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Braz. j. anesth ; 73(2): 165-170, March-Apr. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439581


Abstract Background Opioids are the cornerstone in managing postoperative pain; however, they have many side effects. Ketamine and Magnesium (Mg) are NMDA receptor antagonists used as adjuvant analgesics to decrease postoperative opioid consumption. Objective We assumed that adding Mg to ketamine infusion can improve the intraoperative and postoperative analgesic efficacy of ketamine infusion alone in cancer breast surgeries. Methods Ninety patients aged between 18 and 65 years and undergoing elective cancer breast surgery were included in this prospective randomized, double-blind study. Group K received ketamine 0.5 bolus then 0.12 infusion for the first 24 hours postoperatively. Group KM: received ketamine 0.5 and Mg sulfate 50, then ketamine 0.12 and Mg sulfate 8 infusions for the first 24 hours postoperative. The primary outcome was the morphine consumption in the first 24 hours postoperative, while the secondary outcomes were: intraoperative fentanyl consumption, NRS, side effects, and chronic postoperative pain. Results Group KM had less postoperative opioid consumption (14.12 ± 5.11 mg) than Group K (19.43 ± 6.8 mg). Also, Group KM had less intraoperative fentanyl consumption. Both groups were similar in postoperative NRS scores, the incidence of side effects related to opioids, and chronic neuropathic pain. Conclusion Adding Mg to ketamine infusion can safely improve intraoperative and postoperative analgesia with opioid-sparing effect in cancer breast surgery.

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Analgesia , Ketamine , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Breast Neoplasms/surgery , Fentanyl , Double-Blind Method , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Magnesium Sulfate/therapeutic use , Morphine/therapeutic use
Braz. j. anesth ; 73(1): 85-90, Jan.-Feb. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420642


Abstract Backgraund: This prospective observational cohort study aimed to investigate the relationship between preoperative anxiety levels and postoperative pain and analgesic requirement in patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Methods: Forty two female patients with body mass index ≥ 35, who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for treatment of obesity were included in the study. Spielberger's state and trait anxiety scales were used in this study. Demographic data of the patients, anesthetic and analgesic drugs during the surgery, pain levels measured with verbal analog scale at the postoperative 1st, 4th, 12th, and 24th hour, sedation levels measured with the Ramsay sedation scale, and the amount of analgesic consumed were recorded. Anesthesiologist, surgeon, and patient were not informed of the anxiety level results. The relationship between preoperative anxiety and postoperative pain and analgesic consumption was evaluated by Spearman's correlation analysis. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was applied. Normal Distribution control was performed by applying the Shapiro-Wilk test to residual values obtained from the final model. Results: There was no relationship between trait anxiety level and postoperative pain and analgesic consumption. A correlation was found between state anxiety level and pain level up to 24 hours and analgesic consumption (p < 0.05). According to the obtained model it had been observed that the university graduates consumed more analgesic compared to other education level groups. Conclusion: In this study, a relationship was found between preoperative state anxiety level and 24-hour pain scores and analgesic consumption in patients who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy under general anesthesia.

Humans , Female , Laparoscopy/methods , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Anxiety , Pain, Postoperative/etiology , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Gastrectomy/methods
Braz. j. anesth ; 73(1): 78-84, Jan.-Feb. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420649


Abstract Background There has been a growing interest in the use of ketamine following orthopedic surgeries. We hypothesized that low dose intravenous ketamine during surgery would help in mobilization following total knee replacement (TKR) in oncology patients as assessed by the timed to up and go (TUG) test at 72 hours post-surgery. Our secondary objectives were to compare the opioid requirement at the end of 72 hours, pain scores, satisfaction with pain management, adverse effects, range of joint movement achieved in the post-operative period and the functional recovery at the end of 1 month. Methods After the ethics commitee approval, registration of the trial with the Clinical Trial Registry - India (CTRI), and informed consent, this double-blinded trial was conducted. Using computer generated randomization chart, an independent team randomized the patients into ketamine group which received at induction, a ketamine bolus dose of 0.5 before the incision followed by 10 µ infusion which was maintained intraoperatively till skin closure and the saline group received an equivalent volume of saline. Postoperatively, patient controlled morphine pumps were attached and the pain score with morphine usage were recorded for 72 hours. The TUG tests and range of motion were assessed by the physiotherapists until 72 hours. Results Fifty-two patients were enrolled in the trial. Demographics were comparable. No significant intraoperative hemodynamic changes and post-operative adverse events were noted between the groups. A decrease in the TUG test, along with decreased opioid usage with a better range of movements was noted in the ketamine group, but this was not statistically significant. Day of discharge, patient satisfaction score, and functional recovery assessed by Oxford Knee Score (OKS) were comparable between the groups. Conclusion In conclusion, low dose intraoperative ketamine infusion does not provide clinical benefit in perioperative pain management and postoperative rehabilitation following total knee endoprosthetic replacement in oncology.

Humans , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Ketamine , Neoplasms/surgery , Neoplasms/complications , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Double-Blind Method , Pain Management , Analgesics , Analgesics, Opioid , Morphine
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246312, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339357


Abstract The antioxidant, photoprotective and antinociceptive Marcetia macrophylla active extract was investigated as an active ingredient in a sunscreen cream formulation. Thus, the M. macrophylla extract showed IC50 of 3.43 mg/ml of the antioxidant (DPPH∙ scavenging test) and Sun Protection Factor of 20.25 (SPF/UV-B, at 250 µg/ml) and UV-A of 78.09% (photobleaching trans-resveratrol test). The antinociceptive activity was superior to all standards tested using the in vivo acetic acid-induced writhing test (99.14% at the dose of 200 mg/kg) and the high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector and mass spectroscopy multi-stage (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS) enabled the structural characterization of the quercetin-3-O-hexoside, quercetin-3-O-pentoside and quercetin-3-O-desoxihexoside. The pharmaceutical formulation containing the Marcetia macrophylla crude active extract was prepared and the physicochemical tests (organoleptic characteristics, pH analysis and centrifugation), the in vitro UVB (sun protection factor, SPF) and UVA (β-carotene) using the spectroscopic method were investigated. The formulation showed satisfactory results concerning the physicochemical parameters evaluated and active against the UV test. Thus, M. macrophylla showed biological activities with potential use in pharmaceutical preparations.

Resumo O extrato bruto de Marcetia macrophylla mostrou atividade antioxidante, fotoprotetora e antinociceptiva, sendo em seguida investigado como ingrediente ativo em uma formulação fotoprotetora. Assim, o extrato de M. macrophylla apresentou atividade antioxidante com IC50 de 3,43 mg/mL (teste de sequestro do DPPH∙) e Fator de Proteção Solar de 20,25 (FPS/UV-B, 250 µg/mL) e UV-A de 78,09% (teste de fotobranqueamento do trans-resveratrol). A atividade antinociceptiva usando o teste in vivo de contorções abdominais induzidas por ácido acético foi superior a todos os padrões testados (99,14% na dose de 200 mg/Kg). A análise por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência acoplada a detector de fotodiodos e espectroscopia de massas multi-estágio (CLAE-DAD-EM/EM) possibilitou a caracterização dos flavonoides quercetina-3-O-hexosídeo, quercetina-3-O-pentosídeo e quercetina-3-O-desoxihexosídeo. A formulação farmacêutica contendo o extrato ativo bruto de Marcetia macrophylla foi preparada e os testes físico-químicos (características organolépticas, análise de pH e centrifugação), o UVB in vitro (fator de proteção solar, FPS) e UVA (β-caroteno) foram investigados. A formulação apresentou resultados satisfatórios frente aos parâmetros físico-químicos avaliados e ativos contra UV. Assim, M. macrophylla apresentou atividades biológicas com potencial uso em preparações fitofarmacêuticas.

Sunscreening Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Analgesics/pharmacology
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 94(1): e206, 2023. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1439318


Introducción: el tratamiento del dolor es un derecho humano y constituye un pilar de los cuidados paliativos (CP). Este síntoma en niños suele ser subestimado e insuficientemente tratado. Objetivo: conocer la prevalencia del dolor y describir el perfil de uso de fármacos analgésicos, coadyuvantes y procedimientos invasivos en niños asistidos en la Unidad de Cuidados Paliativos Pediátricos del Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell (UCPP-CHPR) durante el período 2019-2021. Metodología: se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y retrospectivo mediante revisión de historias clínicas. Resultados: se incluyeron 317 niños, 58% de sexo masculino, con una mediana de edad 6,9 años. Eran portadores de enfermedades neurológicas severas no evolutivas 64%, utilizaban prótesis o tecnología médica 51%. Se encontró registro de presencia de dolor en 35%, de tipo crónico 87%, mixto 55% y de fuentes múltiples 54%. Se detectó uso de escala para evaluación del dolor en 61%, la más utilizada fue r-FLACC. En el grupo de niños con dolor se encontró prescripción de analgésicos en 43% (48/111) y de coadyuvantes 87% (97/111), gabapentina en 78. En todos la vía de administración fue la oral/enteral. Se encontró uso off label de fármacos en 79% y polifarmacia en 82%. Se registraron efectos adversos en 10%. Conclusión: un tercio de los niños asistidos por la UCPP-CHPR, presentaba registros de presencia dolor. La mayoría de tipo crónico, mixto y de fuentes múltiples. Se encontró amplio uso de escalas validadas para evaluación del dolor y alta prescripción de coadyuvantes en relación a la de analgésicos.

Introduction: pain treatment is a human right and a pillar of palliative care (PC). This symptom in children is often underestimated and insufficiently treated. Objective: learn about the prevalence of pain and describe the analgesic drugs' usage profile, adjuvants and invasive procedures in children assisted in the Pediatric Palliative Care Unit of the Pereira Rossell Hospital Center (UCPP-CHPR) during the period 2019-2021. Methodology: observational, descriptive and retrospective study based on the review of medical records. Results: 317 children were included, 58% male, with a median age of 6.9 years. 64% were carriers of severe non-progressive neurological diseases, 51% used prosthetics or medical technology. A record of the presence of pain was found in 35%, chronic type 87%, mixed 55% and multiple sources 54%. The use of a pain assessment scale was detected in 61%, the most used was r-FLACC. In the group of children with pain, analgesics were prescribed in 43% (48/111) and adjuvants in 87% (97/111), gabapentin in 78. In all of them, the administration route was oral/enteral. Off-label use of drugs was found in 79% and polypharmacy in 82%. Adverse effects were recorded in 10%. Conclusion: a third of the children assisted by the UCPP-CHPR showed records of pain presence. Most chronic type, mixed and multiple sources. We found a vast use of validated scales for pain assessment and high prescription of adjuvants in relation to analgesics.

Introdução: o tratamento da dor é um direito humano e constitui um pilar dos Cuidados Paliativos (CP). Este sintoma em crianças é geralmente subestimado e insuficientemente tratado. Objetivo: conhecer a prevalência da dor e descrever o perfil do uso de medicamentos analgésicos, adjuvantes e procedimentos invasivos em crianças atendidas na Unidade de Cuidados Paliativos Pediátricos do Centro Hospitalar Pereira Rossell (UCPP-CHPR) durante o período de 2019-2021. Metodologia: foi realizado um estudo observacional, descritivo e retrospectivo por meio de revisão de prontuários. Resultados: foram incluídas 317 crianças, 58% do sexo masculino, com idade mediana de 6,9 anos. 64% eram portadores de doenças neurológicas graves não evolutivas, 51% usavam próteses ou tecnologia médica. Registro da presença de dor foi encontrado em 35%, do tipo crônica 87%, mista 55% e de origem múltipla 54%. A utilização de escala para avaliação da dor foi detectada em 61%, sendo a mais utilizada a r-FLACC. No grupo de crianças com dor, a prescrição de analgésicos foi encontrada em 43% (48/111) e adjuvantes em 87% (97/111), gabapentina em 78. Ao todo, a via de administração foi oral/enteral. Uso off-label de medicamentos foi encontrado em 79% e polifarmácia em 82%. Efeitos adversos foram registrados em 10%. Conclusão: um terço das crianças atendidas pela UCPP-CHPR apresentou registro da presença de dor. A maioria do tipo crônica, mista e de fontes múltiplas. Encontrou-se ampla utilização de escalas validadas para avaliação da dor e elevada prescrição de coadjuvantes em relação aos analgésicos.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Pain/drug therapy , Pain Measurement , Polypharmacy , Off-Label Use/statistics & numerical data , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Palliative Care , Retrospective Studies , Drug Therapy, Combination
Braz. j. anesth ; 73(4): 506-509, 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447627


Abstract Impediment to local anesthetic solution in the epidural space results in unsatisfactory pain relief during labor epidural. Patients with a history of back trauma and spinal instrumentation have increased rates of epidural failure due to patchy spread of local anesthetic with obliterated epidural space. Dual Epidural Catheters (DEC) can be used in such clinical scenarios with complete labor analgesia and improved patient satisfaction. We present the successful management of a parturient with vertebral fracture at risk for epidural failure and neurologic injury due to bone fragments and inserted cranial and caudal to the fractured vertebra using ultrasound to avoid neurologic sequelae.

Humans , Spinal Cord Injuries , Analgesia, Epidural , Anesthesia, Epidural , Analgesia, Obstetrical/methods , Catheters , Analgesics , Anesthetics, Local
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 29(4): 159-163, out./dez. 2022. il.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1426889


O complexo de desordens hiperostóticas é uma condição rara e autolimitante, que tem as mesmas características histopatológicas, que cursa com proliferação óssea de caráter não neoplásico. Acomete cães jovens de raças distintas, com variabilidade quanto ao tipo de proliferação óssea e quanto aos ossos acometidos. O complexo é composto pela osteopatia craniomandibular, hiperostose da calota craniana e osteodistrofia hipertrófica. Podendo estar presente nos ossos da calota craniana, mandíbulas, coluna cervical e esqueleto apendicular. O presente relato, descreveu o quadro de uma cadela, da raça American Bully, não castrada, três meses de idade, que foi atendida com queixa de aumento de volume doloroso das mandíbulas, hiporexia e sialorreia há 15 dias, apresentando ao exame físico, amplitude de movimento diminuída e sensibilidade dolorosa da articulação temporomandibular, espessamento firme bilateral do crânio em região de fossa temporal, espessamento palpável de consistência firme das mandíbulas e crepitação respiratória. Após avaliação clínica e realização de exames complementares, chegou-se ao diagnóstico presuntivo, de complexo de desordens hiperostóticas. Foi instituído como conduta terapêutica o suporte analgésico, sendo eficaz para a manutenção das necessidades fisiológicas até a paciente alcançar a fase adulta. O prognóstico para esta paciente foi considerado bom, uma vez que não havia indícios de anquilose da articulação temporomandibular e/ou manifestações neurológicas.

The complex of hyperostotic disorders is a rare and self-limiting condition, which has the same histophatological characteristics, which courses with non-neoplastic bone proliferations. It affects young dogs of different breeds, with variability the bones affected. The complex is composed of craniomandibular osteopathy, calvarial hyperostotic syndrome and hypertrophic osteodystrophy. It may be present in the bones of the skullcap, jaws, cervical spine and appendicular skeleton. The present report describes the condition of a female dog, American Bully breed, entire, three months old, with a complaint of painful swelling of the jaws, hyporexia and drooling for 15 days, presenting on physical examination, reduced amplitude and pain of the temporomandibular joint, bilateral firm thickening of the skull in the temporal fossa region, palpable firm-consistent thickening of the mandibles and respiratory crackle. After clinical evaluation and complementary tests, a presumptive diagnosis of hyperostotic disorders complex was reached. It was instituted pain management as a treatment, being effective for the maintenance of physiological needs until the patient reaches the adulthood. The prognosis for this patient was considered good, since there was no evidence of temporomandibular joint ankylosis and/or neurological manifestations.

Animals , Dogs , Temporomandibular Joint/abnormalities , Bone Development , Hyperostosis/veterinary , Craniomandibular Disorders/veterinary , Dogs/abnormalities , Facial Bones/pathology , Analgesics/therapeutic use
Braz. j. anesth ; 72(5): 637-647, Sept.-Oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420588


Abstract Introduction Burns are a common trauma that cause acute severe pain in up to 80% of patients. The objective of this narrative review is to evaluate the efficacy of opioids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, paracetamol, gabapentinoids, ketamine, and lidocaine in the treatment of acute pain in burn victims. Methodology The databases explored were PubMed, Embase, ClinicalTrials, and OpenGrey. The included randomized, controlled clinical trials assessed the analgesic efficacy of these drugs on hospitalized patients, had no age limit, patients were in the acute phase of the burn injury and were compared to placebo or other analgesic drugs. Studies describing deep sedation, chronic opioid use, chronic pain, and patients taken to reconstructive surgeries were excluded. The Jadad scale was used to evaluate quality. Results Six randomized controlled clinical trials (397 patients) that evaluated the analgesic efficacy of fentanyl (n = 2), nalbuphine (n = 1), ketamine (n = 1), gabapentin (n = 1), and lidocaine (n = 1) to treat post-procedural pain were included. Fentanyl, nalbuphine, and ketamine were effective, while lidocaine was associated with a slight increase in reported pain and gabapentin showed no significant differences. Two studies were of high quality, one was of medium high quality, and three were of low quality. No studies on the efficacy of NSAIDs or paracetamol were found. Conclusion Evidence of efficacy is very limited. Fentanyl, nalbuphine, and ketamine seem to be effective for controlling acute pain in burn patients, whereas gabapentin and lidocaine did not show any efficacy.

Humans , Burns/complications , Analgesics, Non-Narcotic , Acute Pain/etiology , Acute Pain/drug therapy , Pain, Procedural , Ketamine/therapeutic use , Nalbuphine/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Fentanyl , Gabapentin , Analgesics , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Lidocaine , Acetaminophen
Braz. j. anesth ; 72(5): 567-573, Sept.-Oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420593


Abstract Background Patients' postoperative treatment might be affected by their psychological state. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of anxiety, coping ability (stress tolerance), depression, and pain catastrophizing on analgesic consumption in patients scheduled for sleeve gastrectomy. Methods This prospective observational study consisted of 72 patients. The Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) were completed in the preoperative period. In the postoperative period, pain intensity, as measured with the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and morphine consumption (mg) were evaluated after 2, 6, 8, and 24 hours. Total morphine consumption was recorded. Results The results revealed a strong negative correlation between distress tolerance and postoperative total morphine consumption (r = -0.702, p< 0.001). There was a strong positive correlation between total morphine consumption and pain catastrophizing (r = 0.801, p< 0.001). A moderate positive correlation was observed between total morphine consumption and anxiety and between total morphine consumption and depression (r = 0.511, p< 0.001; r = 0.556, p< 0.001, respectively). Linear regression revealed that distress tolerance, anxiety, depression, and pain catastrophizing are predictors of postoperative morphine consumption (β = 0.597, p< 0.001; β = 0.207, p= 0.036; β = 0.140, p= 0.208; β = 0.624, p< 0.001, respectively). Conclusions Distress tolerance, anxiety, depression, and pain catastrophizing can be predictive of postoperative analgesic consumption. In the estimation of postoperative analgesic consumption, distress tolerance, as well as anxiety, depression, and pain catastrophizing, were found to be important predictors.

Humans , Depression/psychology , Catastrophization/psychology , Anxiety/psychology , Pain, Postoperative/psychology , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Postoperative Period , Analgesics , Morphine
Braz. j. anesth ; 72(5): 560-566, Sept.-Oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420594


Abstract Introduction and objectives Multimodal Analgesia (MMA) has shown promising results in postoperative outcomes across a broad spectrum of surgeries, including bariatric surgery. We compared the analgesic effect immediately after Laparoscopic Bariatric Surgery (LBS) of the combined effect of MMA and methadone against two techniques that were based mainly on the use of high-potency medium-acting opioids. Methods Two hundred seventy-one patients were retrospectively reviewed. The primary outcome was postoperative pain score > 3/10 measured by the Verbal Numeric Scale (VNS) during the Postanesthetic Care Unit (PACU) stay. The three protocols of intraoperative analgesia were: (P1) sufentanil at anesthetic induction followed by remifentanil infusion; (P2) sufentanil at induction followed by dexmedetomidine infusion; and (P3) remifentanil at induction followed by MMA including dexmedetomidine, magnesium, lidocaine, and methadone. Only P1 and P2 patients received morphine toward the end of surgery. Poisson regression was used to adjust confounding factors and calculate Prevalence Ratio (PR). Results Postoperative VNS > 3 was recorded in 135 (49.81%) patients, of which 93 (68.89%) were subjected to P1, 25 (18.56%) to P2, and 17 (12.59%) to P3. In the final adjusted model, both anesthetic techniques (P3) (PR = 0.10; 95% CI [0.03-0.28]), and (P2) (PR = 0.42%; 95% CI [0.20-0.90]) were associated with lower occurrence of VNS > 3, whereas age range 20-29 was associated to higher occurrence of VNS > 3 (PR = 3.21; 95% CI [1.22-8.44]) in PACU. Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) was distributed as follows: (P1) 20.3%, (P2) 31.25% and (P3) 6.77%; (P3 < P1, P2; p< 0.05). Intraoperative hypotension occurred more often in P3 (39%) compared to P2 (20.31%) and P1 (17.46%) (p< 0.05). Conclusion MMA + methadone was associated with higher incidence of intraoperative hypotension and lower incidence of moderate/severe pain in PACU after LBS.

Humans , Adult , Young Adult , Laparoscopy/methods , Bariatric Surgery/methods , Hypotension , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Sufentanil , Dexmedetomidine , Remifentanil , Analgesics , Analgesics, Opioid , Methadone
Braz. j. anesth ; 72(5): 574-578, Sept.-Oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420599


Abstract Objective To compare the analgesic effect of intercostal nerve block (INB) with ropivacaine when given preventively or at the end of the operation in patients undergoing video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). Methods A total of 50 patients undergoing VATS were randomly divided into two groups. The patients in the preventive analgesia group (PR group) were given INB with ropivacaine before the intrathoracic manipulation combined with patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). The patients in the post-procedural block group (PO group) were administered INB with ropivacaine at the end of the operation combined with PCA. To evaluate the analgesic effect, postoperative pain was assessed with the visual analogue scale (VAS) at rest and Prince Henry Pain Scale (PHPS) scale at 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after surgery. Results At 6 h and 12 h post-surgery, the VAS at rest and PHPS scores in the PR group were significantly lower than those in the PO group. There were no significant differences in pain scores between two groups at 24, 48, and 72 hours post-surgery. Conclusion In patients undergoing VATS, preventive INB with ropivacaine provided a significantly better analgesic effect in the early postoperative period (at least through 12 h post-surgery) than did INB given at the end of surgery.

Humans , Nerve Block , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Analgesia, Patient-Controlled , Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted , Ropivacaine , Analgesics , Intercostal Nerves
Braz. j. anesth ; 72(5): 553-559, Sept.-Oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420603


Abstract Background and objectives Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is one of the most frequently performed orthopedic procedures. The ability to perform ACLR on an outpatient basis is largely dependent on an effective analgesic regimen. The aim of the study was to compare the analgesic effect between continuous adductor canal block (cACB) and femoral nerve block (cFNB) during arthroscopy guided ACLR. Method In this prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial, 60 ASA I/II patients for arthroscopic ACLR were recruited. Patients in Group I received cACB and those in Group II cFNB. A bolus dose of 20 cc 0.5% levobupivacaine followed by 0.125% 5 mL.h-1 was started for 24 hours. Rescue analgesia in the form of paracetamol 1 g intravenous (IV) was given. Parameters assessed were time of first rescue analgesia, total analgesic requirement in 24 hours, and painless range of motion of the knee (15 degrees of flexion to further painless flexion). Results The time-to-first postoperative analgesic request (hours) was earlier in Group II (14.40 ± 4.32) than Group I (16.90 ± 3.37) and this difference was statistically significant (p< 0.05). The cumulative 24-h analgesic consumption (paracetamol in g) was 0.70 ± 0.47 in Group I and 1.70 ± 0.65 in Group II (p< 0.001). The painless range of motion (degree) was 55.67 ± 10.40 in Group I and 40.00 ± 11.37 in Group II (p< 0.001). Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that continuous adductor canal block provides superior analgesia in patients undergoing arthroscopic ACLR when compared to continuous femoral nerve block.

Humans , Arthroscopy/methods , Nerve Block/methods , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Femoral Nerve , Analgesics , Analgesics, Opioid , Acetaminophen
Arq. Asma, Alerg. Imunol ; 6(1): 63-70, jan.mar.2022. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1400104


Os anestésicos locais são essenciais em diversos procedimentos médicos e odontológicos. Funcionam estabilizando as membranas neuronais e inibindo a transmissão de impulsos neurais, o que permite a realização desses procedimentos com mais segurança e sem dor. As reações adversas a drogas são definidas pela Organização Mundial da Saúde como todos os efeitos nocivos, não intencionais e indesejáveis de uma medicação, que ocorrem em doses usadas para prevenção, diagnóstico e tratamento. As reações de hipersensibilidade são reações adversas do tipo B, imprevisíveis, que clinicamente se assemelham a reações alérgicas e podem ou não envolver um mecanismo imune. As reações de hipersensibilidade verdadeiras aos anestésicos locais são raras, apesar de superestimadas. Nesta revisão destacamos a necessidade de uma avaliação completa dos pacientes com suspeita de reação alérgica aos anestésicos locais, incluindo a investigação de outros possíveis alérgenos que tenham sido utilizados no procedimento, como analgésicos, antibióticos e látex. A estratégia de investigação e seleção de pacientes para testes deve se basear na história clínica. Dessa forma, poderemos fornecer orientações mais assertivas e seguras aos pacientes.

Local anesthetics are essential in many medical and dental procedures. They work by stabilizing neuronal membranes and inhibiting the transmission of neural impulses, which allows these procedures to be performed more safely and without pain. Adverse drug reactions are defined by the World Health Organization as all harmful, unintended and undesirable effects of a medication, which occur at doses used for prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Hypersensitivity reactions are unpredictable type B adverse reactions that clinically resemble allergic reactions and may or may not involve an immune mechanism. True hypersensitivity reactions to local anesthetics are rare, although overestimated. In this review, we highlight the need for a thorough evaluation of patients with suspected allergic reaction to local anesthetics, including investigation of other possible allergens that may have been used in the procedure, such as analgesics, antibiotics and latex. The investigation strategy and patient selection for testing should be based on clinical history. In this way, we will be able to provide more assertive and safe guidelines to patients.

Humans , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Hypersensitivity , Anesthetics, Local , Patients , Safety , Therapeutics , Allergens , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Latex Hypersensitivity , Diagnosis, Differential , Analgesics , Anti-Bacterial Agents
Rev. cuba. enferm ; 38(1)mar. 2022.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408313


ntroducción: El control apropiado del dolor es un desafío crucial y necesario de abordar en el campo quirúrgico, al producir un gran impacto en la recuperación del paciente. Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto de una intervención de enfermería aplicada en el periodo perioperatorio para el control del dolor del paciente adulto en el posoperatorio inmediato. Métodos: Estudio cuantitativo, cuasi experimental, con grupo experimental y control de adultos intervenidos en el quirófano de una institución de salud en Bucaramanga - Colombia en el primer semestre de 2017, con un universo de 3240 pacientes y muestra calculada de 120. La intervención constó de tres fases, enmarcada en la teoría de síntomas desagradables. Para evaluar el dolor se utilizó la Escala Visual Análoga. Se realizó análisis descriptivo, bivariado y múltiple, se calcularon Betas con modelos de regresión lineal con los puntajes de la escala de dolor a los 10-20 y 30 minutos, 1- 1,5 y 2 horas. Resultados: Los grupos presentaron características similares, en el grupo experimental disminuyeron los puntajes en la escala de dolor a los 10 minutos en -0,98 (IC 95 por ciento: -2,0; 0,02), a la hora de -0,77(IC 95 por ciento: -1,60; 0,05), a las 1,5 horas de -0,71(IC 95 por ciento: -1,13; -0,12) y las 2 horas de -0,60(IC 95 por ciento: -1,09; -0,10). Conclusiones: La intervención de enfermería en perioperatorio, más allá de la administración de analgésicos, es fundamental para modificar las respuestas, como lo refiere la teoría de Swanson, se mejora o controlan los síntomas desagradables y sus efectos negativos, en este caso el dolor posoperatorio(AU)

Introduction: Appropriate pain control is a crucial and necessary challenge to address in the surgical field, since it would produce a great impact patient recovery. Objective: To assess the effect of a nursing intervention applied during the perioperative period for pain control in the adult patient in the immediate postoperative period. Methods: Quantitative and quasiexperimental study carried out with two groups, an experimental and a control group, of adults operated on in the surgical room of a health institution in Bucaramanga, Colombia, in the first semester of 2017. The universe consisted of 3240 patients, while the calculated sample was 120. The intervention consisted in three phases, framed within the theory of unpleasant symptoms. The visual analog scale was used to assess pain. Descriptive, bivariate and multiple analyses were performed. Betas were calculated with linear regression models and using the scores of the pain scale at ten to twenty and thirty minutes; as well as at one to one and half hours, and two hours. Results: The groups presented similar characteristics: in the experimental group, the scores of the pain scale decreased at ten minutes by 0.98 (95 percent CI: -2.0; 0.02); at one hour, by 0.77 (95 percent CI: -1.60; 0.05; at one and a half hours, by 0.71 (95 percent CI: -1.13; -0.12); and at two hours, by 0.60 (95 percent CI: -1.09; -0.10). Conclusions: The nursing intervention in the perioperative period, beyond the administration of analgesics, is fundamental to modify responses, as referred by Swanson's theory, unpleasant symptoms and their negative effects are improved or controlled; in this case, postoperative pain(AU)

Humans , Adult , Pain, Postoperative , Perioperative Nursing/methods , Standardized Nursing Terminology , Visual Analog Scale , Analgesics/therapeutic use