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1.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(4): 375-382, Out.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356443

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The literature converges regarding the use of C-reactive protein (CRP) tests between postoperative days (PODs) 3 and 5 of elective procedures. In this period, they have great sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) for severe and anastomotic complications about two days before the first clinical sign. The few studies on colorectal urgency suggest that, despite the different initial values according to the surgical indication, following POD 3, the level of CRP is similar to that of elective procedures. However, given the heterogeneity of the studies, there is no consensus on the cutoff values for this use. Objective: To validate the use and propose a PO CRP cut-off value in urgent colorectal procedures as an exclusion criterion for complications of anastomosis or the abdominal cavity. Method: Retrospective analysis of the medical records of 308 patients who underwent urgent colorectal surgical procedures between January 2017 and December 2019. The following data were considered: age, gender, surgical indication, type of procedure performed, complications, CRP levels preoperatively and from POD 1 to 4, and the severity of the complications. We compared the CRP levels and the percentage variations between the preoperative period and PODs 1 to 4 as markers of severe complications using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results: The levels of CRP on POD4, and their percentage drops between PODs 2 to 4 and PODs 3 to 4, were better to predict severe complications. A cutoff of 7.45mg/dL on POD 4 had 91.7% of sensitivity and NPV. A 50% drop between PODs 3 and 4 had 100% of sensitivity and NPV. Conclusion: Determining the level of CRP is useful to exclude severe complications, and it could be a criterion for hospital discharge in POD 4 of emergency colorectal surgery. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , C-Reactive Protein , Colorectal Surgery/adverse effects , Emergencies , Anal Canal/surgery , Rectum/surgery
2.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(4): 348-354, Out.-Dec. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356439

ABSTRACT

Background: In transanalminimally-invasive surgery (TAMIS), the closure of the rectal defect is controversial, and endoluminal suture is one of the most challenging aspects. The goal of the present study is to evaluate the short- andmedium-term complications of a consecutive series of patients with extraperitoneal rectal injuries who underwent TAMIS without closure of the rectal defect. Materials and Methods: A prospective, longitudinal, descriptive study conducted between August 2013 and July 2019 in which all patients with extraperitoneal rectal lesions, who were operated on using the TAMIS technique, were consecutively included. The lesions were: benign lesions ≥ 3 cm; neuroendocrine tumors ≤ 2 cm; adenocarcinomas in stage T1N0; and adenocarcinomas in stage T2N0, with high surgical risk, or with the patients reluctant to undergo radical surgery, and others with doubts about complete remission after the neoadjuvant therapy. Bleeding, infectious complications, rectal stenosis, perforations, and death were evaluated. Results: A total of 35 patients were treated using TAMIS without closure of the defect. The average size of the lesionswas of 3.68±2.1 cm(95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 0.7cmto 9 cm), their average distance from the anal margin was of 5.7±1.48cm, and the average operative time was of 39.2±20.5 minutes, with a minimum postoperative follow-up of 1 year. As for the pathologies, they were: 15 adenomas; 3 carcinoid tumors; and 17 adenocarcinomas. In all cases, the rectal defect was left open. The overall morbidity was of 14.2%. Two patients (grade II in the Clavien-Dindo classification) were readmitted for pain treatment, and three patients (grade III in the Clavien-Dindo classification) were assisted due to postoperative bleeding, one of whom required reoperation. Conclusion: The TAMIS technique without closure of the rectal defect yields good results, and present a high feasibility and low complication rate. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anal Canal/surgery , Transanal Endoscopic Surgery , Anal Canal/injuries
3.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(4): 451-454, Out.-Dec. 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356438

ABSTRACT

The evaluation of preventivemeasures and risk factors for anastomotic leakage has been a constant concern among colorectal surgeons. In this context, the description of a new way to perform a colorectal, coloanal or ileoanal anastomosis, known as transanal transection and single-stapled (TTSS) anastomosis, deserves an appreciation of its qualities, and a discussion about its properties and technical details. In the present paper, the authors review themost recent efforts aiming to reduce anastomotic dehiscence, and describe the TTSS technique in a patient submitted to laparoscopic total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for familial adenomatous polyposis. Surgical perception raises important advantages such as distal rectal transection under visualization, elimination of double-stapling lines (with cost-effectiveness and potential protection against suture dehiscence), elimination of dog ears, and the opportunity to be accomplished via a transanal approach after open, laparoscopic, or robotic colorectal resections. Future studies to confirm these supposed advantages are needed. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Anal Canal/surgery , Anastomosis, Surgical , Surgical Stapling , Rectum/surgery , Colon/surgery
4.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(4): 406-410, Out.-Dec. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1356446

ABSTRACT

Background: Fistula-in-ano is one of the most common clinical condition encountered in a surgical outpatient department. Many treatment modalities have been described with variable outcomes but gold standard surgical treatment is yet to be agreed upon. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the treatment outcomes of ligature of intersphincteric fistula tract (LIFT) technique in the treatment of simple and complex fistula-in-ano with the primary objective of recurrence rate and broad objective of other postoperative complications during the period of study and after long-term follow-up. Methods: It is a retrospective study of prospectively collected data from the patients who havebeen operated for fistula-in-ano using the LIFT technique at our institute from February 2018 to March 2020 and followed-up until September 2020. Results: A total of 56 patients with fistula-in-ano were treated with the LIFT procedure during the study period, of which 20 patients had simple fistula and 36 had complex fistula. A success rate of 83% was obtained with completely healed fistulas in 46 patients. No patient developed postoperative incontinence. Conclusion: Ligature of intersphincteric fistula tract is an effective treatmentmodality for fistula-in-ano with less procedure-related morbidity, but it is associated with a higher recurrence rate in simple fistula than in complex fistula. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Rectal Fistula/surgery , Rectal Fistula/therapy , Anal Canal/surgery , Recurrence
5.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(3): 217-221, July-Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346423

ABSTRACT

Background: High perianal fistula treatment remains challenging, mainly due to the variability in success and recurrence rates as well as continence impairment risks. So far, no procedure can be considered the gold standard for surgical treatment. Yet, strong efforts to identify effective and complication-free surgical options are ongoing. Fistulotomy can be considered the best perianal fistula treatment option, providing a perfect surgical field view, allowing direct access to the source of chronic inflammation. Controversy exists concerning the risk of continence impairment associated with fistulotomy. The present study aimed to assess the outcomes of fistulotomy with immediate sphincteric reconstruction regaring fistula recurrence, incontinence, and patient satisfaction. Methods: This interventional study was performed at the General Surgery Department of Zagazig University Hospital during the period from July 2018 to December 2019 on 24 patients with a clinical diagnosis of high transsphincteric fistula-in-ano. The fistulous tract was laid open over the probe placed in the tract. After the fistula tract had been laid open, the tract was curetted and examined for secondary extensions. Then, suturing muscles to muscles, including the internal and external sphincters, by transverse mattress sutures. Results: Our study showed that 2 patients develop incontinence to flatus ~ 8.3%.and only one patient develop incontinence to loose stool, 4.2%. Complete healing was achieved in 83% and recurrence was 16.6%. Conclusion: Fistulotomy with immediate sphincteric reconstruction is considered to be an effective option in the management of high perianal fistula, with low morbidity and high healing rate with acceptable continence state. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Anal Canal/surgery , Rectal Fistula/surgery , Rectal Fistula/therapy , Comorbidity , Treatment Outcome
6.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(3): 332-334, July-Sept. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346424

ABSTRACT

The present report describes the end-to-end technique of anal sphincter repair in a 36-year-old female patient with post-vaginal delivery fecal incontinence (FI). The patient had a history of two vaginal deliveries and the symptoms of FI were observed after the second delivery. On assessment of the severity of FI using the Wexner incontinence score, the patient had a score of 12. Endoanal ultrasonography revealed an anterior defect of the external anal sphincter extending from 11 to 3 o'clock. The patient had no previous anal surgery and did not have any medical comorbidities. The operation time was 45minutes. No intraoperative complications were recorded. At 12 months of follow-up, the patient showed significant improvement in the continence state, with her Wexner score dropping to 4. No postoperative complications were recorded. We can conclude that end-to-end anal sphincter repair is a technically feasible operation that confers satisfactory improvement in the continence state without imposing much tension on the site of sphincter repair. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Anal Canal/surgery , Fecal Incontinence/therapy , Delivery, Obstetric/adverse effects
7.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 41(1): 30-36, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286963

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective Several techniques are used to repair the anal sphincter following injury. The aim of the present study is to comprehensively analyze the short- and long-term outcomes of overlap repair following anal sphincter injury. Methods A search was conducted in the PubMed, Medline, Embase, Scopus and Google Scholar databases between January 2000 and January 2020. Studies that described the outcomes that are specific to overlap sphincter repair for fecal incontinence with a minimum follow-up period of one year were selected. Results A total of 22 studies described the outcomes of overlap sphincter repair. However, 14 studies included other surgical techniques in addition to overlap repair, and were excluded from the analysis. Finally, data from 8 studies including 429 repairs were analyzed. All studies used at least one objective instrument; however, there was significant heterogeneity among them. Most patients were female (n=407; 94.87%) and the mean age of the included individuals was 44.6 years. The majority of the procedures were performed due to obstetric injuries (n=384; 89.51%). The eight included studies described long-term outcomes, and seven of them demonstrated statistically significant improvements regarding the continence; one study described poor outcomes in terms of overall continence. The long-term scores were significantly better compared with the preoperative scores. However, compared with the shortterm scores, a statistically significant deterioration was noted in the long-term. Conclusion The majority of the studies described good long-term outcomes in terms of anal continence after overlap sphincter repair. However, further studies are needed


Resumo Objetivo Diversas técnicas são usadas no reparo do esfíncter anal após lesões. O objetivo deste estudo é fazer uma análise completa dos desfechos nos curto e longo prazos do reparo por sobreposição após lesão do esfíncter anal. Métodos Realizou-se uma busca nas bases de dados PubMed, Medline, Embase, Scopus e Google Scholar entre janeiro de 2000 e janeiro de 2020. Estudos que descreviam desfechos específicos do reparo de esfíncter por sobreposição para incontinência fecal, com um mínimo de 1 ano de seguimento, foram selecionados. Resultados No total, 22 estudos descreviam os desfechos do reparo de esfíncter por sobreposição. No entanto, 14 estudos incluíam outras técnicas cirúrgicas além do reparo por sobreposição, e foram excluídos da análise. Por fim, dados de 8 estudos que incluíam 429 reparos foram analisados. Todos os estudos usaram pelo menos um instrumento objetivo, mas havia uma heterogeneidade significativa entre eles. A maioria dos pacientes era do sexo feminino (n=407; 94,87%), e a idade média dos indivíduos incluídos foi de 44,6 anos. A maioria das cirurgias foi realizada devido a lesões obstétricas (n=384; 89,51%). Os oito estudos incluídos descreveram os desfechos no longo prazo, e sete deles demonstraram melhoras estatisticamente significativas com relação à continência; um estudo descreveu resultados ruins em termos gerais com relação à continência. As pontuações no longo prazo foram significativamente melhores em comparação com as pontuações no pré-operatório. No entanto, em comparação com as pontuações no curto prazo, percebeu-se uma piora estatisticamente significativa no longo prazo. Conclusão A maioria dos estudos descrevia bons resultados no longo prazo em termos de continência anal depois do reparo do esfíncter por sobreposição. Entretanto mais estudos são necessários para que se identifiquem os fatores associados aos desfechos ruins para auxiliar na seleção de pacientes para o reparo por sobreposição.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Anal Canal/surgery , Anal Canal/injuries , Rectal Diseases/surgery , Fecal Incontinence/etiology
8.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(1): 58-64, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156971

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The results from sphincteroplasty may worsen over time. Reseparation of the rectum and vagina/scrotum in conjunction with sphincteroplasty achieves good results. Improving the surgical effect of sphincteroplasty through perineal body reconstruction is crucial. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term results from anterior sphincteroplasty and perineal body reconstruction (modified sphincteroplasty) among patients with traumatic sphincter injury. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective study among patients who underwent modified sphincteroplasty in a university hospital between January 2006 and December 2018. Fifty patients were evaluated in detail. METHODS: The following variables were evaluated: gender, age, additional disease status, time interval between trauma and surgery, surgical technique, duration of hospitalization, follow-up period after surgery, manometric values, electromyography results, magnetic resonance imaging scans, Wexner scores, satisfaction levels with surgery and surgical outcomes. RESULTS: The patients' mean age was 44.6 ± 15.1 years. The median follow-up period was 62 months (range, 12-118). The mean Wexner scores preoperatively, postoperatively in first month (M1S) and at the time of this report (AAS) were 15.5 ± 3.2, 1.9 ± 3.15 and 3.9 ± 5.3, respectively. Although improvements in the patients' mean Wexner scores became impaired over time, the postoperative Wexner scores were still significantly better than the preoperative Wexner scores (P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Good or excellent results were obtained surgically among patients with traumatic sphincter injury. Performing perineal body reconstruction in addition to sphincteroplasty can provide better long-term continence. Surgical outcomes were found to be better, especially among patients younger than 50 years of age and among patients who underwent surgery within the first five years after trauma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Fecal Incontinence/surgery , Fecal Incontinence/etiology , Anal Canal/surgery , Vagina , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880632

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the clinical efficacy of laparoscopic modified Parks operation on the patients with ultra-low rectal cancer.@*METHODS@#According to the preoperative stage and intraoperative anastomotic position, 98 patients with ultra-low rectal cancer above T2 stage underwent laparoscopic Dixon operation, modified Parks operation and Miles operation, respectively. All patients were divided into 3 groups: a Dixon operation group (@*RESULTS@#The patients were more obese, the distance between tumor and anal margin was closer, and the operation time was longer in the modified Parks operation group than those in the Dixon operation group (all @*CONCLUSIONS@#Laparoscopic modified Parks operation is a safe, economical and effective anus preservation operation, which can not only save the anus for some patients who had to perform Miles operation, but also recover better and faster after operation. Although the early anal function of patients performed with the modified operation is poor, it can gradually recover to the same level as the patients performed with the Dixon operation.


Subject(s)
Anal Canal/surgery , Humans , Laparoscopy , Rectal Neoplasms/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
10.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 34(2): e1594, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345010

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Varicose veins appear above and below the dentate line in mixed hemorrhoids, which seriously affects anal function and quality of life. Aim: To propose an improvement in tissue-selecting therapy repair of anal pad combined with complete anal canal epithelial retention comparing with Milligan-Morgan surgery. Methods: A prospective randomized controlled study was designed enrolling 200 patients with grade III and IV hemorrhoids. They were divided into control and observation groups. The control received Milligan-Morgan surgery, and the observation the modified tissue-selecting therapy stapler combined with complete anal canal preservation surgery. All patients were followed for six months to evaluate the treatment differences. Results: In final, control group included 82 and observation 87. The average operation time of the control group was significantly lower than that of the observation, while the bleeding volume was significantly lower in control group. The control group VAS score was 3 (1, 4), and observation 4 (2, 5). There was no significant difference in the incidence of urinary retention, bleeding and wound margin edema after surgery at one month postoperatively. Digital incidence of anal stenosis in the observation group was significantly lower than in control; the same occurred with residual anal margins. The postoperative anal canal diameter was significantly larger than the control group. Wexner anal incontinence score showed that no anal incontinence occurred in both groups, and the control group scored was significantly higher than observation. In final six months follow-up, the observation group did not experience any relapse and four cases were found among controls. The treatment satisfaction of the observation group was better. Conclusions: In grades III and IV hemorrhoids, modified tissue-selecting therapy combined with complete anal canal preservation had better prognosis and treatment satisfaction than Milligan-Morgan procedure, and it is a new surgical method for patients with advanced mixed hemorrhoids.


RESUMO Racional: Veias varicosas aparecem acima e abaixo da linha dentada nas hemorroidas mistas, afetando seriamente a função anal e a qualidade de vida. Objetivo: Propor melhoria na terapia de seleção de tecido de reparo do coxim anal combinado com retenção completa epitelial do canal anal em comparação com a operação de Milligan-Morgan. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo randomizado controlado foi desenhado envolvendo 200 pacientes com hemorroidas graus III e IV. Eles foram divididos em grupos de controle e observação. O controle recebeu operação de Milligan-Morgan, e o de observação procedimento de seleção de tecido modificado combinado com operação completa de preservação do canal anal. Todos os pacientes foram acompanhados por seis meses para avaliar as diferenças de tratamento. Resultados: No final, o grupo controle incluiu 82 e o de observação 87. O tempo médio de operação do grupo controle foi significativamente menor do que o de observação, enquanto o volume de sangramento foi significativamente menor no grupo controle. O escore VAS do grupo controle foi 3 (1, 4) e no de observação 4 (2, 5). Não houve diferença significativa na incidência de retenção urinária, sangramento e edema da margem da ferida no pós-operatório de um mês. A incidência de estenose anal digital no grupo observação foi significativamente menor do que no controle; o mesmo ocorreu com as margens anais residuais. O diâmetro do canal anal pós-operatório foi significativamente maior nele do que o grupo controle. A pontuação de incontinência anal de Wexner mostrou que nenhuma incontinência ocorreu em ambos os grupos, e a pontuação do grupo de controle foi significativamente maior do que no de observação. Nos últimos seis meses de acompanhamento, o grupo observação não teve nenhuma recaída e quatro casos foram encontrados entre os controles. A satisfação com o tratamento do grupo observação foi maior. Conclusões: Nas hemorroidas graus III e IV, o tratamento de seleção de tecido modificado combinado com a preservação completa do canal anal teve melhor prognóstico e satisfação do que com o procedimento de Milligan-Morgan, e é um novo método cirúrgico para pacientes com hemorroidas mistas avançadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hemorrhoidectomy , Hemorrhoids/surgery , Anal Canal/surgery , Quality of Life , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
11.
Rev. cir. (Impr.) ; 72(3): 250-256, jun. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115551

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las fístulas anorrectales complejas son un desafío para el coloproctólogo. Son una patología frecuente que afecta la calidad de vida de los pacientes. La patogénesis aún no está clara, estarían involucradas citoquinas y el proceso de transición de epitelio a mesénquima. El gold standard para su estudio es la resonancia nuclear magnética, su uso por sí mismo disminuye la recurrencia. El objetivo del tratamiento es lograr la curación sin afectar la función del esfínter evitando las recidivas. Existen múltiples técnicas, siendo la de mayor aceptación la ligadura interesfinteriana del trayecto fistuloso, con tasa de curación sobre el 70%, con mínimo impacto en continencia. Esta revisión incluye otras técnicas como el colgajo endorrectal de avance, uso de sellante, permacol, células madres, Anal fistula plug, Video asisted anal fistula treatment, Over the scope clip y fistula laser closure.


Complex anal fistula are a challenge for colorectal surgeons. It is a common pathology in population. Pathogenesis is still unclear, it would be involved citokines and the process of epitelial to eesenchymal transition. The gold standard for study is MRI, its use reduces recurrences. The goal of treatment is heal the fistula without damaging the function of the sphincter and avoid recurrences. There are multiple techniques, the most accepted is ligation of intersphincteric fistula tract with cure rate over 70%, with minimal impact in continence. This review includes other techniques like rectal advancement flap, fibrin glue, permacol, stem cells, anal fistula plug, video asisted anal fistula treatment, over the scope clip and fistula laser closure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Surgical Flaps/surgery , Rectal Fistula/surgery , Rectal Fistula/therapy , Ligation/methods , Anal Canal/surgery , Rectal Diseases/surgery , Rectal Diseases/therapy , Digestive System Surgical Procedures/methods , Video-Assisted Surgery
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880388

ABSTRACT

Prolapsed hemorrhoids is a common clinical disease, and severe symptoms can significantly affect work and life. The transanal stapler has the advantages of simple operation and less trauma in treating prolapsed hemorrhoids. Its clinical efficacy is closely related to the selection of indications, the standardization of surgical operations, and the prevention and treatment of complications. In current clinical practice, there is no consensus on the treatment of prolapsed hemorrhoids with transanal stapler. Hence a discussion was held by the Professional Committee of Colorectal Diseases of Chinese Society of Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine, concerning the indications, contraindications, operating specifications and perioperative management of prolapsed hemorrhoids. A consensus was consequently formed, aiming to provide a guideline for the clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Anal Canal/surgery , China , Consensus , Hemorrhoidectomy/methods , Hemorrhoids/surgery , Humans , Surgical Stapling/methods , Treatment Outcome
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880387

ABSTRACT

The significant increase in the incidence of benign anal diseases is related to the fast-paced life style, the change of dietary structure, the increase of work pressure and social psychological factors. Surgery is one of the most important treatments for benign anal diseases, while perioperative defecation management is closely related to the efficacy of surgery. In current clinical practice, there is no consensus on the management of perioperative defecation for benign anal diseases. Hence a discussion was held by the Professional Committee of Colorectal Diseases of Chinese Society of Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine, concerning the causes of perioperative defecation difficulties in perioperative anal benign diseases, the importance and specific strategy of defecation management. A consensus was consequently formed, aiming to provide a guideline for the clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Anal Canal/surgery , Anus Diseases/surgery , China , Consensus , Defecation , Humans , Perioperative Care , Perioperative Period
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880386

ABSTRACT

Anal fistula is one of the most common diseases in colorectal and anal surgery. Most of them are formed after the abscess of perianal space reptures. Due to the complexity and diversity of pathological changes, the clinical efficacy of some patients is not optimistic, and there may even be serious surgical complications, including delayed healing of anal fistula or varying degrees of fecal incontinence, which significantly affect the quality of life of patients and even lead to disability. The Working Committee of Clinical Guidelines of Anorectal Physicians Branch of Chinese Medical Association organized some domestic experts to discuss and prepare this expert consensus. It is suggested that comprehensive evaluation of anal fistula, including detailed medical history, physical examination and necessary auxiliary examination should be conducted before treatment. Auxiliary examinations include fistulography, ultrasound, CT or MRI. The purpose of the auxiliary examination is to accurately determine the position of the internal orifice of the anal fistula, the direction of the fistula and its relationship with the anal sphincter. Adenogenic anal fistula needs surgical treatment after diagnosis. The operation methods can be divided into two types: operations breaching sphincter and operations preserving sphincter function. The former includes anal fistulectomy, anal fistulotomy and seton placement; the latter includes ligation of intersphincteric fistula (LIFT), rectal mucosal muscle flap advancement repair, anal fistula laser closure, video-assisted anal fistula treatment, etc. It is suggested to select or combine the application according to the specific condition of patients. Bioabsorbable materials include anal fistula plug and fibrin glue. Due to the characteristics of retaining sphincter function and reusability, it is recommended to be used selectively by qualified and experienced doctors. Proper wound management after anal fistula surgery can reduce the pain of patients, promote healing and reduce the recurrence of anal fistula. Because there is a certain risk of recurrence and fecal incontinence after anal fistula surgery, for some patients with complex condition, repeated operations or impaired anal function, we must be careful when choosing reoperation, and weigh the benefits of patients and the risk of fecal incontinence.


Subject(s)
Anal Canal/surgery , China , Consensus , Fecal Incontinence/prevention & control , Humans , Quality of Life , Rectal Fistula/surgery , Reoperation/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
15.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 33(2): e1504, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130521

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Transanal haemorrhoidal dearterialization with mucopexy (THD-M) is a valuable option for treating patients with haemorrhoidal disease. However, there is still controversy with regard to its efficacy for more advanced grades. Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of THD-M technique for treating hemorrhoidal disease and to compare the immediate and late results in different grades. Method: Seven hundred and five consecutive patients with Goligher's grade II, III or IV symptomatic haemorrhoids underwent surgical treatment using the THD-M method in five participating centres. Six well-trained and experienced surgeons operated on the patients. Average follow-up was 21 months (12-48). Results: Intraoperative complications were observed in 1.1% of cases, including four cases of haematoma, two of laceration of the mucosa, and two of bleeding. All of these were controlled by means of haemostatic suturing. In relation to postoperative complications, the most common of these were as follows: transitory tenesmus (21.4%); pain (7.2%); mucosal or haemorrhoidal prolapse (6.4%); residual skin tag (5.6%); faecal impaction (3.2%); haemorrhoidal thrombosis (2.8%); bleeding (2.1%); anal fissure (0.7%); and anal abscess (0.3%). Most of the complications were treated conservatively, and only 7.5% (53/705) required some type of surgical approach. There was no mortality or any severe complications. The recurrence of prolapse and bleeding was greater in patients with grade IV haemorrhoidal disease than in those with grade III and II (26.54% and 7.96% vs. 2.31% and 0.92% vs. 2.5% and 1.25%), respectively. Conclusion: The THD-M method is safe and effective for haemorrhoidal disease grades II and III with low rates of surgical complications. However, for grade IV hemorrhoids, it is associated with higher recurrence of prolapse and bleeding. So, THD-M method should not be considered as an effective option for the treatment of grade IV hemorrhoids.


RESUMO Racional: A desarterialização hemorroidária transanal associada à mucopexia (THD-M) tem sido indicada como alternativa à hemorroidectomia convencional para o tratamento da doença hemorroidária nos seus variados graus. No entanto, ainda hoje existe controvérsia com relação a sua eficácia para os graus mais avançados. Objetivo: Avaliar a eficácia da técnica THD-M para tratamento doença hemorroidária e comparar os resultados imediatos e tardios nos diferentes graus. Método: Entre julho de 2010 e setembro de 2015, 705 pacientes consecutivos com hemorroidas sintomáticas de graus II, III e IV foram submetidos ao tratamento cirúrgico pelo método THD-M e acompanhados por um período médio de 21 meses (12-48). As operações foram realizadas por seis cirurgiões com experiência em cirurgia colorretal, em três estados brasileiros. Resultados: Complicações intraoperatórias foram observadas em 1,1% dos casos, incluindo quatro casos de hematoma, dois de laceração da mucosa e dois de sangramento. Todos foram controlados com sutura hemostática. As complicações pós-operatórias mais comuns foram: tenesmo transitório (21,4%); dor (7,2%); prolapso mucoso ou hemorroidário (6,4%); plicoma residual (5,6%); impactação fecal (3,2%); trombose hemorroidária (2,8%); sangramento (2,1%); fissura anal (0,7%) e abscesso anal (0,3%). Não houve casos de complicações severas ou mortalidade perioperatória. A recorrência do prolapso e sangramento foi maior na doença hemorroidária grau IV do que nos graus III e II (26.54% e 7.96% vs. 2.31% e 0.92% vs. 2.5% e 1.25%; p<0,001), respectivamente. Conclusão: O método THD-M é seguro e efetivo no tratamento da doença hemorroidária nos graus II e III com baixo índice de complicações. No entanto, para a doença hemorroidária de grau IV essa técnica está relacionada com maior índice de recorrência e complicações tardias, não devendo ser considerada opção eficiente neste estágio de doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anal Canal/blood supply , Rectum/blood supply , Digestive System Surgical Procedures/methods , Hemorrhoids/surgery , Anal Canal/surgery , Arteries , Rectum/surgery , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil , Treatment Outcome , Hemorrhoidectomy , Hemorrhoids/classification , Ligation/methods
16.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 33(3): e1540, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141905

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: There is still a need for progress in the treatment of transsphincteric anal fistulae and the use of herbal medicines seems promising. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of Stryphnodendron adstringens associated with fistulotomy and primary sphincteroplasty in the treatment of transsphincteric fistulae in rats. Methods: Thirty Wistar rats were used, which were submitted to transsphincteric fistulas with steel wire 0; after 30 days a treatment was performed according to the group. Group A (n=10) was submitted to fistulotomy; group B (n=10), fistulotomy followed by primary sphincteroplasty with "U" stitch with polyglactin 911 4-0; group C(n=10) , similar to group B, but with the interposition between the muscular stumps of hemostatic sponge soaked in Stryphnodendron adstringens extract. Euthanasia was performed after 14 days, resecting a segment of the anal canal for histological analysis, which aimed to evaluate the closure of the fistula, the area of separation of the muscle cables, the inflammatory process and the degree of fibrosis. Results: No animal had a remaining fistulous tract. About the spacing between the muscle cables, an average of 106.3 µm2 was observed in group A, 82.8 µm2 in group B and 51.8 µm2 in group C (p<0.05). There was no difference between the groups regarding the inflammatory process and, in relation to fibrosis, in group A there was a mean of 0.6, in group B 0.7 and in group C 0.2 (p<0.05). Conclusions: Stryphnodendron adstringens extract was able to allow less spacing between muscle cables in rats submitted to fistulotomy followed by primary sphincteroplasty, in addition to providing less local fibrosis.


RESUMO Racional: Há ainda necessidade de avanço no tratamento das fístulas transesfincterianas e o uso de fitoterápicos parece promissor. Objetivo: Avaliar a eficácia da Stryphnodendron adstringens associada à fistulotomia e esfincteroplastia primária no tratamento de fístulas transesfincterianas em ratos. Métodos: Utilizou-se 30 ratos Wistar submetidos à confecção de fístulas transesfincterianas com fio de aço 0; após 30 dias realizou-se tratamento de acordo com o grupo. O grupo A (n=10) foi submetido à fistulotomia; o grupo B (n=10) fistulotomia seguida de esfincteroplastia primária com ponto em "U" com poliglactina 911 4-0; o grupo C (n=10), semelhante ao grupo B, porém com a interposição entre os cotos musculares de esponja hemostática embebida em extrato de Stryphnodendron adstringens. Realizou-se eutanásia após 14 dias, ressecando-se segmento do canal anal para análise histológica, que objetivou avaliar o fechamento da fístula, a área de afastamento dos cabos musculares, o processo inflamatório e o grau de fibrose. Resultados: Nenhum animal apresentou trajeto fistuloso remanescente. Quanto ao afastamento entre os cabos musculares observou-se média 106,3 µm2 no grupo A, 82,8 µm2 no grupo B e 51,8 µm2 no grupo C (p<0,05). Não houve diferença entre os grupos quanto ao processo inflamatório e, em relação à fibrose; no grupo A observou-se média 0,6, no grupo B 0,7 e no grupo C 0,2 (p<0,05). Conclusões: O extrato de Stryphnodendron adstringens foi capaz de permitir menor afastamento entre os cabos musculares em ratos submetidos à fistulotomia seguida por esfincteroplastia primária, além de proporcionar menor fibrose local.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Digestive System Surgical Procedures , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Rectal Fistula/surgery , Fabaceae/chemistry , Anal Canal/surgery , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar
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