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1.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 14(3): 133-138, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1293389

ABSTRACT

El uso de opioides ha aumentado en forma significativa en las últimas décadas, lo que nos ha permitido conocer sus diversos efectos en el sistema endocrino. Estos efectos están sub diagnosticados, en parte porque los síntomas se confunden con los de la misma enfermedad que lleva al uso de opioides y porque no los buscamos de forma dirigida. El hipogonadismo y la insuficiencia suprarrenal son sus efectos más establecidos, sin embargo, otros efectos como los provocados en el tejido óseo requieren de especial atención. La evaluación de los ejes gonadotropo, adrenal y de la salud ósea debe tenerse en consideración en los usuarios crónicos de opioides, particularmente frente a la presencia de síntomas. La suspensión o reducción del uso de opioides es el primer tratamiento del compromiso endocrinológico.


The use of opioids has increased significantly in recent decades, which has allowed us to understand its effects on the endocrine system. These effects are underdiagnosed, the symptoms are confused with those of the same disease that leads to the use of opioids and we do not look for them in a targeted way. Hypogonadism and adrenal insufficiency are its most established effects, however, other effects such as the ones caused on bone tissue require special attention. Evaluation of gonadotropic and adrenal axes as well as bone health should be taken into consideration in chronic opioid users, particularly in the presence of symptoms. Stopping or reducing opioid use is the first treatment for endocrine compromise.


Subject(s)
Humans , Endocrine System Diseases/chemically induced , Endocrine System/drug effects , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects , Adrenal Insufficiency/chemically induced , Hypogonadism/chemically induced
2.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 295-299, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888759

ABSTRACT

The widespread use of opioids to treat chronic pain led to a nation-wide crisis in the United States. Tens of thousands of deaths annually occur mainly due to respiratory depression, the most dangerous side effect of opioids. Non-opioid drugs and non-pharmacological treatments without addictive potential are urgently required. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is based on a completely different medical theory than academic Western medicine. The scientific basis of acupuncture and herbal treatments as main TCM practices has been considerably improved during the past two decades, and large meta-analyses with thousands of patients provide evidence for their efficacy. Furthermore, opinion leaders in the United States favor non-pharmacological techniques including TCM for pain management to fight the opioid crisis. We advocate TCM as therapeutic option without addictive potential and without life-threatening side effects (e.g., respiratory depression) to treat chronic pain patients suffering from opioid misuse. The evidence suggests that: (1) opioid misuse cannot be satisfactorily managed with standard medication; (2) opinion leaders in the United States favor to consider non-opioid and non-pharmacological treatment strategies including those from TCM to treat acute and chronic pain conditions; (3) large meta-analyses provide scientific evidence for the clinical activity of acupuncture and herbal TCM remedies in the treatment of chronic pain. Future clinical trials should demonstrate the safety of TCM treatments if combined with Western medical practices to exclude negative interactions between both modalities.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Epidemics , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Opioid Epidemic , United States
3.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(6): 678-681, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155781

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Opioid-free anesthesia decreases the incidence of opioid adverse events, but its optimal antinociceptive depth has not been clearly defined. Personalizing intraoperative opioid-free infusions with a nociception monitor may be the solution. Case report: We describe the feasibility and potential limitations of titrating opioid-free antinociception during major abdominal surgery using the Analgesia Nociception Index (Mdoloris, Lille, France) in an obese patient. After stabilizing the patient's nociception-antinociception balance intraoperatively we quickly reversed anesthesia and the patient did not require postoperative opioids. Conclusion: Personalizing opioid-free antinociception with a nociception monitor is feasible. It may optimize intraoperative antinociception and improve postoperative comfort.


Resumo Introdução A anestesia sem opioides diminui a incidência de eventos adversos associados aos opioides, mas a profundidade antinociceptiva ideal dessa abordagem não está claramente definida. Personalizar a infusão intraoperatória sem opioides com o uso de monitor de nocicepção pode ser a solução. Relato de caso Descrevemos a viabilidade e as eventuais limitações da titulação da antinocicepção sem opioides por meio do uso do Índice de Analgesia/Nocicepção (Mdoloris, Lille, França) durante cirurgia abdominal de grande porte em paciente com obesidade. Depois de estabilizar o equilíbrio nocicepção-antinocicepção da paciente no intraoperatório, revertemos rapidamente a anestesia e a paciente não precisou de opioides no pós-operatório. Conclusão A personalização da antinocicepção sem opioides por meio do emprego de monitor de nocicepção é factível. A abordagem pode otimizar a antinocicepção intraoperatória e melhorar o conforto pós-operatório.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Urinary Incontinence/surgery , Vesicovaginal Fistula/surgery , Precision Medicine/methods , Nociception , Anesthesia, Inhalation , Anesthesia, Intravenous , Urinary Incontinence/etiology , Obesity, Morbid/complications , Vesicovaginal Fistula/complications , Electroencephalography , Analgesia/instrumentation , Analgesia/methods , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects , Middle Aged
4.
Dolor ; 30(72): 14-18, nov. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362436

ABSTRACT

Se llevó a cabo un estudio observacional para analizar si tapentadol de liberación prolongada (LP) puede considerarse un tratamiento de primera línea para pacientes con dolor crónico postraumático (DCPT). Métodos: Se presenta una serie de casos de la práctica clínica real de pacientes con DCPT producido por accidentes de trabajo. Antes de ingresar al estudio, todos los pacientes recibían tramadol, que se interrumpió cuando se inició la administración de tapentadol LP. Las evaluaciones de dolor incluyeron una escala de valoración numérica, el cuestionario DN4 y la escala de Impresión Global de Cambio del Paciente (PGIC, Patients' Global Impression of Change). Se recuperaron y registraron los eventos adversos. Resultados: 94 pacientes participaron en el estudio y 77 (82 %) completaron todas las visitas predefinidas. Cerca de la mitad de los pacientes informaron dolor crónico que tenía una duración de al menos 3 años; se observó un componente neuropático en el 87 % de los pacientes. El puntaje de dolor se redujo en 1,5 puntos luego del primer mes de tratamiento con tapentadol LP y en 2,48 puntos luego de 4 meses (p<0,05). También se asoció la administración de tapentadol LP con una reducción del 28,9 % de la dosis concomitante de pregabalina (p<0,01). De acuerdo con el cuestionario PGIC, el 74 % y el 77,9 % de los pacientes informó mejoría luego de uno y cuatro meses de tratamiento, respectivamente. El perfil de seguridad fue consistente con los datos actuales sobre tapentadol LP. Conclusión: El dolor osteomuscular crónico es una enfermedad prevalente que se caracteriza por tener resultados terapéuticos deficientes y se asocia a una mayor discapacidad y una mala calidad de vida. En este estudio de la práctica clínica real en pacientes que trabajan y que cuentan con un componente de dolor neuropático elevado, se observó que tapentadol LP produce efectos beneficiosos en términos del control del DCPT, y se obtuvieron índices altos de eficacia y seguridad.


An observational study was carried out to analyze whether prolonged-release (PR) tapentadol may be considered a first-line treatment for patients with chronic post-traumatic pain (PTD). Methods: A case series of cases of patients with PTFE caused by work accidents in a real clinical practice setting is described. Before entering the study, all patients were receiving tramadol, which was discontinued when PR tapentadol was started. Pain assessments included a numerical rating scale, the DN4 questionnaire, and the Patients' Global Impression of Change (PGIC) scale. Adverse events were retrieved and described. Results: 94 patients participated in the study and 77 (82%) completed all the predefined visits. About half of the patients reported chronic pain that lasted for at least 3 years. A neuropathic component was reported in 87% of patients. The pain score was reduced by 1.5 points after the first month of treatment with PR tapentadol and by 2.48 points after 4 months (p < 0.05). Administration of PR tapentadol was also associated with a concomitant reduction of pregabalin dose of 28.9% (p < 0.01). According to the PGIC questionnaire, 74% and 77.9% of patients reported improvement after one and four months of treatment, respectively. The safety profile was consistent with current data on PR tapentadol. Conclusion: Chronic musculoskeletal pain is a prevalent disease characterized by poor therapeutic results and associated with increased disability and poor quality of life. In our study in a real clinical practice setting with patients with a high neuropathic pain component, PR tapentadol produced beneficial effects in terms of DCPT control, and high efficacy and safety rates were obtained. Keywords: tapentadol, chronic pain, pain caused by work accidents, chronic post-traumatic pain, evidence from real clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Wounds and Injuries/complications , Accidents, Occupational , Chronic Pain/drug therapy , Tapentadol/therapeutic use , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Chronic Pain/etiology , Tapentadol/adverse effects , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects
5.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(4): 419-428, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137206

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: Postoperative pain is still a major concern in several surgical procedures. Multimodal analgesia is best for postoperative pain management; however, opioid therapy is still the main treatment for pain after surgical procedures. Transdermal buprenorphine is a partial µ-agonist opioid widely used for chronic pain syndromes, with limited evidence for acute postoperative pain. A systematic review of studies examining transdermal buprenorphine for acute pain management after surgery was conducted. Contents: Data from PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), CINAHL via EBSCOhost, and LILACS were reviewed, including randomized clinical trials that evaluated total postoperative pain, postoperative analgesic consumption, drug-related side effects and patient satisfaction with analgesia regimen. Data from nine studies (615 patients) were included in this review. Most studies initiated transdermal buprenorphine use 6 to 48 hours before surgery, maintaining use from 1 to 28 days after the procedure. Most studies showed lower or similar postoperative pain scores, postoperative analgesic consumption and patient satisfaction comparing buprenorphine to placebo, tramadol, celecoxib, flurbiprofen and parecoxib. The incidence of side effects varied between studies, with most showing no increase in drug-related side effects with buprenorphine use, except one study, which compared buprenorphine to oral tramadol, and one to transdermal fentanyl. However, most results were derived from evidence with an overall high or unclear risk of bias. Conclusions: Although more studies are necessary, initial results show that transdermal buprenorphine seems to be an effective and safe opioid choice for management of acute postoperative pain.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: A dor pós-operatória ainda é uma queixa importante em vários procedimentos cirúrgicos. A analgesia multimodal é a melhor conduta para a dor pós-operatória, embora a terapia com opioides ainda seja o principal tratamento para a dor após procedimentos cirúrgicos. A buprenorfina transdérmica é um opioide agonista µ amplamente prescrito nas síndromes de dor crônica, mas com limitada evidência do seu uso para dor aguda no pós-operatório. Realizamos revisão sistemática de estudos que examinaram o papel da buprenorfina transdérmica no tratamento da dor aguda pós-operatória. Conteúdo: Revisamos os dados de PubMed, Embase, Registro Central de Ensaios Controlados Cochrane (CENTRAL), CINAHL via EBSCOhost e LILACS, incluindo estudos clínicos randomizados que avaliaram a dor pós-operatória total, consumo de analgésicos pós-operatórios, efeitos colaterais relacionados a medicamentos e satisfação do paciente com esquema de analgesia. Dados de nove estudos (615 pacientes) foram incluídos nesta revisão. A maioria dos estudos iniciou o uso transdérmico de buprenorfina 6 a 48 horas antes da cirurgia, mantendo o uso de 1 a 28 dias após o procedimento. A maioria dos estudos encontrou valores semelhantes ou menores para o escore de dor pós-operatória, consumo pós-operatório de analgésicos e satisfação do paciente quando a buprenorfina foi comparada ao placebo, tramadol, celecoxibe, flurbiprofeno e parecoxibe. A incidência de efeitos colaterais oscilou nos estudos, e a maioria não mostrou aumento de efeito colateral relacionado ao uso de buprenorfina, exceto em dois estudos, um que comparou buprenorfina ao tramadol oral e outro ao fentanil transdérmico. No entanto, a maioria dos resultados foi obtida a partir de evidências com um risco geral alto ou risco de viés impreciso. Conclusões: Embora sejam necessários mais estudos, os resultados iniciais mostram que a buprenorfina transdérmica parece ser uma forma de administração segura e efetiva de opioide no tratamento da dor aguda pós-operatória.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Buprenorphine/administration & dosage , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Administration, Cutaneous , Pain Measurement , Buprenorphine/adverse effects , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Patient Satisfaction , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects
6.
Clinics ; 75: e1554, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089608

ABSTRACT

Opioids are the main group of pharmacological agents used during the perioperative period and provide a sedative and analgesic component. The observations of opioid consumption in West Europe indicate that this group of drugs is widely used in chronic noncancer pain therapy. Nearly 20 years ago, the first publications indicating that opioids, as an element of perioperative pharmacotherapy in oncologic patients, increase the risk of tumor recurrence and affect further prognosis were presented. The actual publications suggest that there are multifactorial, complex mechanisms underlying the immunological impact and carcinogenesis promotion of opioids and that the intensity varies depending on the type of opioid. There are also questions about the immunosuppressive effects among patients receiving opioids in the treatment of chronic noncancer pain. The aim of the review article is to present information about the action of opioids on the immune system in carcinogenic settings and to define the clinical usefulness of this pharmacological phenomenon.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Chronic Pain/drug therapy , Carcinogenesis , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects , Pituitary-Adrenal System/drug effects , Retrospective Studies , Drug Tolerance , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/drug effects , Opioid-Related Disorders
7.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 12: 1116-1124, jan.-dez. 2020. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1117816

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Objetivou-se realizar o estado da arte de publicações que relatem estratégias de como minimizar a constipação induzida pelo uso de opioides, de pacientes em cuidado paliativo. Método: Trata-se de um estudo exploratório através de uma revisão integrativa em quatro bases de dados de artigos publicados entre os anos de 2013 a 2017. Resultados: Evidenciaram-se 117 publicações, as quais 17 apresentaram os critérios de inclusão da pesquisa. Conclusão: Apesar das drogas aliviarem a dor, as reações adversas geram desconforto e perda da qualidade de vida. Existem dados limitados referentes ao tratamento da constipação intestinal em cuidado paliativo. Observou-se que poucos autores mencionaram a dieta como auxiliador no quadro, enfatizando o uso de medicamentos. Mais estudos devem ser estimulados no intuito de encontrar o equilíbrio entre analgesia e redução de efeitos adversos causados pelos opioides


Objective: The study's purpose has been to address the state of the art in investigations such as clinical trials, systematic reviews with metaanalysis and case studies, which report how to minimize opioid-induced constipation in patients undergoing palliative care. Methods: This is an exploratory study through an integrative review of four databases addressing published articles from 2013 to 2017. Results: A total of 117 publications were presented, which 17 presented the inclusion criteria. The studies describe the prevalence of constipation rates induced by the use of opioids. Conclusion: Although these drugs alleviate pain, the adverse reactions may generate discomfort and loss of the patient's life quality. There are limited data on the treatment of constipation. It was observed that few authors mentioned diet as a helper on this situation, emphasizing the use of medications. Further studies should be encouraged aiming to find the balance between analgesia and reduction of adverse effects


Objetivo: Se objetivó realizar el estado del arte de publicaciones que relatan estrategias de cómo minimizar el constipación inducida por el uso de opioides, de pacientes en cuidado paliativo. Método: Se trata de un estudio exploratorio a través de una revisión integrativa en cuatro bases de datos de artículos publicados entre los años de 2013 a 2017. Resultados: Se evidenció 117 publicaciones, las cuales 17 presentaron los criterios de inclusión de la investigación. Conclusión: A pesar de las drogas aliviar el dolor, las reacciones adversas generan incomodidad y pérdida de la calidad de vida. Existen datos limitados referentes al tratamiento del estreñimiento intestinal en el cuidado paliativo. Se observó que pocos autores mencionaron la dieta como auxiliador en el cuadro, enfatizando el uso de medicamentos. Más estudios deben ser estimulados con el fin de encontrar el equilibrio entre analgesia y reducción de efectos adversos causados por los opioide


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Palliative Care , Opioid-Induced Constipation/prevention & control , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects , Quality of Life , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Morphine/adverse effects
8.
Clinics ; 74: e605, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039555

ABSTRACT

OJECTIVES: The aim was to evaluate the ability of bilateral superficial cervical plexus blockade to control pain and to reduce the side effects of general anesthesia in patients submitted to thyroidectomy. METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial, we prospectively studied 100 consecutive patients who underwent total thyroidectomy. The simple random patient sample was divided into two groups: 50 patients received general anesthesia alone (group 1 [G1]), and 50 patients received general anesthesia with bilateral superficial cervical plexus blockade (group 2 [G2]). Statistical analyses were performed, and a 5% significance level was adopted. RESULTS: The mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were 12% lower in G2 patients than in G1 patients 60 minutes after surgery (101 mmHg for G1 vs. 92.3 mmHg for G2; p<0.001). G2 patients reported less pain than G1 patients, and opioid consumption was lower in G2 patients than in G1 patients, not upon postanesthesia care unit arrival, but at 30 minutes (2% vs. 34%; p<0.001, respectively), 45 minutes (0% vs. 16%; p=0.006, respectively), and 4 hours postoperatively (6% vs. 20%; p=0.037, respectively). The incidence of nausea and vomiting was lower in G2 patients than in G1 patients from 45 minutes (0% vs. 16%; p=0.006, respectively) to 8 hours postoperatively (0% vs. 14%; p=0.012, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated that the combination of bilateral superficial cervical plexus blockade with general anesthesia for thyroidectomy is feasible, safe, and effective for achieving pain control and improving patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Thyroidectomy/methods , Cervical Plexus Block/methods , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Pain, Postoperative/etiology , Preoperative Care , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects
9.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 64(10): 909-915, Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-976783

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: Opioid abstinence syndrome is common in the pediatric intensive care environment because sedation is often needed during the children's treatment. There is no specific guideline regarding the management of these patients; and lately, methadone is an important drug for the prevention of abstinence symptoms during the weaning of opioids. This study gathers the available research to establish the initial dose of methadone, the rate of taper and tools to recognize this syndrome and act promptly. METHODS: A systematic review was made from data of four different databases. Forty-nine articles of observational and experimental studies were selected based on the inclusion criteria (critical pediatric patients in acute use of opioids) and exclusion criteria (previous chronic use of opioids, other medications). The data regarding specific themes were separated in sections: initial dose of methadone, use of protocols in clinical practice, abstinence scales and adjuvant drugs. RESULTS: The articles showed a great heterogeneity of ways to calculate the initial dose of methadone. The pediatric intensive care units of the study had different weaning protocols, with a lower incidence of abstinence when a pre-defined sequence of tapering was used. The Withdrawal Assessment Tool - 1 was the most used scale for tapering the opioids, with good sensitivity and specificity for signs and symptoms. CONCLUSION: There is still little evidence of other medications that can help prevent the abstinence syndrome of opioids. This study tries to promote a better practice during opioid weaning.


RESUMO OBJETIVO: A síndrome de abstinência de opioides é comum no ambiente de terapia intensiva pediátrica porque a sedação é frequentemente necessária durante o tratamento das crianças. Não existe uma diretriz específica sobre o manejo desse paciente e, ultimamente, a metadona tem sido uma droga importante para a prevenção dos sintomas de abstinência durante o desmame dos opioides. Este estudo reúne as pesquisas disponíveis para estabelecer a dose inicial de metadona, taxa de redução e ferramentas para reconhecer essa síndrome e agir prontamente. MÉTODOS: Uma revisão sistemática foi feita a partir de dados de quatro diferentes bases de dados. Quarenta e nove artigos, de estudos observacionais e experimentais, foram selecionados com base nos critérios de inclusão (pacientes críticos pediátricos em uso de opioides agudamente) e critérios de exclusão (uso crônico prévio de opioides, outros medicamentos). Os dados referentes a temas específicos foram separados em seções: dose inicial de metadona, uso de protocolos na prática clínica, escalas de abstinência e drogas adjuvantes. RESULTADOS: Os artigos mostraram uma grande heterogeneidade de formas de calcular a dose inicial de metadona. As unidades de terapia intensiva pediátrica do estudo apresentaram diferentes protocolos de desmame, com menor incidência de abstinência quando foi utilizada uma sequência predefinida de redução gradual. A Ferramenta de Avaliação de Retirada - 1 foi a escala mais utilizada durante a redução dos opioides, com boa sensibilidade e especificidade para sinais e sintomas. CONCLUSÃO: Ainda há poucas evidências de outros medicamentos que possam ajudar a prevenir a síndrome de abstinência dos opioides. Este estudo tenta promover uma prática melhor durante o desmame dos opioides.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome/therapy , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects , Methadone/administration & dosage , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Critical Care/methods
11.
In. Pouy Aguilera, Artigas; Rossi Gonnet, Gabriel; Triaca Saldaña, Juan Mario. Pautas de evaluación y tratamiento de los consumos problemáticos de sustancias en los tres niveles de asistencia. Montevideo, Impronta Soluciones Gráficas, 2018. p.195-207.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1349069
12.
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 39(12): 686-691, Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-898853

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose To verify if pethidine is safe for the conceptus when used during labor. Methods Systematic review in the Capes Periodicals/PubMed and MEDLINE/Virtual Health Library (BVS, in the Portuguese acronym) databases. Results A total of 17 studies published from January 1st, 2000, to September 2nd, 2016, with a total of 1,688 participants involved were included in the present review. There was no record of conceptus vitality decrease associated with low doses of pethidine being administered to mothers during labor. Conclusions Intramuscular (IM) or intravenous (IV) pethidine at low doses, of up to 50 mg, is safe to administer during labor.


Resumo Objetivo Verificar se a petidina é segura para o concepto quando utilizada durante o trabalho de parto. Método Revisão sistemática nas bases de dados dos Periódicos Capes/PubMed e MEDLINE/Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS). Resultados Um total de 17 estudos, publicados de 1° de janeiro de 2000 a 2 de setembro de 2016, totalizando 1.688 participantes envolvidos, foram incluídos nesta revisão. Não houve registro de depressão na vitalidade dos conceptos comdoses baixas de petidina administradas às mães durante o trabalho de parto. Conclusão Petidina intramuscular (IM) ou intravenosa (IV) em baixas doses, de até 50 mg, é segura durante o trabalho de parto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Analgesia, Obstetrical , Labor Pain/drug therapy , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects , Meperidine/adverse effects
13.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 67(4): 347-354, July-aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897741

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: Sedative and analgesic treatment administered to critically ill patients need to be regularly assessed to ensure that previously stated goals are well achieved as the risk of complications of oversedation is minimized. We revised and prospectively tested the Ramsay Sedation scale (RSS) for interrater reliability and compared it with the Sedation-Agitation Scale (SAS) and the Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS) to test construct validity during midazolam-remifentanil sedation. Methods: A convenience sample of ICU patients was simultaneously and independently examined by pairs of trained evaluators by using the revised SAS, RSS, and RASS. Ninety-two ICU patients were examined a total of 276 times by evaluator pairs. Results: The mean patient age was 61.32 ± 18.68 years, 45,7% were female (n = 42), 54.3% male (n = 50). Their APACHE values varied between 3 and 39 with an average of 13.27 ± 7.86 and 75% of the cases were under mechanical ventilation. When classified by using RSS (2.70 ± 1.28), 10.9% were anxious or agitated (RSS1), 68.5% were calm (RSS 2-3), and 20.6% were sedated (RSS 4-6). When classified by using RASS (-0.64 ± 1.58), 20.7% were anxious or agitated (RASS+1 to +4), 63.0% were calm (RASS 0 to -2), and 16.3% were sedated (RASS -3 to -5). When classified by using SAS (2.63 ± 1.00), 12% were anxious or agitated (SAS 5-7), 57.6% were calm (SAS 4), and 30.4% were sedated (SAS 1-3). RSS was correlated with the SAS (r = -0.656, p < 0.001) and RASS was correlated with the SAS (r = 0.565, p < 0.001). RSS was highly correlated with the RASS (r = -0.664, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Ramsay is both reliable and valid (high correlation with the RASS and SAS scales) in assessing agitation and sedation in adult ICU patients.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: O tratamento de pacientes em estado crítico com sedativos e analgésicos deve ser regularmente avaliado para garantir que as metas pré-definidas sejam atingidas, bem como minimizar o risco de complicações resultantes de sedação em excesso. Conduzimos uma revisão e testamos prospectivamente a Escala de Sedação de Ramsay (Ramsay Sedation Scale [RSS]) para a confiabilidade interavaliador e a comparamos com a Escala de Sedação e Agitação de Riker (Riker Sedation-Agitation Scale [RRSAS]) e a Escala de Sedação e Agitação de Richmond (Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale [RASS]) para testar a validade de construto durante a sedação com midazolam-remifentanil. Métodos: Uma amostra de conveniência de pacientes de UTI foi simultânea e independentemente examinada por pares de avaliadores treinados com o uso das escalas revisadas RRSAS, RSS e RASS. Foram examinados 92 pacientes de UTI por pares de avaliadores em 276 momentos. Resultados: A média dos pacientes foi de 61,32 ± 18,68 anos; 45,7% eram do sexo feminino (n = 42) e 54,3% do masculino (n = 50). Seus escores APACHE variaram entre 3-39, com média de 13,27 ± 7,86, e 75% dos casos receberam ventilação mecânica. Quando RSS foi usada para a classificação (2,70 ± 1,28), 10,9% dos pacientes estavam ansiosos ou agitados (RSS1), 68,5% estavam calmos (RSS 2 a 3) e 20,6% estavam sedados (RSS 4 a 6). Quando RASS foi usada para a classificação (-0,64 ± 1,58), 20,7% dos pacientes estavam ansiosos ou agitados (RASS +1 a +4), 63,0% estavam calmos (RASS 0 a -2) e 16,3% estavam sedados (RASS -3 a -5). Quando RSAS foi usada para a classificação (2,63 ± 1,00), 12% dos pacientes estavam ansiosos ou agitados (RSAS 5 a 7), 57,6% estavam calmos (RSAS 4) e 30,4% estavam sedados (RSAS 1 a 3). Houve correlação de RSS com RSAS (r = -0,656, p < 0,001) e de RASS com RSAS (r = 0,565, p < 0,001). Houve forte correlação de RSS com RASS (r = -0,664, p < 0,001). Conclusões: A RSS é confiável e válida (forte correlação com RASS e RSAS) para avaliar a sedação e agitação em pacientes adultos internados em UTI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Psychomotor Agitation/diagnosis , Midazolam/adverse effects , Akathisia, Drug-Induced/diagnosis , Deep Sedation , Remifentanil/adverse effects , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects , Hypnotics and Sedatives/adverse effects , Severity of Illness Index , Observer Variation , Prospective Studies , Correlation of Data , Middle Aged
15.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 88(1): 6-11, feb. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-838634

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: determinar la incidencia del síndrome de abstinencia (SA), describir presentación clínica e identificar la presencia de factores de riesgo. Metodología: se realizó un estudio prospectivo, observacional, de evaluaciones reiteradas usando la Sophia Observation Withdrawal Symptoms Scale (SOWS), en la Unidad de Cuidado Intensivo de Niños (UCIN) de 20 camas, del Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell (CHPR). Se incluyeron los niños ingresados en UCIN entre el 1 de noviembre de 2013 y el 30 de setiembre de 2014 tratados con benzodiacepinas y/o opiáceos por cinco días o más. Se registró: duración de la estadía, fármacos utilizados para sedación y analgesia, días de uso, máximo de dosis, dosis total acumulada. El diagnóstico de SA se realizó a través del uso de la SOWS. Los pacientes fueron divididos en dos grupos, con y sin SA. Se analizaron y compararon las características de ambos grupos. Resultados: se incluyeron 39 niños. La incidencia de SA fue 18% (7/39). Los ítems del SOWS más frecuentes fueron ansiedad y sueño menor a 1 hora. Los niños que desarrollaron SA presentaron dosis acumulativas más elevadas tanto de midazolam (54,1 mg/kg vs 44,2 mg/kg) como de fentanilo (464,2 mg/kg vs 380,1 mg/kg). Conclusiones: el SA fue frecuente en este grupo de niños. Las dosis acumulativas fueron mayores en el grupo con SA. La SOWS es una herramienta útil y de fácil aplicación para el diagnóstico de SA.


Objective: The study aims to determine the incidence of withdrawal syndrome, its clinical features and the presence of risk factors. Methodology: An observational and prospective study. Assessment was repeated and the Sophia Observation Withdrawal Symptoms Scale (SOWS) was used. The study was conducted at the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) of Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell (CHPR). Hospitalized children in PICU between 1/11/2013- 30/9/2014 and treated with benzodiazepines and opioids during 5 days or more were included in the study. Days of stay at the PICU, agents used for sedation (dose, duration) and cumulative doses were recorded. Withdrawal syndrome diagnosis was done using the SOWS. Results: 39 children were included in the study. The incidence of withdrawal syndrome was 18% (7/39). Children who developed withdrawal syndrome presented higher cumulative doses of midazolam (54.1 mg/kg vs. 44.2 mg/kg) and fentanyl (464.2µg/kg vs. 380.1 µg/kg) than those without withdrawal syndrome. Conclusions: the withdrawal syndrome was frequent in this population. Cumulative doses of midazolam and fentanyl were higher in those with withdrawal symptoms. The SOWS is a useful resource for diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome/epidemiology , Benzodiazepines/adverse effects , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects , Opioid-Related Disorders/diagnosis , Substance Withdrawal Syndrome/diagnosis , Incidence , Prospective Studies , Critical Care/methods , Observational Study , Hypnotics and Sedatives/adverse effects
16.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 66(4): 383-387, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787623

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: There are many studies conducted on reducing the frequency and severity of fentayl-induced cough during anesthesia induction. We propose that pheniramine maleate, an antihistaminic, may suppress this cough. We aim to observe the effect of pheniramine on fentanyl-induced cough during anesthesia induction. Methods: This is a double-blinded, prospective, three-arm parallel, randomized clinical trial of 120 patients with ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) physical status III and IV who aged ≥18 and scheduled for elective open heart surgery during general anesthesia. Patients were randomly assigned to three groups of 40 patients, using computer-generated random numbers: placebo group, pheniramine group, and lidocaine group. Results: Cough incidence differed significantly between groups. In the placebo group, 37.5% of patients had cough, whereas the frequency was significantly decreased in pheniramine group (5%) and lidocaine group (15%) (Fischer exact test, p = 0.0007 and p = 0.0188, respectively). There was no significant change in cough incidence between pheniramine group (5%) and lidocaine group (15%) (Fischer exact test, p = 0.4325). Cough severity did also change between groups. Post Hoc tests with Bonferroni showed that mean cough severity in placebo differed significantly than that of pheniramine group and lidocaine group (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.009, respectively). There was no significant change in cough severity between pheniramine group and lidocaine group (p = 0.856). Conclusion: Intravenous pheniramine is as effective as lidocaine in preventing fentayl-induced cough. Our results emphasize that pheniramine is a convenient drug to decrease this cough.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: Há muitos estudos sobre a redução da frequência e da gravidade da tosse induzida por fentanil durante a indução da anestesia. Propomos que maleato de feniramina, um anti-histamínico, pode suprimir essa tosse. Nosso objetivo foi observar o efeito de feniramina sobre a tosse induzida por fentanil durante a indução da anestesia. Métodos: Este é um estudo clínico prospectivo, de três braços paralelos, randômico e duplo-cego, de 120 pacientes com estado físico ASA III e IV (de acordo com a Sociedade Americana de Anestesiologistas), ≥ 18 anos e programados para cirurgia cardíaca aberta eletiva sob anestesia geral. Os pacientes foram divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos de 40 pacientes cada, com números aleatórios gerados por computador: grupo placebo, grupo feniramina e grupo lidocaína. Resultados: A incidência de tosse diferiu significativamente entre os grupos. No grupo placebo, 37,5% dos pacientes apresentaram tosse, enquanto que a frequência foi significativamente reduzida no grupo feniramina (5%) e no grupo lidocaína (15%) (teste exato de Fischer, p = 0,0007 e p = 0,0188, respectivamente). Não houve alteração significativa na incidência de tosse entre os grupos feniramina (5%) e lidocaína (15%) (teste exato de Fischer, p = 0,4325). A gravidade da tosse também alterou entre os grupos. Testes post hoc com Bonferroni mostraram que a média da gravidade da tosse no grupo placebo diferiu significativamente das médias dos grupos feniramina e lidocaína (p < 0,0001 e p = 0,009, respectivamente). Não houve alteração significativa na gravidade da tosse entre o grupo feniramina e grupo lidocaína (p = 0,856). Conclusão: Feniramina por via intravenosa tem a mesma eficácia que lidocaína na prevenção da tosse induzida por fentanil. Os resultados enfatizam que feniramina é um medicamento conveniente para diminuir essa tosse.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pheniramine/pharmacology , Fentanyl/adverse effects , Cough/chemically induced , Cough/drug therapy , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Histamine H1 Antagonists/pharmacology , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects , Middle Aged
17.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 66(2): 140-144, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777405

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two different doses of intrathecal morphine on postoperative analgesia, postoperative first mobilization and urination times and the severity of side effects. METHODS: After Institutional Ethical Committee approval, 48 ASA I-II patients were enrolled in this randomized double-blinded study. Spinal anesthesia was performed with 0.1 mg (Group I, n = 22) or 0.4 mg (Group II, n = 26) ITM in addition to 7.5 mg heavy bupivacaine. The first analgesic requirement, first mobilization and voiding times, and postoperative side effects were recorded. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 15.0 and p < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The numeric data were analyzed by thet-test and presented as mean ± SD. Categorical data were analyzed with the chi-square test and expressed as number of patients and percentage. RESULTS: Demographic data were similar among groups. There were no differences related to postoperative pain, first analgesic requirements, and first mobilization and first voiding times. The only difference between two groups was the vomiting incidence. In Group II 23% (n = 6) of the patients had vomiting during the first postoperative 24 h compared to 0% in Group I (p = 0.025). CONCLUSION: For inguinal hernia repairs, the dose of 0.1 mg of ITM provides comparable postoperative analgesia with a dose of 0.4 mg, with significantly lower vomiting incidence when combined with low dose heavy bupivacaine.


RESUMO JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Comparar os efeitos de duas doses diferentes de morfina intratecal (MIT) sobre a analgesia no pós-operatório, os tempos até a primeira mobilização e micção no pós-operatório e a gravidade dos efeitos colaterais. MÉTODOS: Após a aprovação do Comitê de Ética Institucional, 48 pacientes com estado físico ASA I-II foram incluídos neste estudo randômico e duplo-cego. A raquianestesia foi feita com 0,1 mg (Grupo I, n = 22) ou 0,4 mg (Grupo II, n = 26) de MIT adicionados a 7,5 mg de bupivacaína hiperbárica. Os tempos até a primeira necessidade de analgésico, mobilização e micção e os efeitos colaterais no pós-operatório foram registrados. As análises estatísticas foram feitas com o programa SPSS 15.0 e p < 0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. Os dados numéricos foram analisados com o teste t e expressos como média ± DP. Os dados categóricos foram analisados com o teste do qui-quadrado e expressos como número de pacientes e porcentagem. RESULTADOS: Os dados demográficos foram semelhantes entre os grupos. Não houve diferenças em relação à dor, aos tempos até a primeira necessidade de analgésicos, à primeira mobilização e primeira micção. A única diferença entre os dois grupos foi a incidência vômito. No Grupo II, 23% (n = 6) das pacientes apresentaram vômito durante as primeiras 24 horas de pós-operatório, em comparação com 0% no Grupo I (p = 0,025). CONCLUSÃO: Para herniorrafia inguinal, a dose de 0,1 mg de MIT fornece analgesia comparável à dose de 0,4 mg, com uma incidência de vômito significativamente menor quando combinada com uma dose baixa de bupivacaína hiperbárica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Bupivacaine/administration & dosage , Hernia, Inguinal/surgery , Anesthesia, Spinal/methods , Morphine/administration & dosage , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Pain, Postoperative/epidemiology , Vomiting/epidemiology , Double-Blind Method , Follow-Up Studies , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Herniorrhaphy/methods , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Morphine/adverse effects
18.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 87(2): 96-101, abr. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-783490

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN A pesar del avance en el tratamiento del cáncer en pediatría, en Chile el 15% de niños fallece por progresión de la enfermedad, siendo el dolor el síntoma más importante en esta etapa. Las pautas de la OMS demuestran que los opiáceos son fundamentales para controlar el dolor, sin embargo aún existe resistencia a su utilización. OBJETIVO Describir la experiencia en el uso de opiáceos para el manejo del dolor en pacientes pediátricos con cáncer avanzado en cuidados paliativos (CP). PACIENTES Y MÉTODO Estudio retrospectivo de datos registrados en fichas clínicas de pacientes oncológicos ingresados en el Programa de CP, Hospital de Niños Dr. Roberto del Río entre los años 2002 y 2013. Se analizaron datos demográficos, diagnóstico oncológico, intensidad del dolor al ingreso y egreso según escalas validadas. Se registró el uso de antiinflamatorios no esteroideos, opiáceos débiles, opiáceos fuertes, fármacos coadyuvantes, efectos secundarios por uso de morfina y necesidad de sedación paliativa. RESULTADOS Se analizaron 99 fichas médicas, 64,6% de hombres, mediana de 8 años, distribución similar en grupos de enfermedades oncológicas. Al ingreso un 43,4% manifestó de dolor intenso a severo y al egreso solo 4 pacientes, pero con EVA máxima de 7 solo en un caso. De 66 pacientes que utilizaron opiáceos fuertes el 89% requirió menos de 0,5 mg/kg/h de morfina. El estreñimiento fue el efecto secundario más frecuente. Un 77% recibió algún fármaco coadyuvante para el manejo del dolor: 40 utilizaron corticoides, 11 benzodiacepinas y en 25 casos combinación de estos fármacos, incluyendo el uso de gabapentina en 7 casos. CONCLUSIONES Dos tercios de los pacientes requirieron opiáceos fuertes, logrando un adecuado control del dolor, sin observar complicaciones severas. El uso de opiáceos en este grupo de pacientes, siguiendo un protocolo, es efectivo y seguro.


INTRODUCTION Despite advances in the treatment of cancer in paediatric patients, 15% of children die from the illness progression in Chile, and pain is the most significant symptom in advanced stages. Although the World Health Organization guidelines demonstrate that opioids are fundamental in pain management, there is still resistance to their use. The main objective of this article was to describe the experience in the use of opioids for pain management in paediatric patients with advanced cancer in palliative care (PC). PATIENTS AND METHOD Retrospective study of patients admitted into the PC Program at the Hospital Roberto del Río between 2002 and 2013. Analysis was carried out on demographic data; oncological diagnosis; pain intensity on admission and discharge, according to validated scales; use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; weak opioids; strong opioids; adjuvants drugs; the presence of secondary effects resulting from the use of morphine, and the need for palliative sedation. RESULTS Of the 99 medical records analysed, the median age was 8 years, 64.6% were male, and there was a similar distribution in three oncological diagnosis groups. Upon admission, 43.4% presented intense to severe pain, and upon discharge there were four patients, but with a maximum VAS score of 7 in only one case. Of the 66 patients taking strong opioids, 89% required less than 0.5 mg/kg/hr. Constipation was the most frequently observed secondary effect. CONCLUSIONS Two thirds of the patients studied required strong opioids, with which adequate pain management was achieved, with no serious complications observed. The use of opioids in this group of patients, following a protocol, is considered effective and safe.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Pain/drug therapy , Palliative Care/methods , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Neoplasms/pathology , Pain/etiology , Pain Measurement , Chile , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Constipation/chemically induced , Constipation/epidemiology , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects , Morphine/adverse effects , Morphine/therapeutic use
20.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 20(4): 82-90, July-Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-757418

ABSTRACT

This article reports orthodontic treatment of a case of hypodontia of five premolars in an 11-year-old female patient with a positive tooth size-arch length discrepancy in both dental arches. The patient had a straight profile with balanced facial growth. Setup manufacture revealed the possibility of achieving ideal occlusion by mesializing permanent molars up to 15 mm, in addition to keeping a primary molar in the dental arch. With the aid of absolute anchorage, the proposed mechanics was performed and the occlusion predicted in the setup was achieved, while profile and facial growth pattern were maintained. The use of miniscrews for extensive orthodontic movements was successful. Furthermore, one primary molar was extensively mesialized. The indication of gingivoplasty to correct gingival smile proved effective. This is considered a useful technique for orthodontists.


Este artigo apresenta o tratamento ortodôntico de um caso com hipodontia de cinco pré-molares, em uma paciente, de 11 anos de idade, com discrepância positiva de modelo em ambas as arcadas. A paciente apresentava perfil reto, com crescimento facial equilibrado. Por meio da confecção de set-up, verificou-se a possibilidade de se estabelecer uma oclusão ideal por meio da mesialização, de até 15mm, dos molares permanentes e manutenção de um molar decíduo no arco. Com o auxílio de ancoragem absoluta, foi realizada a mecânica proposta, alcançando-se a oclusão prevista em set-up, além da manutenção do perfil e do padrão de crescimento facial. A utilização de mini-implantes para grandes movimentos ortodônticos foi favorável, incluindo a extensa mesialização de um molar decíduo. A indicação da gengivoplastia para correção do sorriso gengival se mostrou acertada, sendo essa uma técnica de grande auxílio à Ortodontia.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Female , Male , Dog Diseases/chemically induced , Hydromorphone/adverse effects , Nausea/veterinary , Quinuclidines/therapeutic use , Vomiting/veterinary , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects , Antiemetics/administration & dosage , Antiemetics/therapeutic use , Dog Diseases/drug therapy , Drug Administration Schedule/veterinary , Nausea/chemically induced , Nausea/drug therapy , Quinuclidines/administration & dosage , Vomiting/chemically induced , Vomiting/drug therapy
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