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Rev. argent. coloproctología ; 35(1): 33-36, mar. 2024. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1551665


Introducción: El traumatismo anorrectal es una causa poco frecuente de consulta al servicio de emergencias, con una incidencia del 1 al 3%. A menudo está asociado a lesiones potencialmente mortales, por esta razón, es fundamental conocer los principios de diagnóstico y tratamiento, así como los protocolos de atención inicial de los pacientes politraumatizados. Método: Reportamos el caso de un paciente masculino de 47 años con trauma anorrectal contuso con compromiso del esfínter anal interno y externo, tratado con reparación primaria del complejo esfinteriano con técnica de overlapping, rafia de la mucosa, submucosa y muscular del recto. A los 12 meses presenta buena evolución sin incontinencia anal. Conclusión: El tratamiento del trauma rectal, basado en el dogma de las 4 D (desbridamiento, derivación fecal, drenaje presacro, lavado distal) fue exitoso. La técnica de overlapping para la lesión esfinteriana fue simple y efectiva para la reconstrucción anatómica y funcional. (AU)

Introduction: Anorectal trauma is a rare cause of consultation to the Emergency Department, with an incidence of 1 to 3%. It is often associated with life-threatening injuries, so it is essential to know the principles of diagnosis and treatment, as well as the initial care protocols for the polytrau-matized patient. Methods: We present the case of a 47-year-old man with a blunt anorectal trauma involving the internal and external anal sphincter, treated with primary overlapping repair of the sphincter complex and suturing of the rectal wall. At 12 months the patient presents good outcome, without anal incontinence. Conclusion: The treatment of rectal trauma, based on the 4 D ́s dogma (debridement, fecal diversion, presacral drainage, distal rectal washout lavage) was successful. Repair of the overlapping sphincter injury was simple and effective for anatomical and functional reconstruction. (AU)

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Anal Canal/surgery , Anal Canal/injuries , Rectum/surgery , Rectum/injuries , Postoperative Care , Wounds and Injuries/surgery , Wounds and Injuries/diagnosis , Proctoscopy/methods , Treatment Outcome
Rev. argent. coloproctología ; 34(3): 17-21, sept. 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1552492


Las lesiones obstétricas del esfínter anal pueden ocurrir durante el parto vaginal espontáneamente o secundariamente a la episiotomía. Su riesgo se estima en un 26% y son la causa más frecuente de incontinencia anal en mujeres jóvenes. Las lesiones de grado 4 de Sultan, también llamadas cloaca traumática, implican la ruptura completa del esfínter y la comunicación de la cavidad vaginal con el canal anal. La reparación es siempre quirúrgica, para lo que se han descrito diferentes técnicas, aunque ninguna ha demostrado ser superior. Presentamos el caso de una paciente primípara de 23 años con una cloaca traumática posparto. La reparación quirúrgica se realizó de inmediato con una técnica de overlapping. El postoperatorio fue sin complicaciones y al año presenta continencia anal completa. (AU)

Obstetric anal sphincter injuries can occur spontaneously or as a consequence of an episiotomy during vaginal delivery. Their risk is estimated at 26% and they are the most frequent cause of anal incontinence in young women. Sultan grade 4 injuries, also called traumatic cloaca, involve complete rupture of the sphincter and communication of the vaginal cavity with the anal canal. The repair is always surgical, for which different techniques have been described, although none have proven to be superior. We present the case of a 23-year-old primiparous patient with a postpartum traumatic cloaca. Surgical repair was performed immediately with an overlapping technique. The postoperative period was without complications and one year later she presents complete anal continence. (AU)

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Anal Canal/surgery , Fissure in Ano/etiology , Obstetric Labor Complications , Fecal Incontinence , Sphincterotomy/methods
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 43(3): 159-165, July-sept. 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521149


Introduction: Distension of the rectum wall and subsequent momentary relaxation of the internal anal sphincter (IAS) trigger a reflex called the rectoanal inhibitory reflex (RAIR). This same rectal distension causes a reflex contraction of the external anal sphincter (EAS), responsible for conscious continence called rectoanal excitatory reflex (RAER). This set of reflexes are named sampling reflex. Objectives: The sampling reflex is necessary to initiate defecation or flatulence. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sampling reflex and its practical applicability as a manometric marker of the main defecation disorders. Methodology: This review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) items. The development method consisted of searching for articles in the research platforms BVS, PubMed, Cochrane Library, SciELO and ScienceDirect and for the selection of articles the Rayyan Platform was used. The articles resulting from the search strategies were added to the platform and five collaborators were invited for the blind selection. Finally, 6 articles were included in the final review. Results: An intact sampling reflex allows the individual to facilitate discrimination between flatus and stool and to choose whether to discharge or retain rectal contents. On the other hand, an impaired sampling reflex can predispose an individual to incontinence. Therefore, it was observed that patients with defecation disorders had an impaired sampling reflex, since it was found that constipated patients have incomplete opening of the IAS, lower amplitude of RAIR and increase of RAER. Most incontinent patients present a failure in the recruitment of the EAS, a decrease in the RAER and an increase in the RAIR, in duration and amplitude. (AU)

Humans , Anal Canal/physiopathology , Fecal Incontinence/diagnosis , Reflex , Constipation , Manometry
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 43(3): 215-220, July-sept. 2023. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521150


Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted viral diseases. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with the purpose of clinically and epidemiologically characterizing anal HPV infection in patients who attended the Benign Orificial Pathology Consultation of the Coloproctological Unit at the Dr. "Antonio María Pineda" Central University Hospital, during the period March 2022 -February 2023, by selecting 288 patients whose average age was 47.09 ± 14.61 years, being the 41-50 years old group (29.17%) and the 51-60 years old group (19.44%) the most affected groups by pathologies of the anal region, with a predominance of male (54.17%). The sociodemographic characteristics with the highest frequency included married (48.61%) and single (47.22%); secondary level of education (44.44%) and traders (18.05%) and housewives (15, 28%) as predominant occupations. The risk factors were represented by onset of sexual intercourse between 16-20 years of age (65.28%), heterosexuality (91.67%), 22.22% reported having anal sex and 5.56% oral sex. Likewise, 5.56% were reported with a history of genital HPV and 4.17% were HIV positive. In addition, 48.61% stated not to use condoms. The initial clinical diagnosis included hemorrhoidal disease (30.55%), anal fistula (25%) and anal fissure (18.05%), and one patient (1.39%) with anal HPV infection. Anal cytology results showed 8.33% flat epithelial cells with cytopathic changes suggestive of HPV infection and 1.39% squamous cells with cytopathic changes suggestive of HPV infection: 50% mild inflammatory negative for malignancy and 33.33% flat epithelial cells without atypia. In conclusion, the anal cytology investigation should continue to determine the actual frequency of anal HPV infection. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anal Canal/injuries , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Anal Canal/pathology , Health Profile
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 43(3): 204-207, July-sept. 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1521139


Introduction: Treatment of complex fistulas such as inter- or transsphincteric, recurrent, and high fistulae have high rate of recurrence or incontinence. Fistulectomy with primary sphincter reconstruction might represent an effective and safe alternative to reduce rate of recurrence and incontinence. The aim of this study is to assess incontinence and recurrence after fistulectomy with primary sphincter reconstruction for management of complex fistulas. Material and Methods: There were 60 patients with complex fistulae involving the sphincter, with 56 male and 4 female, mean age 40.6 years, operated by fistulectomy and primary sphincter repair over a period of 7 years. Patients were followed up for 6months for any complications, recurrence, and incontinence. Results: The majority of patients (50, 83.3%) had complete wound healing in 2 weeks, while 4 (6.6%) patients had hematoma and superficial wound dehiscence, which were managed conservatively and healed in 4 weeks. There was one recurrence. All patients had good continence postoperatively, except for mild fecal incontinence (FI, score 3), seen in 6 (10%) patients. However, all these patients regained continence within 6 weeks. Conclusions: Primary reconstruction of anal sphincter with fistulectomy is a safe option for complex fistula-in-ano. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Anal Canal/surgery , Rectal Fistula/surgery , Recurrence , Treatment Outcome , Fecal Incontinence
Cambios rev. méd ; 22(1): 894, 30 Junio 2023. ilus, tabs
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1451329


La fisura anal es una de las enfermedades más antiguamente descritas, la misma que, ha tenido hasta el momento múltiples tratamientos tanto médicos como quirúrgicos, existiendo controversias en su algoritmo terapéutico. Constituye una de las patologías cuyo diagnóstico y tratamiento corresponde a la Especialidad de Coloproctología, afecta a ambos sexos y a cualquier edad y puede ser aguda o crónica. Proponemos el presente Protocolo para un adecuado manejo de la patología, de manera que sirva de guía en la toma correcta de decisiones basadas en la evidencia y el consenso de quienes integramos la Unidad Técnica de Coloproctología del Hospital de Especialidades Carlos Andrade Marín.

Anal fissure is one of the oldest described diseases, which has so far had multiple medical and surgical treatments, with controversies in its therapeutic algorithm. It is one of the pathologies whose diagnosis and treatment corresponds to the Coloproctology Specialty, it affects both sexes and any age and can be acute or chronic. We propose the present Protocol for an adequate management of the pathology, so that it serves as a guide in the correct decision making based on evidence and consensus of those who integrate the Technical Unit of Coloproctology of the Hospital de Especialidades Carlos Andrade Marín.

Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Anal Canal , Anus Diseases , Pruritus Ani , Colorectal Surgery , Fissure in Ano/surgery , Quality of Life , Proctoscopy , Diet , Ecuador , Lateral Internal Sphincterotomy , Hemorrhage , Analgesia
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 43(2): 133-135, Apr.-June 2023. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514435


We herein present the case of a patient with anal condylomatosis concomitant with histoplasmosis, whose diagnosis was only possible through the collection of material and the subsequent evidence of a primary pulmonary focus. Histoplasmosis is a fungal disease whose contamination occurs through the respiratory route, and it can spread to the digestive tract, but the anus is rarely affected. It is important to have a high degree of suspicion to make the diagnosis, especially in immunosuppressed patients.

Humans , Male , Adult , Histoplasmosis/diagnosis , Anal Canal/injuries , Histoplasmosis/etiology , Histoplasmosis/therapy
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 43(2): 75-81, Apr.-June 2023. graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514427


Introduction: Anal examination and videoanoscopy (VA) are rarely performed during colonoscopies. In recent years, there has been a considerable increase in lesions of sexually transmitted anal and rectal infections, but these conditions are not noticed or reported during routine colonoscopy. Objective: To raise awareness regarding the fortuitous findings of lesions and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in colonoscopy exams and to demonstrate that anal examination and VA provide important information and should be routinely performed. Methods: We conducted a descriptive retrospective study in 16,132 patients screened by colonoscopy and VA between 2006 and 2018. Among numerous other findings, the presence of anal condylomata and sexually transmitted retitis or perianal dermatitis was observed. The rates of each finding were calculated, and the patients were subdivided by sex and into age groups by blocks of ten years. Results: Among the 16,132 colonoscopies performed, 26 cases of condyloma (0.16%) and 50 cases of proctitis or perianal dermatitis suspicious for STI (0.33%) were found. Conclusion: Performing anal examination and VA systematically in all routine colonoscopies enabled the identification of numerous anal conditions, including several fortuitous cases of STIs. The study proposes that anal examination and VA should be performed in all routine colonoscopies and, in suspected cases, complementary tests for STIs. (AU)

Anal Canal/injuries , Anus Neoplasms/diagnosis , Colonoscopy , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Carcinoma in Situ/diagnosis , Papillomavirus Infections/therapy , Dermatitis, Contact/diagnosis
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 43(2): 152-158, Apr.-June 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1514438


The gold-standard procedure for anal canal examination is anoscopy. Nonetheless, patients are referred for a colonoscopy for many reasons, and a routine exam might provide an opportunity to diagnose anal pathologies, such as hemorrhoids, anal fissures, anal polyps, condylomas, and anal squamous cell carcinoma. It is important to know the main features of these conditions and relevant information to report in order to help guide patient treatment and follow-up.

Humans , Male , Female , Anal Canal/pathology , Anus Diseases/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Condylomata Acuminata , Colonoscopy , Polyps , Fissure in Ano/diagnosis , Hemorrhoids/diagnosis
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(2): e202202598, abr. 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1418445


Introducción. Habitualmente, durante la manometría anorrectal, en lo correspondiente al reflejo rectoanal inhibitorio (RRAI) solo se pesquisa su presencia o ausencia. Estudios han reportado que su análisis detallado puede brindar datos de interés. Nuestra hipótesis es que la medición del RRAI puede dar información para reconocer causas orgánicas (médula anclada, lipoma, etc.) en pacientes en los que previamente se consideró como de causa funcional. Objetivos. Comparar la duración del reflejo rectoanal inhibitorio en la manometría anorrectal de pacientes con constipación funcional refractaria (CFR) y mielomeningocele (MMC). Población y métodos. Estudio observacional, transversal, analítico (2004-2019). Pacientes constipados crónicos con incontinencia fecal funcional y orgánica (mielomeningocele). Se les realizó manometría anorrectal con sistema de perfusión de agua y se midió la duración del RRAI con diferentes volúmenes (20, 40 y 60 cc). Grupo 1 (G1): 81 CFR. Grupo 2 (G2): 54 MMC. Se excluyeron pacientes con retraso madurativo, esfínter anal complaciente, agenesia sacra y aquellos no colaboradores. Resultados. Se incluyeron 135 sujetos (62 varones). La mediana de edad fue G1:9,57 años; G2: 9,63 años. Duración promedio G1 vs. G2 con 20 cc: 8,89 vs. 15,21 segundos; con 40 cc: 11.41 vs. 21,12 segundos; con 60 cc: 14,15 vs. 26,02 segundos. La diferencia de duración del RRAI entre ambos grupos con diferentes volúmenes fue estadísticamente significativa (p = 0,0001). Conclusión. La duración del RRAI aumenta a mayor volumen de insuflación del balón en ambas poblaciones. Pacientes con MMC tuvieron mayor duración del RRAI que aquellos con CFR. En los pacientes con RRAI prolongado, debe descartarse lesión medular.

Introduction. Usually, during anorectal manometry, only the presence or absence of rectoanal inhibitory reflex (RAIR) is investigated. Studies have reported that a detailed analysis may provide data of interest. Our hypothesis is that RAIR measurement may provide information to detect organic causes (tethered cord, lipoma, etc.) in patients in whom a functional cause had been previously considered. Objectives. To compare RAIR duration in anorectal manometry between patients with refractory functional constipation (RFC) and myelomeningocele (MMC). Population and methods. Observational, analytical, cross-sectional study (2004­2019). Patients with chronic constipation and functional and organic fecal incontinence (myelomeningocele). The anorectal manometry was performed with a water-perfused system, and the duration of RAIR was measured with different volumes (20, 40, and 60 cc). Group 1 (G1): 81 RFC. Group 2 (G2): 54 MMC. Patients with developmental delay, compliant anal sphincter, sacral agenesis and non-cooperative patients were excluded. Results. A total of 135 individuals were included (62 were male). Their median age was 9.57 years in G1 and 9.63 years in G2. Average duration in G1 versus G2 with 20 cc: 8.89 versus 15.21 seconds; 40 cc: 11.41 versus 21.12 seconds; 60 cc: 14.15 versus 26.02 seconds. The difference in RAIR duration with the varying volumes was statistically significant (p = 0.0001). Conclusion. RAIR duration was longer with increasing balloon inflation volumes in both populations. RAIR duration was longer in patients with MMC than in those with RFC. Spinal injury should be ruled out in patients with prolonged RAIR.

Humans , Child , Adolescent , Anal Canal/physiopathology , Rectum/physiopathology , Meningomyelocele/diagnosis , Meningomyelocele/epidemiology , Constipation/diagnosis , Constipation/epidemiology , Reflex/physiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Manometry/methods
Rev. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Quito) ; 48(1): 32-37, Ene 01, 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1526678


Introducción: Los condilomas o verrugas anogenitales son secundarios a una infección causada por el virus del papiloma humano en sitios específicos, como la piel de la región anogenital, en las mucosas vaginal y anal. Es una infección de transmisión sexual rara en la edad pediátrica, muy frecuente entre los adultos y adolescentes sexualmente activos; la causa en los infantes, sin descartar el abuso sexual podría ser: 1. En el momento del parto, en la etapa neonatal y durante los primeros años; 2. Autoinoculación o hetero-inoculación de los genitales de otros niños, de adultos, familiares como la madre o cuidadores. Podría manifestarse como pequeños papilomas o crecimientos verrugosos en la piel anogenital, en la mucosa de la vagina o el ano. Este caso tiene importancia clínica ya que los tratamientos convencionales presentan recidivas a corto plazo y muchos de ellos no son bien tolerados por los pequeños pacientes. Hay tratamientos agresivos como la criocirugía; el uso de medicamentos costosos como el Imiquimod; sin embargo, las reci-divas son muy frecuentes con estos tratamientos convencionales.Objetivo: Describir el uso de un esquema de terapia de tratamiento con podofilina en combina-ción con ácido glicirricínico y ácido tricloroacético, en una paciente pediátrica con diagnóstico de condiloma ano-perineal, para ayudar a disminuir las recidivas, los costos y sobre todo los efectos psicológicos que provocan los métodos dolorosos en los pequeños pacientes. Presentación del caso: Paciente que presentó lesiones verrucosas, puntiagudos en la región ano-perineal; y, luego de haber sido intervenida en un centro de salud por varios días mediante la topicación sobre las lesiones una solución de ácido tricloro acético a 5% combinada con podofi-lina al 50%; sin embargo, el cuadro se exacerbó extendiéndose las lesiones hasta cerca del área genital. Luego de lo cual acudió a nuestra consulta, donde además de la combinación anterior, más la adición de ácido glicirricinico tópico y logrando a los 30 días la remisión de las lesiones.Conclusiones y recomendaciones: La combinación de una sustancia corrosiva, el ácido tricloro acético, con una sustancia que detiene la multiplicación celular como la podofilina; y el ácido glicirricinico el cual disminuye la replicación de los virus en un estadio temprano, impide la salida del virión de su cápside y con esto su penetración a las células. La aplicación de esta triple terapia mejoró los resultados para condilomatosis en pacientes pediátricos.

Introduction: Anogenital condylomas or warts are secondary to an infection caused by the human papillomavirus in specific sites, such as the skin of the anogenital region, in the vaginal and anal mucosa. It is a rare sexually transmitted infection in pediatric age, very common among sexually active adults and adolescents; The cause in infants, without ruling out sexual abuse, could be: 1. At the time of birth, in the neonatal stage and during the first years; 2. Autoinoculation or he-tero-inoculation of the genitals of other children, adults, family members such as the mother or caregivers. It could manifest as small papillomas or warty growths on the anogenital skin, on the mucosa of the vagina or anus. This case has clinical importance since conventional treatments present short-term recurrences and many of them are not well tolerated by young patients. There are aggressive treatments such as cryosurgery; the use of expensive medications such as Imiqui-mod; However, recurrences are very common with these conventional treatments.Objective: To describe the use of a treatment regimen with podophyllin in combination with glycyrr-hizinic acid and trichloroacetic acid, in a pediatric patient diagnosed with anoperineal condyloma, to help reduce recurrences, costs and, above all, psychological effects. that painful methods cause in young patients.Case presentation: The patient presents sharp, verrucous lesions in the ano-perineal region; and, after having been operated on in a health center for several days by topicalizing a 5% trichloroace-tic acid solution combined with 50% podophyllin on the lesions; However, the condition worsened, with the lesions extending close to the genital area. After which he came to our consultation, where in addition to the previous combination, plus the addition of topical glycyrrhizinic acid and achie-ving remission of the lesions after 30 days.Conclusions and recomendations: The combination of a corrosive substance, trichloroacetic acid, with a substance that stops cell multiplication such as podophyllin; and glycyrrhizinic acid, which decreases virus replication at an early stage, prevents the release of the virion from its cap-sid and thus its penetration into the cells. The application of this triple therapy improved the results for condylomatosis in pediatric patients.

Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Anal Canal/abnormalities , Podophyllin , Condylomata Acuminata , Papillomaviridae
Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion ; (12): 916-920, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007418


OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of Dong's extraordinary point needling technique on postoperative complications of anal fistula.@*METHODS@#A total of 241 patients undergoing anal fistula surgery were randomly divided into an observation group (121 cases, 3 cases dropped off) and a control group (120 cases, 2 cases dropped off). The patients in the control group were treated with intramuscular injection of compound diclofenac sodium injection and oral administration of tamsulosin hydrochloride sustained release capsules. In addition to the treatment in the control group, the patients in the observation group were treated with Daoma needling technique at the "Sanqi points" (Qimen point, Qijiao point, and Qizheng point) combined with Dongqi needling technique at "Sanhuang points" (sub-Tianhuang point, Dihuang point, Renhuang point), with each session lasting 30 min. The treatment in the two groups both started on the first day after surgery, and was given once daily for 14 consecutive days. Visual analog scale (VAS) score was compared between the two groups on postoperative day 1, 7, and 14; bladder residual urine volume, spontaneous voiding volume, and urinary catheterization frequency were assessed after treatment on postoperative day 1; and anorectal dynamic indexes (anal canal resting pressure, rectal resting pressure, maximum squeeze pressure of the anal canal, and minimum rectal sensory threshold) were evaluated before surgery and on postoperative day 4. Clinical efficacy was assessed in both groups one month after surgery.@*RESULTS@#On postoperative day 7 and 14, the VAS scores of both groups were lower than those on postoperative day 1 (P<0.05), and the VAS scores in the observation group were lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). The bladder residual urine volume and urinary catheterization frequency in the observation group were lower than those in the control group (P<0.05), while the spontaneous voiding volume was higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). On postoperative day 4, the anal canal resting pressure, maximum squeeze pressure of the anal canal, and the minimum rectal sensory threshold were lower than preoperative values (P<0.05), while the rectal resting pressure was higher than preoperative value (P<0.05) in both groups. The anal canal resting pressure, maximum squeeze pressure of the anal canal, and minimum rectal sensory threshold were lower than those in the control group, and the rectal resting pressure was higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). The effective rate was 93.2% (110/118) in the observation group, which was higher than 84.7% (100/118) in the control group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Dong's extraordinary point needling technique could reduce postoperative pain, alleviate urinary retention, and improve defecation in patients undergoing anal fistula surgery.

Humans , Rectum , Rectal Fistula/surgery , Anal Canal/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Anus Diseases , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Acupuncture Points
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 1103-1111, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010128


Hemorrhoids is a common anorectal disease, usually occurring in middle-aged people aged 25-65 years old, clinical bleeding, swelling, prolapse, pain, itching and anal discomfort, and repeatedly attacks and aggravated gradually, seriously affecting the quality of life of patients. The treatment of hemorrhoids includes conservative, injection, ligation, and various surgical procedures. Injection therapy with a history of more than 150 years is simple to operate, easy to popularize and apply in grass-roots units, causes less intraoperative bleeding and fewer complications, and has reliable efficacy. As a result, it is favored by clinicians and patients. The injection treatment of hemorrhoids has been mentioned in various hemorrhoid treatment guidelines and consensus at home and abroad, but there is no special expert consensus for reference. Led by the Anorectal Physicians Branch of the Chinese Medical Doctor Association and the Colorectal Surgery Group of the Surgery Branch of the Chinese Medical Association, experts in related fields in China were invited to review the latest evidence-based medical evidence at home and abroad and conducted evidence quality assessment and recommendation strength classification according to the GRADE system. This paper attempts to make detailed recommendations on the types and application methods of the preparations commonly used in the injection treatment of hemorrhoids at home and abroad, and form the Chinese Expert Consensus on the Treatment of hemorrhoids by anal injection (2023 edition), aiming to guide the reasonable selection of drugs and dosage forms for hemorrhoidal injection treatment, and to provide reference for standardizing the use of different drugs and dosage forms, so as to improve the effectiveness and safety of clinical application of hemorrhoidal injection treatment.

Middle Aged , Humans , Adult , Aged , Hemorrhoids/surgery , Quality of Life , Consensus , Anal Canal , Ligation/methods , Treatment Outcome
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 1095-1102, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010127


Colonic and anorectal manometry includes anorectal manometry and colonic manometry. Anorectal manometry is a common method to evaluate anorectal function, which can objectively reflect the pathological and physiological abnormalities of outlet obstructive constipation and fecal incontinence, as well as the impact of anorectal surgery on continence. Colonic manometry is a new type of colon motility detection method developed in recent years. It can record the peristalsis and contraction of the whole colon through a pressure measuring catheter, which helps physicians further evaluate various colonic diseases. However, various factors such as testing equipment, operating standards, and evaluation parameters are difficult to unify. There is no consensus on the operation and interpretation of colorectal anal pressure measurement. Under the guidance of the Anorectal Branch of Chinese Medical Doctor Association, in collaboration with Clinical Guidelines Committee, Anorectal Branch of Chinese Medical Doctor Association, Anorectal motility disorders Committee , Colorectal Surgeons Branch of Chinese Medical Doctor Association, Colonic Branch of China international exchange and promotive association for medical and healthcare, Tianjin Union Medical Center is leading the organization of domestic experts in this field. Based on searching relevant literature and combining clinical experience at home and abroad, after multiple discussions, the "Chinese expert consensus on colonic and anorectal manometry" has been prepared. This consensus discusses the indications, contraindications, pre examination management and technical procedures, treatment of complications, and interpretation of examination reports for colonic and anorectal manometry , aiming to guide the standardized clinical practice of colonic and anorectal manometry.

Humans , Rectum , Consensus , Constipation , Anal Canal , Rectal Diseases , Fecal Incontinence , Manometry/methods , Colorectal Neoplasms/complications
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 907-914, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010123


Conformal sphincter-preservation operation (CSPO) is considered the effective surgical technique for preserving the sphincter in cases of low rectal cancer. Accurate preoperative diagnosis and staging, reasonable selection of surgical approaches and technique, standardized perioperative management, and postoperative rehabilitation are the keys to ensuring the oncological clearance and functional preservation of CSPO. However, there is currently a lack of standardized surgical procedure for implementing CSPO in China. Therefore, the Colorectal Surgery Group of Surgery Branch of the Chinese Medical Association,along with the Colorectal Cancer Committee of the Chinese Medical Doctor Association and the Anorectal Branch of Chinese Medical Doctor Association, gathered experts in colorectal surgery to discuss and establish this standardized surgical procedure of CSPO. This standard, based on the latest evidence from literature, expert experiences, and China national condition, focuses on the definition, classification, pelvic anatomy, surgical techniques, postoperative complications, and perioperative care of CSPO. It aims to guide the standardized clinical practice of CSPO in China.

Humans , Anal Canal/surgery , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Digestive System Surgical Procedures/methods , Pelvis , Postoperative Complications
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 283-289, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971263


Objective: In this study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of low anterior resection syndrome (LARS) in patients who had survived for more than 5 years after sphincter-preserving surgery for rectal cancer and to analyze its relationship with postoperative time. Methods: This was a single-center, retrospective, cross-sectional study. The study cohort comprised patients who had survived for at least 5 years (60 months) after undergoing sphincter- preserving radical resection of pathologically diagnosed rectal adenocarcinoma within 15 cm of the anal verge in the Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Peking University People's Hospital from January 2005 to May 2016. Patients who had undergone local resection, had permanent stomas, recurrent intestinal infection, local recurrence, history of previous anorectal surgery, or long- term preoperative defecation disorders were excluded. A LARS questionnaire was administered by telephone interview, points being allocated for incontinence for flatus (0-7 points), incontinence for liquid stools (0-3 points), frequency of bowel movements (0-5 points), clustering of stools (0-11 points), and urgency (0-16 points). The patients were allocated to three groups based on these scores: no LARS (0-20 points), minor LARS (21-29 points), and major LARS (30-42 points). The prevalence of LARS and major LARS in patients who had survived more than 5 years after surgery, correlation between postoperative time and LARS score, and whether postoperative time was a risk factor for major LARS and LARS symptoms were analyzed. Results: The median follow-up time of the 160 patients who completed the telephone interview was 97 (60-193) months; 81 (50.6%) of them had LARS, comprising 34 (21.3%) with minor LARS and 47 (29.4%) with major LARS. Spearman correlation analysis showed no significant correlation between LARS score and postoperative time (correlation coefficient α=-0.016, P=0.832). Multivariate analysis identified anastomotic height (RR=0.850, P=0.022) and radiotherapy (RR=5.760, P<0.001) as independent risk factors for major LARS; whereas the postoperative time was not a significant risk factor (RR=1.003, P=0.598). The postoperative time was also not associated with LARS score rank and frequency of bowel movements, clustering, or urgency (P>0.05). However, the rates of incontinence for flatus (3/31, P=0.003) and incontinence for liquid stools (8/31, P=0.005) were lower in patients who had survived more than 10 years after surgery. Conclusions: Patients with rectal cancer who have survived more than 5 years after sphincter-preserving surgery still have a high prevalence of LARS. We found no evidence of major LARS symptoms resolving over time.

Humans , Rectal Neoplasms/pathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Low Anterior Resection Syndrome , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Flatulence/complications , Anal Canal/pathology , Diarrhea , Quality of Life
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 536-547, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982185


Intersphincteric resection (ISR) is the ultimate sphincter-preserving surgical technique for low rectal cancer. Accurate preoperative diagnosis and staging, appropriate selection of surgical approaches and technique, standardized perioperative management, and postoperative rehabilitation are the keys to ensuring the oncological effect and functional preservation of ISR. To date, there is still a lack of standardized guidance on the clinical implementation of ISR in China. Therefore, based on the latest evidence from literature, expert experience, and the intervention situation in China, the Chinese Society of Colorectal Surgery, Chinese Society of Surgery, Chinese Medical Association organized domestic experts in colorectal surgery to discuss and produce "Chinese expert consensus on intersphincteric resection for low rectal cancer (2023 edition)". This consensus focuses on definition, classification, related pelvic anatomy, operational techniques, postoperative complications, and long-term oncological and functional outcomes, and aims to guide the standardized clinical practice of ISR in the operation of low rectal cancer in China.

Humans , Laparoscopy/methods , Consensus , Anal Canal/surgery , Digestive System Surgical Procedures/methods , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Treatment Outcome
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 273-278, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969834


Objective: To investigate the causes and management of long-term persistent pelvic presacral space infection. Methods: Clinical data of 10 patients with persistent presacral infection admitted to the Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University from October 2015 to October 2020 were collected. Different surgical approaches were used to treat the presacral infection according to the patients' initial surgical procedures. Results: Among the 10 patients, there were 2 cases of presacral recurrent infection due to rectal leak after radiotherapy for cervical cancer, 3 cases of presacral recurrent infection due to rectal leak after radiotherapy for rectal cancer Dixons, and 5 cases of presacral recurrent infection of sinus tract after adjuvant radiotherapy for rectal cancer Miles. Of the 5 patients with leaky bowel, 4 had complete resection of the ruptured nonfunctional bowel and complete debridement of the presacral infection using an anterior transverse sacral incision with a large tipped omentum filling the presacral space; 1 had continuous drainage of the anal canal and complete debridement of the presacral infection using an anterior transverse sacral incision. 5 post-Miles patients all had debridement of the presacral infection using an anterior transverse sacral incision combined with an abdominal incision. The nine patients with healed presacral infection recovered from surgery in 26 to 210 days, with a median time of 55 days. Conclusions: Anterior sacral infections in patients with leaky gut are caused by residual bowel secretion of intestinal fluid into the anterior sacral space, and in post-Miles patients by residual anterior sacral foreign bodies. An anterior sacral caudal transverse arc incision combined with an abdominal incision is an effective surgical approach for complete debridement of anterior sacral recalcitrant infections.

Humans , Reinfection , Rectum/surgery , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Drainage , Anal Canal/surgery , Pelvic Infection
Cir. Urug ; 7(1): e307, 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1505953


Los lipomas colónicos son tumores benignos poco frecuentes, extremadamente raros a nivel rectal. A pesar de ello, ocupan el segundo lugar en frecuencia detrás de los pólipos adenomatosos. Aunque la mayoría de los lipomas colorrectales son asintomáticos y se descubren incidentalmente, en ocasiones pueden ser sintomáticos y determinar complicaciones agudas que requieren tratamiento quirúrgico de urgencia. Estas formas de presentación pueden confundirse con las del cáncer colorrectal, constituyendo un desafío diagnóstico y terapéutico. Presentamos el caso de una paciente que consultó en emergencia por una gran masa dolorosa de aparición aguda a nivel del ano, resultando ser un lipoma rectal prolapsado a través del canal anal.

Colonic lipomas are infrequent benign tumors, extremely rare at the rectum. Nevertheless, they follow in frequency polyp adenomas. Even though most colorectal lipomas are asymptomatic and incidental, they can occasionally be symptomatic and develop acute complications that require urgent surgical treatment. This form of presentation can be confounded with colorectal cancer, therefore impairing diagnosis and treatment. We present the case of a female patient who came to the emergency room with an acute painful mass through the anus, that resulted in a prolapsed rectal lipoma.

Os lipomas colônicos são tumores benignos pouco frequentes, extremamente raros no nível retal. Apesar disso, ocupam o segundo lugar em frequência atrás dos pólipos adenomatosos. Embora a maioria dos lipomas colorretais sejam assintomáticos e descobertos incidentalmente, às vezes eles podem ser sintomáticos e levar a complicações agudas que requerem tratamento cirúrgico de emergência. Essas formas de apresentação podem ser confundidas com as do câncer colorretal, constituindo um desafio diagnóstico e terapêutico. Apresentamos o caso de um paciente que consultou na sala de emergência por uma grande massa dolorosa de início agudo ao nível do ânus, que acabou por ser um lipoma retal prolapsado pelo canal anal.

Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Anal Canal/pathology , Rectal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Rectal Prolapse/diagnosis , Lipoma/diagnosis , Anal Canal/surgery , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Rectal Prolapse/surgery , Cancer Pain , Lipoma/surgery
Cir. Urug ; 7(1): e304, 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1505950


El manejo del adenocarcinoma de recto se ha visto revolucionado por la cirugía mesorectal y la neoadyuvancia al igual que el cáncer epidermoide de ano con el protocolo de Nigro. Sin embargo, los adenocarcinomas de ano constituyen una patología infrecuente, relacionada con procesos inflamatorios crónicos como las fístulas perianales y cuyo tratamiento genera controversias. El desconocimiento de sus características clínicas e imagenológicas puede generar una confusión diagnóstica principalmente con un absceso perianal. Presentamos el caso clínico de un adenocarcinoma de canal anal en relación a una fístula perianal crónica y una revisión de la literatura actual sobre el tema.

The mesorectal surgery and the neoadyuvant treatment have changed the management of rectal adenocarcinoma. The Nigro protocol had the same impact on the squamous cell cancer of the anus. However, the adenocarcinoma of the anus is an infrequent pathology, related to chronic inflammatory processes such as perianal fistulas and its treatment generates controversy. The lack of knowledge about clinical and imaging characteristics of this pathology can lead to diagnostic confusion, mainly with a perianal abscess. We hereby present the clinical case of an anal canal adenocarcinoma in relation to a chronic perianal fistula and a review of the current literature on the subject.

O manejo do adenocarcinoma retal foi revolucionado pela cirurgia mesorretal e pelo tratamento neoadjuvante, assim como o câncer de células escamosas do ânus com o protocolo Nigro. Entretanto, os adenocarcinomas do ânus são uma patologia pouco frequente, relacionada a processos inflamatórios crônicos como as fístulas perianais e cujo tratamento gera controvérsias. O desconhecimento de suas características clínicas e de imagem pode levar a uma confusão diagnóstica, principalmente com o abscesso perianal. Apresentamos o caso clínico de um adenocarcinoma do canal anal relacionado a uma fístula perianal crônica e uma revisão da literatura atual sobre o assunto.

Humans , Male , Aged , Anal Canal/pathology , Anus Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous/diagnostic imaging , Anus Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Palliative Care , Rectal Fistula , Fatal Outcome , Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous/radiotherapy