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J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(4): 406-410, Out.-Dec. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356446


Background: Fistula-in-ano is one of the most common clinical condition encountered in a surgical outpatient department. Many treatment modalities have been described with variable outcomes but gold standard surgical treatment is yet to be agreed upon. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the treatment outcomes of ligature of intersphincteric fistula tract (LIFT) technique in the treatment of simple and complex fistula-in-ano with the primary objective of recurrence rate and broad objective of other postoperative complications during the period of study and after long-term follow-up. Methods: It is a retrospective study of prospectively collected data from the patients who havebeen operated for fistula-in-ano using the LIFT technique at our institute from February 2018 to March 2020 and followed-up until September 2020. Results: A total of 56 patients with fistula-in-ano were treated with the LIFT procedure during the study period, of which 20 patients had simple fistula and 36 had complex fistula. A success rate of 83% was obtained with completely healed fistulas in 46 patients. No patient developed postoperative incontinence. Conclusion: Ligature of intersphincteric fistula tract is an effective treatmentmodality for fistula-in-ano with less procedure-related morbidity, but it is associated with a higher recurrence rate in simple fistula than in complex fistula. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Rectal Fistula/surgery , Rectal Fistula/therapy , Anal Canal/surgery , Recurrence
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(4): 348-354, Out.-Dec. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356439


Background: In transanalminimally-invasive surgery (TAMIS), the closure of the rectal defect is controversial, and endoluminal suture is one of the most challenging aspects. The goal of the present study is to evaluate the short- andmedium-term complications of a consecutive series of patients with extraperitoneal rectal injuries who underwent TAMIS without closure of the rectal defect. Materials and Methods: A prospective, longitudinal, descriptive study conducted between August 2013 and July 2019 in which all patients with extraperitoneal rectal lesions, who were operated on using the TAMIS technique, were consecutively included. The lesions were: benign lesions ≥ 3 cm; neuroendocrine tumors ≤ 2 cm; adenocarcinomas in stage T1N0; and adenocarcinomas in stage T2N0, with high surgical risk, or with the patients reluctant to undergo radical surgery, and others with doubts about complete remission after the neoadjuvant therapy. Bleeding, infectious complications, rectal stenosis, perforations, and death were evaluated. Results: A total of 35 patients were treated using TAMIS without closure of the defect. The average size of the lesionswas of 3.68±2.1 cm(95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 0.7cmto 9 cm), their average distance from the anal margin was of 5.7±1.48cm, and the average operative time was of 39.2±20.5 minutes, with a minimum postoperative follow-up of 1 year. As for the pathologies, they were: 15 adenomas; 3 carcinoid tumors; and 17 adenocarcinomas. In all cases, the rectal defect was left open. The overall morbidity was of 14.2%. Two patients (grade II in the Clavien-Dindo classification) were readmitted for pain treatment, and three patients (grade III in the Clavien-Dindo classification) were assisted due to postoperative bleeding, one of whom required reoperation. Conclusion: The TAMIS technique without closure of the rectal defect yields good results, and present a high feasibility and low complication rate. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anal Canal/surgery , Transanal Endoscopic Surgery , Anal Canal/injuries
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(4): 375-382, Out.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356443


Introduction: The literature converges regarding the use of C-reactive protein (CRP) tests between postoperative days (PODs) 3 and 5 of elective procedures. In this period, they have great sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) for severe and anastomotic complications about two days before the first clinical sign. The few studies on colorectal urgency suggest that, despite the different initial values according to the surgical indication, following POD 3, the level of CRP is similar to that of elective procedures. However, given the heterogeneity of the studies, there is no consensus on the cutoff values for this use. Objective: To validate the use and propose a PO CRP cut-off value in urgent colorectal procedures as an exclusion criterion for complications of anastomosis or the abdominal cavity. Method: Retrospective analysis of the medical records of 308 patients who underwent urgent colorectal surgical procedures between January 2017 and December 2019. The following data were considered: age, gender, surgical indication, type of procedure performed, complications, CRP levels preoperatively and from POD 1 to 4, and the severity of the complications. We compared the CRP levels and the percentage variations between the preoperative period and PODs 1 to 4 as markers of severe complications using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results: The levels of CRP on POD4, and their percentage drops between PODs 2 to 4 and PODs 3 to 4, were better to predict severe complications. A cutoff of 7.45mg/dL on POD 4 had 91.7% of sensitivity and NPV. A 50% drop between PODs 3 and 4 had 100% of sensitivity and NPV. Conclusion: Determining the level of CRP is useful to exclude severe complications, and it could be a criterion for hospital discharge in POD 4 of emergency colorectal surgery. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , C-Reactive Protein , Colorectal Surgery/adverse effects , Emergencies , Anal Canal/surgery , Rectum/surgery
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(4): 451-454, Out.-Dec. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356438


The evaluation of preventivemeasures and risk factors for anastomotic leakage has been a constant concern among colorectal surgeons. In this context, the description of a new way to perform a colorectal, coloanal or ileoanal anastomosis, known as transanal transection and single-stapled (TTSS) anastomosis, deserves an appreciation of its qualities, and a discussion about its properties and technical details. In the present paper, the authors review themost recent efforts aiming to reduce anastomotic dehiscence, and describe the TTSS technique in a patient submitted to laparoscopic total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for familial adenomatous polyposis. Surgical perception raises important advantages such as distal rectal transection under visualization, elimination of double-stapling lines (with cost-effectiveness and potential protection against suture dehiscence), elimination of dog ears, and the opportunity to be accomplished via a transanal approach after open, laparoscopic, or robotic colorectal resections. Future studies to confirm these supposed advantages are needed. (AU)

Humans , Anal Canal/surgery , Anastomosis, Surgical , Surgical Stapling , Rectum/surgery , Colon/surgery
Prensa méd. argent ; 107(6): 312-317, 20210000. tab, fig
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1359107


Antecedentes: la fístula de ano es un problema crónico para los pacientes. Causa angustia debido al mal olor y la suciedad con infecciones y secreciones recurrentes. La recurrencia y la lesión del esfínter anal fueron las complicaciones más críticas después de la cirugía. La colocación de un setón suelto y grueso fue la operación quirúrgica más prometedora. Reducir el tiempo de colocación del setón para disminuir el sufrimiento de los pacientes por la suciedad y múltiples apósitos. Pacientes y métodos: estudio retrospectivo. Cien pacientes con fístula anal alta tratados quirúrgicamente en la ciudad médica de Al-Sader y en la clínica privada diaria de Al-Najaf, ciudad de Najaf, Irak, desde febrero de 2018 hasta marzo de 2019. Se han tomado imágenes de fistulografía y resonancia magnética de todos los pacientes. Después de eso, se realiza una fistulectomía con sutura de setón suelta y gruesa durante tres meses. Los pacientes con persistencia del trayecto de trayecto fistuloso fueron sometidos a una segunda cirugía y una tercera operación hasta su completa curación. Resultados: Cien pacientes con fístula de tipo alto en ano con 96 varones (96%) y mujeres 4 (4%). La tasa de curación completa entre los pacientes masculinos después de la primera operación fue de 90 (93%), mientras que las mujeres mostraron una tasa de curación completa de 4 (100%) después de la primera operación. Tres de los pacientes varones restantes con un tracto de fístula alto persistente mostraron una curación completa después de la segunda operación, mientras que en 3 (3%) la tasa de curación completa fue del 100% después de la tercera operación. Conclusión: Un setón suelto y grueso colocado en un tracto de fístula de tipo alto durante tres meses brinda una excelente protección al esfínter anal externo con una tasa de recurrencia menor y una curación rápida.

Background: Fistula in ano is a chronic problem for the patients. It causes distressing because of foul odour and soiling with recurrent infection and discharge. Recurrence and anal sphincter injury were the most critical complications following surgery. Loose, thick seton placement was the most promising surgical operation. To reduce the time of seton placement, therefore, decreasing the suffering of patients from soiling and multiple dressing. Patients and Methods: A retrospective study. One hundred patients with high type fistula in ano treated surgically in Al-Sader Medical city and Al-Najaf daily private clinic, Najaf city, Iraq from Feb 2018 to March 2019. Fistulography and magnetic resonance imaging have taken from all patients. After that, fistulectomy with loose, thick seton suture placed for three months. Patients with the persistence of high fistula tract underwent a second surgery and third operation until complete healing. Results: One hundred patients with high type fistula in ano with male 96 (96%) and female patients were 4 (4%). The rate of complete healing among male patients after the first operation was 90 (93%), while female patients showed a 4(100%) rate of complete healing after the first operation. Three of the remaining male patients with persistently high fistula tract showed complete healing after the second operation, whereas 3 (3%) the rate of complete healing was 100% after the third operation. Conclusion: A Loose, thick seton placed in high type fistula tract for three months provides excellent protection to the external anal sphincter with less recurrence rate and rapid healing

Humans , Anal Canal/injuries , Recurrence , Reoperation/methods , Sutures , Retrospective Studies , Rectal Fistula/surgery , Rectal Fistula/therapy
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(3): 265-274, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346412


Abstract Objectives To evaluate different types of perianal fistulas and their complications on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to compare plain, contrast, and jelly magnetic resonance fistulography findings. Materials and Methods This prospective study was performed in 30 patients who presented with perianal pus discharge or external fistulous opening. Magnetic resonance imaging of the perianal region before and after giving intravenous contrast and after injecting jelly through a percutaneous opening was performed on a 3T scanner and the results were correlated. Results The mean age of the patients was 40.13±13.88 years (range 19-75 years). The male to female ratio was 14:1. The most common type of fistula was St. James classification type I, which was seen in 13 patients (43%), followed by type IV in 30%, type III in 16%, type II in 6.66%, and type V in 3.33% of the patients. Using agreement analysis, we compared the number of primary and secondary tracts, internal openings, and horseshoe tracts and found a significant agreement between plain and post Jelly MRI fistulography (kappa statistic close to 1).When comparing plain and contrast MRI, there was significant agreement in the primary and secondary tracts, while statistically insignificant results were obtained (p>0.05) for the horseshoe tract and internal openings. Contrast injection was helpful in 7 subjects (23.3%) as peripheral enhancement of abscesses were better delineated. Conclusion Magnetic resonance imaging is the one stop diagnostic modality for perianal fistulas. Acquisition of axial (Ax) T2, axial T2 FS, coronal T2 and coronal T2 FS sequences without administering intravenous contrast or jelly is usually sufficient for the diagnosis of fistulas and their complications.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Rectal Fistula/diagnostic imaging , Anal Canal/diagnostic imaging
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(3): 222-227, July-Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346422


Introduction: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is a premalignant lesion of the anal canal associated with HPV, with a higher prevalence in immunosuppressed individuals. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at potential risk for their development, due to the use of immunosuppressants and certain characteristics of the disease. Method: This is a prospective, cross-sectional, and interventional study that included 53 patients with IBD treated at a tertiary outpatient clinic, who underwent anal smear for cytology in order to assess the prevalence of AIN and associated risk factors. Results: Forty-eight samples were negative for dysplasia and 2 were positive (4%). Both positive samples occurred in women, with Crohn's disease (CD), who were immunosuppressed and had a history of receptive anal intercourse. Discussion: The prevalence of anal dysplasia in IBD patients in this study is similar to that described in low-risk populations. Literature data are scarce and conflicting and there is no evidence to recommend screening with routine anal cytology in patients with IBD. Female gender, history of receptive anal intercourse, immunosuppression and CD seem to be risk factors. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Anal Canal/injuries , Anus Neoplasms/epidemiology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Anal Canal/cytology , Crohn Disease
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(3): 217-221, July-Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346423


Background: High perianal fistula treatment remains challenging, mainly due to the variability in success and recurrence rates as well as continence impairment risks. So far, no procedure can be considered the gold standard for surgical treatment. Yet, strong efforts to identify effective and complication-free surgical options are ongoing. Fistulotomy can be considered the best perianal fistula treatment option, providing a perfect surgical field view, allowing direct access to the source of chronic inflammation. Controversy exists concerning the risk of continence impairment associated with fistulotomy. The present study aimed to assess the outcomes of fistulotomy with immediate sphincteric reconstruction regaring fistula recurrence, incontinence, and patient satisfaction. Methods: This interventional study was performed at the General Surgery Department of Zagazig University Hospital during the period from July 2018 to December 2019 on 24 patients with a clinical diagnosis of high transsphincteric fistula-in-ano. The fistulous tract was laid open over the probe placed in the tract. After the fistula tract had been laid open, the tract was curetted and examined for secondary extensions. Then, suturing muscles to muscles, including the internal and external sphincters, by transverse mattress sutures. Results: Our study showed that 2 patients develop incontinence to flatus ~ 8.3%.and only one patient develop incontinence to loose stool, 4.2%. Complete healing was achieved in 83% and recurrence was 16.6%. Conclusion: Fistulotomy with immediate sphincteric reconstruction is considered to be an effective option in the management of high perianal fistula, with low morbidity and high healing rate with acceptable continence state. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Anal Canal/surgery , Rectal Fistula/surgery , Rectal Fistula/therapy , Comorbidity , Treatment Outcome
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(3): 332-334, July-Sept. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346424


The present report describes the end-to-end technique of anal sphincter repair in a 36-year-old female patient with post-vaginal delivery fecal incontinence (FI). The patient had a history of two vaginal deliveries and the symptoms of FI were observed after the second delivery. On assessment of the severity of FI using the Wexner incontinence score, the patient had a score of 12. Endoanal ultrasonography revealed an anterior defect of the external anal sphincter extending from 11 to 3 o'clock. The patient had no previous anal surgery and did not have any medical comorbidities. The operation time was 45minutes. No intraoperative complications were recorded. At 12 months of follow-up, the patient showed significant improvement in the continence state, with her Wexner score dropping to 4. No postoperative complications were recorded. We can conclude that end-to-end anal sphincter repair is a technically feasible operation that confers satisfactory improvement in the continence state without imposing much tension on the site of sphincter repair. (AU)

Humans , Female , Adult , Anal Canal/surgery , Fecal Incontinence/therapy , Delivery, Obstetric/adverse effects
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(3): 275-280, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346428


Introduction: Crohn's disease (CD) is an inflammatory bowel disease, and in ~ 30% of cases it is associated with perianalmanifestations. To identify the extent of the damage and to implement an appropriate treatment, anorectal examination under anesthesia (EUA) is fundamental. Objective: To describe the profile of patients who underwent anorectal EUA in university and private hospitals in the state of Bahia, Brazil. Methodology: A retrospective, descriptive study with 46 patients who underwent anorectal EUA between March, 2016 and November, 2019. Results: A total of 62 anorectal EUAs were performed in 46 patients. With an average age of 36.8 years, the female gender was predominant (52.2%) among these patients. Anal fistulas were the most frequent findings (83.8%), and in most cases they were treated with a seton placement (69.4%). The main recommended surgical indication was a proper evaluation and identification of perianal disease, followed by drainage of the abscess and therefore immunobiological therapy (59.6%). Conclusion: In the present study, the profile of CD patients was similar to those found in the literature, with a high rate of complex anal fistulas. Additional studies are still necessary to further comprehend and treat this particular and debilitating manifestation of the disease. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Rectal Diseases/epidemiology , Crohn Disease , Anesthesia, Rectal , Anal Canal/physiopathology , Rectal Diseases/complications
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(2): 185-189, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285312


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Surgical treatment of recurrent anal fistulas can lead to numerous complications, including fecal incontinence. Therefore, sphincter preserving techniques are gaining more popularity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy in the patients with recurrent cryptoglandular anal fistulas. METHODS: A cohort of 18 patients with anal fistulas was enrolled into a preliminary and prospective trial. They were divided into two groups consisting of eight and ten patients respectively. PRP was injected locally in all patients, however in the group II it was applied after 7 days drainage of fistulas with polyurethane foam or negative pressure wound therapy. On average, three doses of PRP were administered, but with the opportunity to double the number of applications if it was clinically justified. The patients were evaluated in an out-patient department after fortnight and then in 1, 6, and 12 months following the last PRP application. RESULTS: Anal fistulas were closed in 4 (50%) patients from the group I and in 7 (70%) patients form the group II. Although, the difference between both groups was not statistically significant, PRP therapy should be preceded with fistulous tract drainage in all patients. Summarizing, that successful result was achieved in 11 (60%) patients from the entire group of 18 participants. CONCLUSION: The rate of recurrent cryptoglandular anal fistulas closure reaching 60%, after topical treatment with PRP, exceeds the results of other sphincter-saving methods of treatment. Therefore, it might become a novel method of anal fistulas therapy.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: O tratamento cirúrgico de fístulas anais recorrentes pode levar a inúmeras complicações, incluindo incontinência fecal. Portanto, as técnicas de preservação do esfíncter estão ganhando mais popularidade. OBJETIVO: O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a eficácia da terapia de plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP) nos pacientes com fístulas anais criptoglandulares recorrentes. MÉTODOS: Uma coorte de 18 pacientes com fístulas anais foi inscrita em ensaio preliminar e prospectivo. Eles foram divididos em dois grupos compostos por 8 e 10 pacientes, respectivamente. PRP foi injetado localmente em todos os pacientes, porém no grupo II foi aplicado espuma de poliuretano ou terapia de feridas por pressão negativa após 7 dias de drenagem de fístulas. Em média, foram administradas três doses de PRP, mas com a oportunidade de dobrar o número de aplicações se fosse clinicamente justificado. Os pacientes foram avaliados em ambulatório após quinze dias e depois em 1, 6 e 12 meses após a última aplicação do PRP. RESULTADOS: As fístulas anais foram fechadas em 4 (50%) pacientes do grupo I e em 7 (70%) pacientes do grupo II. Embora a diferença entre ambos os grupos não tenha sido estatisticamente significante, a terapia PRP deve ser precedida de drenagem do trato fístulo em todos os pacientes. Resumindo, esse resultado bem-sucedido foi alcançado em 11 (60%) pacientes de todo o grupo de 18 participantes. CONCLUSÃO: A taxa de fechamento recorrente de fístulas anais criptoglandulares chegando a 60%, após tratamento tópico com PRP, excede os resultados de outros métodos de tratamento que preservam o esfíncter. Portanto, pode se tornar um novo método de terapia das fístulas anais.

Humans , Rectal Fistula , Platelet-Rich Plasma , Fecal Incontinence , Anal Canal , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(1): 70-78, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286965


Abstract Introduction The present study aims to identify normal high-resolution anorectal manometry (HRAM) values and related factors in healthy Vietnamese adults. Methods The present cross-sectional study was conducted at the Viet Duc hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam, during April and May 2019. Healthy volunteers were recruited to participate in the study. Anorectal measurement values from the digestive tract, including pressure, were recorded. Results A total of 76 healthy volunteers were recruited. The mean functional anal canal length was 4.2 ± 0.5 cm, while the mean anal high-pressure zone length was 3.4 ± 0.5 cm. Themean defecation index was 1.4 ± 0.8, with values ranging from 0.3 to 5.0. The mean threshold volume to elicit the rectoanal inhibitory reflex (RAIR) was 18.1 mL. The mean rectal sensation values were 32.4mL, 81.6mL, and 159 mL for first sensation, desire to defecate, and urge to defecate, respectively. Dyssynergic patterns occurred in ~ 50% of the study participants and included mainly types I (27.6%) and III (14.6%). There were significant differences between male and female patients in terms of maximum anal squeeze pressure, maximum anal cough pressure, maximum anal strain pressure, maximum rectal cough pressure, and maximum rectal strain pressure (all p<0.01). Conclusions The present study establishes normal HRAM values in healthy Vietnamese adults, particularly regarding normal values of anorectal pressure and rectal sensation. Further studies that include larger sample sizes should be conducted to further confirm the constants and their relationships.

Resumo Introdução O presente estudo tem como objetivo identificar valores normais de manometria anorretal de alta resolução e fatores relacionados em adultos vietnamitas saudáveis. Métodos O presente estudo transversal foi conduzido no hospital Viet Duc, Hanói, Vietnã, durante abril e maio de 2019. Voluntários saudáveis foram recrutados para participar do estudo. Valores de medição anorretal, incluindo pressão do trato digestivo, foram registrados. Resultados Um total de 76 voluntários saudáveis foram recrutados. O comprimento funcional médio do canal anal foi de 4,2 ± 0,5 cm, enquanto o comprimento médio da zona anal de alta pressão foi de 3,4 ± 0,5 cm. O índice médio de defecação foi de 1,4 ± 0,8, com valores variando de 0,3 a 5,0. O volume limite médio para eliciar o reflexo inibitório retoanal (RAIR, sigla em inglês) foi de 18,1 mL. Os valores médios da sensação retal foram 32,4mL, 81,6mL e 159 mL para a primeira sensação, o desejo de defecar e a urgência de defecar, respectivamente. Os padrões dissinérgicos ocorreram em aproximadamente 50% dos participantes do estudo e incluíram principalmente os tipos I (27,6%) e III (14,6%). Houve diferenças significativas entre homens e mulheres na pressão de compressão anal máxima, pressão de tosse anal máxima, pressão de distensão anal máxima, pressão de tosse retal máxima e pressão de distensão retal máxima (todos p<0,01). Conclusões O presente estudo estabelece valores normais de HRAM em adultos vietnamitas saudáveis, particularmente no que diz respeito aos valores normais de pressão anorretal e sensação retal. Mais estudos que incluam tamanhos de amostra maiores devemser realizados a fim de confirmar melhor as constantes e suas relações.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Anal Canal/anatomy & histology , Manometry/standards , Manometry/statistics & numerical data
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(1): 30-36, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286963


Abstract Objective Several techniques are used to repair the anal sphincter following injury. The aim of the present study is to comprehensively analyze the short- and long-term outcomes of overlap repair following anal sphincter injury. Methods A search was conducted in the PubMed, Medline, Embase, Scopus and Google Scholar databases between January 2000 and January 2020. Studies that described the outcomes that are specific to overlap sphincter repair for fecal incontinence with a minimum follow-up period of one year were selected. Results A total of 22 studies described the outcomes of overlap sphincter repair. However, 14 studies included other surgical techniques in addition to overlap repair, and were excluded from the analysis. Finally, data from 8 studies including 429 repairs were analyzed. All studies used at least one objective instrument; however, there was significant heterogeneity among them. Most patients were female (n=407; 94.87%) and the mean age of the included individuals was 44.6 years. The majority of the procedures were performed due to obstetric injuries (n=384; 89.51%). The eight included studies described long-term outcomes, and seven of them demonstrated statistically significant improvements regarding the continence; one study described poor outcomes in terms of overall continence. The long-term scores were significantly better compared with the preoperative scores. However, compared with the shortterm scores, a statistically significant deterioration was noted in the long-term. Conclusion The majority of the studies described good long-term outcomes in terms of anal continence after overlap sphincter repair. However, further studies are needed

Resumo Objetivo Diversas técnicas são usadas no reparo do esfíncter anal após lesões. O objetivo deste estudo é fazer uma análise completa dos desfechos nos curto e longo prazos do reparo por sobreposição após lesão do esfíncter anal. Métodos Realizou-se uma busca nas bases de dados PubMed, Medline, Embase, Scopus e Google Scholar entre janeiro de 2000 e janeiro de 2020. Estudos que descreviam desfechos específicos do reparo de esfíncter por sobreposição para incontinência fecal, com um mínimo de 1 ano de seguimento, foram selecionados. Resultados No total, 22 estudos descreviam os desfechos do reparo de esfíncter por sobreposição. No entanto, 14 estudos incluíam outras técnicas cirúrgicas além do reparo por sobreposição, e foram excluídos da análise. Por fim, dados de 8 estudos que incluíam 429 reparos foram analisados. Todos os estudos usaram pelo menos um instrumento objetivo, mas havia uma heterogeneidade significativa entre eles. A maioria dos pacientes era do sexo feminino (n=407; 94,87%), e a idade média dos indivíduos incluídos foi de 44,6 anos. A maioria das cirurgias foi realizada devido a lesões obstétricas (n=384; 89,51%). Os oito estudos incluídos descreveram os desfechos no longo prazo, e sete deles demonstraram melhoras estatisticamente significativas com relação à continência; um estudo descreveu resultados ruins em termos gerais com relação à continência. As pontuações no longo prazo foram significativamente melhores em comparação com as pontuações no pré-operatório. No entanto, em comparação com as pontuações no curto prazo, percebeu-se uma piora estatisticamente significativa no longo prazo. Conclusão A maioria dos estudos descrevia bons resultados no longo prazo em termos de continência anal depois do reparo do esfíncter por sobreposição. Entretanto mais estudos são necessários para que se identifiquem os fatores associados aos desfechos ruins para auxiliar na seleção de pacientes para o reparo por sobreposição.

Humans , Male , Female , Anal Canal/surgery , Anal Canal/injuries , Rectal Diseases/surgery , Fecal Incontinence/etiology
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(1): 58-64, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156971


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The results from sphincteroplasty may worsen over time. Reseparation of the rectum and vagina/scrotum in conjunction with sphincteroplasty achieves good results. Improving the surgical effect of sphincteroplasty through perineal body reconstruction is crucial. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term results from anterior sphincteroplasty and perineal body reconstruction (modified sphincteroplasty) among patients with traumatic sphincter injury. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective study among patients who underwent modified sphincteroplasty in a university hospital between January 2006 and December 2018. Fifty patients were evaluated in detail. METHODS: The following variables were evaluated: gender, age, additional disease status, time interval between trauma and surgery, surgical technique, duration of hospitalization, follow-up period after surgery, manometric values, electromyography results, magnetic resonance imaging scans, Wexner scores, satisfaction levels with surgery and surgical outcomes. RESULTS: The patients' mean age was 44.6 ± 15.1 years. The median follow-up period was 62 months (range, 12-118). The mean Wexner scores preoperatively, postoperatively in first month (M1S) and at the time of this report (AAS) were 15.5 ± 3.2, 1.9 ± 3.15 and 3.9 ± 5.3, respectively. Although improvements in the patients' mean Wexner scores became impaired over time, the postoperative Wexner scores were still significantly better than the preoperative Wexner scores (P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Good or excellent results were obtained surgically among patients with traumatic sphincter injury. Performing perineal body reconstruction in addition to sphincteroplasty can provide better long-term continence. Surgical outcomes were found to be better, especially among patients younger than 50 years of age and among patients who underwent surgery within the first five years after trauma.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Fecal Incontinence/surgery , Fecal Incontinence/etiology , Anal Canal/surgery , Vagina , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880632


OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the clinical efficacy of laparoscopic modified Parks operation on the patients with ultra-low rectal cancer.@*METHODS@#According to the preoperative stage and intraoperative anastomotic position, 98 patients with ultra-low rectal cancer above T2 stage underwent laparoscopic Dixon operation, modified Parks operation and Miles operation, respectively. All patients were divided into 3 groups: a Dixon operation group (@*RESULTS@#The patients were more obese, the distance between tumor and anal margin was closer, and the operation time was longer in the modified Parks operation group than those in the Dixon operation group (all @*CONCLUSIONS@#Laparoscopic modified Parks operation is a safe, economical and effective anus preservation operation, which can not only save the anus for some patients who had to perform Miles operation, but also recover better and faster after operation. Although the early anal function of patients performed with the modified operation is poor, it can gradually recover to the same level as the patients performed with the Dixon operation.

Anal Canal/surgery , Humans , Laparoscopy , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 34(2): e1594, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345010


ABSTRACT Background: Varicose veins appear above and below the dentate line in mixed hemorrhoids, which seriously affects anal function and quality of life. Aim: To propose an improvement in tissue-selecting therapy repair of anal pad combined with complete anal canal epithelial retention comparing with Milligan-Morgan surgery. Methods: A prospective randomized controlled study was designed enrolling 200 patients with grade III and IV hemorrhoids. They were divided into control and observation groups. The control received Milligan-Morgan surgery, and the observation the modified tissue-selecting therapy stapler combined with complete anal canal preservation surgery. All patients were followed for six months to evaluate the treatment differences. Results: In final, control group included 82 and observation 87. The average operation time of the control group was significantly lower than that of the observation, while the bleeding volume was significantly lower in control group. The control group VAS score was 3 (1, 4), and observation 4 (2, 5). There was no significant difference in the incidence of urinary retention, bleeding and wound margin edema after surgery at one month postoperatively. Digital incidence of anal stenosis in the observation group was significantly lower than in control; the same occurred with residual anal margins. The postoperative anal canal diameter was significantly larger than the control group. Wexner anal incontinence score showed that no anal incontinence occurred in both groups, and the control group scored was significantly higher than observation. In final six months follow-up, the observation group did not experience any relapse and four cases were found among controls. The treatment satisfaction of the observation group was better. Conclusions: In grades III and IV hemorrhoids, modified tissue-selecting therapy combined with complete anal canal preservation had better prognosis and treatment satisfaction than Milligan-Morgan procedure, and it is a new surgical method for patients with advanced mixed hemorrhoids.

RESUMO Racional: Veias varicosas aparecem acima e abaixo da linha dentada nas hemorroidas mistas, afetando seriamente a função anal e a qualidade de vida. Objetivo: Propor melhoria na terapia de seleção de tecido de reparo do coxim anal combinado com retenção completa epitelial do canal anal em comparação com a operação de Milligan-Morgan. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo randomizado controlado foi desenhado envolvendo 200 pacientes com hemorroidas graus III e IV. Eles foram divididos em grupos de controle e observação. O controle recebeu operação de Milligan-Morgan, e o de observação procedimento de seleção de tecido modificado combinado com operação completa de preservação do canal anal. Todos os pacientes foram acompanhados por seis meses para avaliar as diferenças de tratamento. Resultados: No final, o grupo controle incluiu 82 e o de observação 87. O tempo médio de operação do grupo controle foi significativamente menor do que o de observação, enquanto o volume de sangramento foi significativamente menor no grupo controle. O escore VAS do grupo controle foi 3 (1, 4) e no de observação 4 (2, 5). Não houve diferença significativa na incidência de retenção urinária, sangramento e edema da margem da ferida no pós-operatório de um mês. A incidência de estenose anal digital no grupo observação foi significativamente menor do que no controle; o mesmo ocorreu com as margens anais residuais. O diâmetro do canal anal pós-operatório foi significativamente maior nele do que o grupo controle. A pontuação de incontinência anal de Wexner mostrou que nenhuma incontinência ocorreu em ambos os grupos, e a pontuação do grupo de controle foi significativamente maior do que no de observação. Nos últimos seis meses de acompanhamento, o grupo observação não teve nenhuma recaída e quatro casos foram encontrados entre os controles. A satisfação com o tratamento do grupo observação foi maior. Conclusões: Nas hemorroidas graus III e IV, o tratamento de seleção de tecido modificado combinado com a preservação completa do canal anal teve melhor prognóstico e satisfação do que com o procedimento de Milligan-Morgan, e é um novo método cirúrgico para pacientes com hemorroidas mistas avançadas.

Humans , Hemorrhoidectomy , Hemorrhoids/surgery , Anal Canal/surgery , Quality of Life , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 34(1): e1580, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284905


ABSTRACT Background: Due to the lack of normal standards of anorectal manometry in Brazil, data used are subject to normality patterns described at different nationalities. Aim: To determine the values and range of the parameters evaluated at anorectal manometry in people, at productive age, without pelvic floor disorders comparing the parameters obtained between male and female. Methods: Prospective analysis of clinical data, such as gender, age, race, body mass index (BMI) and anorectal manometry, of volunteers from a Brazilian university reference in pelvic floor disorders. Results: Forty patients were included, with a mean age of 45.5 years in males and 37.2 females (p=0.43). According to male and female, respectively in mmHg, resting pressures were similar (78.28 vs. 63.51, p=0.40); squeeze pressures (153.89 vs. 79.78, p=0.007) and total squeeze pressures (231.27 vs. 145.63, p=0.002). Men presented significantly higher values of anorectal squeeze pressures, as well as the average length of the functional anal canal (2.85 cm in male vs. 2.45 cm in female, p=0.003). Conclusions: Normal sphincter pressure levels in Brazilians differ from those used until now as normal literature standards. Male gender has higher external anal sphincter tonus as compared to female, in addition a greater extension of the functional anal canal

RESUMO Racional: Devido à falta de padrões normais de manometria anorretal no Brasil, os dados utilizados estão sujeitos a padrões de normalidade descritos em diferentes nacionalidades . Objetivo: Determinar os valores e a faixa da manometria anorretal de pessoas em idade produtiva, sem distúrbios do assoalho pélvico, comparando os parâmetros obtidos entre homens e mulheres. Métodos: Análise prospectiva de dados clínicos, como gênero, idade, raça, índice de massa corporal (IMC) e manometria anorretal, de voluntários de uma referência universitária brasileira em distúrbios do assoalho pélvico. Resultados: Quarenta pessoas foram incluídas, com idade média de 45,5 anos nos homens e 37,2 nas mulheres (p=0,43). De acordo com homens e mulheres, respectivamente em mmHg, as pressões de repouso foram semelhantes (78,28 vs. 63,51, p=0,40); pressões de contração (153,89 vs. 79,78, p=0,007) e pressão total de compressão (231,27 vs. 145,63, p=0,002). Os homens apresentaram valores significativamente maiores de contração esfincteriana, assim como o comprimento médio do canal anal funcional (2,85 cm nos homens vs. 2,45 cm nas mulheres, p=0,003). Conclusões: Os níveis normais de pressão esfincteriana no Brasil diferem dos utilizados até o momento como padrão normal da literatura. O gênero masculino apresenta maior tônus ​​do esfíncter anal externo em relação ao feminino, além de maior extensão do canal anal funcional

Humans , Male , Female , Pelvic Floor Disorders , Anal Canal , Rectum , Volunteers , Brazil , Prospective Studies , Manometry , Middle Aged
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 34(1): e1560, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248509


ABSTRACT Background: Transanal hemorrhoidal dearterialization (THD) is safe and effective minimally invasive treatment for hemorrhoidal disease, but reports regarding recurrence and postoperative complications (pain and tenesmus) vary significantly. Aim: To evaluate if selective dearterialization and mucopexy at the symptomatic hemorrhoid only, without Doppler guidance, achieves adequate control of the prolapse and bleeding and if postoperative morbidity is reduced with this technique. Methods: Twenty consecutive patients with grade II and III hemorrhoids were treated with this new approach and were evaluated for postoperative complications and recurrence. Results: Control of prolapse and bleeding was achieved in all patients (n=20). Postoperative complications were tenesmus (n=2), external hemorrhoidal thrombosis (n=2) and urinary retention (n=2). After a mean follow-up of 13 months no recurrences were diagnosed. Conclusion: Selective dearterialization and mucopexy is safe and achieves adequate control of prolapse and bleeding and, by minimizing sutures in the anal canal, postoperative morbidity is diminished. Doppler probe is unnecessary for this procedure, which makes it also more interesting from an economic perspective.

RESUMO Racional: O tratamento da doença hemorroidária pela técnica de THD (Transanal Hemorrhoidal Dearterialization) é minimamente invasivo e tem se mostrado seguro e eficiente. No entanto, dados sobre a recorrência e complicações (dor e tenesmo) no pós-operatório são muito variáveis. Objetivo: Avaliar se a desarterialização e mucopexia seletiva, sem o uso de Doppler, é suficiente para o controle de sintomas e se a morbidade pós-operatória é menor com esta técnica. Métodos: Vinte pacientes foram tratados com essa técnica e avaliados sobre controle de sintomas, morbidade pós-operatória e recorrência. Resultados: Controle do prolapso e sangramento foi observado em todos pacientes (n=20). Complicações pós-operatórias foram: tenesmo (n=2), trombose hemorroidária externa (n=2), retenção urinária (n=2). Após um seguimento médio de 13 meses, nenhuma recorrência foi detectada. Conclusões: O procedimento de desarterialização e mucopexias seletivas é seguro e eficiente em termos de controle do prolapso e sangramento. Esta técnica resulta em menor morbidade cirúrgica, uma vez que diminui o número de suturas no canal anal, resultando em menos dor e tenesmo pós-operatório. Para este procedimento o uso de ultrassom Doppler é desnecessário, o que diminui custos e o torna mais atrativo do ponto de vista econômico.

Humans , Hemorrhoidectomy , Hemorrhoids/surgery , Anal Canal , Arteries/surgery , Rectum , Treatment Outcome , Ultrasonography, Doppler , Ligation
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 34(1): e1572, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248505


ABSTRACT Background: Treating anal fistulae is still a great challenge due to the possibility of fecal incontinence after surgery and that the use of laser has been gaining space in medicine, including as an inducing method of healing. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of low-level laser therapy on fistula-in-ano treatment in rats. Methods: Fifteen male Wistar rats weighing approximately 250-300g were used, which were subjected to the anal fistula induction procedure and after 30 days were distributed into two groups: control group (CG, n=5) and laser group (LG, n=10) observed for another 30 days. In the CG no treatment was performed and, in the LG, low-level laser therapy was applied in fistulous tracts daily. The closure of the fistulous tract, the area of the remaining tract, the inflammatory infiltrate and vascular congestion were evaluated. Results: There was no complete closure of the tract in any of the animals. The mean area of the remaining tract was 847.2 µm2 in the CG and 248.5 µm2 in the LG (p=0.001). The mean inflammatory infiltrate score was 2.4 in the CG and 1.3 in the LG (p=0.0285), while in the evaluation of vascular congestion, 1.6 was observed in the CG and 0.6 in the LG (p=0.031). Conclusions: Low-level laser therapy was able to reduce the area of the fistulous tracts as well as decrease the inflammatory process and local vascular congestion.

RESUMO Racional: Tratamento de fístulas anais ainda é grande desafio devido à possibilidade de incontinência fecal pós-operatória; o uso do laser vem ganhando espaço na medicina, inclusive como método indutor de cicatrização. Objetivo: Avaliar a eficácia da terapia a laser de baixa potência no tratamento de fístula perianal em ratos. Métodos: Foram utilizados 15 ratos Wistar machos com peso aproximado de 250-300 g, os quais foram submetidos à indução da fístula anal e após 30 dias foram distribuídos em dois grupos: grupo controle (GC, n=5) e grupo laser (GL, n=10) observado por mais 30 dias. No GC nenhum tratamento foi realizado e no LG laserterapia de baixa intensidade foi aplicada nos trajetos fistulosos diariamente. Foram avaliados o fechamento do trajeto fistuloso, a área do trajeto remanescente, o infiltrado inflamatório e a congestão vascular. Resultados: Não houve fechamento completo do trajeto fistuloso em nenhum dos animais. A área média do trajeto remanescente foi de 847,2µm2 no GC e 248,5µm2 no GL (p=0,001). O escore médio do infiltrado inflamatório foi de 2,4 no GC e 1,3 no GL (p=0,0285), enquanto na avaliação da congestão vascular foi observado 1,6 no GC e 0,6 no GL (p=0,031). Conclusões: A terapia a laser de baixa potência foi capaz de reduzir a área dos trajetos fistulosos, bem como diminuir o processo inflamatório e a congestão vascular local.

Animals , Male , Rats , Rectal Fistula/surgery , Low-Level Light Therapy , Fecal Incontinence , Anal Canal , Wound Healing , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021289, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249012


Stratified mucin-producing intraepithelial lesion (SMILE) is an intraepithelial lesion with overlapping features of the high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS). Currently, it is well described in the cervix. We present a case showing similar SMILE-like lesions in the polypectomy specimen from the anal canal along with invasive adenocarcinoma components. This lesion showed an immuno-profile characteristic of a SMILE lesion described in the cervix, such as p63 negativity, high ki67 index, and nuclear positivity for p16. It might be arising from the Human papillomavirus prone transitional region of the anal canal as described in the cervix. However, we could not assure this association and etiological link due to insufficient material in the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded block. Notwithstanding, we strongly suggest that the HPV is the main driver for this SMILE-like lesion similar to what is described in the cervix. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a SMILE lesion in the anal canal. Further studies will be required to elucidate the underlying pathogenetic mechanism of SMILE-like lesions described in the anal canal.

Humans , Male , Adult , Anal Canal/pathology , Carcinoma in Situ , Adenocarcinoma , Polyps