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1.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(3): e701, July-Sept. 2021.
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1280187

ABSTRACT

After reading the article entitled "Comparison of subarachnoid opioid mix for cesarean section" published by Isabel Osorio et al., in January 2020; I would like to make the following observations and comments. The number of patients studied (n =71) is surprising considering that the hospital where the research was conducted is a third-level institution and a referral center for high complexity obstetric care. During the duration of the trial (one year, from June 2028 through May 2019) most likely many patients underwent this type of surgical intervention. Is it then possible to consider a potential selection bias? Moreover, the group distribution is not clearly defined, and certainly it was not random: A (29), B (16), C (26)


Después de leer el artículo titulado "Comparación de mezcla de opioides subaracnoides para cesárea" publicado por Isabel Osorio et al., En enero de 2020; Me gustaría hacer las siguientes observaciones y comentarios. Sorprende el número de pacientes estudiadas ( n = 71) si se considera que el hospital donde se realizó la investigación es una institución de tercer nivel y un centro de referencia de atención obstétrica de alta complejidad. Durante la duración del ensayo (un año, desde junio de 2028 hasta mayo de 2019), lo más probable es que muchos pacientes se hayan sometido a este tipo de intervención quirúrgica. ¿Es posible entonces considerar un posible sesgo de selección? Además, la distribución de los grupos no está claramente definida, y ciertamente no fue aleatoria: A (29), B (16), C (26)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Cesarean Section , Analgesics, Opioid , Research , Selection Bias , Hospitals
2.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(1): e200, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1149793

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Classically, the local anesthetic (LA) has been combined with one lipophilic and another hydrophilic opioid for neuraxial anesthesia in cesarean section. In Colombia, the practice has been the use of morphine hydrochloride with fentanyl, but the occasional shortage of the former triggered an interest in new options. In response to the shortage of morphine in 2017-2018, a contingency plan was developed at the SES Hospital in Caldas, prefilling syringes at the hospital compounding central, with: bupivacaine, morphine and fentanyl (BMF); bupivacaine, fentanyl and hydromorphone (BFH); and bupivacaine and hydromorphone (BH). Hydromorphone has a rapid onset of action, long-lasting effect and is indicated for spinal administration in the safety data sheet; therefore, the advantages of adding fentanyl to this mix are questionable. Objective To compare the clinical analgesic efficacy at the time of the incision and during the first 12 hours after surgery. Methods An observational, analytical study was conducted, using the mixtures BMF, BFH and BH in patients receiving subarachnoid anesthesia for cesarean section. Pain was assessed at the time of the incision, as well as any adverse effects and the pain visual analogue scale over the following 12 hours. Results Of the 71 patients participating in the study, 40.9 % received BMF; 22.5 %, BFH; and 36.6 %, BH. None of the patients experienced pain at the time of the incision. There was no difference in terms of adverse effects among the three groups. The mean difference in the visual analogue scale (VAS) for postoperative pain at 3, 6 and 12 hours was lower in the groups in which hydromorphone was used. Conclusion BFH and BH combinations are comparable to the original preparation in terms of adverse effects, with the advantage of being more effective in controlling postoperative pain.


Resumen Introducción Para anestesia neuroaxial en cesárea, se ha combinado clásicamente el anestésico local (AL) con un opioide lipofílico y otro hidrofílico. En Colombia se ha usado clorhidrato de morfina con fentanilo, pero el ocasional desabastecimiento del primero despertó el interés por nuevas alternativas. En SES Hospital de Caldas se generó un plan de contingencia frente a la escasez de morfina en 2017-2018, pre llenando jeringas en su central de mezclas con: bupivacaína, morfina y fentanilo (BMF); bupivacaína, fentanilo e hidromorfona (BHF); y bupivacaína e hidromorfona (BH). La hidromorfona tiene inicio rápido de acción, efecto prolongado e indicación en ficha técnica por vía espinal, por lo tanto, las ventajas que pudiera generar la adición del fentanilo a esta mezcla son cuestionables. Objetivo Comparar la eficacia analgésica clínica al momento de la incisión y en las primeras 12 horas postoperatorias. Métodos Se realizó un estudio observacional analítico, empleando las mezclas BMF, BHF y BH en pacientes que recibieron anestesia subaracnoidea para cesárea. Se evaluó el dolor a la incisión, los efectos adversos y la escala visual análoga de dolor en las 12 horas siguientes. Resultados De las 71 pacientes del estudio, 40,9 % recibieron BMF; 22,5 %, BHF; y 36,6 %, BH. En ninguna paciente se observó dolor a la incisión. No hubo diferencia en efectos adversos entre los 3 grupos. La diferencia de medias de la escala visual analógica (EVA) para dolor postoperatorio a las 3, 6 y 12 horas, fue menor en los grupos en los que se usó hidromorfona. Conclusiones Las mezclas BHF y BH son equiparables a la preparación tradicional en cuanto a efectos adversos, con la ventaja de ser más efectivas para el control del dolor postoperatorio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Subarachnoid Space , Cesarean Section , Analgesics, Opioid , Injections, Spinal , Analgesics , Anesthesia, Epidural
3.
Rev. bras. cancerol ; 67(2): e-011179, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178031

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O uso de opioides deve ser individualizado e a troca por outro opioide pode ser necessária (rodízio de opioide). Objetivo: Identificar como foi realizado o rodízio de opioide e se o efeito desejado foi atingido em pacientes internados em uma unidade especializada em cuidados paliativos oncológicos. Método: Análise post hoc do estudo de perfil de pacientes internados em um hospital público de cuidados paliativos oncológicos no Rio de Janeiro, entre setembro e novembro de 2016. As internações foram acompanhadas longitudinalmente por revisão de prontuário com coleta diária da escala verbal numérica (EVN). A dor foi considerada controlada quando EVN = 0. Doses, via de administração e rodízio (fármaco e motivo) dos opioides foram observados. O tempo para controle da dor foi calculado quando este foi o motivo. Resultados: Foram observados 104 rodízios de opioides em 90 internações (22,5%), sendo 49% entre opioides fortes e 43% de fraco para forte. Principais motivos foram dor (40%) e dispneia (36%). O tempo para EVN = 0 foi 1,6 dias (+/-1,8; IC95% 1,0-2,1), sendo mais demorado na troca por metadona (média 2,7 dias +/-2,5; IC95% 1,0-4,4). Comparando a dose de morfina oral por equipotência analgésica, houve aumento de 10% na dose do opioide de destino, sendo esse aumento maior quando no rodízio por dispneia (38%). Conclusão: Embora o controle de dor tenha sido superior ao descrito por outros trabalhos, o aumento da dose equipotente do opioide não é corroborado por protocolos. Maior vigilância e outros estudos são recomendados na unidade.


Introduction: The use of opioids must be individualized and changing for another opioid may be necessary (opioid switching). Objective: Identify how the opioid switching was performed and whether the desired effect was achieved in patients admitted at a public palliative oncologic care specialized hospital. Method: Post hoc analysis of the profile study of patients admitted to a public oncologic palliative care hospital in Rio de Janeiro between September and November 2016. Hospitalizations were followed longitudinally by reviewing the charts with daily collection of the numeric rating scale (NRS). Pain was considered controlled when NRS = 0. Doses, route of administration, switch (drugs and motif ) of the opioids were observed. The time for pain control was calculated when this was the reason. Results: 104 opioid switching were observed in 90 hospitalizations (22.5%), 49% of which were strong opioids and 43%, from mild to strong. Main reasons were pain (40%) and dyspnea (36%). The time to NRS = 0 was 1.6 days (+/-1.8; 95% CI 1.0-2.1), taking longer to switch to methadone (mean 2.7 days +/-2.5; 95% CI 1.0-4.4). Comparing the dose of oral morphine by analgesic equipotency, a 10% increase in the target opioid dose occurred, and when rotating due to dyspnea (38%), the increase was greater. Conclusion: Although pain control was higher than described in other studies, the increase in the equipotent dose of opioid is not corroborated by protocols. Extensive surveillance and other studies are recommended in the unit.


Introducción: El uso de opioides debe ser individualizado y puede ser necesario cambiarlo por otro opioide (rotación de opioides). Objetivo: Identificar cómo se realizó la rotación de opioides y si el efecto deseado se logró en pacientes ingresados en una unidad especializada en cuidados oncológicos paliativos. Método: Análisis post hoc del estudio de perfil de pacientes ingresados en un hospital público de cuidados paliativos de oncología en Río de Janeiro, entre septiembre y noviembre de 2016. Las hospitalizaciones fueron seguidas longitudinalmente mediante la revisión de los registros médicos con la recopilación diaria de la Escala Numérica Verbal (ENV). El dolor se consideró controlado cuando ENV = 0. Se observaron dosis, vía de administración, rotación (fármacos y motivo) de los opioides. El tiempo para el control del dolor se calculó cuando esta fue la razón. Resultados: Se observaron 104 ruedas de opioides en 90 hospitalizaciones (22,5%), con 49% entre opioides fuertes y 43% de débiles a fuertes. Las razones principales fueron dolor (40%) y disnea (36%). El tiempo para ENV = 0 fue de 1,6 días (+/-1,8; IC del 95%: 1,0-2,1), y tomó más tiempo cambiar a metadona (promedio 2,7 días +/-2,5; IC 95% 1,0-4,4). Comparando la dosis de morfina oral para la equipotencia analgésica, hubo un aumento del 10% en la dosis de opioides objetivos, este aumento fue mayor al rotar debido a la disnea (38%). Conclusión: Aunque el control del dolor fue superior al descrito por otros estudios, el aumento en la dosis equipotente de opioide no es compatible con los protocolos. Se recomienda mayor vigilancia y otros estudios en la unidad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Palliative Care , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Medication Therapy Management , Pain Management
4.
Clinics ; 76: e1907, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153930

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of controlled-release morphine tablets combined with celecoxib in relieving osteocarcinoma-related pain and the effects of the combination on WNK1 expression. METHODS: A total of 110 patients with osteocarcinoma-related pain were selected and divided into two groups based on the treatment administered, including the control group (treated with controlled-release morphine tablets alone) and the study group (treated with a combination of controlled-release morphine tablets and celecoxib). We compared the treatment efficacy, pain level (visual analog scale (VAS)), time of onset of breakthrough pain (BTP), dose of morphine, incidence of adverse events, quality of life (QOL) score, and With-no-lysine 1 (WNK1) expression in the peripheral blood (PB) as determined with qRT-PCR before and after treatment, of the two groups. RESULTS: The total effective rate of the study group was higher than that of the control group, while the VAS score, time of onset of BTP, dose of morphine, incidence of adverse events, QOL score, and relative WNK1 expression in the PB were lower than those of the control group (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Combination treatment with controlled-release morphine tablets and celecoxib can be extensively used in the clinical setting because it effectively improves the symptoms, QOL score, and adverse effects in patients with osteocarcinoma-related pain.


Subject(s)
Humans , Quality of Life , Morphine , Treatment Outcome , Delayed-Action Preparations , Computers, Handheld , Pain Management , Celecoxib , WNK Lysine-Deficient Protein Kinase 1 , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use
5.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e011, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1142615

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to describe dental prescriptions of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), opioids, and analgesics dispensed by the Brazilian National Health System (BNHS, SUS in Portuguese) of a Southeastern state from January to December 2017, and to analyze their association with socioeconomic and oral health care services' characteristics at municipal level. Data were collected from the Brazilian Integrated Pharmaceutical Care Management System. Medicines were grouped according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. The total number of Defined Daily Doses (DDD) and DDD per 1,000 inhabitants (inhab.) per year were presented and compared between groups of municipalities. Data analysis used the Classification and Regression Tree model performed with IBM SPSS 25.0. The total number of NSAID, opioids, and analgesics prescriptions was 70,747 and accounted for 354,221.13 DDD. The most frequently prescribed medicine was ibuprofen (n = 24,676; 34.88%). The number of dental practitioners in the BNHS per 1,000 inhab. (p < 0.001), first dental appointment coverage (p = 0.010), oral health teams per 1,000 inhab. (p=0.022), and the proportion of rural population (p = 0.014) were variables positively associated with the number of DDD of NSAID per 1,000 inhab. per year. Bolsa Família program coverage per 1,000 inhab. (p = 0.022) was negatively associated with NSAID prescription. Regarding analgesics, first dental appointment coverage (p=0.002) and Bolsa Família program coverage per 1,000 inhab. (p = 0.012) were positively associated with DDD per 1,000 inhab. per year. In conclusion, dental prescriptions of analgesics and NSAID in the BNHS were associated with socioeconomic and oral health care services' characteristics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Prescriptions , Dentists , Brazil , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Cities , Professional Role , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use
6.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(3): 133-138, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1293389

ABSTRACT

El uso de opioides ha aumentado en forma significativa en las últimas décadas, lo que nos ha permitido conocer sus diversos efectos en el sistema endocrino. Estos efectos están sub diagnosticados, en parte porque los síntomas se confunden con los de la misma enfermedad que lleva al uso de opioides y porque no los buscamos de forma dirigida. El hipogonadismo y la insuficiencia suprarrenal son sus efectos más establecidos, sin embargo, otros efectos como los provocados en el tejido óseo requieren de especial atención. La evaluación de los ejes gonadotropo, adrenal y de la salud ósea debe tenerse en consideración en los usuarios crónicos de opioides, particularmente frente a la presencia de síntomas. La suspensión o reducción del uso de opioides es el primer tratamiento del compromiso endocrinológico.


The use of opioids has increased significantly in recent decades, which has allowed us to understand its effects on the endocrine system. These effects are underdiagnosed, the symptoms are confused with those of the same disease that leads to the use of opioids and we do not look for them in a targeted way. Hypogonadism and adrenal insufficiency are its most established effects, however, other effects such as the ones caused on bone tissue require special attention. Evaluation of gonadotropic and adrenal axes as well as bone health should be taken into consideration in chronic opioid users, particularly in the presence of symptoms. Stopping or reducing opioid use is the first treatment for endocrine compromise.


Subject(s)
Humans , Endocrine System Diseases/chemically induced , Endocrine System/drug effects , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects , Adrenal Insufficiency/chemically induced , Hypogonadism/chemically induced
7.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(4): 498-506, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142347

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Lubiprostone is a type 2 chloride channel activator that has been shown to be efficacious and safe in the treatment for chronic constipation. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review randomized clinical trials (RCTs) assessing efficacy of lubiprostone for patients with chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC), irritable bowel syndrome with predominant constipation (IBS-C) and opioid-induced constipation (OIC). METHODS: Searches were conducted in PubMed, LILACS, Cochrane Collaboration Database, and Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Lubiprostone RCTs reporting outcomes of spontaneous bowel movements (SBM) and abdominal pain or discomfort were deemed eligible. Meta-analysis was performed calculating risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals, using the Mantel-Haenszel method and random effects model. RESULTS: Searches yielded 109 records representing 93 non-duplicate publications, and 11 RCTs (978 CIC, 1,366 IBS-C, 1,300 OIC, total = 3,644) met inclusion criteria. Qualitative synthesis showed that for CIC patients, lubiprostone is superior to placebo in terms of SBM outcomes. Meta-analysis for CIC was feasible for full responder and SBM within 24h rates, indicating superiority of lubiprostone over placebo. For IBS-C, lubiprostone was significantly superior for all SBM outcomes in follow-ups ranging from 1 week-3 months. In terms of abdominal pain, lubiprostone provided significantly better symptoms relief, particularly after 1 month of treatment. For OIC, lubiprostone was more effective than placebo for both SBM and discomfort measures. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated that lubiprostone is superior to placebo in terms of SBM frequency for CIC, IBS-C and OIC. In terms of abdominal symptoms, the most pronounced effect was seen for abdominal pain in IBS-C patients.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Lubiprostona é um ativador de canal de cloreto tipo 2 que tem se demonstrado eficaz e seguro no tratamento da constipação crônica. OBJETIVO: Revisar sistematicamente ensaios clínicos randomizados (ECRs) avaliando a eficácia da lubiprostona para pacientes com constipação idiopática crônica (CIC), síndrome do intestino irritável com constipação predominante (IBS-C) e constipação induzida por opioide (OIC). MÉTODOS: Buscas foram conduzidas no PubMed, LILACS, Cochrane Collaboration Database e Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. ECRs de lubiprostona relatando desfechos de movimentos intestinais espontâneos (SBM) e dor ou desconforto abdominal foram considerados elegíveis. Metanálise foi realizada calculando razão de riscos e intervalos de confiança de 95%, utilizando o método de Mantel-Haenszel e modelo de efeitos aleatórios. RESULTADOS: As buscas identificaram 109 registros representando 93 publicações não-duplicadas e 11 ECRs (978 pacientes de CIC, 1366 de IBS-C e 1300 OIC, total = 3644) preencheram os critérios de inclusão. Síntese qualitativa mostrou que, para pacientes com CIC, a lubiprostona foi superior ao placebo em termos de desfechos SBM. Metanálise para CIC foi possível para os desfechos de responder completo e taxa de SBM em 24 horas, indicando superioridade da lubiprostona sobre o placebo. Para IBS-C, lubiprostona foi significativamente superior para todos os desfechos de SBM em tempos de seguimento variando de 1 semana a 3 meses. Em termos de dor abdominal, lubiprostona proporciono alívio dos sintomas significativamente melhor, particularmente após 1 mês de tratamento. Para OIC, lubiprostona foi mais efetiva do que placebo tanto para medidas de SBM quando de desconforto abdominal. CONCLUSÃO: Nossos achados demonstraram que lubiprostona é superior ao placebo em termos de frequência de SBM para CIC, IBS-C e OIC. Em termos de sintomas abdominais, o efeito mais pronunciado foi visto para dor abdominal em pacientes com IBS-C.


Subject(s)
Humans , Constipation/drug therapy , Lubiprostone/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Constipation/chemically induced , Defecation , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/drug therapy , Analgesics, Opioid
8.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 48(4): e203, Oct.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1144314

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Postoperative nausea and vomiting are frequent adverse effects of anesthesia and surgery. Impact is greater in pediatric populations compared to adults and the reported incidences are heterogeneous. Objective: To describe the incidence of postoperative vomiting in a pediatric population and to identify associated risk factors. Materials and methods: This prospective cohort study included 190 children aged 3 to 12 years undergoing surgery and anesthesia in a maternal and child health clinic in Bucaramanga (Colombia). The main outcome variable was postoperative vomiting. Data were analyzed using bivariate, multivariate analysis and logistic regression to assess the associated risk factors. Results: The overall incidence of postoperative vomiting was 18.95% (95% CI: 13.32 - 24.57), with a higher incidence at home vs. hospital (12.63% vs. 9.47%). After adjustment, associated risk factors were anesthesia time longer than 45 minutes (OR: 2.33; 95% CI: 1.10-4.90) and postoperative use of opioids (OR: 4.17; 95% IC: 1.6510.5). The incidence of postoperative vomiting was higher in patients who underwent emergency surgery. Conclusion: This is the first study in Colombia that evaluates the incidence of postoperative vomiting in children. The incidence in our pediatric population is within the ranges reported worldwide. Associated risk factors were anesthesia time longer than 45 minutes and postoperative use of opioids. Further research is required in order to study emergency surgery as a potential risk factor.


Resumen Introducción: Las náuseas y el vómito postoperatorios son un resultado adverso frecuente derivado del acto anestésico y/o quirúrgico. La magnitud de este problema es mayor en la población pediátrica en comparación con la población adulta, con una considerable heterogeneidad de datos respecto a la incidencia. Objetivo: Describir la incidencia de vómito postoperatorio en población pediátrica y sus factores de riesgo asociados. Materiales y métodos: Estudio de cohorte prospectivo realizado en Clínica Materno Infantil de III-IV nivel de Bucaramanga (Colombia), en 190 pacientes pediátricos con edades entre 3 y 12 años, sometidos a cirugía sin discriminar técnica anestésica. Se realizó análisis bivariado, multivariado y regresión logística. Resultados: La incidencia de vómito postoperatorio en el estudio fue de 18,95 % (IC-95 % [13,32-24,57]), y es mayor en la casa que en la institución hospitalaria (12,63 % vs. 9,47 %). Tras el ajuste, los factores de riesgo establecidos fueron el tiempo anestésico mayor de 45 minutos (OR 2,33; IC-95 % [1,10-4,90]) y uso de opioide postoperatorio (OR 4,17; IC-95 % [1,65-10,5]). Hubo una incidencia importante de vómito postoperatorio en pacientes sometidos a cirugía de urgencias. Conclusiones: Este es el primer estudio en Colombia que evalúa la incidencia de vómito postoperatorio en población pediátrica. La incidencia se encuentra dentro del rango reportado en la literatura mundial y se establecieron como factores asociados el tiempo anestésico mayor a 45 minutos y uso de opioides en el postoperatorio. Consideramos que debe estudiarse la cirugía de urgencias como posible factor de riesgo en estudios posteriores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Pediatrics , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting , Postoperative Complications , Analgesics, Opioid , Anesthesia
9.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 53(3): 71-80, 20201201.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177490

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La morfina es un alcaloide obtenido del opio. Su conocimiento y aplicaciones son desconocidas en la práctica médica diario. La utilización ineficiente de analgésicos produce que el dolor sea refractario. Entre los médicos existen reticencias al uso de opioides como la morfina por varios mitos que debemos desmentir. Objetivos: Evaluar el conocimiento de los médicos de diversas especialidades en el INCAN (Instituto Nacional del Cáncer) y el HRE (Hospital Regional de Encarnación) sobre la morfina, como sus formas de presentación, indicaciones, contraindicaciones y precio en el mercado libre de Paraguay. Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, los datos se recolectaron a través de una encuesta anónima auto administrada. La n fue de 41, entre médicos del INCAN y el HRE. Se utilizó la prueba estadística de Chi2 para el análisis estadístico. SPSS 20 fue utilizado. Resultados: El 46,3 % eran médicos del INCAN, el 53,7 % eran médicos del HRE. Edad media fue 30,17 años DE ± 5,56. el análisis estadístico con Chi2 cruzando variables centro y número de respuestas correctas de los integrantes no fue significativa. Los resultados en cuanto a las dosis, indicaciones y efectos secundarios fueron negativas para ambas entidades, reforzando un bajo nivel de conocimiento sobre las generalidades. La gran mayoría de los médicos refiere que su uso produce adicciones y depresión respiratoria. Conclusión: Se demuestra que hay desconocimiento sobre el uso de la morfina que imposibilita un tratamiento adecuado del dolor por los mitos y el miedo de los efectos secundarios.


Introduction: Morphine is an alkaloid obtained from opium. Its knowledge and applications are unknown in daily medical practice. The inefficient use of analgesics causes pain to be refractory. Among doctors there are reluctance to use opioids such as morphine for several myths that we must deny. Objectives: To evaluate the knowledge of doctors of various specialties at INCAN (National Cancer Institute) and HRE (Regional Hospital of Encarnación) about morphine, as its forms of presentation, indications, contraindications and price in the free market of Paraguay. Materials and methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study, data were collected through a self-administered anonymous survey. The number was 41, between INCAN and HRE doctors. The Chi2 statistical test was used for statistical analysis. SPSS 20 was used. Results: 46.3% were INCAN doctors, 53.7% were HRE doctors. Mean age was 30.17 years SD ± 5.56. The statistical analysis with Chi2 crossing center variables and number of correct answers of the members was not significant. The results regarding doses, indications and side effects were negative for both entities, reinforcing a low level of knowledge about the generalities. The vast majority of doctors report that its use causes addictions and respiratory depression. Conclusion: It is shown that there is ignorance about the use of morphine that makes it impossible to properly treat pain due to myths and fear of side effects.


Subject(s)
Analgesics, Opioid , Morphine , Neoplasms , Cross-Sectional Studies , Statistical Analysis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Research Report
10.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(11): 741-752, Nov. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142359

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Central neuropathic pain (CNP) is often refractory to available therapeutic strategies and there are few evidence-based treatment options. Many patients with neuropathic pain are not diagnosed or treated properly. Thus, consensus-based recommendations, adapted to the available drugs in the country, are necessary to guide clinical decisions. Objective: To develop recommendations for the treatment of CNP in Brazil. Methods: Systematic review, meta-analysis, and specialists opinions considering efficacy, adverse events profile, cost, and drug availability in public health. Results: Forty-four studies on CNP treatment were found, 20 were included in the qualitative analysis, and 15 in the quantitative analysis. Medications were classified as first-, second-, and third-line treatment based on systematic review, meta-analysis, and expert opinion. As first-line treatment, gabapentin, duloxetine, and tricyclic antidepressants were included. As second-line, venlafaxine, pregabalin for CND secondary to spinal cord injury, lamotrigine for CNP after stroke, and, in association with first-line drugs, weak opioids, in particular tramadol. For refractory patients, strong opioids (methadone and oxycodone), cannabidiol/delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, were classified as third-line of treatment, in combination with first or second-line drugs and, for central nervous system (CNS) in multiple sclerosis, dronabinol. Conclusions: Studies that address the treatment of CNS are scarce and heterogeneous, and a significant part of the recommendations is based on experts opinions. The CNP approach must be individualized, taking into account the availability of medication, the profile of adverse effects, including addiction risk, and patients' comorbidities.


RESUMO Introdução: A dor neuropática central (DNC) é frequentemente refratária às estratégias terapêuticas disponíveis e há poucas opções de tratamento baseado em evidência. Muitos pacientes com dor neuropática não são diagnosticados ou tratados adequadamente. Desse modo, recomendações baseadas em consenso, adaptadas à disponibilidade de medicamentos no país, são necessárias para guiar decisões clínicas. Objetivo: Desenvolver recomendações para o tratamento da DNC no Brasil. Métodos: Revisão sistemática, metanálise e discussão dos resultados entre especialistas e pesquisadores da área, considerando eficácia, perfil de eventos adversos, custo e disponibilidade do fármaco na saúde pública. Resultados: Foram encontrados 44 estudos sobre tratamento da DNC, dos quais 20 foram incluídos na análise qualitativa e 15, na quantitativa. Classificaram-se as medicações em primeira, segunda e terceira linhas de tratamento, baseando-se em revisão sistemática, meta-análise e opinião de especialistas. Como primeira linha, foram incluídos gabapentina, duloxetina e antidepressivos tricíclicos. Como segunda, venlafaxina, pregabalina para DNC secundária à lesão medular, lamotrigina para DNC pós-acidente vascular cerebral e, em associação aos fármacos de primeira linha, opioides fracos, em particular tramadol. Para os pacientes refratários, opioides fortes (metadona e oxicodona) e canabidiol/delta-9-tetrahidrocanabinol foram classificados como terceira linha de tratamento, em associação com drogas de primeira ou segunda linha, e, para DNC na esclerose múltipla, dronabinol. Conclusões: Os estudos que abordam o tratamento da DNC são escassos e heterogêneos, e parte significativa das recomendações é baseada em opiniões de especialistas. A abordagem da DNC deve ser individualizada, levando em conta a disponibilidade de medicação, o perfil de efeitos adversos, incluindo risco de dependência e as comorbidades do paciente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Neuralgia/drug therapy , Neurology , Brazil , Consensus , Analgesics, Opioid
11.
Rev. enferm. Cent.-Oeste Min ; 10(1): 3665, out. 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1129771

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Identificar resultados do acompanhamento farmacoterapêutico de idosos hospitalizados em uso de analgésicos opioides. Métodos: Realizou-se um estudo descritivo e retrospectivo, integrado a um Programa de Residência Multiprofissional em Saúde do Idoso. Os critérios para encaminhamento ao serviço foram estar em uso de opioides e/ou com queixa de dor. Após captação dos pacientes, realizou-se análise da farmacoterapia e, mediante necessidade, intervenções foram efetuadas. Resultados:No total, foram analisados dados referentes ao acompanhamento de 53 pacientes, com média de idade de 73 anos (desvio-padrão + 14,8). Identificaram-se 85 evoluções farmacêuticas, sendo 36 com registro de uso de opioides. Tramadol, codeína, morfina e metadona foram os opioides utilizados no grupo estudado. As principais reações adversas registradas foram constipação, náusea e vômito. Foram realizadas 26 intervenções direcionadas a esses medicamentos. Conclusão: Quando devidamente monitorados, os riscos provenientes do uso de opioides, sejam eles reais ou potenciais, são passíveis de detecção em tempo hábil, permitindo a execução de ações que previnam, amenizem ou eliminem desfechos negativos. A busca por qualificação e a cooperação entre profissionais pode auxiliar o desenvolvimento de habilidades que forneçam aos pacientes uma melhor experiência ao longo dos serviços de acompanhamento (AU)


Objectives: To identify the results of the pharmacotherapeutic follow-up of the hospitalized elderly in the use of opioid analgesics. Methods: A retrospective and descriptive study was carried out, integrated with a Program of Multiprofessional Residency in Elder Health. The criteria for referral to the service were being using opioid and/or complaining of pain. After acquisition of patients, there was an analysis of the pharmacotherapy and, if necessary, interventions were made. Results: In total, there was the analysis of data relating to the follow-up of 53 patients, with a mean age of 73 years (standard deviation + 14.8). There were 85 pharmaceutical evolutions, being 36 with a record of use of opioids. Tramadol, codeine, morphine and methadone were the opioids used in the group studied. The main adverse reactions recorded were constipation, nausea and vomiting. There were 26 interventions directed to these medicines. Conclusion: When properly monitored, the risks from using opioids, whether actual or potential, are detectable in a timely manner, allowing the implementation of actions to prevent, mitigate or eliminate negative outcomes. The search for qualification and the cooperation between professionals can assist in the development of skills that provide patients with a better experience over follow-up services (AU)


Objetivos: Identificar los resultados del seguimiento farmacoterapéutico de ancianos hospitalizados en el uso de analgésicos opioides. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo y descriptivo, integrado con un Programa de Residencia Multiprofesional en Salud de los Ancianos. Los criterios para su encaminamiento al servicio fueron estar en el uso de opioides y/o quejándose de dolor. Tras la captación de los pacientes, se realizó el análisis de la farmacoterapia y, por necesidad, se realizaron intervenciones. Resultados: En total, se analizaron los datos relativos al seguimiento de 53 pacientes, con una edad media de 73 años (desviación estándar + 14,8). Se identificaron 85 evoluciones farmacéuticas, siendo 36 con un registro de uso de opioides. Tramadol, codeína, morfina y metadona fueron los opioides utilizados en el grupo estudiado. Las principales reacciones adversas registradas fueron el estreñimiento, náuseas y vómitos. Se realizaron 26 intervenciones dirigidas a estos medicamentos. Conclusión: Cuando se supervisa de manera apropiada, los riesgos del uso de opiáceos, ya reales o potenciales, pueden ser detectados de manera oportuna, permitiendo la implementación de acciones para prevenir, mitigar o eliminar los resultados negativos. La búsqueda de la cualificación y la cooperación entre profesionales pueden ayudar en el desarrollo de habilidades que proporcionan a los pacientes una mejor experiencia en los servicios de seguimiento (AU)


Subject(s)
Pain , Pharmaceutical Services , Aged , Drug Utilization , Analgesics, Opioid
12.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; ago 25, 2020. 28 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117908

ABSTRACT

En el transcurso de la pandemia de COVID-19, numerosos países, de ingresos bajos, medianos y alto, han visto agotadas sus reservas de medicamentos esenciales necesarios para el manejo de los pacientes con COVID-19 en las unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI). El plan de preparación para emergencias sanitarias de los países requiere incluir una lista de medicamentos esenciales y otros dispositivos médicos necesarios en las UCI para afrontar emergencias sanitarias. La lista de medicamentos esenciales para el manejo de pacientes que ingresan a unidades de cuidados intensivos con sospecha o diagnóstico confirmado de COVID-19 es un documento de orientación fundamental que ayuda a los sistemas de salud de los países a priorizar los medicamentos esenciales que deben estar ampliamente disponibles y ser asequibles para manejar los pacientes en las UCI durante las situaciones de emergencia sanitaria, en este caso con sospecha o diagnóstico confirmado de COVID-19. Está dirigida a las autoridades sanitaras y a los encargados del manejo del sistema de salud de los países. Esta lista incluye fundamentalmente los medicamentos considerados esenciales para el manejo de los cuadros clínicos que con se observan con mayor frecuencia en pacientes hospitalizados en UCI a causa de una infección por SARS-CoV-2. No se incluyen la mayoría de los medicamentos que comúnmente se encuentran en las UCI para el manejo de otras patologías, comorbilidades o la estabilización del paciente (p. ej., insulina o antihipertensivos), salvo aquellos que pueden requerirse para el tratamiento o apoyo (p. ej., bloqueantes neuromusculares o anestésicos) de las dolencias generadas por la infección. Tampoco se incluyen medicamentos específicos para el tratamiento de la infección por SARS-CoV-2, puesto que no existe, por el momento, evidencia científica de alta calidad que avale su uso, salvo en el contexto de ensayos clínicos controlados. Un equipo de expertos en el tema realizó una búsqueda de información sobre la atención de pacientes en UCI durante la pandemia de COVID-19, en Medline (a través de PubMed), Cochrane, Tripdatabase, Epistemonikos y en buscadores generales de internet (Google). Se identificaron también revisiones o guías generadas por ministerios de Salud de varios países de la Región de las Américas, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS), el Instituto Nacional de Salud y Excelencia Clínica (NICE) de Reino Unido, los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades (CDC) de Estados Unidos y los Institutos Nacionales de Salud (NIH) de Estados Unidos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Succinylcholine/therapeutic use , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Benzodiazepines/therapeutic use , Patient Care Management/organization & administration , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drugs, Essential/supply & distribution , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Antipyretics/therapeutic use , Pandemics/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Haloperidol/therapeutic use , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Respiration, Artificial/nursing , Shock, Septic/prevention & control , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Evidence-Based Medicine , Intubation/nursing , Hypoxia/drug therapy
14.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 19(1): e525, ene.-abr. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093129

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El cáncer es la segunda causa de muerte en el mundo y en Cuba. Su estrategia de tratamiento implica fármacos oncoespecíficos y cirugía; y diariamente aumentan los pacientes intervenidos quirúrgicamente lo que conlleva a un periodo perioperatorio y la administración de múltiples medicamentos anestésicos. Objetivo: Describir los principales factores relacionados con la anestesia que, durante el perioperatorio, influyen en la recurrencia oncológica. Desarrollo: El estrés quirúrgico y la anestesia general, con la subsecuente respuesta neuroendocrina e inflamatoria, por sí mismos, limitan la respuesta inmune y alteran el balance entre el potencial metastásico del tumor y antimetastásico de las defensas, lo cual representa un mecanismo plausible en el incremento de las metástasis y recurrencia oncológica. Conclusiones: La proliferación del cáncer y recidiva tumoral en el contexto quirúrgico asociado a la anestesia, es un tema relativamente nuevo y por tanto es necesario realizar estudios con mayor alcance que validen este fenómeno. No obstante, el efecto inmunosupresor que produce el estrés perioperatorio, fármacos anestésicos como opioides y halogenados pueden ser la clave para explicar este fenómeno. La anestesia general endovenosa total libre de opioides y adecuada analgesia regional contribuyen a disminuir este efecto(AU)


Introduction: Cancer is the second cause of death worldwide and in Cuba. Its treatment strategy involves oncospecific drugs and surgery. Every day, the number of patients who undergo surgery increases, which leads to a perioperative period and the administration of multiple anesthetic medications. Objective: To describe the main factors related to anesthesia and that, during the perioperative period, influence oncological recurrence. Development: Surgical stress and general anesthesia, with the subsequent neuroendocrine and inflammatory response, by themselves, limit the immune response and alter the balance between the metastatic potential of the tumor and the antimetastatic defense, which represents a plausible mechanism for increased metastasis and oncological relapse. Conclusions: The proliferation of cancer and tumor relapse in the surgical context associated with anesthesia is a relatively new issue and it is therefore necessary to carry out studies with greater scope that validate this phenomenon. However, the immunosuppressive effect produced by perioperative stress, as well as anesthetic drugs such as opioids and halogenated drugs, can be the key to explaining this phenomenon. Total intravenous opioid-free general anesthesia and adequate regional analgesia contribute to diminish this effect(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Recurrence , Perioperative Period/methods , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Anesthesia, General/methods , Ketamine/therapeutic use , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/prevention & control
15.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 48(1): 20-29, Jan.-Mar. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1092916

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Postoperative pain in thoracic surgery in adults is usually severe, and to control it there are many analgesic methods that include paravertebral blockade (PVB). Until now, there is no clarity on which is the most effective technique to perform this blockade. Objective: To describe the different PVB techniques and its analgesic effect in thoracic surgery. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was performed. We included studies that analyzed patients in open chest surgery and used PVB as analgesic technique. The Cochrane and Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation strategies were used to analyze biases and evidence. The results are presented graphically by means of a visual analog scale (VAS) pain and opioid consumption equivalent to morphine for each technique found. We summarize the results with a qualitative approach without meta-analysis. Results: A total of 38 articles were analyzed (2188 patients). 13 using PVB guided by surface anatomy (SA-PVB), 7 Ultrasound-guided PVB (US-PVB), 1 neurostimulation guided PVB (NE-PVB) and the remaining using PVB performed under direct visualization by the surgeon (S-PVB). A VAS of less than 3 was found in studies with SA-PVB and US-PVB, and greater than 5 in studies with S-PVB; however, opioid consumption in the postoperative period was similar between the techniques described. Conclusion: PVB can be performed through 4 techniques. Techniques of US-PVB or SA-PVB have shown better consistency to manage postoperative acute pain in thoracic surgery.


Resumen Introducción: El dolor posoperatorio en cirugía de tórax en adultos usualmente es grave, y para su control existen varios métodos analgésicos que incluyen el bloqueo paravertebral (BPV). En la actualidad no hay claridad acerca de la técnica más efectiva para su realización. Objetivo: Describir las diferentes técnicas de colocación del BPV y su efecto en el control analgésico en cirugía de tórax. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura. Se incluyeron estudios que analizaron pacientes sometidos a cirugía de tórax abierta y que utilizaron el BPV como técnica analgésica. Se emplearon las estrategias Cochrane y GRADE (Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation) para valorar la evidencia disponible. Se presentan los resultados de manera gráfica mediante escala visual análoga de dolor y consumo de opioide equivalente a morfina para cada técnica encontrada. Se realizó síntesis cualitativa de los resultados sin metanálisis. Resultados: Se analizaron en total 38 artículos (2188 pacientes). 13 estudios usaban BPV guiado por anatomía de superficie (BPV-AS), 7 BPV con guía ecográfica (BPV-US), 1 BPV guiado por neuroestimulación (BPV-NE) y los restantes BPV bajo visualización directa por el cirujano (BPV-C). Se encontró una escala visual análoga (EVA) menor a 3 en los estudios con BPV-AS y BPV-US y mayor a 5 en estudios con BPV-C; sin embargo, el consumo de opioides en el posoperatorio fue similar entre las técnicas descritas. Conclusión: Se han descrito cuatro técnicas para la realización del BPV. Las técnicas de BPV-US o BPV-AS han mostrado mejor consistencia para el manejo del dolor agudo posoperatorio en cirugía de tórax.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thoracic Surgery , Pain, Postoperative , Postoperative Period , Thorax , Health Strategies , Extravehicular Activity , Acute Pain , Analgesics , Analgesics, Opioid
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878847

ABSTRACT

Pain is a complex, unpleasant feeling and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, and manifests itself in certain autonomous psychological and behavioral responses. The commonly used opioid and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesics(NSAIDs) may cause adverse reactions to the kidney, liver, cardiovascular or gastrointestinal system and cause problems of drug abuse. Therefore, it is necessary to study new analgesic drugs with less side effects and significant analgesic effects. A variety of natural products derived from terrestrial plants, microorganisms, marine organisms and fungi have been an important source of clinical medicines and provide an inexhaustible resource for the development and innovation of modern medicines. Therefore, this paper mainly reviews the natural non-alkaloids with analgesic activity in order to provide reference for the research and development of analgesic drugs derived from natural products.


Subject(s)
Analgesics/therapeutic use , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Humans , Pain/drug therapy
17.
Health Sciences Journal ; : 12-18, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876155

ABSTRACT

@#Introduction: Intrathecal morphine, commonly administered at doses of 100 to 200 mcg, is a popular choice for post-cesarean analgesia; however, a trade-off between opioid analgesia and side effects exists. This study was conducted to determine the lowest dose of intrathecal morphine that will provide adequate analgesia with the least side effects among post-cesarean patients. Methods: Sixty term parturients for cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia were randomized into three treatment groups to receive 50, 100 or 150 mcg of intrathecal morphine with a standard multimodal painregimen and intravenous tramadol as needed. Pain scores, demand for rescue analgesic, and incidence of adverse effects (nausea, vomiting, and pruritus) during the first 24 hours’ post-spinal anesthesia were recorded and compared between groups. Results: Pain scores and demand for rescue doses of tramadol were higher for the 50-mcg group as compared to the other groups. There was no significant difference in pain scores between the 100 and 150-mcg groups. No rescue dose of tramadol was necessary in the 100 and 150-mcg groups. No significant difference was seen in the incidence and severity of nausea and vomiting across treatment groups. The incidence and severity of pruritus were significantly higher in the 150-mcg group. No significant difference was noted in the incidence and severity of pruritus between the 50 and 100-mcg groups. Conclusion: A dose of 100 mcg of intrathecal morphine, in combination with a multimodal regimen, provides adequate analgesia with the least side effects.


Subject(s)
Pain Management , Pregnancy , Female , Cesarean Section , Anesthesiology , Analgesics, Opioid , Morphine
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785431

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Local anesthetics can decrease postoperative pain after appendectomy. This study sought to verify the efficacy of bupivacaine on postoperative pain and analgesics use after single-incision laparoscopic appendectomy (SILA).METHODS: Between March 2014 and October 2015, 68 patients with appendicitis agreed to participate in this study. After general anesthesia, patients were randomized to bupivacaine or control (normal saline) groups. The assigned drugs were infiltrated into subcutaneous tissue and deep into anterior rectus fascia. Postoperative analgesics use and pain scores were recorded using visual analogue scale (VAS) by investigators at 1, 8, and 24 hours and on day 7. All surgeons, investigators and patients were blinded to group allocation.RESULTS: Thirty patients were allocated into the control group and 37 patients into bupivacaine group (one patient withdrew consent before starting anesthesia). Seven from the control group and 4 from the bupivacaine group were excluded. Thus, 23 patients in the control group and 33 in the bupivacaine group completed the study. Preoperative demographics and operative findings were similar. Postoperative pain and analgesics use were not different between the 2 groups. Subgroup analysis determined that VAS pain score at 24 hours was significantly lower in the bupivacaine group (2.1) than in the control group (3.8, P = 0.007) when surgery exceeded 40 minutes. During immediate postoperative period, bupivacaine group needed less opioids (9.1 mg) than control (10.4 mg).CONCLUSION: Bupivacaine did not decrease pain and analgesics use. When surgery exceeded 40 minutes, bupivacaine use might be associated with less pain and less analgesics use.


Subject(s)
Analgesics , Analgesics, Opioid , Anesthesia, General , Anesthesia, Local , Anesthetics, Local , Appendectomy , Appendicitis , Bupivacaine , Demography , Fascia , Humans , Laparoscopy , Pain, Postoperative , Postoperative Period , Research Personnel , Subcutaneous Tissue , Surgeons
20.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 12: 1116-1124, jan.-dez. 2020. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1117816

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Objetivou-se realizar o estado da arte de publicações que relatem estratégias de como minimizar a constipação induzida pelo uso de opioides, de pacientes em cuidado paliativo. Método: Trata-se de um estudo exploratório através de uma revisão integrativa em quatro bases de dados de artigos publicados entre os anos de 2013 a 2017. Resultados: Evidenciaram-se 117 publicações, as quais 17 apresentaram os critérios de inclusão da pesquisa. Conclusão: Apesar das drogas aliviarem a dor, as reações adversas geram desconforto e perda da qualidade de vida. Existem dados limitados referentes ao tratamento da constipação intestinal em cuidado paliativo. Observou-se que poucos autores mencionaram a dieta como auxiliador no quadro, enfatizando o uso de medicamentos. Mais estudos devem ser estimulados no intuito de encontrar o equilíbrio entre analgesia e redução de efeitos adversos causados pelos opioides


Objective: The study's purpose has been to address the state of the art in investigations such as clinical trials, systematic reviews with metaanalysis and case studies, which report how to minimize opioid-induced constipation in patients undergoing palliative care. Methods: This is an exploratory study through an integrative review of four databases addressing published articles from 2013 to 2017. Results: A total of 117 publications were presented, which 17 presented the inclusion criteria. The studies describe the prevalence of constipation rates induced by the use of opioids. Conclusion: Although these drugs alleviate pain, the adverse reactions may generate discomfort and loss of the patient's life quality. There are limited data on the treatment of constipation. It was observed that few authors mentioned diet as a helper on this situation, emphasizing the use of medications. Further studies should be encouraged aiming to find the balance between analgesia and reduction of adverse effects


Objetivo: Se objetivó realizar el estado del arte de publicaciones que relatan estrategias de cómo minimizar el constipación inducida por el uso de opioides, de pacientes en cuidado paliativo. Método: Se trata de un estudio exploratorio a través de una revisión integrativa en cuatro bases de datos de artículos publicados entre los años de 2013 a 2017. Resultados: Se evidenció 117 publicaciones, las cuales 17 presentaron los criterios de inclusión de la investigación. Conclusión: A pesar de las drogas aliviar el dolor, las reacciones adversas generan incomodidad y pérdida de la calidad de vida. Existen datos limitados referentes al tratamiento del estreñimiento intestinal en el cuidado paliativo. Se observó que pocos autores mencionaron la dieta como auxiliador en el cuadro, enfatizando el uso de medicamentos. Más estudios deben ser estimulados con el fin de encontrar el equilibrio entre analgesia y reducción de efectos adversos causados por los opioide


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Palliative Care , Opioid-Induced Constipation/prevention & control , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects , Quality of Life , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Morphine/adverse effects
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