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1.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(2): 153-158, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137159

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective This study aimed to investigate the impact of post-thoracotomy analgesia with dexmedetomidine and morphine on immunocytes. Methods A total of 118 patients with post-thoracotomy Patient-Controlled Intravenous Analgesia (PCIA) in our hospital from March 2016 to July 2018 were randomly selected and divided into the Composite (COM) Group (57 patients administered with dexmedetomidine [1.0 µg.kg-1 body weight] and morphine [0.48 mg.kg-1 body weight]) and the Morphine (MOR) group (61 patients administered with morphine [0.48 mg.kg-1]). The values of lymphocyte subsets (CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+) and Natural Killer cells in the peripheral blood of these two groups were detected by FACSCalibur flow cytometry at different time points (before anesthesia induction [T0], immediately after tracheal extubation [T1], 12 hours after surgery [T2], 24 hours after surgery [T3], 48 hours after surgery [T4], 72 hours after surgery [T5], and 7 days after surgery [T6]). The doses of morphine at T3 to T5 and the adverse reactions between the two groups were also recorded and compared. Results The CD3+ level and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio at T2 to T5 and the CD4+ level and NK cells at T3 to T5 were significantly higher in the COM Group than in the MOR Group (p< 0.05). The postoperative morphine dose and the incidence of postoperative itching, nausea, and vomiting were significantly lower in the COM Group than in the MOR Group (p< 0.05). Conclusions Dexmedetomidine combined with morphine for post-thoracotomy PCIA can improve the function of immunocytes, reduce morphine consumption, and reduce the adverse reactions during analgesia induction.


Resumo Objetivo Estudar o impacto em linfócitos causado pelo uso da dexmedetomidina associada à morfina para analgesia pós-toracotomia. Método Um total de 118 pacientes utilizando Analgesia Intravenosa Controlada pelo Paciente (AICP) pós-toracotomia em nosso hospital, de março de 2016 a julho de 2018, foram selecionados aleatoriamente e divididos em dois grupos: o Grupo Combinado [COM, 57 pacientes que receberam dexmedetomidina (1,0 µg.kg-1 de peso corpóreo) associada à morfina (0,48 mg.kg-1 de peso corpóreo)] e o Grupo Morfina [MOR, 61 pacientes, que receberam somente morfina (0,48 mg.kg-)]. Os valores dos subconjuntos de linfócitos (CD3+, CD4+ e CD8+) e das células NK no sangue periférico desses dois grupos foram medidos por citometria de fluxo FACSCalibur em diferentes momentos do estudo [antes da indução anestésica (T0), imediatamente após extubação traqueal (T1), 12 horas após a cirurgia (T2), 24 horas após a cirurgia (T3), 48 horas após a cirurgia (T4), 72 horas após a cirurgia (T5) e 7 dias após a cirurgia (T6)]. As doses de morfina do momento T3 ao T5 e as reações adversas entre os dois grupos também foram registradas e comparadas. Resultados O nível de CD3+ e a razão CD4+/CD8+ de T2 a T5, e o nível de CD4+ e as células NK de T3 a T5 do Grupo COM foram significantemente maiores (p< 0,05) quando comparados ao Grupo MOR. A dose de morfina no pós-operatório e a incidência de prurido, náusea e vômito no pós-operatório foram significantemente menores no grupo MOR (p< 0,05). Conclusões Dexmedetomidina combinada com morfina para AICP no período pós-toracotomia pode melhorar a função dos linfócitos, reduzir o consumo de morfina e diminuir reações adversas durante a analgesia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Thoracotomy , Killer Cells, Natural/drug effects , Analgesia, Patient-Controlled , Lymphocyte Subsets/drug effects , Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/pharmacology , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacology , Morphine/pharmacology , Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/therapeutic use , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Morphine/therapeutic use
2.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 65(2): 262-269, Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990342

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY INTRODUCTION: Opioids interact with both innate and adaptive immune systems and have direct effects on opioid receptors located on immune cells. Research on this topic has provided evidence of the opioid influence on the immune response associated with surgical stress. The immunological effects of opioids are currently being investigated, particularly whether they influence the outcome of surgery or the underlying disease regarding important aspects like infection or cancer progression. This review addresses background research related to the influence of the opioid receptor on the immune system, the immunosuppressive effect associated with major opioids during the perioperative period, and their clinical relevance. The objective of the study was to review the effects of opioids on the immune system. Methods: A search strategy was conducted in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane databases using the terms "immunosuppression," "immune system," "surgical procedures," "analgesics," "opioids" and "perioperative care." Results: The immunosuppressive effect of opioids was identified over 30 years ago. They include signaling and acting directly through immune cells, including B and T lymphocytes, NK cells, monocytes, and macrophages, as well as activating the downstream pathways of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis leading to the production of immunosuppressive glucocorticoids in the peripheral and sympathetic nervous system.


RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO: Os opioides interagem com ambos os sistemas imunes, inato e adaptativo, através de efeitos diretos sobre os receptores dos opioides localizados nas células imunes. As pesquisas neste assunto têm fornecido evidência da influência dos opioides sobre a resposta imune associada ao estresse cirúrgico. Os efeitos imunológicos dos opioides estão sendo pesquisados na atualidade, principalmente se eles determinam o resultado da cirurgia ou doença consequente devido a fatos importantes como infecção ou progressão do câncer. Essa revisão tem como alvo ver antecedentes em pesquisa relativa à influência dos receptores dos opioides no sistema imunológico, o efeito imunossupressor associado com opioides maiores durante o período peri-operatório e sua importância clínica. O objectivo da pesquisa foi revisar os efeitos dos opioides no sistema imunológico. MÉTODOS: Uma estrategia de procura foi dirigida na mídia PubMed, e no cadastro de Embase e The Cochrane, usando os termos "imunosuppressão", "sistema imunológico", "procedimentos cirúrgicos", "analgésicos", "opioides" e "cuidado peri-operatório". RESULTADOS: O efeito imunosuppressor dos opioides foi identificado há mais de 30 anos. Os efeitos imunosupressores incluem sinalização e ação diretamente através das células imunes, mesmo com os linfócitos B e T, células NK, monócitos e macrófagos, também como ativando as vias de corrente do eixo hipotálamo- hipófise- adrenal (HPA) levando à produção de glucocorticoides imunossupresores no sistema nervoso periférico e simpático.


Subject(s)
Humans , Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacology , Immune System/drug effects , Tramadol/administration & dosage , Tramadol/pharmacology , Fentanyl/administration & dosage , Fentanyl/pharmacology , Adaptive Immunity/drug effects , Perioperative Period , Remifentanil/administration & dosage , Remifentanil/pharmacology , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Morphine/administration & dosage , Morphine/pharmacology
3.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(12): 1087-1094, Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973483

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the influence tramadol on functional recovery of acute spinal cord injury in rats. Methods: Ten rats were divided into two groups (n = 5). All animals were submitted by a laminectomy and spinal cord injury at eighth thoracic vertebra. In control group, the rats didn't receive any analgesic. In tramadol group, the rats received tramadol 4mg/Kg at 12/12h until 5 days by subcutaneous. Animals were following by fourteen days. Was evaluated the Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan scale (locomotor evaluation) and Rat Grimace Scale (pain evaluation) at four periods. Results: There no difference between the groups in locomotor evaluation in all periods evaluated (p>0.05) and in both groups there was a partial recover of function. The tramadol group show a lower pain levels at the first, third and seventh postoperatively days when comparing to the control group. Conclusion: The tramadol as an analgesic agent don't influence on functional recovery of acute spinal cord injury in rats


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Spinal Cord Injuries/drug therapy , Tramadol/therapeutic use , Recovery of Function/drug effects , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Spinal Cord Injuries/rehabilitation , Time Factors , Tramadol/pharmacology , Pain Measurement , Random Allocation , Acute Disease , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Chronic Pain/prevention & control , Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacology , Laminectomy
4.
In. Pouy Aguilera, Artigas; Rossi Gonnet, Gabriel; Triaca Saldaña, Juan Mario. Pautas de evaluación y tratamiento de los consumos problemáticos de sustancias en los tres niveles de asistencia. Montevideo, Impronta Soluciones Gráficas, 2018. p.195-207.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1349069
5.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 67(4): 342-346, July-aug. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897733

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: An increase in urine output by remifentanil injection during laparoscopic procedures and surgeries such as cardiac and gynecological procedures, due to suppression of the stress response to surgery, has been reported. The aim of our prospective, observational, cohort study was to assess the effect of remifentanil analgesia on urine output during dental and minor oral surgery by comparing intraoperative urine output under defined infusion volumes with and without the use of remifentanil. Methods: Dental patients aged 16 years or older, American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1, with no renal diseases or abnormal blood values of serum creatinine and BUN, not on treatment with diuretic drugs, and undergoing minor oro-maxillofacial surgery or dental treatment under inhalation general anesthesia were included in this study. Urethral catheterization was performed after anesthesia induction, and urine output was measured every 30 minutes. We measured urine volume (mL) and rate of urine output (mL.kg-1.h-1) intraoperatively, and compared these parameters between patients who did and did not receive remifentanil during the intraoperative period. Results: Eighty-seven patients were categorized into the remifentanil group (n = 43) or remifentanil non-use group (n = 44). Both volume of urine (mL) and rate of urine output (mL.kg-1.h-1) were not significantly different between the two groups (remifentanil group, 372.3 ± 273.5 mL, 1.8 ± 1.1 mL.kg-1.h-1; remifentanil non-use group, 343.3 ± 283.3 mL, 1.9 ± 1.2 mL.kg-1.h-1; p = 0.63; 0.57). Conclusion: Our results show that use of remifentanil during dental and minor oral surgeries does not increase urine output.


Resumo Justificativa: Foi relatado um aumento na diurese após a injeção de remifentanil durante procedimentos laparoscópicos e cirurgias cardíacas e ginecológicas, devido à supressão da resposta ao estresse da cirurgia. O objetivo de nosso estudo prospectivo, observacional e de coorte foi avaliar o efeito da analgesia com remifentanil sobre a diurese durante cirurgia odontológica e oral de pequeno porte e comparar a diurese no intraoperatório sob infusão de volumes definidos, com e sem o uso de remifentanil. Métodos: Pacientes odontológicos ≥ 16 anos, estado físico ASA I, sem doenças renais ou valores sanguíneos anormais de creatinina sérica e ureia, sem tratamento com diuréticos e submetidos à cirurgia bucomaxilofacial de pequeno porte ou tratamento odontológico sob anestesia geral inalatória foram incluídos neste estudo. Cateterismo uretral foi feito após a indução da anestesia e a diurese foi medida a cada 30 min. Medimos o volume de urina (mL) e a taxa de diurese (mL.kg-1.h-1) no intraoperatório e comparamos esses parâmetros entre os pacientes que receberam e que não receberam remifentanil durante o período intraoperatório. Resultados: Foram designados 87 pacientes para os grupos com remifentanil (n = 43) ou grupo sem remifentanil (n = 44). O volume de urina (mL) e a taxa de diurese (mL.kg-1.h-1) não foram significativamente diferentes entre os dois grupos (grupo com remifentanil: 372,3 ± 273,5 mL, 1,8 ± 1,1 mL.kg-1.h-1; grupo sem remifentanil: 343,3 ± 283,3 mL, 1,9 ± 1,2 mL.kg-1.h-1; p = 0,63; 0,57). Conclusão: Nossos resultados mostram que o uso de remifentanil durante as cirurgias odontológicas e de pequeno porte não aumenta a diurese.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Urine , Oral Surgical Procedures , Remifentanil/pharmacology , Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacology , Cohort Studies , Intraoperative Period
6.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 66(4): 346-350, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-787624

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The primary outcome of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding sufentanil to hyperbaric bupivacaine on duration of sensory blockade of spinal anesthesia in chronic opioid users in comparison with non-addicts. Methods: Sixty patients scheduled for orthopedic surgery under spinal anesthesia were allocated into four groups: group 1 (no history of opium use who received intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine along with 1 mL saline as placebo); group 2 (no history of opium use who received intrathecal bupivacaine along with 1 mL sufentanil [5 µg]); group 3 (positive history of opium use who received intrathecal bupivacaine along with 1 mL saline as placebo) and group 4 (positive history of opium use who received intrathecal bupivacaine along with 1 mL sufentanil [5 µg]). The onset time and duration of sensory and motor blockade were measured. Results: The duration of sensory blockade in group 3 was 120 ± 23.1 min which was significantly less than other groups (G1 = 148 ± 28.7, G2 = 144 ± 26.4, G4 = 139 ± 24.7, p = 0.007). The duration of motor blockade in group 3 was 145 ± 30.0 min which was significantly less than other groups (G1 = 164 ± 36.0, G2 = 174 ± 26.8, G4 = 174 ± 24.9, p = 0.03). Conclusions: Addition of 5 µg intrathecal sufentanil to hyperbaric bupivacaine in chronic opioid users lengthened the sensory and motor duration of blockade to be equivalent to blockade measured in non-addicts.


Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito da adição de sufentanil à bupivacaína hiperbárica na duração do bloqueio sensorial da raquianestesia em usuários crônicos de opioides em comparação com não adictos. Métodos: Foram distribuídos em quatro grupos 60 pacientes agendados para cirurgia ortopédica sob raquianestesia: Grupo 1 (sem história de uso de ópio, recebeu bupivacaína hiperbárica intratecal juntamente com 1 mL de solução salina como placebo); Grupo 2 (sem história de uso de ópio, recebeu bupivacaína intratecal juntamente com 1 mL de sufentanil [5 µg]); Grupo 3 (com história de uso de ópio, recebeu bupivacaína intratecal juntamente com 1 mL de solução salina como placebo) e Grupo 4 (com história de uso de ópio, recebeu bupivacaína intratecal juntamente com 1 mL de sufentanil [5 µg]). O tempo de início e a duração dos bloqueios sensitivo e motor foram registrados. Resultados: A duração do bloqueio sensorial no Grupo 3 foi de 120 ± 23,1 min, um tempo significativamente menor do que nos outros grupos (G1 = 148 ± 28,7, G2 = 144 ± 26,4, G4 = 139 ± 24,7, p = 0,007). A duração do bloqueio motor no Grupo 3 foi de 145 ± 30,0 min, um tempo significativamente menor do que nos outros grupos (G1 = 164 ± 36.0, G2 = 174 ± 26.8, G4 = 174 ± 24,9; p = 0,03). Conclusões: A adição de 5 µg de sufentanil intratecal à bupivacaína hiperbárica em usuários crônicos de opioides aumenta a duração dos bloqueios sensorial e motor de forma equivalente ao bloqueio avaliado em não adictos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Opium/pharmacology , Bupivacaine/pharmacology , Sufentanil/pharmacology , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacology , Anesthesia, Spinal/methods , Time Factors , Chronic Disease , Drug Therapy, Combination , Drug Users , Anesthetics, Local/pharmacology
7.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 66(3): 231-236, May.-June 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-782881

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Colonoscopy is one of the most common procedures. Sedation and analgesia decrease anxiety and discomfort and minimize risks. Therefore, patients prefer to be sedated when undergoing examination, although the best combination of drugs has not been determined. The combination of opioids and benzodiazepines is used to relieve the patient's pain and discomfort. More recently, propofol has assumed a prominent position. This randomized prospective study is unique in medical literature that specifically compared the use of propofol and fentanyl with or without midazolam for colonoscopy sedation performed by anesthesiologists. The aim of this study was to evaluate the side effects of sedation, discharge conditions, quality of sedation, and propofol consumption during colonoscopy, with or without midazolam as preanesthetic. The study involved 140 patients who underwent colonoscopy at the University Hospital of the Federal University of Juiz de Fora. Patients were divided into two groups: Group I received intravenous midazolam as preanesthetic 5 min before sedation, followed by fentanyl and propofol; Group II received intravenous anesthesia with fentanyl and propofol. Patients in Group II had a higher incidence of reaction (motor or verbal) to the colonoscope introduction, bradycardia, hypotension, and increased propofol consumption. Patient satisfaction was higher in Group I. According to the methodology used, the combination of midazolam, fentanyl, and propofol for colonoscopy sedation reduces propofol consumption and provides greater patient satisfaction.


RESUMO A colonoscopia é um dos procedimentos mais feitos. Sedação e analgesia diminuem a ansiedade e o desconforto e minimizam riscos. Em razão disso, os pacientes preferem que o exame seja feito sob anestesia, embora não tenha sido determinada a melhor combinação de fármacos. A associação de benzodiazepínicos com opioides é usada para aliviar a dor e o desconforto do paciente. Mais recentemente, o propofol assumiu posição de destaque. Este estudo, prospectivo e randomizado, é único na literatura médica e especificamente comparou o uso do propofol e fentanil associado ou não ao midazolam na sedação para colonoscopia feita por anestesiologistas. Os objetivos do estudo foram avaliar os efeitos colaterais da sedação, as condições de alta, a qualidade da sedação e o consumo de propofol durante a colonoscopia, com ou sem o midazolam como pré-anestésico. Envolveu 140 pacientes submetidos à colonoscopia, no Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos. O Grupo I recebeu, por via endovenosa, midazolam como pré-anestésico, cinco minutos antes da sedação, seguido do fentanil e propofol. O Grupo II recebeu, por via endovenosa, anestesia com fentanil e propofol. Os pacientes do Grupo II apresentaram maior incidência de reação (motora ou verbal) à introdução do colonoscópio, bradicardia, hipotensão arterial e maior consumo de propofol. A satisfação dos pacientes foi maior no Grupo I. De acordo com a metodologia empregada, a associação de midazolam ao propofol e fentanil para sedação em colonoscopia reduz o consumo de propofol e cursa com maior satisfação do paciente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Midazolam/pharmacology , Propofol/pharmacology , Fentanyl/pharmacology , Colonoscopy , Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacology , Hypnotics and Sedatives/pharmacology , Pain/prevention & control , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Patient Satisfaction/statistics & numerical data , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Middle Aged
8.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 78(6): 371-375, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-768171

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the effects of 1% morphine instillation on clinical parameters, aqueous humor turbidity, and expression levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in rabbits with endotoxin-induced experimental uveitis. Methods: Twenty four New Zealand white rabbits were divided into four groups (n=6 each): control (CG), morphine (MG), naloxone (NG), and morphine-naloxone (MNG) groups. Under dissociative anesthesia, 0.1 mL of solution containing 0.2 µg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin from the Salmonella typhimurium cell wall was injected in the vitreous chamber. Clinical evaluations (conjunctical hyperemia, chemosis blepharospasm, and ocular discharge) and laser flaremetry were performed before (baseline), and 10 and 20 hours after induction of uveitis. Rabbits were subsequently euthanized and eyes were enucleated to quantify expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1 beta, PGE2, and MPO. Results: No significant differences in clinical parameters and flare values were observed between the study groups. TNF-α and IL-1 beta levels increased significantly in the CG, MG, NG, and MNG groups compared to baseline (P<0.05). Significant differences in PGE2 levels were observed between the MG and NMG groups (P<0.05). A trend toward increased MPO activity was observed in response to uveitis induction; however, this trend did not reach statistical significance (P>0.05). Conclusions: Morphine has no effect on clinical parameters, flare, or expression levels of inflammatory mediators in a rabbit model of uveitis induced by intravitreal injection of LPS.


RESUMO Objetivo: Estudaram-se os efeitos da instilação de morfina 1% sobre parâmetros clínicos, turbidez do humor aquoso e expressão de fator de necrose tumoral alfa (TNF-alfa), de interleucina-1 beta (IL-1beta), de prostaglandina E2 (PGE2) e de mieloperoxidase (MPO), em olhos de coelhos com uveíte induzida por endotoxina. Material e Métodos: Vinte e quatro coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia Branco foram distribuídos em quatro grupos (n=6, em cada): grupo controle (GC), morfina (GM), naloxona (GN) e morfina-naloxona (GMN). Sob anestesia dissociativa, injetou-se 0,1 mL de solução contendo 0,2 µg de lipossacarídeo (LPS) endotóxico da parede celular de Salmonella typhimurium na câmara vítrea. Realizou-se avaliação clínica (hiperemia conjuntival, quemose, blefaroespasmo e secreção ocular) e a flaremetria a “laser” antes (basal) e após 10 e 20 horas da indução da uveíte. No final, os coelhos foram submetidos à eutanásia e os olhos com uveíte foram enucleados para a quantificação dos níveis de TNF-alfa, IL-1 beta, PGE2 e MPO. Diferenças foram consideradas significativas quando p<0,05. Resultados: Os grupos da pesquisa não diferiram quanto aos parâmetros clínicos e os valores de “flare”. Observou-se elevação significativa nos níveis de TNF-alfa e de IL-1 beta, comparativamente ao basal, nos grupos GC, GM, GN e GMN (p<0,05). Valores de PGE2 variaram entre os grupos GM e GNM (p<0,05). A atividade de MPO aumentou após a indução da uveíte, porém, sem significância estatística (p>0,05). Conclusões: A morfina não atuou sobre parâmetros clínicos, “flare” e expressão dos mediadores inflamatórios estudados, quando instilada em olhos de coelhos com uveíte induzida por injeção intravítrea de LPS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacology , Dinoprostone/analysis , Interleukin-1beta/analysis , Morphine/pharmacology , Peroxidase/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Uveitis/drug therapy , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Aqueous Humor/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal , Endotoxins , Instillation, Drug , Morphine/therapeutic use , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors , Uvea/drug effects , Uvea/pathology , Uveitis/etiology , Uveitis/pathology
9.
Acta cir. bras ; 30(11): 756-761, Nov. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-767601

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of remifentanil as an antioxidant and analyze the histopathologic, biochemical changes in experimental ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) exposed rat uteri. METHODS: Wistar albino rats were assigned to three groups (n = 7). 2h period of ischemia was followed by 1h of reperfusion in the I/R and the I/R-remifentanil groups. After ischemia, no drug was administered in the sham and I/R groups. In the I/R-remifentanil group, remifentanil infusion (2 μg/kg/min) was started in the ischemia period, and continued until the end of reperfusion. After the ischemic and reperfusion period, the ischemic uterine horns were removed surgically for biochemical and histopathologic examination. Tissue damage scores (endometrial epithelial glandular leukocytosis, degeneration, and endometrial stromal changes) were examined. Malondialdehyde levels and catalase, superoxide dismutase enzyme activities in tissue were measured. RESULTS: We found significantly lower epithelial leukocytosis and cell degeneration in the I/R-remifentanil group (p<0.05). Remifentanil administration significantly decreased concentrations of malondialdehyde, and increased catalase and superoxide dismutase enzyme activities (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Remifentanil appears to protect the uterine tissue against ischemia-reperfusion and can be used safely in uterus transplantation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacology , Ischemia/prevention & control , Piperidines/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Uterus/blood supply , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Catalase/drug effects , Ischemia/pathology , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Superoxide Dismutase/drug effects , Time Factors , Uterus/pathology
10.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 65(3): 186-190, May-Jun/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748921

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Tramadol is known as a central acting analgesic drug, used for the treatment of moderate to severe pain. Local analgesic effect has been demonstrated, in part due to local anesthetic-like effect, but other mechanisms remain unclear. The role of peripheral opioid receptors in the local analgesic effect is not known. In this study, we examined role of peripheral opioid receptors in the local analgesic effect of tramadol in the plantar incision model. METHODS: Young male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups: control, intraplantar tramadol, intravenous tramadol, intravenous naloxone-intraplantar tramadol, intraplantar naloxone-intraplantar tramadol, intravenous naloxone-intravenous tramadol, and intravenous naloxone. After receiving the assigned drugs (tramadol 5 mg, naloxone 200 µg or 0.9% NaCl), rats were submitted to plantar incision, and withdrawal thresholds after mechanical stimuli with von Frey filaments were assessed at baseline, 10, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min after incision. RESULTS: Plantar incision led to marked mechanical hyperalgesia during the whole period of observation in the control group, no mechanical hyperalgesia were observed in intraplantar tramadol group, intraplantar naloxone-intraplantar tramadol group and intravenous naloxone-intraplantar tramadol. In the intravenous tramadol group a late increase in withdrawal thresholds (after 45 min) was observed, the intravenous naloxone-intravenous tramadol group and intravenous naloxone remained hyperalgesic during the whole period. CONCLUSIONS: Tramadol presented an early local analgesic effect decreasing mechanical hyperalgesia induced by plantar incision. This analgesic effect was not mediated by peripheral opioid receptors. .


JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Tramadol é conhecido como um fármaco analgésico de ação central, usado para o tratamento de dor moderada a grave. O efeito analgésico local foi demonstrado, em parte devido ao efeito semelhante ao anestésico local, mas outros mecanismos permanecem obscuros. O papel dos receptores opioides periféricos no efeito analgésico local não é conhecido. Neste estudo, examinamos o papel dos receptores opioides periféricos no efeito analgésico local de tramadol em modelo de incisão plantar. MÉTODOS: Ratos Wistar, jovens e machos, foram divididos em sete grupos: controle, tramadol intraplantar, tramadol intravenoso, tramadol intraplantar-naloxona intravenosa, tramadol intraplantar-naloxona intraplantar, tramadol intravenoso-naloxona intravenosa e naloxona intravenosa. Após receber os medicamentos designados (5 mg de tramadol, 200 mg de naloxona ou NaCl a 0,9%, os ratos foram submetidos à incisão plantar e os limiares de retirada após estímulos mecânicos com filamentos de von Frey foram avaliados no início do estudo e nos minutos 10, 15, 30, 45 e 60 após a incisão. RESULTADOS: A incisão plantar levou à hiperalgesia mecânica acentuada durante todo o período de observação no grupo controle; hiperalgesia mecânica não foi observada nos grupos tramadol intraplantar, tramadol intraplantar-naloxona intraplantar e tramadol intraplantar-naloxona intravenosa. No grupo tramadol intravenoso, um aumento tardio do limiar de retirada (após 45 minutos) foi observado. Os grupos tramadol intravenoso-naloxona intravenosa e naloxona intravenosa permaneceram hiperalgésicos durante todo o período. CONCLUSÕES: Tramadol apresentou efeito analgésico local inicial e diminuiu a hiperalgesia mecânica induzida pela incisão plantar. Esse efeito analgésico não foi mediado por receptores opioides periféricos. .


JUSTIFICACIÓN Y OBJETIVOS: Al tramadol se le conoce como un medicamento analgésico de acción central usado para el tratamiento del dolor moderado a intenso. El efecto analgésico local quedó demostrado, en parte, a causa del efecto similar al del anestésico local, pero otros mecanismos permanecen sin clarificar. El rol de los receptores opiáceos periféricos en el efecto analgésico local no se conoce. En este estudio, examinamos el papel de los receptores opiáceos periféricos en el efecto analgésico local del tramadol en un modelo de incisión plantar. MÉTODOS: Ratones Wistar, jóvenes y machos, fueron divididos en 7 grupos: control, tramadol intraplantar, tramadol intravenoso, tramadol intraplantar-naloxona intravenosa, tramadol intraplantar-naloxona intraplantar, tramadol intravenoso-naloxona intravenosa, y naloxona intravenosa. Después de recibir los medicamentos designados (5 mg de tramadol, 200 µg de naloxona o NaCl al 0,9%), los ratones fueron sometidos a la incisión plantar, y los umbrales de retirada de la pata posteriores a los estímulos mecánicos con filamentos de von Frey fueron evaluados al inicio del estudio y en los minutos 10, 15, 30, 45 y 60 después de la incisión. RESULTADOS: La incisión plantar conllevó hiperalgesia mecánica acentuada durante todo el período de observación en el grupo control; la hiperalgesia mecánica no fue observada en los grupos tramadol intraplantar, tramadol intraplantar-naloxona intraplantar, y tramadol intraplantar-naloxona intravenosa. En el grupo tramadol intravenoso, fue observado un aumento tardío del umbral de retirada (después de 45 min); los grupos tramadol intravenoso-naloxona intravenosa y naloxona intravenosa permanecieron hiperalgésicos durante todo el período. CONCLUSIONES: El tramadol presentó un efecto analgésico local inicial, disminuyendo la hiperalgesia mecánica inducida por la incisión plantar. Ese efecto analgésico no fue mediado por receptores opiáceos periféricos. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Tramadol/pharmacology , Hyperalgesia/drug therapy , Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacology , Time Factors , Tramadol/administration & dosage , Rats, Wistar , Receptors, Opioid/drug effects , Receptors, Opioid/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Injections , Injections, Intravenous , Naloxone/administration & dosage , Naloxone/pharmacology
11.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 78(3): 141-145, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753022

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purposes: To evaluate the effects of nalbuphine 1% on the expression of metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1), metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), and opioid growth factor (OGF) in rabbit corneas after lamellar keratectomy. Methods: The rabbits were assigned to two groups: group nalbuphine (GN, n=30), which received 30 µL of nalbuphine 1% in 4 daily applications at regular intervals until corneal epithelialization, and group control (GC, n=30), which received physiological saline solution under the same conditions adopted in GN. The corneas were collected for immunohistochemistry on days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 after lamellar keratectomy, and the expressions of MMP-1, MMP-9, and OGF were analyzed. Results: The expressions of MMP-1 and MMP-9 increased until day 5 of the evaluation, with no differences observed between GN and GC (p>0.05). On days 7 and 9, significant reductions were observed in the expression of MMP-1 (p<0.01), with no differences observed between GN and GC (p>0.05). The expression of OGF was constant in all periods (p>0.05), restricted to the corneal epithelium, and there was no difference between the groups (p>0.05). Conclusions: The study results showed that nalbuphine 1% did not alter the expression patterns of MMP-1, MMP-9, and OGF in rabbit corneas after lamellar keratectomy. .


RESUMO Objetivos: Avaliar os efeitos da nalbufina 1% sobre a expressão da metaloproteinase 1 (MMP-1), da metaloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) e do fator de crescimento opióide (OGF), em córneas de coelhos submetidas à ceratectomia lamelar. Métodos: Constituíram-se dois grupos: grupo nalbufina (GN, n=30), que recebeu 30 µL de nalbufina 1% em 4 aplicações diárias, a intervalos regulares, até a epitelização corneal; controle (GC, n=30), que recebeu solução salina nas mesmas condições adotadas no GN. As córneas foram colhidas para imuno-histoquímica decorridos 1, 3, 5, 7 e 9 dias das ceratectomias lamelares, visando a se avaliarem as MMP-1, MMP-9 e OGF. Resultados: A expressão das MMP-1 e de MMP-9 se elevou até o quinto dia de avaliação, sem diferença entre GN e GC (p>0,05). Nos dias 7 e 9, observou-se redução significativa na expressão das enzimas (p<0,01), sendo que diferenças não foram observadas entre os grupos (p>0,05). O OGF exibiu imunomarcação constante em todos os períodos (p>0,05), restrita ao epitélio corneal. Não foram encontradas diferenças entre os grupos (p>0,05). Conclusões: Com base dos resultados obtidos, há como admitir que a nalbufina 1% não alterou o padrão de expressão da MMP-1, da MMP-9 e do OGF em córneas de coelhos submetidas à ceratectomia lamelar. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacology , Epithelium, Corneal/drug effects , Matrix Metalloproteinase 1/drug effects , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/drug effects , Nalbuphine/pharmacology , Receptors, Opioid/drug effects , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Corneal Stroma/metabolism , Corneal Stroma/pathology , Epithelium, Corneal/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Models, Animal , Matrix Metalloproteinase 1/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Nalbuphine/administration & dosage , Receptors, Opioid/metabolism , Refractive Surgical Procedures/methods
12.
Cad. saúde pública ; 31(4): 837-849, 04/2015. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-744855

ABSTRACT

Comprender el significado del capital social de la diabetes tipo 2 según género, dentro un contexto urbano colombiano. Investigación cualitativa del interaccionismo simbólico. 25 mujeres y 16 hombres, diabéticos, familiares, vecinos y personal asistencial participaron en seis grupos focales. Emergieron 850 códigos que se integraron en un set de 142 códigos de códigos para el ego, el alter y alter ego. Tres categorías y veinte subcategorías fueron identificadas para el diseño del "paradigma de la codificación". El significado no es igual para hombres y mujeres. Los vínculos sociales de las redes sociales, creados cotidianamente por la confianza y la solidaridad para el cuidado, son valorados de manera diferente, debido a experiencias y hechos sociales resultantes de la autoconfianza, la autoeficacia para el apoyo social principalmente y, la autoestima frente al manejo y control de la enfermedad. Los recursos sociales de un individuo son reificados para el manejo y cuidado de la enfermedad como estrategia para disminuir las inequidades en salud.


The aim of this study was to understand the meaning of social capital in relation to type 2 diabetes according to gender, within an urban setting in Colombia, based on a qualitative design for symbolic interactionism. Twenty-four women and 16 men with diabetes, family members, and healthcare personnel participated in six focus groups. A total of 850 codes emerged that comprised a set of 142 codes for ego, alter, and alter ego. Three categories and 20 subcategories were identified for the "coding paradigm design". The meaning differed between men and women. Social ties in social networks, created daily through trust and solidarity for care, were valued differently due to the social experiences and events resulting from self-confidence, self-efficacy for social support, and mainly self-esteem vis-à-vis management and control of the disease. An individual's social resources are reified for the management and care of the disease as a strategy to mitigate health inequalities. .


Compreender o significado do capital social, diabetes tipo 2 por sexo, um contexto urbano da Colômbia. pesquisa qualitativa do interacionismo simbólico. 25 mulheres e 16 homens, diabéticos, familiares, vizinhos e cuidadores participaram seis grupos focais. 850 códigos se que foram integrados em um conjunto de 142 codes para o ego, o alter e alter ego. Três categorias e vinte subcategorias foram identificados para o projeto de "codificação de paradigma". O significado não é o mesmo para homens e mulheres. Laços sociais das redes sociais criadas diariamente pela confiança e solidariedade são valorizados cuidado diferente, porque as experiências sociais e fatos resultantes da auto-confiança, auto-eficácia e de apoio social, principalmente, auto-gestão e controle em relação a doença. Os recursos sociais de um indivíduo são reificadas para a gestão o cuidado da doença como uma estratégia para reduzir as desigualdades na saúde.


Subject(s)
Humans , Analgesics, Opioid/chemistry , Receptors, Opioid, kappa/agonists , Acetamides/chemistry , Acetamides/pharmacology , Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacology , Arrestins/metabolism , Computer Simulation , Databases, Chemical , Diterpenes/chemistry , Diterpenes/pharmacology , Dynorphins/chemistry , Dynorphins/pharmacology , GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Ligands , Protein Transport , Receptors, Opioid, kappa/chemistry , Receptors, Opioid, kappa/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Structure-Activity Relationship
13.
Acta cir. bras ; 29(12): 801-806, 12/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-731025

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess the cardiorespiratory parametes, recovery, gastrointestinal motility and serum cortisol concentrations in horses anesthetized with isoflurane with or without a continuous rate infusion (CRI) of butorphanol for orchiectomy. METHODS: Twelve adult, intact, male horses weighing 332 ± 55 kg were included in the study. Xilazine was administered as premedication. Anesthesia was induced with ketamine and midazolam and maintained with isoflurane. Butorphanol (0.025 mg kg-1 bolus) or an equivalent volume of saline (0.9%) was given intravenously followed by a CRI of butorphanol (BG) (13 µg kg-1 hour-1) or saline (CG). Cardiorespiratory variables were recorded before (T0) and every 15 minutes for 75 minutes after the start of infusion. Serum cortisol concentration was measured at T0 and 60 minutes, and 30 minutes and 19 hours after the horse stood up. Recovery from anesthesia was evaluated using a scoring system. Gastrointestinal motility was evaluated before anesthesia and during 24 hours after recovery. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between groups in cardiopulmonary variables, or recovery scores or serum cortisol concentrations. A reduction in gastrointestinal motility was recorded for 60 minutes in BG. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous rate infusion of butorphanol in horses anesthetized with isoflurane did not adversely affect the cardiopulmonary variables monitored, or recovery scores. A small but statistically significant reduction in gastrointestinal motility occurred in the butorphanol group. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Anesthesia Recovery Period , Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacology , Butorphanol/pharmacology , Gastrointestinal Motility/drug effects , Infusion Pumps , Respiratory Rate/drug effects , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Anesthesia, Inhalation/veterinary , Butorphanol/administration & dosage , Horses , Heart Rate/drug effects , Hydrocortisone/blood , Infusions, Intravenous/veterinary , Isoflurane/administration & dosage , Models, Animal , Orchiectomy/veterinary , Random Allocation , Time Factors
14.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(5): 398-402, 02/05/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-709435

ABSTRACT

Morphine is a potent analgesic opioid used extensively for pain treatment. During the last decade, global consumption grew more than 4-fold. However, molecular mechanisms elicited by morphine are not totally understood. Thus, a growing literature indicates that there are additional actions to the analgesic effect. Previous studies about morphine and oxidative stress are controversial and used concentrations outside the range of clinical practice. Therefore, in this study, we hypothesized that a therapeutic concentration of morphine (1 μM) would show a protective effect in a traditional model of oxidative stress. We exposed the C6 glioma cell line to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and/or morphine for 24 h and evaluated cell viability, lipid peroxidation, and levels of sulfhydryl groups (an indicator of the redox state of the cell). Morphine did not prevent the decrease in cell viability provoked by H2O2 but partially prevented lipid peroxidation caused by 0.0025% H2O2 (a concentration allowing more than 90% cell viability). Interestingly, this opioid did not alter the increased levels of sulfhydryl groups produced by exposure to 0.0025% H2O2, opening the possibility that alternative molecular mechanisms (a direct scavenging activity or the inhibition of NAPDH oxidase) may explain the protective effect registered in the lipid peroxidation assay. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that morphine in usual analgesic doses may contribute to minimizing oxidative stress in cells of glial origin. This study supports the importance of employing concentrations similar to those used in clinical practice for a better approximation between experimental models and the clinical setting.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacology , Glioma/drug therapy , Hydrogen Peroxide/administration & dosage , Morphine/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Survival , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Glioma/metabolism , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Models, Biological , Morphine/administration & dosage , Oxidation-Reduction , Protective Factors , Sulfhydryl Compounds/analysis
15.
Braz. oral res ; 27(6): 455-462, Nov-Dec/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-695993

ABSTRACT

Opioids are central analgesics that act on the CNS (central nervous system) and PNS (peripheral nervous system). We investigated the effects of codeine (COD) and tramadol (TRAM) on local anesthesia of the sciatic nerve. Eighty Wistar male rats received the following SC injections in the popliteal fossa: local anesthetic with epinephrine (LA); local anesthetic without vasoconstrictor (LA WV); COD; TRAM; LA + COD; LA + TRAM; COD 20 minutes prior to LA (COD 20' + LA) or TRAM 20 minutes prior to LA (TRAM 20' + LA). As a nociceptive function, the blockade was considered the absence of a paw withdraw reflex. As a motor function, it was the absence of claudication. As a proprioceptive function, it was the absence of hopping and tactile responses. All data were compared using repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Opioids showed a significant increase in the level of anesthesia, and the blockade duration of LA + COD was greater than that of the remaining groups (p < 0.05). The associated use of opioids improved anesthesia efficacy. This could lead to a new perspective in controlling dental pain.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Adjuvants, Anesthesia/pharmacology , Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacology , Anesthesia, Local/methods , Anesthetics, Local/pharmacology , Codeine/pharmacology , Tramadol/pharmacology , Drug Synergism , Nerve Block/methods , Pain , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Reflex/drug effects , Sciatic Nerve/drug effects , Time Factors
16.
Gac. méd. Caracas ; 121(3): 241-244, jul.-sept. 2013. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-731326

ABSTRACT

Aquí exponemos un modelo que explica por qué, en el sistema nervioso central, los anti-inflamatorios no esteroideos, para ejercer su acción analgésica, deben interactuar con los opioides endógenos y los canabinoides endógenos. La sustancia gris del acueducto de Silvio es una estructura clave del llamado "sistema descendente de control nociceptivo". La activación de este sistema disminuye el flujo de mensajes nociceptivos hacia la corteza cerebral y, por lo tanto, el dolor. En la sustancia gris el ácido araquidónico es el elemento donde los opioides endógenos, los analgésicos opioides y los no-opioides (anti-inflamatorios no esteroideos) convergen para inducir analgesia. Las enzimas degradantes de los endocanabinoides son el punto donde estos y los analgésicos no-opioides convergen para inducir analgesia. Parece ventajoso el hecho de que los analgésicos que se compran libremente en la farmacia pueden aprovechar para su acción los mecanismos endógenos que todos nosotros poseemos


Here we present a model that explains why, in the central nervous system, the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, in order to induce analgesia, must interact with the endogenous opioids and the endocannabinoids. The periaqueductal gray matter is a key structure in the socalled "descending pain control system". Activations of this system diminishes the flow of nociceptive signals towards the cerebral cortex and, therefore, pain perception. In the periaqueductal gray matter, arachidonic acid is the elements where endogenous opioids analgesics and nonopioid analgesics converge to induce analgasia. The endocannabinoid metabolizing enzyme are the point at which endocannabinoids and nonsteroidal antinflammatory drugs converge to induce analgesia. There seems to be some advantage in that analgesics that can be bought over the counter can use for their action some endogenous mechanisms that we all possess


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacology , Cannabinoids , Cerebral Cortex , Neurons, Afferent , Pain Management , Central Nervous System/anatomy & histology , Endocannabinoids
17.
IJPR-Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2013; 12 (3): 483-493
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-138304

ABSTRACT

The development of combination therapy is a coherent approach in severe pain treatment. The present study investigated the antinociceptive effect of pregabalin alone and in combination with tramadol in acute pain modeling. Therefore, three groups of male mice received either pregabalin [1 to 400 mg/Kg], tramadol [10 to 80 mg/Kg] or their combination intraperitoneally. Then latency time, maximum possible effect [%MPE] and area under curve [AUC] were calculated in tail flick test. The antinociceptive indexes were significantly increased in10, 100 and 200 mg/kg of pregabalin while tramadol showed dose-dependent antinociception [effective dose 50% was 54 to 79 mg/Kg]. The antinociceptive effect of 100 mg/Kg of pregabalin [%MPE = 35 +/- 4%] was similar to that of 50 mg/Kg of tramadol. The combination of non-analgesic doses [10 mg/Kg] of tramadol and pregabalin did not increase%MPE and AUC, but the co-administration of 30 mg/Kg of tramadol with pregabalin [10 mg/Kg] increased all antinociceptive indexes significantly compared to the controls and with each drug alone. In conclusion, pregabalin showed a comparable antinociceptive effect to tramadol. The increase in analgesic effect was observed after the combination of low analgesic doses of tramadol with pregabalin, while the combination of non-analgesic doses of each drug reversed the interaction to antagonism. Therefore to increase the analgesic effect in pain management, more attention should be paid to respecting right proportion of drug combination. Further studies that specify the mechanism[s] and statement of interaction are needed to expand these findings to clinical applications


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid/pharmacology , Analgesics , Tramadol/pharmacology , Acute Pain/drug therapy , Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacology , Mice , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Interactions , Drug Synergism , Drug Therapy, Combination , Injections, Intraperitoneal
18.
Middle East Journal of Digestive Diseases. 2013; 5 (1): 5-16
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-130189

ABSTRACT

Opium is one of the oldest herbal medicines currently used as an analgesic, sedative and antidiarrheal treatment. The effects of opium are principally mediated by the micro-, kappa- and delta-opioid receptors. Opioid substances consist of all natural and synthetic alkaloids that are derived from opium. Most of their effects on gastrointestinal motility and secretion result from suppression of neural activity. Inhibition of gastric emptying, increase in sphincter tone, changes in motor patterns, and blockage of peristalsis result from opioid use. Common adverse effects of opioid administration include sedation, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, constipation, dependency and tolerance, and respiratory depression. The most common adverse effect of opioid use is constipation. Although stool softeners are frequently used to decrease opioid-induced bowel dysfunction, however they are not efficacious. Possibly, the use of specific opioid receptor antagonists is a more suitable approach. Opioid antagonists, both central and peripheral, could affect gastrointestinal function and visceromotor sensitivity, which suggests an important role for endogenous opioid peptides in the control of gastrointestinal physiology. Underlying diseases or medications known to influence the central nervous system [CNS] often accelerate the opioid's adverse effects. However, changing the opioid and/or route of administration could also decrease their adverse effects. Appropriate patient selection, patient education and discussion regarding potential adverse effects may assist physicians in maximizing the effectiveness of opioids, while reducing the number and severity of adverse effects


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Diseases/therapy , Gastrointestinal Tract/drug effects , Gastrointestinal Motility/drug effects , Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacology
19.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 62(6): 804-810, nov.-dez. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-659011

ABSTRACT

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O objetivo deste estudo foi o de investigar os efeitos da solução salina, da bupivacaína, lidocaína e da infiltração de tramadol na cicatrização de feridas em ratos. MÉTODOS: Trinta e dois ratos Wistar machos albinos foram alocados aleatoriamente em quatro grupos, que receberam 3 mL de solução salina no grupo controle (Grupo C, n = 8); 3 mL de lidocaína a 2% (Grupo L, n = 8); 3 mL de bupivacaína a 0,5% (Grupo B, n = 8) e 3 mL de tramadol a 5% (Grupo T, n = 8). As medidas de tensão de ruptura, contagem de fibras de colágeno e avaliação histopatológica foram avaliadas nas amostras de tecido retiradas dos ratos. RESULTADOS: A comparação do grupo controle com os grupos onde bupivacaína e lidocaína foram usadas para infiltração da ferida mostrou que nestes últimos a produção de colágeno foi menor e a resistência na tensão de ruptura, enquanto se observou edema mais intenso, vascularização e escores de inflamação significantes (p < 0,0125). Entre o grupo controle e o grupo tramadol não houve diferenças significativas na produção de colágeno, tensão de ruptura e edema, vascularização, e escores de inflamação (p > 0,0125). CONCLUSÃO: Neste estudo, verificou-se que tanto bupivacaína como lidocaína reduziram a produção de colágeno, resistência à ruptura da cicatriz e causaram edema, vascularização e inflamação significantes quando comparadas com o grupo controle. Não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos controle e tramadol para estas variáveis. Os resultados deste estudo experimental preliminar em ratos indicam que o tramadol pode ser utilizado para a anestesia por infiltração em incisões sem efeitos adversos sobre o processo de cicatrização cirúrgica. Estes resultados precisam ser verificados em seres humanos.


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of saline solution, bupivacaine, lidocaine and tramadol infiltration on wound healing in rats. METHOD: Thirty-two male Wistar Albino rats were randomly separated into four groups, receiving 3 mL saline solution in control group (Group C, n = 8), 3 mL of 2% lidocaine in lidocaine group (Group L, n = 8), 3 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine in bupivacaine group (Group B, n = 8), and 3 mL of 5% tramadol in tramadol group (Group T, n = 8). Breaking-strength measurements, collagen bundle counting, and histopathologic evaluation were evaluated in the tissue samples taken from the rats. RESULTS: Comparing the control group with the groups where bupivacaine and lidocaine were used for wound infiltration, collagen production was lower, breaking-strength measurements showed reduced resistance while significantly high edema, vascularity, inflammation scores were found (p < 0.0125). Between the control and the tramadol group there were no significant differences in collagen production, breaking-strength measurements, and edema, vascularity, inflammation scores (p > 0.0125). CONCLUSION: In our study, we found bupivacaine and lidocaine reduced the collagen production, wound breaking strength, and caused significantly high scores for edema, vascularity, and inflammation when compared to the control group. There was no significant difference between the control and the tramadol group. Results of this experimental preliminary study on rats support the idea that tramadol can be used for wound infiltration anesthesia without adverse effect on the surgical healing process. These results need to be verified in humans.


JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar los efectos de la solución salina, de la bupivacaína, lidocaína y de la infiltración de tramadol en la cicatrización de heridas en ratones. MÉTODOS: Treinta y dos ratones Wistar machos albinos fueron ubicados aleatoriamente en cuatro grupos que recibieron 3 mL de solución salina en el grupo control (grupo C, n = 8); 3 mL de lidocaína al 2% (grupo L, n = 8); 3 mL de bupivacaína al 0,5% (grupo B, n = 8) y 3 mL de tramadol al 5% (grupo T, n = 8). Las medidas de tensión de ruptura, conteo de fibras de colágeno y evaluación histopatológica se evaluaron en las muestras de tejido retiradas de los ratones. RESULTADOS: La comparación del grupo control con los grupos donde la bupivacaína y la lidocaína fueron usadas para la infiltración de la herida mostró que en esos últimos, la producción de colágeno fue menor, junto con la resistencia en la tensión de ruptura, mientras se observó un edema más intenso, vascularización y puntajes de inflamación significativos (p < 0,0125). Entre el grupo control y el grupo tramadol no hubo diferencias significativas en la producción de colágeno, tensión de ruptura y edema, vascularización y puntaje de inflamación (p > 0,0125). CONCLUSIÓN: En este estudio, verificamos que tanto la bupivacaína como la lidocaína redujeron la producción de colágeno, la resistencia a la ruptura de la cicatriz y causaron edema, vascularización e inflamación significativas cuando se les comparó con el grupo control. No hubo diferencia significativa entre los grupos control y tramadol para estas variables. Los resultados de este estudio experimental preliminar en ratones indican que el tramadol puede ser utilizado para la anestesia por infiltración en incisiones, sin efectos adversos sobre el proceso de cicatrización quirúrgica. Esos resultados necesitan ser verificados en los seres humanos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Local/pharmacology , Bupivacaine/pharmacology , Lidocaine/pharmacology , Tramadol/pharmacology , Wound Healing/drug effects , Anesthesia, Local , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Bupivacaine/administration & dosage , Lidocaine/administration & dosage , Rats, Wistar , Tramadol/administration & dosage
20.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 62(5): 713-718, set.-out. 2012.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-649552

ABSTRACT

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVO: O crescente uso de opioides para o tratamento da dor é uma realidade em vários países. Com o aumento do uso aparecem questionamentos menos usuais, como a influência dos opioides nas respostas imunológicas. O presente estudo tem como objetivo detalhar a resposta imunológica explorando as influências dos efeitos dos opioides sobre a resposta inflamatória em situações experimentais e clínicas, bem como sua importância para a prática diária. CONTEÚDO: Após revisão de artigos publicados em revistas indexadas no Medline, foi descrita a resposta imunológica de forma geral, especialmente em seu aspecto celular. Após essa abordagem, foram identificados os mecanismos de liberação dos opioides endógenos e a modulação da resposta imune aos opioides exógenos na dor aguda e crônica, sempre finalizando com as implicações clínicas e sua aplicabilidade na rotina de atendimento. CONCLUSÕES: Embora vários estudos apontem para um efeito imunodepressor dos opioides, a relevância clínica dessas observações continua incerta e serve apenas como um prerrequisito para que novas investigações nessa área sejam conduzidas. Recomendações definitivas para a aplicação de opioides, nas mais variadas situações da prática clínica em relação às consequências imunológicas desses fármacos, ainda não podem ser dadas até o momento presente.


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The increasing use of opioids for pain treatment is a reality in several countries and, therefore, unusual questions arise, such as the influence of opioids on immune responses. The present study aims to detail the immune response by exploring the influences of opiate effects on inflammatory response in experimental and clinical situations, as well as its importance in daily practice. CONTENT: After reviewing the articles published in journals indexed in Medline, we found that immune response has been generally described, especially regarding its cellular aspect. Following this approach, we identified the mechanisms of endogenous opioid release, modulation of immune response to exogenous opioids in acute and chronic pain, always ending with the clinical implications and applicability in routine care. CONCLUSIONS: Although several studies point to an immunosuppressive effect of opioids, the clinical relevance of these observations remains uncertain and only serves as a prerequisite for further investigations in this area. Definitive recommendations for the use of opioids in various situations of clinical practice regarding the immunological consequences of these drugs still cannot be provided until the present moment.


JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El creciente uso de opioides para el tratamiento del dolor es una realidad en varios países. Con el incremento de su uso van surgiendo cuestionamientos menos comunes, como la influencia de los opioides en las respuestas inmunológicas. El presente estudio tiene el objetivo de detallar la respuesta inmunológica explorando las influencias de los efectos de los opioides sobre la respuesta inflamatoria en situaciones experimentales y clínicas, como también su importancia para la práctica diaria. CONTENIDO: Después de la revisión de los artículos publicados en revistas indexadas en el Medline, se describió la respuesta inmunológica de forma general, especialmente en su aspecto celular. Después de ese abordaje, se identificaron los mecanismos de liberación de los opioides endógenos y la modulación de la respuesta inmune a los opioides exógenos en el dolor agudo y crónico, siempre finalizando con las implicaciones clínicas y con su aplicabilidad en la rutina de atención. CONCLUSIONES: Aunque varios estudios nos indiquen un efecto inmunodepresor de los opioides, la relevancia clínica de esas observaciones continúa sin conocerse por completo y solo sirve como un prerrequisito para que nuevas investigaciones en esa área puedan llegar a buen puerto. Las recomendaciones definitivas para la aplicación de los opioides en las más variadas situaciones de la práctica clínica con relación a las consecuencias inmunológicas de esos fármacos, todavía no han salido a la luz.


Subject(s)
Humans , Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacology , Immune System/drug effects , Opioid Peptides/physiology
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