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J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 40(1): 79-82, Jan.-Mar. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090849


Abstract Background Mycobacterial infections are a serious public health problem worldwide. Involvement of the anal canal and perineum is very rare, but constitute an important differential diagnosis with other equally serious pathologies that may affect the region, such as malignant neoplasms and Crohn's disease. Objectives To conduct a literature review on mycobacterial infections of the perianal region considering the most recent information for diagnostic and therapeutic guidance of this disease. Methods Research was performed on the PUBMED and LILACS databases with the expressions Mycobacterium, Anal, Infection and Tuberculosis. We reviewed articles referring to series of treated cases, clinical reports and literature review published since 2005. Results Information was compiled on the epidemiology of mycobacterial infections; the clinical behavior of affected individuals; diagnostic options and their validity in clinical practice; and, finally, therapeutic options. Conclusions Mycobacterial infections of the anus and perineum are rare. The most common clinical presentations are the presence of ulceration and fistulization. The diagnosis involves more than one procedure for identifying the bacilli and should consider the presence of manifestations in more than one organ. The treatment is based on pharmacological intervention. Surgery is recommended for acute complications or chronic sequelae of the disease.

Resumo Introdução Infecções micobacterianas constituem um grave problema de saúde pública a nível mundial. As manifestações anoperineais são raras, mas constituem um importante diagnóstico diferencial com outras patologias igualmente graves que podem acometer a região, como as neoplasias malignas e a doença de Crohn. Objetivos Realizar um levantamento da literatura sobre infecções micobacterianas da região anoperineal, considerando as informações mais atuais para orientação diagnóstica e terapêutica dessa enfermidade. Métodos Foi realizada pesquisa nos bancos de dados PUBMED e LILACS com as expressões Mycobacterium, Anal, Infection e Tuberculosis. Foram revisados artigos referentes a séries de casos tratados, relatos clínicos e revisão da literatura publicada a partir de 2005. Resultados Foram compiladas informações sobre a epidemiologia das infecções micobacterianas; o comportamento clínico dos indivíduos afetados; opções diagnósticas e sua validade na prática clínica; e, por fim, opções terapêuticas. Conclusões Infecções micobacterianas da região anoperineal são raras. As apresentações clínicas mais comuns são a formação de ulceras e a fistulização. O diagnóstico envolve mais de um procedimento para identificação dos bacilos, e deve considerar a presença de manifestações em mais de um órgão. O tratamento é principalmente medicamentoso, sendo a cirurgia recomendada nas complicações agudas ou sequelas crônicas da doença.

Humans , Anus Diseases/diagnosis , Mycobacterium Infections/diagnosis , Anal Canal/microbiology , Anus Diseases/therapy , Anus Diseases/epidemiology , Perineum/microbiology , Skin Ulcer/microbiology , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/therapy , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Fissure in Ano/microbiology , Mycobacterium Infections/therapy , Mycobacterium Infections/epidemiology
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(2): 179-183, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-842837


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Group B Streptococcus (GBS), a source of neonatal infection, colonizes the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts of pregnant women. Routine screening for maternal GBS in late pregnancy and consequent intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis have reduced the incidence of early-onset GBS neonatal infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of PCR, compared to culture (gold standard), in GBS colonization screening of pregnant women, and to establish the prevalence of GBS colonization among this population. METHODS: Vaginal introitus and perianal samples were collected from 204 pregnant women, between the 35th and 37th weeks of pregnancy, at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit of the University of Caxias do Sul General Hospital between June 2008 and September 2009. All samples were cultured after enrichment in a selective medium and then assayed by culture and PCR methods. RESULTS: The culture and PCR methods yielded detection rates of vaginal/perianal GBS colonization of 22.5% and 26%, respectively (sensitivity 100%; specificity 95.6%; positive and negative predictive values 86.8% and 100%, respectively). A higher prevalence of GBS colonization was detected in the combined vaginal and perianal samples by both culture and PCR assay analyses. CONCLUSIONS: PCR is a faster and more efficient method for GBS screening, allowing for optimal identification of women who should receive intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent newborn infection.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Anal Canal/microbiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Streptococcal Infections/epidemiology , Vagina/microbiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/microbiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Streptococcal Infections/diagnosis , Streptococcus agalactiae/isolation & purification , Streptococcus agalactiae/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , Carrier State/microbiology , Carrier State/epidemiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(5): 440-446, 05/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744379


The present study investigated the effect of silibinin, the principal potential anti-inflammatory flavonoid contained in silymarin, a mixture of flavonolignans extracted from Silybum marianum seeds, on palmitate-induced insulin resistance in C2C12 myotubes and its potential molecular mechanisms. Silibinin prevented the decrease of insulin-stimulated 2-NBDG (2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxy-D-glucose) uptake and the downregulation of glutamate transporter type 4 (GLUT4) translocation in C2C12 myotubes induced by palmitate. Meanwhile, silibinin suppressed the palmitate-induced decrease of insulin-stimulated Akt Ser473 phosphorylation, which was reversed by wortmannin, a specific inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K). We also found that palmitate downregulated insulin-stimulated Tyr632 phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and up-regulated IRS-1 Ser307 phosphorylation. These effects were rebalanced by silibinin. Considering several serine/threonine kinases reported to phosphorylate IRS-1 at Ser307, treatment with silibinin downregulated the phosphorylation of both c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and nuclear factor-κB kinase β (IKKβ), which was increased by palmitate in C2C12 myotubes mediating inflammatory status, whereas the phosphorylation of PKC-θ was not significantly modulated by silibinin. Collectively, the results indicated that silibinin prevented inhibition of the IRS-1/PI3K/Akt pathway, thus ameliorating palmitate-induced insulin resistance in C2C12 myotubes.

Adult , Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Carrier State/epidemiology , Carrier State/microbiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Age Distribution , Anal Canal/microbiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , HIV Infections/microbiology , Multivariate Analysis , Nasal Mucosa/microbiology , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Singapore/epidemiology , Skin/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/prevention & control
Rev. biol. trop ; 62(4): 1673-1681, oct.-dic. 2014. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-753719


Specific bacterial diversity in bats of different food guilds in Southern sierra Oaxaca, Mexico. Bats have different ecologic roles in variable ecosystems that have been already described. They have been linked to several zoonoses, however little is known about the relationship between bat microbiota and their diet, and studies on the bacterial ecology of the microbiota in bats are limited. To contribute with the description of this important interaction between microbiota and host, the aim of this work was to characterize the composi- tion and bacterial diversity in the oral and anal regions of 10 species of bats, in relation to food guild. For this, monthly samplings were conducted using four mist nets (19:00-24:00h) from February to October 2012; nets were reviewed every 45 minutes. Each captured organism was sampled in the oral and anal cavities with sterile swabs; these were placed in pre-enrichment media and stored at 4°C. Bacterial samples were studied which through selective media, chromogenic and biochemical tests. We obtained samples from 502 frugivorous, 29 hematophagous and 11 nectivorous bats. We found a total of 26 bacterial species, with the predominant phylum Proteobacteria and the family Enterobacteriaceae. Statistically significant differences were observed between oral and anal microhabitats: frugivorous (t=-3.516, g.l=14.761, p=0.003), hematophagous (t=-3.320, g.l=19.262, p=0.003), and nectivorous (t=-2.497, g.l=11.933, p=0.026), and in some guilds [frugivorous and nectivorous in the anal region (t=2.274, g.l=29.660, p=0.030), hematophagous and nectivorous anal region (t=2.077, g.l=29.904, p=0.049)]. It was also shown that there is bacteria specificity in some guilds such as nectivorous and frugivorous with Bacillus cereus, B. sp. X. sp., as well as, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermis, Aeromonas hydrophyla in hematophagous. Bacterial presence can be explained by the type of diet and/or by transfer of bacteria from their preys. These bacteria may be indigenous to these bats and play the role of mutual benefit, providing the host with stable growth conditions and supplemental nutrients, while the microbiota contributes to host nutrition, development of the immune system, stabilization of the microbial population and to avoid pathogens colonization. By understanding the importance of the relation- ship between host and its bacterial populations, the conservation efforts being made to protect species such as bats may be improved.

Los estudios sobre ecología bacteriana de la micro- biota en los murciélagos son limitados, dicha información es importante para determinar la importancia de esta interacción entre microbiota y hospedero, por tal motivo el objetivo de este trabajo es caracterizar la composición y diversidad bacteriana en las regiones orales y anales de 10 especies de quirópteros con relación al gremio alimenticio a través de medios selectivos, cromogénicos y pruebas bio- químicas. Se muestrearon 502 murciélagos frugívoros, 29 hematófagos y 11 nectívoros, fueron encontradas un total de 26 especies bacterianas, siendo predominantes el filo proteobacterias y la familia Enterobacteriaceae. Se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre el microhabitat oral y anal [frugívoros (t=-3.516, g.l=14.761, p=0.003), hematófagos (t=-3.320, g.l=19.262, p=0.003), y nectívoros (t=-2.497, g.l=11.933, p=0.026), así como en algunos gremios (frugívoros e nectívoros en la región anal (t=2.274, g.l=29.660, p=0.030), hematófago y nectívoros en la región anal (t=2.077, g.l=29.904, p=0.049)]. También se mostró que existe especificidad de bacterias en algunos gremios como: Bacillus cereus, B. spp. X. spp. en nectívoros y frugívoros, así como, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermis, Aeromonas hydrophyla en hematófagos que podría deberse al tipo de dieta que llevan o por transferencia de bacterias al contacto con sus presas. Los murciélagos han sido relacionados con varias zoonosis, sin embargo poco se conoce sobre la relación que existe entre el murciélago, su micro- biota y la dieta que llevan. Estas bacterias pudieran ser autóctonas de los murciélagos y jugar un papel de mutuo beneficio, proveyéndole al hospedero condiciones estables de crecimiento y nutrientes complementarios, mientras que la microbiota contribuye en la nutrición del hospedero, desarrollo del sistema inmune, estabilizando la población microbiana y prohibiendo la colonización de patógenos. Entender la importancia de la relación entre el hospedero y su población bacteriana puede ayudar a mejorar los esfuerzos de conservación que se vienen realizando para proteger especies como los murciélagos.

Animals , Anal Canal/microbiology , Biodiversity , Bacteria/classification , Chiroptera/microbiology , Mouth/microbiology , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Chiroptera/classification , Chiroptera/physiology , Feeding Behavior , Mexico
Rev. chil. infectol ; 31(3): 305-308, jun. 2014. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-716982


Introduction: Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) is the most common agent in early neonatal sepsis. Strategies incorporating universal screening for maternal colonization show the lowest rates of perinatal infection. A significant increase in resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin by GBS has been reported around the world. There are no published data regarding prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in southern regions of Chile. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance is essential to define the drugs of choice and alternatives, in an institution that applies prevention protocols, as Clinica Alemana Temuco (CAT) does. Objectives: to determine the prevalence of carriage of GBS in vaginal-anal areas at end of pregnancy, in CAT, Araucanía Region, Chile. To determine the susceptibility to erythromycin and clindamycin of GBS strains isolated. Results: 1,181 pregnant women were included; 167 were positive for GBS (14.4% of colonization). Sixteen were resistant to erythromycin (9.5%); 15 of these strains were also clindamycin resistant. Twenty-three of 167 were resistant to clindamycin (13.7%). Conclusions: The prevalence rate of GBS colonization was lower than previously reported in other regions of Chile. Due to the high rates of resistance to clindamycin and erythromycin it is necessary to widen the study of susceptibility to other antimicrobials to have alternatives in allergy to penicillin (primarily cefazolin and vancomycin).

Introducción: Streptococcus agalactiae es el más frecuente causal de sepsis neonatal precoz. Las estrategias con pesquisa universal de colonización materna muestran las tasas más bajas de infección perinatal. Se ha reportado un significativo aumento de resistencia de S. agalactiae a eritromicina y clindamicina en el mundo. No existen datos publicados de prevalencia y susceptibilidad antimicrobiana en las regiones del sur de Chile. La vigilancia de resistencia es fundamental para definir los antimicrobianos de elección y alternativas para prevención del cuadro en instituciones que apliquen estrategias de prevención, como Clínica Alemana Temuco (CAT). Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de portación de S. agalactiae en la región vaginal-anal de mujeres embarazadas de tercer trimestre en CAT. Determinar la susceptibilidad a eritromicina y clindamicina de las cepas aisladas. Resultados: 1.181 embarazadas fueron incluidas. 167 resultaron S. agalactiae (+) (14,4% de colonización). Diez y seis eran resistentes a eritromicina (9,5%). Quince de ellas también lo eran a clindamicina. Veintitrés de 167, eran resistentes a clindamicina (13,7%). Conclusiones: La tasa de prevalencia de colonización (14%) fue más baja que lo reportado anteriormente en el centro del país. Debido a la alta tasa de resistencia a clindamicina y eritromicina se hace necesario aumentar el estudio de susceptibilidad a otros antimicrobianos alternativos en pacientes alérgicas a penicilina (principalmente cefazolina y vancomicina).

Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Anal Canal/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Carrier State/virology , Clindamycin/pharmacology , Erythromycin/pharmacology , Streptococcus agalactiae/drug effects , Vagina/microbiology , Chile , Carrier State/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Streptococcus agalactiae/isolation & purification
Rev. latinoam. enferm ; 19(5): 1072-1079, Sept.-Oct. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: lil-602812


Early isolation of patients possibly colonized by multi-resistant microorganisms can minimize their spread, reducing cases of hospital infection and the related costs. This study aimed to identify the sensitivity and specificity of the criteria for isolation of patients admitted to a specialized cancer hospital. Cross-sectional study with a population of 61 patients coming from other hospitals who were admitted to the hospital between March 1st and August 31th, 2009. At the moment of admission, a data collection instrument was filled out and nasal and anal swabs were collected for microbiological culture. Of the 56 patients who met the isolation criteria, 30 (49.2 percent) presented positive cultures for multi-resistant microorganisms and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently identified microorganism. Most patients colonized by multi-resistant microorganisms were isolated at the moment of admission. The sensitivity of the isolation criteria was 90 percent and the specificity was 6.5 percent.

O isolamento precoce de pacientes, possivelmente colonizados por microrganismos multirresistentes, pode minimizar sua disseminação, reduzindo os casos de infecção hospitalar e os custos associados. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar a sensibilidade e especificidade dos critérios para isolamento de pacientes admitidos num hospital especializado em oncologia. Como método, usou-se o estudo transversal. A população foi composta por 61 pacientes, admitidos no período de 1º março a 31 de agosto de 2009, e procedentes de outros hospitais. Foi preenchido instrumento de coleta de dados no momento da admissão e colhidas amostras da região nasal e anal para cultura microbiológica. Os resultados mostraram que, dos 56 pacientes que preencheram os critérios de isolamento, 30 (49,2 por cento) tiveram culturas positivas para microrganismos multirresistentes e o Staphylococcus aureus resistente à oxacilina foi o mais frequentemente identificado. A maioria dos pacientes colonizados foi isolada no momento da admissão. Conclui-se que a sensibilidade dos critérios para isolamento foi de 90 por cento e a especificidade de 6,5 por cento.

El aislamiento precoz de pacientes posiblemente colonizados por microorganismos multirresistentes puede minimizar su diseminación, reduciendo los casos de infección hospitalaria y los costos asociados. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar la sensibilidad y especificidad de los criterios para aislamiento de pacientes admitidos en un hospital especializado en oncología. Se trata de un estudio transversal cuya población fue compuesta por 61 pacientes admitidos en el período de 01 marzo a 31 de agosto de 2009 y procedentes de otros hospitales. Fue llenado un instrumento de recolección de datos en el momento de la admisión y recogidas muestras de la región nasal y anal para cultura microbiológica. De los 56 pacientes que llenaron los criterios de aislamiento, 30(49,2 por ciento) tuvieron culturas positivas para microorganismos multirresistentes y el Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la oxacilina fue el más frecuentemente identificado. La mayoría de los pacientes colonizados fue aislada en el momento de la admisión. La sensibilidad de los criterios para aislamiento fue de 90 por ciento y la especificidad de 6,5 por ciento.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Cancer Care Facilities , Patient Isolation/standards , Anal Canal/microbiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Nose/microbiology , Sensitivity and Specificity
Rev. chil. infectol ; 28(4): 334-337, ago. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-603062


Introduction: Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) is the main causative agent of early perinatal sepsis. The acquisition of prevention policies has led to frequent use of intrapartum antibiotics. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance is indispensable for defining drugs of choice and alternatives for such prophylaxis. Objectives: To determine the evolution of antimicrobial resistance of GBS from maternal colonization to drugs used in the prevention of neonatal sepsis, between 2002 and 2008. Methods: We studied 100 GBS positive vaginal and anal samples from pregnant women. Disc diffussion susceptibility method was performed for penicillin, ampicillin, cefazolin, erythromycin and clindamycin according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Results: We analyzed the susceptibility of 99 strains. Seventeen were resistant to erythromycin (17.1 percent) and 13 were resistant to clindamycin (13.1 percent). Thirteen of the 17 strains resistant to erythromycin had the MLS phenotype (resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin) and 4 had the M phenotype (resistance to erythromycin only). Within the MLS phenotype, resistance was constitutive in 9 strains, and induced in 4 strains (positive D test). Compared with 2002 there was a significant increase in resistance to clindamycin (from 3.27 percent to 13.1 percent p < 0.002) and erythromycin (1.09 percent to 17 percent p < 0.001). 100 percent GSB remained sensitive to penicillin and ampicillin. Conclusions: GBS remains highly susceptible to drugs of choice for prevention of perinatal sepsis. There is a significant increase in antimicrobial resistance to clindamycin and erythromycin. Therefore, it is necessary to request susceptibility testing in GBS from third trimester of pregnancy screening in patients allergic to penicillin.

Introducción: Streptococcus agalactiae es el principal agente causal de sepsis perinatal precoz. La adquisición de políticas de prevención ha traído consigo la utilización frecuente de antimicrobianos intra-parto. La vigilancia de resistencia antimicrobiana se hace indispensable para definir el fármaco de elección y alternativas en dicha profilaxis. Nuestro centro realiza tamizaje universal desde hace 10 años. Objetivos: Determinar la evolución de la resistencia antimicrobiana de S. agalactiae de colonización materna, a los antimicrobianos utilizados en la prevención de sepsis neonatal, entre 2002 y 2008. Métodos: Se estudiaron 100 muestras vaginales-anales positivas para S. agalactiae de mujeres embarazadas, con edad gestacional de 35 a 37 semanas. Se realizó estudio de susceptibilidad in vitro por discos a penicilina, ampicilina, cefazolina, eritromicina y clindamicina, según método estandarizado por Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Resultados: Se analiza la susceptibilidad de 99 cepas. Diecisiete fueron resistentes a eritromicina (17,1 por ciento) y 13 eran resistentes a clindamicina (13,1 por ciento). De las 17 cepas resistentes a eritromicina, 13 eran fenotipo MLS y 4 del fenotipo M. Dentro del fenotipo MLS, la resistencia fue constitutiva en nueve cepas e inducible en cuatro cepas (test D positivo). En comparación con el año 2002, hubo un aumento significativo de resistencia a clindamicina (de 3,2 a 13,1 por ciento p < 0,002) y a eritromicina (de 1,09 a 17 por ciento p < 0,001). Streptococcus agalactiae se mantuvo 100 por ciento sensible a penicilina y ampicilina. Conclusiones: S. agalactiae mantiene alta sensibilidad a los antimicrobianos de elección para la prevención de sepsis neonatal y a un antimicrobiano alternativo: cefazolina. Se observó un aumento significativo de resistencia antimicrobiana a clindamicina y eritromicina. Se hace necesario, entonces, solicitar antibiograma en el tamizaje del tercer trimestre del embarazo, en pacientes alérgicas a penicilina.

Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Clindamycin/pharmacology , Erythromycin/pharmacology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/microbiology , Streptococcal Infections/microbiology , Streptococcus agalactiae/drug effects , Anal Canal/microbiology , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Phenotype , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Prenatal Diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Sepsis/congenital , Sepsis/microbiology , Sepsis/prevention & control , Streptococcal Infections/diagnosis , Streptococcal Infections/prevention & control , Streptococcus agalactiae/isolation & purification , Vagina/microbiology
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 31(8): 397-403, ago. 2009. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-528538


OBJETIVO: identificar a prevalência e os fatores de risco de colonização materna por estreptococo do grupo B (EGB) em gestantes com trabalho de parto prematuro (TPP) e/ou ruptura prematura pré-termo de membranas (RPM). MÉTODOS: foram colhidos dois swabs anais e dois swabs vaginais de 203 gestantes com diagnóstico de TPP ou RPM entre 22 e 36 semanas completas de gestação atendidas no serviço em um período de um ano. Foram excluídas as gestantes que deram entrada com parto iminente. Um swab de cada local foi colocado em meio de transporte, sendo posteriormente enviados para cultura em placas de ágar-sangue, os outros dois foram incubados por 24 horas em meio de Todd-Hewitt para posterior semeadura em placas de ágar-sangue. Foram analisados fatores de risco com o uso do teste do qui-quadrado, t de Student (p ajustado a 0,05 e intervalo de confiança 95 por cento) e de regressão logística. Foram analisadas as seguintes variáveis: idade, raça, paridade e escolaridade maternas; resultados das culturas por local de coleta e tipo de cultura; diagnóstico de admissão; idade gestacional de admissão; bacteriúria assintomática; idade gestacional no parto; tipo de parto; taxa de colonização neonatal por EGB e resultado neonatal imediato. RESULTADOS: a prevalência de colonização materna por EGB foi de 27,6 por cento (56 gestantes). As taxas de colonização segundo as complicações da gestação foram 30 por cento para RPM, 25,2 por cento para TPP e 17,8 por cento para TPP + RPM. As variáveis "raça branca", "baixo nível de escolaridade" e "bacteriúria" foram associadas a maiores taxas de colonização na análise univariada. A presença de infecção urinária foi a única variável significativamente associada à colonização materna na análise multivariada. A taxa de detecção do estreptococo do grupo B foi significativamente maior com o uso do meio seletivo e com a associação de coleta de culturas anais e vaginais. A taxa de colonização neonatal foi de 3,1 por cento. ...

PURPOSE: to indentify the prevalence and risk factors of maternal colonization by group B streptococcus (GBS) in pregnant women with premature labor (PL) and/or premature membrane rupture (PMR). METHODS: two anal and two vaginal swabs were collected from 203 pregnant women with diagnosis of PL or PMR assisted at the practice along one year. Pregnant women with imminent labor at admission were excluded. One swab of each source was placed in a transfer milieu and sent for culture in blood-agar plates; the two remaining swabs were incubated for 24 hours in Todd-Hewitt milieu for further sowing in blood-agar plates. Risk factors were analyzed by the chi-square test, Student's t-test (p-value set at 0.05 and 95 percent confidence interval) and logistic regression. The following variables were analyzed: age, race, parity and mother schooling; culture results by source and type of culture; admission diagnosis; gestational age at admission; asymptomatic bacteriuria; gestational age at delivery; type of delivery; neonatal GBS colonization rate and immediate neonatal condition. RESULTS: prevalence of maternal GBS colonization was 27.6 percent (56 cases). The colonization rates according to gestational complications were 30 percent for PMR, 25.2 percent for PL and 17.8 percent for PL + PMR. Univariate analysis has shown that the variables Caucasian race, low level of schooling and bacteriuria were associated with higher colonization rates. Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of urinary infection was the only variable associated with maternal colonization. The GBS detection rate was significantly higher with the use of a selective milieu and collection from both anal and vaginal sources. The neonatal colonization rate was 3.1 percent. Two cases of early sepsis by GBS occurred in the sample, with prevalence of 10.8 cases per one thousand live births and 50 percent mortality rate. CONCLUSION: the studied sample showed high maternal colonization ...

Adult , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture/microbiology , Obstetric Labor, Premature/microbiology , Streptococcus agalactiae/isolation & purification , Anal Canal/microbiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Vagina/microbiology
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-39047


OBJECTIVE: To compare whether the Group B streptococcal culture detection rate from vaginal-anorectal cultures, vaginal, or anorectal are equivalent. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Cross-sectional descriptive study was performed on 320 pregnant women with a gestational age between 28-42 weeks presenting with labor pain, between October, 1 and 30, 2004 in Rajavithi Hospital. Anorectal and vaginal swab cultures were collected and cultured in Todd Hewitt broth with 15 microg/ ml nalidixic acid and 8 microg/ml gentamicin. RESULTS: Forty-three (13.44%) and 33 cases (10.31%) were not significantly different in GBS detection rate in vaginal and anorectal culture, respectively (p = 0.154, McNemar). Combined vaginal-anorectal culture significantly improved the colonization GBS detection rate to 18.12% compared with either individual vaginal or anorectal culture 1 (p < 0.001, McNemar). CONCLUSION: GBS detection rate from combined vaginal-anorectal was significantly higher than either individual vaginal or anorectal cultures.

Anal Canal/microbiology , Bacteriological Techniques , Colony Count, Microbial , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Labor Pain/microbiology , Pregnancy , Rectum/microbiology , Streptococcal Infections/diagnosis , Vagina/microbiology
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 29(1): 3-9, jan. 2007. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-447621


OBJETIVO: analisar pacientes com candidíase vulvovaginal quanto a sintomatologia, fatores de risco e resultados da cultura anal, identificar a freqüência de Candida albicans e não C. albicans e correlacionar as colonizações anal e vaginal. MÉTODOS: foram incluídas 99 pacientes com suspeita clínica de candidiase vulvovaginal, procedentes de Natal, RN, atendidas entre maio de 2003 e maio de 2005, perfazendo-se o total de 294 coletas. O material clínico, colhido por zaragatoas, foi semeado em CHROMagar Candida®. As leveduras foram identificadas pelo método clássico, além da prova de crescimento a 42 e 45°C e da prova do caldo Sabouraud hipertônico. A sintomatologia, fatores de risco e colonização anal foram analisados de acordo com a positividade ou negatividade para Candida spp. As culturas positivas para C. albicans nos dois sítios foram comparadas com outros resultados encontrados. Para análise estatística utilizou-se o teste do chi2, com correção de Yates e o teste exato de Fisher. RESULTADOS: a espécie mais frequente foi C. albicans em 69 por cento dos casos. Uso de roupas íntimas justas e/ou sintéticas, presença de doenças alérgicas, ocorrência de prurido, leucorréia e hiperemia apresentaram associação com a positividade vaginal para Candida spp. A chance de uma paciente com colonização anal positiva de apresentar positividade vaginal concomitante foi 2,8 e 4,9 vezes maior, respectivamente, para Candida spp e C. albicans. A chance de uma paciente com cultura anal positiva para C. albicans de apresentar resultado vaginal positivo foi 3,7 vezes maior quando comparada a espécies não C. albicans. CONCLUSÕES: C. albicans foi a espécie mais comum, tendo sido observada associação da positividade vaginal para Candida spp com uso de roupas justas e/ou sintéticas, doenças alérgicas, prurido, leucorréia e eritema (p<0,05). A positividade anal concomitante com a vaginal foi significativa, sugerindo uma possível contaminação vaginal a partir do ânus.

PURPOSE: to analyze patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis with respect to risk factors, symptomatology and results of anal culture, to identify the frequency of species of Candida albicans and non-C. albicans, and to correlate anal and vaginal colonization. METHODS: a total of 99 patients were included with suspected vulvovaginal candidiasis, from Natal, Brazil, between May 2003 and May 2005, totalling 294 collections. The clinical material, obtained by vaginal and anal swabs, was seeded on CHROMagar Candida®. The yeasts were identified using the classic method, in addition to the growth test at 42° and 45°C and the Hypertonic Saboraud broth test. Symptomatology, risk factors and anal colonization were assessed according to positive or negative culture for Candida spp. The cultures positive for C. albicans at the two sites were compared with other results encountered. YatesÆ chi2 test and FisherÆs exact test were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: the most frequent was C. albicans in 69 percent of the cases. Wearing tight and/or synthetic underclothing, the presence of allergic diseases, the occurrence of itching, leukorrhea and hyperemia showed a significant association with positive culture for Candida spp in the vagina. The chance of a patient with positive anal colonization to present with concomitant positive vaginal colonization was 2.8 and 4.9 times greater for Candida spp and C. albicans, respectively. The risk of a patient with anal culture positive for C. albicans to present with positive vaginal colonization was 3.7 times greater when compared to non-C. albicans species. CONCLUSIONS: the most common species was C. albicans, and a relevant association between vaginal cultures positive for Candida spp and the use of tight and/or synthetic underclothing, allergic diseases, the occurrence of pruritus, leukorrhea and erythema was observed (p<0.05). Positive anal colonization concomitant with vaginal colonization was significant,suggesting...

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anal Canal/microbiology , Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal/diagnosis , Vagina/microbiology , Vulvovaginitis/epidemiology
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 2001 Jan; 44(1): 37-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-75536


From May, 1999 to April, 2000, 256 high vaginal swabs were culture from asymptomatic infertile women attending the out-patient department of the Institute of Reproductive Medicine. 41 strains of Streptococcus agalactiae were isolated from 33 patients (12.89%). Five patients had repeated isolations even after adequate therapy.

Adult , Anal Canal/microbiology , Carrier State/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Rectum/microbiology , Streptococcal Infections/epidemiology , Streptococcus agalactiae/growth & development , Vagina/microbiology
J. bras. patol ; 34(3): 154-9, jul.-set. 1998. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-275854


Foram estudadas amostras de secreçöes vaginais e nais provenientes de 103 pacientes adultas, näo-gestantes. Sintomas de candidíase vaginal foram observados em 53, 4 por cento das pacientes, sendo secreçäo, odor e prurido os mais freqüente. Os esfregaços colpocitológicos revelaram leveduras e pseudo-hifas em 45,5 por cento das pacientes sintomáticas e em 37,5 das näo-sintomáticas. Leveduras foram isoladas em percentuais similares da vagina (20,4 por cento) e do anûs (22,3 por cento). Entre as pacientes sintomáticas e assintomáticas, a freqüência de isolamento destes microrganismos foi, respectivamente, de 27,3 por cento e 12,5 por cento. Candida Albicans foi a espécie prevalente. Das 23 pacientes que obtiveram resultado positivo para o isolamento de leveduras, a maioria (91,3 por cento) apresentou o microrganismo na vagina e no anûs

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Anal Canal/microbiology , Candida albicans/isolation & purification , Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal , Vaginal Smears , Vagina/microbiology
Rev. chil. cienc. méd. biol ; 8(1): 25-9, 1998. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-231643


La vulvovaginitis por Candida albicans y otras especies, es uno de los diagnósticos frecuentes de los ginecólogos. Las especies del género presentan varios determinantes de patogenicidad que, junto a otros métodos de morfotificación, permiten realizar estudios epidemiológicos. Se estudian 12 cepas de Candida albicans aisladas de vagina y ano, por el método morfotificación y detección de fosfolipasa y proteinasa. El 75 por ciento de las cepas presentó proteinasa y el 83 por ciento fosfolipasa. Se encontraron 8 morfotipos diferentes, siendo el más frecuente el 0000, lo que demostraría una colonización vaginal de cepas provenientes del ano

Humans , Female , Candida albicans/isolation & purification , Endopeptidases , Phospholipases , Anal Canal/microbiology , Brazil , Candida albicans/pathogenicity , Vagina/microbiology , Vulvovaginitis/diagnosis , Vulvovaginitis/etiology
Indian J Pediatr ; 1997 Jan-Feb; 64(1): 116-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-79818


A two-week-old term male infant, weighing 1,600 grams was transferred to the neonatology unit of Doküz Eylul University hospital with sharply demarcated cutaneous gangrene surrounding the perianal region. He did well at birth. In his history, on the 10th postnatal day, a red, painful, warm cutaneous lesion was observed which was thought to be secondary to repeated and inappropriate rectal temperature measurements. Besides an ill-appearing child, a nontender frank cutaneous gangrene developed within several days. Klebsiella pneumoniae was cultured from the involved area. Blood cultures were negative. A frozen section of soft tissue biopsy could not be performed because of the localization of the lesion. The patient was successfully treated by surgical debridement and high doses of parenteral antibiotics.

Anal Canal/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy, Combination/administration & dosage , Fasciitis, Necrotizing/diagnosis , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Klebsiella Infections/diagnosis , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Male , Treatment Outcome
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-112263


The incidence of carriers of Neisseria meningitidis was investigated in Borno State, an epidemic area for cerebrospinal meningitis and in Anambra State a non-epidemic area for this disease in Nigeria. The nasopharyngeal carriage rate in Maiduguri in Borno State was 18 per cent as compared with 11.8 per cent and 9.6 per cent in Nsukka and Enugu respectively in Anambra State. N. meningitidis was also isolated from anus and vagina in one and three females respectively. Majority of the isolates (71.9 per cent) belonged to serogroup B. The rare group x was recorded on two occasions. Majority of the isolates were sensitive to tetracycline, streptomycin and chloramphenicol; a few multiple drug resistant strains were also encountered.

Adolescent , Adult , Anal Canal/microbiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Meningitis, Meningococcal/epidemiology , Nasopharynx/microbiology , Neisseria meningitidis/isolation & purification , Nigeria , Vagina/microbiology