (100% vermiculite), under a completely randomized experimental design. Phenolic compounds and anthraquinones were predominant in the chemical profile of the extract, which presented different levels of allelopathic effect on seed germination and seedling growth of plants both ingermination chamber and in greenhouse, indicating strong allelopathic activity associated with the different compounds found in the leaves. Therefore, the results showed germination and growth inhibition at different levels, indicating that the substances contained in the leaves of Anacardium humile may be a promising alternative for the control of invasive species.

O gênero Anacardium, Anacardiaceae, destaca-se pela presença de compostos fenólicos. Uma de suas espécies, investigada pelos diferentes potenciais de uso, é Anacardium humile. No entanto, pouco se sabe sobre seus efeitos alelopáticos. Portanto, o presente trabalho objetivou determinar o perfil químico e avaliar o potencial herbicida de suas folhas sobre a germinação e crescimento de Lactuca sativa (alface), Lycopersicon esculentum (tomate) e Senna obtusifolia (fedegoso) in vitro e em casa de vegetação. Folhas de A. humile foram obtidas de 20 matrizes de Cerrado, município de Campo Grande/MS, Brasil. Uma espécime foi depositada no herbário (N. 8448). O extrato aquoso foi obtido das folhas secas e trituradas e o método de extração foi banho de ultrassom (30 minutos) seguido de maceração estática, sendo o solvente evaporado e 12,78 g de extrato obtido. O extrato foi submetido ao perfil químico e determinado: teor de fenóis totais e flavonóides, pH, condutividade elétrica e concentração de sólidos solúveis. Para os bioensaios in vitro, o extrato foi utilizado em diferentes concentrações (25, 50, 100, 150 e 200 mg mL-1). Em casa de vegetação, os substratos foram preparados com 950 g do substrato vermiculita e 50 g do pó das folhas de A. humile (950/50) (5%); 900/100 (10%); 800/200 (20%), além do controle, 100% vermiculita, com delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado. O extrato apresentou como perfil químico predominante os compostos fenólicos e antraquinonas, com efeito alelopático sobre a germinação e crescimento em câmara de germinação e estufa, em diferentes graus, indicando que há uma forte atividade alelopática associada aos diferentes compostos encontrados nas folhas. Portanto, os resultados indicaram germinação e inibição do crescimento, em diferentes níveis, demonstrando que as substâncias contidas nas folhas de A. humile podem ser uma alternativa promissora para o controle de espécies invasoras.

Lycopersicon esculentum , Lettuce , Senna Plant , Anacardium , Herbicides
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 22(256): 3150-3154, set.2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1026018


Introdução: A Anacardium occidentale (cajueiro), é uma árvore tropical frutífera nativa do Brasil. Suas cascas são ricas em taninos, com ação anti-inflamatória e cicatrizante. Objetivo: Desenvolver formulações semissólidas: gel de carbopol, creme e pomada de lanovaselina contendo o extrato aquoso das cascas de Anacardium occidentale nas concentrações de 2,5 %, 5 % e 7 %, e realizar estudos de estabilidade acelerada, avaliando as características organolépticas, pH, viscosidade e densidade relativa, nos tempos T(0) na data da produção, em temperatura ambiente, e T(30), T(60) e T(90) dias em estufa à 40ºC , afim de determinar a formulação mais estável. Resultados e conclusões: A formulação de creme apresentou melhor estabilidade em todas as concentrações do extrato e quanto a todos os parâmetros avaliados, no entanto, é necessário um estudo posterior para a padronização das formulações.(AU)

Introduction: The Anacardium occidentale (cashew tree) is a tropical fruit tree native to Brazil. Their peels are rich in tannins, with anti-inflammatory and healing action. Aim: To develop semi-solid formulations: carbopol gel, cream and ointment containing the aqueous extract of the barks of Anacardium occidentale at concentrations of 2.5%, 5% and 7%, and to perform accelerated stability studies, evaluating the organoleptic characteristics, pH, viscosity and relative density, at T (0) times at the production date, at room temperature, and T (30), T (60) and T (90) days at 40ºC in order to determine the most stable. Results and conclusions: The cream formulation presented better stability at all concentrations of the extract and for all the evaluated parameters, however, a further study is necessary for the standardization of the formulations.(AU)

Introducción: el Anacardium occidentale (anacardo) es un árbol frutal tropical originario de Brasil. Sus cáscaras son ricas en taninos, con acción antiinflamatoria y curativa. Objetivo: Desarrollar formulaciones semisólidas: gel de carbopol, crema y pomada que contengan el extracto acuoso de las cortezas de Anacardium occidentale en concentraciones de 2.5%, 5% y 7%, y realizar estudios de estabilidad acelerados, evaluando las características organolépticas, pH, viscosidad y densidad relativa, en T (0) veces a la fecha de producción, a temperatura ambiente, y T (30), T (60) y T (90) días a 40ºC para determinar el máximo estable Resultados y conclusiones: La formulación en crema presentó una mejor estabilidad en todas las concentraciones del extracto y para todos los parámetros evaluados, sin embargo, es necesario un estudio adicional para la estandarización de las formulaciones.(AU)

Plants, Medicinal , Anacardium , Drug Stability , Drug Development
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 55: e18135, 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011636


In the present study, the occurrence of fungi and aflatoxins (AFs) in peanut and cashew nut samples was investigated. Mycological analysis revealed the presence of fungi in 58.8% of samples, and assessment of AFs by chromatographic methods revealed that 52.9% were contaminated by AFs. AFB1 was the principal component in all AF-contaminated samples, with a mean level of 14.0, and 1.08 µg/kg in peanut and cashew nut, respectively. Eleven samples (32.4%) exceeded the total AF maximum level (4 µg/kg) and 8 samples (23.5%) exceeded the AFB1 (2 µg/kg) established by the European Commission. Our findings suggest that the incidence of AFs emphasizes the need for regular monitoring and a more stringent food safety system to control AFs at the lowest possible levels in peanuts and cashew nuts. The hypothetical dietary exposure suggests that the food products evaluated may significantly contribute to the overall human exposure

Arachis/parasitology , Risk Assessment , Aflatoxins/adverse effects , Fungi , Anacardium/parasitology , Food Security
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739517


With increasing need to prevent serious food allergy reactions, Korean food allergen labeling regulation has been revised repeatedly. This paper aims to summarize current statuses of food allergen labeling in Korea and foreign countries and to analyze the issue of food allergen labeling regulation. Korean food labeling regulation currently requires 19 items and 22 foods to be reported on labels (eggs, milk, buckwheat, peanut, soybean, wheat, mackerel, crab, shrimp, pork, peach, tomato, sulfite, walnut, chicken, beef, squid, shellfish, and pine nut). However, some common food triggers (for example, almond, cashew nut, and kiwi fruit) are not included in the current labeling regulation. Another issue is that the Korean labeling regulation has not yet been fully implemented for nonprepacked foods; thus, consumers still have difficulty in correctly identifying allergenic ingredients in food. It should be assessed whether warning statements for cross-contamination are reasonable. To prevent the occurrence of serious reactions from accidental ingestion, efforts must be made to solve recently raised issues including the items required to be listed on food labels, the system of standards for labeling and display methods.

Anacardium , Arachis , Chickens , Decapodiformes , Eating , Fagopyrum , Food Hypersensitivity , Food Labeling , Hypersensitivity , Juglans , Korea , Lycopersicon esculentum , Milk , Nuts , Perciformes , Prunus dulcis , Prunus persica , Red Meat , Shellfish , Soybeans , Triticum
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): e25-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-750186


BACKGROUND: The Pink peppercorn belongs to the same Anacardiaceae family as cashew and pistachio. However, the cross-reactivity of pink peppercorn with cashew and pistachio has yet to be studied. To date, there has been a single case report of anaphylaxis to pink peppercorn in a cashew and pistachio allergic individual. OBJECTIVE: We aim to demonstrate cross-sensitization to pink peppercorn in cashew and/or pistachio allergic children. METHODS: A small descriptive cohort study looking at cross-sensitization of pink peppercorn in cashew and/or pistachio allergic children was conducted. Children with a history of reaction to pistachio and/or cashew nut underwent skin prick tests to the pink peppercorn species Schinus terebinthifolius to determine cross-sensitization. RESULTS: Out of the 21 cashew and/or pistachio allergic subjects, 16 (76.2%) demonstrated cross-sensitization to pink peppercorn. None of the subjects had any knowledge of previous exposure or allergic reactions to pink peppercorn. DISCUSSION: This study demonstrates potential cross-reactivity between pink peppercorn and cashew and pistachio. While an oral food challenge to pink peppercorn would have been important in demonstrating clinical cross-reactivity, this was not performed due to ethical constraints. We hope to increase the awareness of pink peppercorn as a potential and hidden source of allergen and encourage further studies to demonstrate the clinical cross-reactivity and to better delineate the major allergen involved.

Anacardiaceae , Anacardium , Anaphylaxis , Child , Cohort Studies , Cross Reactions , Food Hypersensitivity , Hope , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Nuts , Pistacia , Skin
Hig. aliment ; 32(284/285): 123-127, out. 30, 2018. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-964421


O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver e avaliar iogurte e sobremesa láctea fermentada adicionados de doce de caju. O doce foi elaborado com proporção para atingir 40ºBrix. O iogurte e a sobremesa láctea fermentada foram elaborados e avaliados quanto ao pH, acidez, proteína total, gordura, EST e cinzas após um dia de fabricação. A pós-acidificação foi avaliada durante 35 dias de armazenamento refrigerado. O teste de aceitação e intenção de compra foi realizado após 14 dias de armazenamento refrigerado. Os dados das características físico-químicas, pós-acidificação e avaliação sensorial foram analisados por Análise de Variância e teste de Tukey (p<0,05) ou análise de regressão. Os produtos atenderam os parâmetros físico-químicos e microbiológicos exigidos pela legislação. Na pós-acidificação, o pH dos produtos reduziu ao longo do tempo e a acidez do iogurte foi superior da sobremesa láctea fermentada sendo em média 0,12% de ácido lático durante os 35 dias de armazenamento. O iogurte apresentou maior aceitação e intenção de compra que a sobremesa láctea fermentada. A fabricação dos produtos torna-se viável do ponto econômico, físico-químico e sensorial, além de agregar valor ao soro de leite e o caju.

The aim study was develop and evaluate yogurt and fermented dairy dessert added with cashew sweet. The sweet was prepared in proportion to 40ºBrix. The yogurt and fermented dairy dessert were evaluated for pH, acidity, total protein, fat, total solid and ash content after one day of manufacture. Post-acidification was evaluated during 35 days of refrigerated storage. The acceptance and purchase intention test was performed after 14 days of refrigerated storage. The results of physico-chemical characteristics, post-acidification and sensory evaluation were analyzed by Analysis of Variance and Tukey test (p<0.05) or regression analysis. The products is according the physico-chemical parameters required by the brazilian legislation. In post-acidification, the pH of the products decreased over time and acidity of yogurt was higher than fermented dairy dessert and the acidity on average 0.12% of lactic acid during the 35 days of storage. The yogurt presented a greater acceptance and intention to purchase than the fermented dairy dessert. The manufacture of the products showed viable from the economic point of view, physicochemical and sensorial, besides adding value to the whey and cashew.

Yogurt , Chemical Phenomena , Anacardium , Dairy Products , Cultured Milk Products , Microbiological Techniques , Food Industry , Regression Analysis
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 34(1): 95-103, jan./feb. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-966614


Extracted from the fruit of Anacardium occidentale L., Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) is a phenolic lipid that has potential biological use. Conventional pesticides are increasingly being replaced by natural products because of the impact that their mismanagement can have on human health and the environment. The objective of this work was to evaluate the fungicidal potential effect of CNSL on the fungi Colletotrichum gloesporioides and Lasiodiplodia theobromae, in particular its use in reducing negative impacts on fruit production. Chemical and physical tests were conducted to determine features of the sample, such as pH, electrical conductivity and solubility, and to measure its anacardic acid content. In vitro and in vivo tests were also conducted to evaluate the inhibition of mycelial growth on papaya fruit, the identification of volatile components and the inhibition of spore production. CNSL had the highest fungicidal potential for both fungi in vitro at a concentration of 320 µg mL-1, and the same concentration was also maximal for sporulation inhibition in both fungi. In the in vivo tests the protective effect of CNSL was higher for C. gloesporioides fungus, whereas its curative effect was higher for L. theobromae. It was found that the substance with fungicidal potential was non-volatile and that the presence of the pathogens altered the chemical properties of the fruit.

O Líquido da Castanha de Caju é um lipídio fenólico extraído do fruto da Anacardium occidentale L. que demonstra ter potencial de uso biológico. A substituição dos agrotóxicos convencionais por produtos naturais vem aumentando devido aos impactos que o mau manejo pode acarretar a saudade humana e ao meio ambiente. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o potencial fungicida deste produto frente aos fungos Colletotrichum gloesporioides e Lasiodiplodia theobromae por sua importância nos impactos negativos na produção frutífera. Foram realizados testes químicos e físicos para determinar o padrão da amostra como: pH, condutividade elétrica, solubilidade e determinação do teor de ácido anacárdico na amostra. Para os ensaios biológicos foram realizados testes de inibição do crescimento micelial in vitro e em in vivo em frutos de mamões, determinação de compostos voláteis e inibição da produção de esporos. O LCC apresentou maior potencial fungicida no teste in vitro na concentração de 320 µg mL-1 para ambos os fungos, nesta mesma concentração ocorreu a maior inibição da esporulação tanto para o C. gloesporioides quanto para o L. theobromae. No teste realizado in vivo ocorreu maior inibição para o fungo C. gloesporioides no tratamento protetor e para o fungo L. theobromae o tratamento curativo foi mais eficaz. Constatou-se que a substância com potencial fungicida não é volátil e a presença do patógeno altera os padrões químicos do fruto.

Carica , Anacardium , Phenolic Compounds , Fungi , Antifungal Agents
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 85: e0582016, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-996736


The association of natural compounds isolated from medicinal plants with conventional antibiotics, both with similar mechanisms of action, have become a viable alternative strategy to overcome the problem of drug resistance. This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of tannic substances present in the bark of Anacardium occidentale and Anadenanthera colubrina against samples of Staphylococcus aureus when in combination with cephalexin. These combinations were evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). For this purpose, tannins and cephalexin were serially dissolved in distilled water at concentrations ranging from 0.976 mg/mL to 500 mg/mL and 2 mg/mL to 512 mg/mL, respectively. When combined, the compounds inhibited S. aureus growth forming halos ranging from 0.9 to 46 mm with an MIC of 7.8 mg/mL (tannins) and 4 µg/mL (cephalexin). The resulting effect of the combination of natural and synthetic substances with similar mechanisms of action presented better results than when tested alone. Thus, the conclusion is that both the tannins and cephalexin had their antimicrobial action enhanced when used in combination, enabling the use of lower concentrations while maintaining their antibacterial effect against strains of S. aureus.(AU)

A associação de compostos naturais, isolados de plantas medicinais, com antibióticos convencionais, com mecanismos de ação semelhantes, torna-se uma estratégia alternativa e viável para superar o problema da resistência. Assim, nosso objetivo foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de substâncias tânicas presentes na casca de Anacardium occidentale e Anadenanthera colubrina associadas à cefalexina, sobre amostras de Staphylococcus aureus. Avaliamos essa associação por meio da determinação da concentração mínima inibitória. Dessa forma, taninos e a cefalexina foram dissolvidos de forma seriada em água destilada em concentrações variando de 0,976 mg/mL a 500 mg/mL e 2 µg/mL a 512 µg/mL, respectivamente. Quando associados, inibiram o crescimento de S. aureus formando halos que variaram de 0,9 a 46 mm com concentração mínima inibitória de 7,8 mg/mL (taninos)/ 4 µg/mL (cefalexina). O efeito resultante da associação de substâncias, natural e sintética, com mecanismos de ação semelhantes, apresentou resultados superiores aos observados quando testados isoladamente. Podemos concluir que os taninos e a cefalexina tiveram sua ação antimicrobiana potencializada quando utilizados em associação, permitindo o uso de uma menor concentração, mantendo seu efeito antibacteriano sobre cepas de S. aureus.(AU)

Plants, Medicinal , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Cephalexin , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Staphylococcus aureus , Tannins , Anacardium
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): e29-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-750147


BACKGROUND: There has been an increasing trend of nut allergies in Singapore. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to review the clinical characteristics of children with cashew nut allergy. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted in a tertiary paediatric referral centre in Singapore from 2008 to 2015. A total of 99 subjects with positive specific IgE (≥0.35 IU/L) to cashew nut were identified. Clinical features including demographics, clinical reaction to cashew nut, associations with other nuts and test specific measurements were recorded. RESULTS: The results showed that cutaneous symptoms (71.2%) were the most common allergic manifestations. Anaphylaxis occurred in 3.8% of children. In addition, all cashew nut allergic subjects were cross-reactive (either sensitized or allergic) to pistachio. Cross-reactivity rate with peanuts was 53.8%. There was a strong prevalence of atopy among cashew nut allergic subjects. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, cashew nut allergy is a significant tree nut allergy in Singapore.

Anacardium , Anaphylaxis , Arachis , Child , Demography , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Nut Hypersensitivity , Nuts , Pistacia , Prevalence , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , Singapore
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 38(1): 99-104, jan./jun 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-905802


Free radicals are responsible for causing many chronic and degenerative diseases. Antioxidants are substances capable of scavenging free radicals and preventing cell damage. In this context, antioxidant activity of alcoholic extracts from leaves of Anacardium occidentale and Myracrodruon urundeuva was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl DPPH and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethyl-benzothiazolin6-sulfonic acid) ABTS methods. Phenolic content and phytochemical analysis were performed for each species. Results showed that both species exhibited free radical scavenging activity. These results are directly related to high phenolic content found in the extracts. M. urundeuva showed antioxidant activity similar to butylhydroxytoluene (BHT) and could be considered a promising plant source of natural antioxidant.

Os radicais livres são responsáveis por causar muitas doenças crônicas e degenerativas. Os antioxidantes são substâncias capazes de eliminar radicais livres e impedi-los de causar danos celulares. Neste contexto, a atividade antioxidante dos extratos alcoólicos das folhas de Anacardium occidentale e Myracrodruon urundeuva foi avaliada pelos métodos de 2,2- difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH) e 2,2'-azinobis-(3-etil-benzothiazolin-6-sulfónico ácido) (ABTS). O conteúdo fenólico e análise fitoquímica dos extratos também foram avaliados. As duas espécies exibiram atividade sequestradora de radicais livres. Estes resultados estão relacionados com alto teor de compostos fenólicos encontrados nos extratos. M. urundeuva mostrou atividade antioxidante semelhante ao butilhidroxitolueno (BHT), se tornando uma fonte promissora de antioxidante natural.

Phenolic Compounds , Anacardium , Antioxidants/analysis , Free Radicals
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 29(6): 859-866, Nov.-Dec. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-830666


ABSTRACT Objective: To assess and compare the fatty acid composition of edible seeds and a nut native to the Cerrado (Brazilian savannah) to that of traditional oilseeds. Methods: Baru almonds, Cerrado cashew nuts, and pequi almonds were extracted from the fruits using appropriate equipment. All edible seeds and nuts were roasted, except for the Brazil nut. The sample lipids were extracted via cold pressing. The fatty acids were esterified, and the fatty acid esters were analyzed by gas chromatography. Results: The native and traditional edible seeds and nuts contain mostly monounsaturated fatty acids (42.72 g to 63.44 g/100 g), except for the Brazil nut, which showed predominance of polyunsaturated fatty acids (45.48 g/100 g). Pequi almond had the highest saturated fatty acid content (36.14 g/100 g). The fatty acids with the highest concentration were oleic and linoleic acids, and palmitic acid was also found in considerable concentration in the oilseeds studied. The Cerrado cashew nut and the traditional cashew nut have similar fatty acid profiles. As for the ratio of ω-6 to ω-3, the baru almond showed the highest ratio, 9:1, which was the closest to the recommended intake of these fatty acids. Conclusion: The fatty acid profile of the edible seeds and nuts native to the cerrado is similar to those of traditional oilseeds. We suggest the inclusion of native oilseeds in the diet aiming at reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease, especially the baru almond and the cerrado cashew nut, due to the fact they have high ratio of monounsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids.

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a composição de nozes e sementes comestíveis nativas do cerrado, no que diz respeito aos ácidos graxos, e comparar com oleaginosas tradicionais. Métodos: A amêndoa de baru, a castanha-de-caju-do-cerrado e a amêndoa de pequi foram extraídas dos frutos com equipamentos apropriados. Todas as nozes e sementes comestíveis foram torradas, exceto a castanha-do-brasil. Os lipídeos das amostras foram extraídos a frio, os ácidos graxos foram esterificados e os ésteres de ácidos graxos foram analisados por cromatografia gasosa. Resultados: As nozes e sementes comestíveis tradicionais e nativas possuem, predominantemente, ácidos graxos monoinsaturados (42,72 g a 63,44 g/100 g), exceto a castanha-do-brasil, que apresentou predominância de ácidos graxos poli-insaturados (45,48 g/100 g). A amêndoa de pequi apresentou o maior teor de ácidos graxos saturados (36,14 g/100 g). Os ácidos graxos encontrados em maior concentração nas oleaginosas foram o ácido oleico e o linoleico; o ácido palmítico foi também detectado em proporções consideráveis. O perfil de ácidos graxos da castanha-de-caju-do-cerrado é comparável ao da castanha-de-caju tradicional. Quanto à relação entre ácidos graxos w-6 e w-3, a amêndoa de baru apresentou o valor de 9:1, mais próximo ao recomendado para consumo. Conclusão: O perfil de ácidos graxos das nozes e sementes comestíveis nativas do cerrado se assemelha ao das tradicionais. Sugere-se, portanto, a inclusão das oleaginosas nativas em planos alimentares que visem a redução do risco de doenças cardiovasculares, sobretudo a amêndoa de baru e a castanha-de-caju-do-cerrado, por suas elevadas concentrações de ácidos graxos monoinsaturados em relação aos ácidos graxos saturados.

Fatty Acids/therapeutic use , Arachis , Seeds , Cardiovascular Diseases/diet therapy , Anacardium , Bertholletia , Dipteryx , Nuts
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 49(6): 693-697, Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829668


Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Dengue fever is a viral disease transmitted by the Aedes aegypti Linn. (1792) (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito, which is endemic in several regions of Brazil. Alternative methods for the control of the vector include botanical insecticides, which offer advantages such as lower environmental contamination levels and less likelihood of resistant populations. Thus, in this study, the ability of botanical insecticide formulations to inhibit the activity of the liver enzymes serum cholinesterase and malate dehydrogenase was evaluated. METHODS: Inhibition profiles were assessed using in vitro assays for cholinesterase and malate dehydrogenase activity and quantitated by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy at 410nm to 340nm. RESULTS Insecticide products formulated from cashew nutshell liquid [A] and ricinoleic acid [B] showed cholinesterase activity levels of 6.26IU/mL and 6.61IU/mL, respectively, while the control level for cholinesterase was 5-12IU/mL. The products did not affect the level of 0.44IU/mL established for malate dehydrogenase, as the levels produced by [A] and [B] were 0.43IU/mL and 0.45IU/mL, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Our findings show that in vitro testing of the formulated products at concentrations lethal to A. aegypti did not affect the activity of cholinesterase and malate dehydrogenase, indicating the safety of these products.

Humans , Animals , Ricinoleic Acids/pharmacology , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Cholinesterases/drug effects , Anacardium/chemistry , Insecticides/pharmacology , Liver/enzymology , Malate Dehydrogenase/antagonists & inhibitors , Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet , In Vitro Techniques , Ricinoleic Acids/isolation & purification , Aedes , Insect Vectors/drug effects , Insecticides/isolation & purification
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 14(3): 191-198, jul. 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-853659


Objective:To evaluate the antimicrobial and ant-adherent in vitro activity of tannins isolated from Anacardium occidentale Linn. (Cashew) on dental biofilm bacteria. Material and Methods:Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Streptococcus mitis ATCC 903, Streptococcus sanguis ATCC 15300, Streptococcus oralis ATCC 10557, Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 7073 and Lactobacillus casei ATCC 9595 samples were used in this study. The tests were performed by the solid medium dilution method to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of Adherence (MICA) of bacteria to glass was determined in the presence of 5% sucrose. As a positive control, 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate was used. The substances were tested at concentrations of 1:1 (pure solution) up to 1:512. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the SPSS software,version 15.0. Results:Tannins isolated from Anacardium occidentale Linn. (cashew) formed inhibition halos ranging from 11 to 17 mm in diameter and were capable of inhibiting the growth of bacteria tested at concentrations of 1:4 (S mutans), 1:16 (S mitis), 1:8 (Ssanguis), 1:4 (S oralis), 1:8 (S salivarius) and 1:2 (L casei). The tannin solution was effective in inhibiting the adherence of microorganisms to glass, and its effect on Streptococcus sanguis (1:512) and Lactobacillus casei (1:512) stood out, showing ant-adherent effect at all concentrations tested. Conclusion:Tannin isolates produced in vitro antimicrobial and ant-adherent activity on dental biofilm-forming bacteria and can be considered as an alternative treatment in infectious processes in clinical dentistry

Anacardium , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Phytotherapy , Dental Plaque/microbiology , Salicylates , Brazil , Statistical Analysis , In Vitro Techniques/methods
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 38(2): 215-220, abr.-jun. 2016.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-2534


Leaves surfaces, which represent an interface with plants and the environment, have several structures with specific functions. Some foliar properties, including wettability and mechanical containment, are inferred in terms of cellular adaptation and the presence or absence of cuticular wax. Various morphological parameters, ranging from macro- to nano scales, are analyzed and contribute to the study of taxonomy, pharmacognosy, and ecology of plants. The aim of this paper was to analyze the effect and influence of epicuticular wax granules on the hydrophobicity of Anacardium occidentale L. leaf surfaces. Leaf specimens were directly examined with an environmental scanning electron microscope without metal coating. Images revealed epidermis ornament, stomata type, was, and trichomes. Static contact angle between water and the surface was also measured on both sides. On the adaxial side, an angle of 104.09° ± 0.95° was found, suggesting that adaxial surface is hydrophobic. On the abaxial side, the angle was 62.20° ± 1.60°, which indicates a hydrophilic nature, probably because of the greater amount of epicuticular wax on the adaxial leaf surface. The present investigation provided an important contribution to morphological and ultrastructural characterization of leaves of cashew tree, which is a plant of great medicinal and economic importance.

Superfícies de folhas têm diversas estruturas com funções específicas e contribuem para a relação delas com o meio ambiente. Algumas propriedades foliares, incluindo molhabilidade e contenção mecânica, são inferidas em termos de adaptação celular e da presença ou ausência de cera cuticular. Diversos parâmetros morfológicos, variando da macroescala até a nanoescala, são analisados e contribuem para o estudo de taxonomia, farmacognosia e ecologia de plantas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar o efeito e a influência de grãos de cera epicuticular na hidrofobicidade da superfície de folhas de Anacardium occidentale L. Amostras de folha foram examinadas com um microscópio eletrônico de varredura ambiental sem recobrimento metálico. As imagens evidenciaram algumas características (epiderme, tipo de estômato, cera e tricomas). O ângulo de contato estático entre a água e a superfície também foi medido em ambos os lados. No lado adaxial, foi encontrado um ângulo de 104,09° ± 0,95°, sugerindo que esta é hidrofóbica. No lado abaxial, o ângulo foi de 62,20° ± 1,60°, que indica uma natureza hidrofílica, provavelmente devido à grande quantidade de cera epicuticular na superfície abaxial da folha. A presente investigação forneceu uma contribuição importante para a caracterização morfológica e ultra-estrutural de folhas de cajueiro, que é uma planta de grande importância econômica.

Anacardium , Wettability , Amazonian Ecosystem , Anacardium , Microscopy, Electron