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1.
Dolor ; 31(74): 26-34, sept. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362804

ABSTRACT

El paciente oncológico de cuidados paliativos puede presentar una variedad importante de condiciones clínicas que producen sufrimiento y disminución en la calidad de vida; esto se presenta como un reto para el clínico en la identificación y correcto abordaje de los pacientes. El dolor se ha considerado por años como el síntoma cardinal a tratar en el paciente oncológico, donde se deben considerar sus condicionantes fisiopatológicos, la farmacología de las intervenciones, los posibles efectos secundarios y los condicionantes familiares, sociales y personales del dolor, pero a pesar de su relevancia, no es el único síntoma, estando acompañado de un abanico de patologías, como las afectaciones gastrointestinales, pulmonares, vasculares, hematológicas y neurológicas, que favorecen la pérdida de capacidad del paciente y, en muchas ocasiones, la muerte. Se realizó una revisión actualizada en bases de datos como EMBASE, PUBMED, SCIELO, además de la revisión de guías de asociaciones internacionales con el objetivo de acercar a todos los médicos, sin distinguir su especialidad o área de trabajo, al abordaje y manejo del paciente oncológico en cuidado paliativo, favoreciendo la sensibilización con estas patologías y la importancia en el curso de vida de los pacientes.


The palliative care cancer patient can present a significant variety of clinical conditions that produce suffering and a decrease in the quality of life. This is a challenge for the clinician in the identification and correct approach of patients. Pain has been considered for years as the cardinal symptom to be treated in cancer patients, where its pathophysiological factors, the pharmacology of the interventions, possible side effects and the family, social and personal conditions of pain must be considered, but despite its relevance is not the onset of symptoms and is accompanied by a range of pathologies such as gastrointestinal, pulmonary, vascular, hematological and neurological affectations that favor the loss of capacity of the patient and in many cases death. An updated review was carried out in databases such as EMBASE, PUBMED, SCIELO in addition to the revision of guides from international associations with the aim of bringing all doctors without distinguishing their specialty or area of work to the approach and management of cancer patients in palliative care favoring awareness of these pathologies and their importance in the life course of patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Palliative Care/methods , Cancer Pain/drug therapy , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Superior Vena Cava Syndrome/diagnosis , Tumor Lysis Syndrome/diagnosis , Emergencies , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Intestinal Obstruction/diagnosis , Morphine/therapeutic use , Neoplasms/complications
2.
Dolor ; 31(73): 26-31, ene. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362747

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: El presente trabajo de investigación tuvo como objetivo explorar la eficacia analgésica mediante la comparación de la respuesta analgésica de los parches transdérmicos (PTD) de buprenorfina y fentanilo en dolor oncológico y patrón de uso. Material y Método: Se obtuvieron los datos y variables desde los registros clínicos de pacientes ingresados a la Unidad de Cuidados Paliativos (UCP) del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (INC) que estaban bajo tratamiento en mayo del 2017. Se incluyó en este estudio a 78 pacientes con PTD, que representan el 13% de los pacientes en control mensual. De estos, 66 estaban bajo tratamiento con buprenorfina y 8 bajo tratamiento con fentanilo. Resultados: Los resultados mostraron que el PTD de buprenorfina se utiliza más frecuentemente que el de fentanilo. El principal motivo de rotación fue dolor no controlado, seguido por imposibilidad de contar con la administración por vía oral. En pacientes con mayores intensidades de dolor somático o visceral se indicó fentanilo y en aquellos con componente neuropático se prefirió el uso de buprenorfina. PTD de fentanilo fue indicado en dosis mayores que buprenorfina, incluso al comparar sus dosis equianalgésicas, siendo la variación de dosis alta para ambos parches: aumentó en promedio 257%. Se logró una mejor respuesta analgésica con buprenorfina, con una variación de intensidad de escala numérica verbal (ENV) de 2,94 y 1,88 puntos de promedio para buprenorfina y fentanilo, respectivamente. Adicionalmente, se presentó mayor reacción local dérmica con fentanilo. Conclusiones: Se evidenció diferencias en patrón de uso y, a diferencia de lo esperado, se obtuvo una mejor eficacia analgésica con buprenorfina. Datos que deben ser corroborados en estudios con mayor número de pacientes bajo tratamiento con fentanilo.


Objective: This study aims to explore analgesic efficacy comparisons of buprenorphine and fentanyl transdermal patches (TDP) in cancer pain and it's usage pattern. Material and Method: Data and variables were collected from patient's clinical reports who were admitted in the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Palliative Care Unit (PCU) and were under treatment with TDP in May 2017. 78 TDP patients were studied and represented 13% of the monthly control patients in the PCU. Of these, 66 were under buprenorphine treatment and 8 under fentanyl treatment. Results: The results showed that buprenorphine TDP is more frequently used than fentanyl TDP, and the main reason for exchange between them was uncontrolled pain, followed by oral administration impossibility. Fentanyl TDP was indicated in patients with higher somatic or visceral pain intensities and Buprenorphine TDP was preferred in patients with neuropathic pain. Fentanyl TDP was indicated in higher doses than buprenorphine, even when comparing its equianalgesic doses, the dose variation was high for both patches throughout the treatment: it increased on average by 257%. A better analgesic response was achieved with buprenorphine, with a variation of intensity of the Verbal Numerical Scale (VNS) of 2.94 and 1.88 average points, for buprenorphine and fentanyl respectively. Additionally, there was a higher local dermal reaction with fentanyl TDP. Conclusions: Differences in usage patterns were evidenced and, unlike what was expected, better analgesic efficacy was obtained with buprenorphine TDP. This data should be corroborated in receiving fentanyl treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Buprenorphine/administration & dosage , Fentanyl/administration & dosage , Transdermal Patch , Cancer Pain/drug therapy , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Palliative Care/methods , Buprenorphine/therapeutic use , Fentanyl/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use
3.
Clinics ; 76: e1907, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153930

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of controlled-release morphine tablets combined with celecoxib in relieving osteocarcinoma-related pain and the effects of the combination on WNK1 expression. METHODS: A total of 110 patients with osteocarcinoma-related pain were selected and divided into two groups based on the treatment administered, including the control group (treated with controlled-release morphine tablets alone) and the study group (treated with a combination of controlled-release morphine tablets and celecoxib). We compared the treatment efficacy, pain level (visual analog scale (VAS)), time of onset of breakthrough pain (BTP), dose of morphine, incidence of adverse events, quality of life (QOL) score, and With-no-lysine 1 (WNK1) expression in the peripheral blood (PB) as determined with qRT-PCR before and after treatment, of the two groups. RESULTS: The total effective rate of the study group was higher than that of the control group, while the VAS score, time of onset of BTP, dose of morphine, incidence of adverse events, QOL score, and relative WNK1 expression in the PB were lower than those of the control group (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Combination treatment with controlled-release morphine tablets and celecoxib can be extensively used in the clinical setting because it effectively improves the symptoms, QOL score, and adverse effects in patients with osteocarcinoma-related pain.


Subject(s)
Humans , Quality of Life , Morphine , Treatment Outcome , Delayed-Action Preparations , Computers, Handheld , Pain Management , Celecoxib , WNK Lysine-Deficient Protein Kinase 1 , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use
4.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e011, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1142615

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of this study was to describe dental prescriptions of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), opioids, and analgesics dispensed by the Brazilian National Health System (BNHS, SUS in Portuguese) of a Southeastern state from January to December 2017, and to analyze their association with socioeconomic and oral health care services' characteristics at municipal level. Data were collected from the Brazilian Integrated Pharmaceutical Care Management System. Medicines were grouped according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. The total number of Defined Daily Doses (DDD) and DDD per 1,000 inhabitants (inhab.) per year were presented and compared between groups of municipalities. Data analysis used the Classification and Regression Tree model performed with IBM SPSS 25.0. The total number of NSAID, opioids, and analgesics prescriptions was 70,747 and accounted for 354,221.13 DDD. The most frequently prescribed medicine was ibuprofen (n = 24,676; 34.88%). The number of dental practitioners in the BNHS per 1,000 inhab. (p < 0.001), first dental appointment coverage (p = 0.010), oral health teams per 1,000 inhab. (p=0.022), and the proportion of rural population (p = 0.014) were variables positively associated with the number of DDD of NSAID per 1,000 inhab. per year. Bolsa Família program coverage per 1,000 inhab. (p = 0.022) was negatively associated with NSAID prescription. Regarding analgesics, first dental appointment coverage (p=0.002) and Bolsa Família program coverage per 1,000 inhab. (p = 0.012) were positively associated with DDD per 1,000 inhab. per year. In conclusion, dental prescriptions of analgesics and NSAID in the BNHS were associated with socioeconomic and oral health care services' characteristics.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Prescriptions , Dentists , Brazil , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Cities , Professional Role , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use
5.
Dolor ; 30(72): 14-18, nov. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362436

ABSTRACT

Se llevó a cabo un estudio observacional para analizar si tapentadol de liberación prolongada (LP) puede considerarse un tratamiento de primera línea para pacientes con dolor crónico postraumático (DCPT). Métodos: Se presenta una serie de casos de la práctica clínica real de pacientes con DCPT producido por accidentes de trabajo. Antes de ingresar al estudio, todos los pacientes recibían tramadol, que se interrumpió cuando se inició la administración de tapentadol LP. Las evaluaciones de dolor incluyeron una escala de valoración numérica, el cuestionario DN4 y la escala de Impresión Global de Cambio del Paciente (PGIC, Patients' Global Impression of Change). Se recuperaron y registraron los eventos adversos. Resultados: 94 pacientes participaron en el estudio y 77 (82 %) completaron todas las visitas predefinidas. Cerca de la mitad de los pacientes informaron dolor crónico que tenía una duración de al menos 3 años; se observó un componente neuropático en el 87 % de los pacientes. El puntaje de dolor se redujo en 1,5 puntos luego del primer mes de tratamiento con tapentadol LP y en 2,48 puntos luego de 4 meses (p<0,05). También se asoció la administración de tapentadol LP con una reducción del 28,9 % de la dosis concomitante de pregabalina (p<0,01). De acuerdo con el cuestionario PGIC, el 74 % y el 77,9 % de los pacientes informó mejoría luego de uno y cuatro meses de tratamiento, respectivamente. El perfil de seguridad fue consistente con los datos actuales sobre tapentadol LP. Conclusión: El dolor osteomuscular crónico es una enfermedad prevalente que se caracteriza por tener resultados terapéuticos deficientes y se asocia a una mayor discapacidad y una mala calidad de vida. En este estudio de la práctica clínica real en pacientes que trabajan y que cuentan con un componente de dolor neuropático elevado, se observó que tapentadol LP produce efectos beneficiosos en términos del control del DCPT, y se obtuvieron índices altos de eficacia y seguridad.


An observational study was carried out to analyze whether prolonged-release (PR) tapentadol may be considered a first-line treatment for patients with chronic post-traumatic pain (PTD). Methods: A case series of cases of patients with PTFE caused by work accidents in a real clinical practice setting is described. Before entering the study, all patients were receiving tramadol, which was discontinued when PR tapentadol was started. Pain assessments included a numerical rating scale, the DN4 questionnaire, and the Patients' Global Impression of Change (PGIC) scale. Adverse events were retrieved and described. Results: 94 patients participated in the study and 77 (82%) completed all the predefined visits. About half of the patients reported chronic pain that lasted for at least 3 years. A neuropathic component was reported in 87% of patients. The pain score was reduced by 1.5 points after the first month of treatment with PR tapentadol and by 2.48 points after 4 months (p < 0.05). Administration of PR tapentadol was also associated with a concomitant reduction of pregabalin dose of 28.9% (p < 0.01). According to the PGIC questionnaire, 74% and 77.9% of patients reported improvement after one and four months of treatment, respectively. The safety profile was consistent with current data on PR tapentadol. Conclusion: Chronic musculoskeletal pain is a prevalent disease characterized by poor therapeutic results and associated with increased disability and poor quality of life. In our study in a real clinical practice setting with patients with a high neuropathic pain component, PR tapentadol produced beneficial effects in terms of DCPT control, and high efficacy and safety rates were obtained. Keywords: tapentadol, chronic pain, pain caused by work accidents, chronic post-traumatic pain, evidence from real clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Wounds and Injuries/complications , Accidents, Occupational , Chronic Pain/drug therapy , Tapentadol/therapeutic use , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Chronic Pain/etiology , Tapentadol/adverse effects , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects
6.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; ago 25, 2020. 28 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117908

ABSTRACT

En el transcurso de la pandemia de COVID-19, numerosos países, de ingresos bajos, medianos y alto, han visto agotadas sus reservas de medicamentos esenciales necesarios para el manejo de los pacientes con COVID-19 en las unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI). El plan de preparación para emergencias sanitarias de los países requiere incluir una lista de medicamentos esenciales y otros dispositivos médicos necesarios en las UCI para afrontar emergencias sanitarias. La lista de medicamentos esenciales para el manejo de pacientes que ingresan a unidades de cuidados intensivos con sospecha o diagnóstico confirmado de COVID-19 es un documento de orientación fundamental que ayuda a los sistemas de salud de los países a priorizar los medicamentos esenciales que deben estar ampliamente disponibles y ser asequibles para manejar los pacientes en las UCI durante las situaciones de emergencia sanitaria, en este caso con sospecha o diagnóstico confirmado de COVID-19. Está dirigida a las autoridades sanitaras y a los encargados del manejo del sistema de salud de los países. Esta lista incluye fundamentalmente los medicamentos considerados esenciales para el manejo de los cuadros clínicos que con se observan con mayor frecuencia en pacientes hospitalizados en UCI a causa de una infección por SARS-CoV-2. No se incluyen la mayoría de los medicamentos que comúnmente se encuentran en las UCI para el manejo de otras patologías, comorbilidades o la estabilización del paciente (p. ej., insulina o antihipertensivos), salvo aquellos que pueden requerirse para el tratamiento o apoyo (p. ej., bloqueantes neuromusculares o anestésicos) de las dolencias generadas por la infección. Tampoco se incluyen medicamentos específicos para el tratamiento de la infección por SARS-CoV-2, puesto que no existe, por el momento, evidencia científica de alta calidad que avale su uso, salvo en el contexto de ensayos clínicos controlados. Un equipo de expertos en el tema realizó una búsqueda de información sobre la atención de pacientes en UCI durante la pandemia de COVID-19, en Medline (a través de PubMed), Cochrane, Tripdatabase, Epistemonikos y en buscadores generales de internet (Google). Se identificaron también revisiones o guías generadas por ministerios de Salud de varios países de la Región de las Américas, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS), el Instituto Nacional de Salud y Excelencia Clínica (NICE) de Reino Unido, los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades (CDC) de Estados Unidos y los Institutos Nacionales de Salud (NIH) de Estados Unidos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adult , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Succinylcholine/therapeutic use , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Benzodiazepines/therapeutic use , Patient Care Management/organization & administration , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drugs, Essential/supply & distribution , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Antipyretics/therapeutic use , Pandemics/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Haloperidol/therapeutic use , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Respiration, Artificial/nursing , Shock, Septic/prevention & control , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Evidence-Based Medicine , Intubation/nursing , Hypoxia/drug therapy
8.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 19(1): e525, ene.-abr. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093129

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El cáncer es la segunda causa de muerte en el mundo y en Cuba. Su estrategia de tratamiento implica fármacos oncoespecíficos y cirugía; y diariamente aumentan los pacientes intervenidos quirúrgicamente lo que conlleva a un periodo perioperatorio y la administración de múltiples medicamentos anestésicos. Objetivo: Describir los principales factores relacionados con la anestesia que, durante el perioperatorio, influyen en la recurrencia oncológica. Desarrollo: El estrés quirúrgico y la anestesia general, con la subsecuente respuesta neuroendocrina e inflamatoria, por sí mismos, limitan la respuesta inmune y alteran el balance entre el potencial metastásico del tumor y antimetastásico de las defensas, lo cual representa un mecanismo plausible en el incremento de las metástasis y recurrencia oncológica. Conclusiones: La proliferación del cáncer y recidiva tumoral en el contexto quirúrgico asociado a la anestesia, es un tema relativamente nuevo y por tanto es necesario realizar estudios con mayor alcance que validen este fenómeno. No obstante, el efecto inmunosupresor que produce el estrés perioperatorio, fármacos anestésicos como opioides y halogenados pueden ser la clave para explicar este fenómeno. La anestesia general endovenosa total libre de opioides y adecuada analgesia regional contribuyen a disminuir este efecto(AU)


Introduction: Cancer is the second cause of death worldwide and in Cuba. Its treatment strategy involves oncospecific drugs and surgery. Every day, the number of patients who undergo surgery increases, which leads to a perioperative period and the administration of multiple anesthetic medications. Objective: To describe the main factors related to anesthesia and that, during the perioperative period, influence oncological recurrence. Development: Surgical stress and general anesthesia, with the subsequent neuroendocrine and inflammatory response, by themselves, limit the immune response and alter the balance between the metastatic potential of the tumor and the antimetastatic defense, which represents a plausible mechanism for increased metastasis and oncological relapse. Conclusions: The proliferation of cancer and tumor relapse in the surgical context associated with anesthesia is a relatively new issue and it is therefore necessary to carry out studies with greater scope that validate this phenomenon. However, the immunosuppressive effect produced by perioperative stress, as well as anesthetic drugs such as opioids and halogenated drugs, can be the key to explaining this phenomenon. Total intravenous opioid-free general anesthesia and adequate regional analgesia contribute to diminish this effect(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Recurrence , Perioperative Period/methods , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Anesthesia, General/methods , Ketamine/therapeutic use , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/prevention & control
9.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(2): 153-158, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137159

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective This study aimed to investigate the impact of post-thoracotomy analgesia with dexmedetomidine and morphine on immunocytes. Methods A total of 118 patients with post-thoracotomy Patient-Controlled Intravenous Analgesia (PCIA) in our hospital from March 2016 to July 2018 were randomly selected and divided into the Composite (COM) Group (57 patients administered with dexmedetomidine [1.0 µg.kg-1 body weight] and morphine [0.48 mg.kg-1 body weight]) and the Morphine (MOR) group (61 patients administered with morphine [0.48 mg.kg-1]). The values of lymphocyte subsets (CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+) and Natural Killer cells in the peripheral blood of these two groups were detected by FACSCalibur flow cytometry at different time points (before anesthesia induction [T0], immediately after tracheal extubation [T1], 12 hours after surgery [T2], 24 hours after surgery [T3], 48 hours after surgery [T4], 72 hours after surgery [T5], and 7 days after surgery [T6]). The doses of morphine at T3 to T5 and the adverse reactions between the two groups were also recorded and compared. Results The CD3+ level and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio at T2 to T5 and the CD4+ level and NK cells at T3 to T5 were significantly higher in the COM Group than in the MOR Group (p< 0.05). The postoperative morphine dose and the incidence of postoperative itching, nausea, and vomiting were significantly lower in the COM Group than in the MOR Group (p< 0.05). Conclusions Dexmedetomidine combined with morphine for post-thoracotomy PCIA can improve the function of immunocytes, reduce morphine consumption, and reduce the adverse reactions during analgesia induction.


Resumo Objetivo Estudar o impacto em linfócitos causado pelo uso da dexmedetomidina associada à morfina para analgesia pós-toracotomia. Método Um total de 118 pacientes utilizando Analgesia Intravenosa Controlada pelo Paciente (AICP) pós-toracotomia em nosso hospital, de março de 2016 a julho de 2018, foram selecionados aleatoriamente e divididos em dois grupos: o Grupo Combinado [COM, 57 pacientes que receberam dexmedetomidina (1,0 µg.kg-1 de peso corpóreo) associada à morfina (0,48 mg.kg-1 de peso corpóreo)] e o Grupo Morfina [MOR, 61 pacientes, que receberam somente morfina (0,48 mg.kg-)]. Os valores dos subconjuntos de linfócitos (CD3+, CD4+ e CD8+) e das células NK no sangue periférico desses dois grupos foram medidos por citometria de fluxo FACSCalibur em diferentes momentos do estudo [antes da indução anestésica (T0), imediatamente após extubação traqueal (T1), 12 horas após a cirurgia (T2), 24 horas após a cirurgia (T3), 48 horas após a cirurgia (T4), 72 horas após a cirurgia (T5) e 7 dias após a cirurgia (T6)]. As doses de morfina do momento T3 ao T5 e as reações adversas entre os dois grupos também foram registradas e comparadas. Resultados O nível de CD3+ e a razão CD4+/CD8+ de T2 a T5, e o nível de CD4+ e as células NK de T3 a T5 do Grupo COM foram significantemente maiores (p< 0,05) quando comparados ao Grupo MOR. A dose de morfina no pós-operatório e a incidência de prurido, náusea e vômito no pós-operatório foram significantemente menores no grupo MOR (p< 0,05). Conclusões Dexmedetomidina combinada com morfina para AICP no período pós-toracotomia pode melhorar a função dos linfócitos, reduzir o consumo de morfina e diminuir reações adversas durante a analgesia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Thoracotomy , Killer Cells, Natural/drug effects , Analgesia, Patient-Controlled , Lymphocyte Subsets/drug effects , Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/pharmacology , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacology , Morphine/pharmacology , Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/therapeutic use , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Morphine/therapeutic use
10.
Clinics ; 75: e1554, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089608

ABSTRACT

Opioids are the main group of pharmacological agents used during the perioperative period and provide a sedative and analgesic component. The observations of opioid consumption in West Europe indicate that this group of drugs is widely used in chronic noncancer pain therapy. Nearly 20 years ago, the first publications indicating that opioids, as an element of perioperative pharmacotherapy in oncologic patients, increase the risk of tumor recurrence and affect further prognosis were presented. The actual publications suggest that there are multifactorial, complex mechanisms underlying the immunological impact and carcinogenesis promotion of opioids and that the intensity varies depending on the type of opioid. There are also questions about the immunosuppressive effects among patients receiving opioids in the treatment of chronic noncancer pain. The aim of the review article is to present information about the action of opioids on the immune system in carcinogenic settings and to define the clinical usefulness of this pharmacological phenomenon.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Chronic Pain/drug therapy , Carcinogenesis , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects , Pituitary-Adrenal System/drug effects , Retrospective Studies , Drug Tolerance , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/drug effects , Opioid-Related Disorders
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878847

ABSTRACT

Pain is a complex, unpleasant feeling and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, and manifests itself in certain autonomous psychological and behavioral responses. The commonly used opioid and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesics(NSAIDs) may cause adverse reactions to the kidney, liver, cardiovascular or gastrointestinal system and cause problems of drug abuse. Therefore, it is necessary to study new analgesic drugs with less side effects and significant analgesic effects. A variety of natural products derived from terrestrial plants, microorganisms, marine organisms and fungi have been an important source of clinical medicines and provide an inexhaustible resource for the development and innovation of modern medicines. Therefore, this paper mainly reviews the natural non-alkaloids with analgesic activity in order to provide reference for the research and development of analgesic drugs derived from natural products.


Subject(s)
Analgesics/therapeutic use , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Humans , Pain/drug therapy
12.
Rev. chil. ortop. traumatol ; 60(3): 97-105, dic. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146629

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Describir los resultados clínicos postoperatorios tempranos de la primera serie de pacientes operados de artroplastía total de rodilla (ATR) con asistencia de brazo-robótico en Latinoamérica. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio prospectivo de 52 pacientes (53 rodillas) con gonartoris tricompartimental sintomática operados de ATR primaria con asistencia de brazo-robótico (RIO-MAKO) de manera consecutiva, con seguimiento a 2 meses postoperados. No se excluyeron pacientes. Se utilizó el mismo protocolo anestésico y de rehabilitación. Se realizó revisión de fichas clínicas para recolectar los siguientes resultados: tiempo de isquemia quirúrgica, estadía hospitalaria, tiempo a marcha, dolor postoperatorio diario [Escala visual análoga (EVA)], uso de opioides, rangos de movilidad articular (ROM), pérdida sanguínea, complicaciones y eje mecánico postoperatorio. RESULTADOS: Tiempos de Isquemia: 82 minutos (60­120). Estadía Hospitalaria: 4 días (2­12). Dolor postoperatorio: EVA el mismo día operatorio de 0 (0­10) y previa al alta de 0 (rango 0­4), con 0,3 purgas (0­6,5) de opioides por paciente. Tiempo a marcha (día logrado): 1 día (1­3), cuarenta y cinco pacientes (84,9%) iniciaron la marcha el primer día postoperatorio. ROM (Extensión-Flexión): Aumento progresivo durante el seguimiento. En el control ambulatorio de los dos primeros meses [23 días (13­50)], veintiún pacientes (40%) alcanzaron un ROM mayor o igual a 0­90° y once (20%) presentaron un ROM funcional máximo (0­120°). Pérdida sanguínea: Siete pacientes (13,2%) requirieron transfusión. Complicaciones: un paciente (1,89%) presentó una dehiscencia del cierre de la artrotomía. No hubo otras complicaciones. Eje mecánico postoperatorio: 179,1° (178,2­180). DISCUSIÓN: Los resultados concuerdan con la evidencia descrita en otras regiones, sugiriendo que la asistencia de brazo-robótico permite resultados postquirúrgicos reproducibles. CONCLUSIÓN: Los resultados clínicos postoperatorios tempranos de esta serie de pacientes operados de ATR con asistencia de brazo-robótico, muestran una baja percepción del dolor, con bajo consumo de opioides, una rápida recuperación funcional de la marcha y ROM, y excelentes resultados desde el punto de vista del eje mecánico postoperatorio. NIVEL DE EVIDENCIA: IV.


OBJECTIVE: Describe the early clinical postoperative outcomes, of the first series of patients operated on Robotic Arm-Assisted Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) in Latin America. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Retrospective study including 52 patients (53 knees) with advanced symptomatic knee osteoarthritis, consecutively operated on Robotic ArmAssisted TKA (RIO-MAKO) during October 2018 and May 2019 with two months of follow-up. No patients were excluded from the study. The same anesthetic and rehabilitation protocol was followed for all patients. Data were obtained from the clinical files for the following outcomes: Surgical tourniquet time, hospital stay, time to walk, postoperative daily pain [Visual Analog Scale (VAS)], opioid consumption, range of motion (ROM), blood loss, complications, and the attained postoperative mechanical axis. RESULTS: Tourniquet Time: 82 minutes (60­120). Hospital Stay: 4 days (2­12). Postoperative Pain: VAS of 0 (0­10) the same day of surgery, and 0 (0­4) before discharge. The opioid consumption was 0,3 purge (0­6,5) per patient. Time to Walk (Day achieved): 1st day (1­3), forty-five patients (84,9%) walked on their first postoperative day. ROM (Extension-Flexion): progressively increases during the follow up. On the first two-month visits [23 days (13­50)], twenty-one patients (40%) reached a ROM equal or superior to 0­90°, and eleven (20%) presented a maximal functional ROM (0­120°). Blood Loss: Seven patients (13.2%) required a blood transfusion. Complications: one patient (1.89%) presented dehiscence of the arthrotomy closure. No other complications were registered. Postoperative Mechanical Axis: 179.1° (178.2­180). DISCUSSION: The results coincide with the reported evidence from other regions. Robotic-arm assistance may generate reproducible postoperative results. CONCLUSIONS: The early postoperative clinical results of this series of patients operated on Robotic Arm-Assisted TKA show a low pain perception and opioid use, a rapid functional rehabilitation in terms of gait and ROM, and excellent postoperative mechanical alignment. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/methods , Robotic Surgical Procedures/methods , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Postoperative Care , Postoperative Complications , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Range of Motion, Articular , Treatment Outcome , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/statistics & numerical data , Recovery of Function , Robotic Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Length of Stay
14.
Rev. habanera cienc. méd ; 18(1): 60-73, ene.-feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1004122

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El dolor es uno de los síntomas que más sufrimiento produce en cualquier enfermedad y constituye un problema básico de salud en todo el mundo, con frecuencia infra tratado, sobre todo en el área de la Pediatría, con especial déficit en la prescripción de analgésicos opioides. Objetivo: Caracterizar los conocimientos sobre analgésicos opioides y su prescripción por profesionales de la Pediatría. Material y Métodos: Se aplicó un cuestionario construido ad hoc y validado por el método Delphi, a 43 profesionales de la pediatría de tres Hospitales de la provincia La Habana durante el periodo comprendido entre marzo 2017 a marzo 2018. Resultados: Los conocimientos sobre Farmacología de los analgésicos opioides fueron insuficientes en un 81,3 por ciento, regular en un 13 por ciento y buenos en el 5,7 por ciento. Las barreras en la prescripción de opioides más frecuentes fueron el temor a la depresión respiratoria (71,9 por ciento), la escasez de opioides en el Cuadro Básico de Medicamentos (56,3 por ciento) y el temor a la dependencia (36,3 por ciento). Se prescriben opioides sólo en el 39,5 por ciento de los casos, la codeína y el tramadol son los más frecuentemente prescritos. En el 55,8 por ciento de los participantes la formación y superación en analgesia fue insuficiente, en el 28 por ciento regular y solo en el 16,2 por ciento se consideró buena. Conclusiones: Los conocimientos farmacológicos deficientes relativos a los opioides y la baja disponibilidad de estos fármacos son los factores que más influyen en el manejo deficiente del dolor en Pediatría(AU)


Introduction: Pain is one of the symptoms that causes more suffering in any disease. It also constitutes a basic health problem all over the world, which is frequently under-diagnosed mostly in the area of Pediatrics with a special deficit in the prescription of opioid analgesics. Objective: To characterize the knowledge of opioid analgesics and their prescription made by pediatric health professionals. Material and Method: An ad hoc questionnaire, which was validated by the Delphi Method, was applied to 43 pediatricians of three Hospitals in Havana province from March 2017 to March 2018. Results: The knowledge of the pharmacology of opioid analgesics was insufficient in 81.3 percent, regular in 13 percent, and good in 5,7 percent. The most frequent barriers in the prescription of opioids were the fear to respiratory depression (71,9 percent), scarcity of opioids in the Basic Drugs Chart (56,3 percent), and the fear to addiction (36,3 percent). Opioids are prescribed only in 39,5 percent of the cases, being codeine and tramadol the ones that are more frequently prescribed. In 55.8 percent of the inquired cases, the formation and updating in analgesia was insufficient, in 28 percent it was fairly good, and only in 16.2 percent it was considered good. Conclusions: The insufficient pharmacologic knowledge of opioids and the poor availability of these drugs are the factors that most influence on the inadequate management of pain in Pediatrics in our study(AU)


Subject(s)
Medication Therapy Management/education , Prescription Drugs/therapeutic use , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Pediatrics
15.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 17(4): eAO4905, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019804

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To compare analgesia and opioid consumption for patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty with preoperative posterior quadratus lumborum block with patients who did not receive quadratus lumborum block. Methods The medical records of patients undergoing unilateral total hip arthroplasty between January 1st, 2017 and March 31, 2018 were reviewed, and 238 patients were included in the study. The primary outcome was postoperative opioid consumption in the first 24 postoperative hours. Secondary outcomes were intraoperative, post anesthesia care unit, and 48-hour opioid consumption, postoperative pain Visual Analog Scale scores, and post-anesthesia care unit length of stay. Primary and secondary endpoint data were compared between patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty with preoperative posterior quadratus lumborum block with patients who did not receive quadratus lumborum block. Results For the patients who received quadratus lumborum block, the 24-hour total oral morphine equivalent (milligram) requirements were lower (53.82mg±37.41), compared to the patients who did not receive quadratus lumborum block (77.59mL±58.42), with p=0.0011. Opioid requirements were consistently lower for the patients who received quadratus lumborum block at each additional assessment time point up to 48 hours. Pain Visual Analog Scale scores were lower up to 12 hours after surgery for the patients who received a posterior quadratus lumborum block, and the post-anesthesia care unit length of stay was shorter for the patients who received quadratus lumborum block. Conclusion Preoperative posterior quadratus lumborum block for primary total hip arthroplasty is associated with decreased opioid requirements up to 48 hours, decreased Visual Analog Scale pain scores up to 12 hours, and shorter post-anesthesia care unit length of stay. Level of evidence: III


RESUMO Objetivo Comparar a analgesia e o uso de opioides em pacientes submetidos à artroplastia total do quadril primária com bloqueio pré-operatório do quadrado lombar posterior e pacientes que não receberam o bloqueio do quadrado lombar. Métodos Revisamos os prontuários de pacientes submetidos à artroplastia total do quadril unilateral entre 1º de janeiro de 2017 e 31 de março de 2018, e 238 pacientes foram incluídos no estudo. O desfecho primário foi o consumo de opioides no pós-operatório nas primeiras 24 horas. Os desfechos secundários foram consumo de opioide no intraoperatório, na sala de recuperação pós-anestésica e nas primeiras 48 horas, escores de Escala Visual Analógica de dor pós-operatória, e tempo de permanência na recuperação pós-anestésica. Os desfechos primário e secundários foram comparados entre os pacientes submetidos à artroplastia total do quadril primária com bloqueio pré-operatório do quadrado lombar posterior e aqueles que não receberam o bloqueio do quadrado lombar. Resultados Para o grupo que recebeu o bloqueio, as doses totais de morfina por via oral em 24 horas foram menores (53,82mg±37,41) em comparação ao grupo sem bloqueio (77,59mg±58,42), com p=0,0011. A utilização de opioides foi consistentemente menor para o grupo que recebeu o bloqueio em cada tempo adicional de avaliação até 48 horas. Os escores da Escala Visual Analógica até 12 horas após a cirurgia para os pacientes que receberam o bloqueio do quadrado lombar posterior e o tempo de permanência na sala de recuperação pós-anestésica foram menores para o grupo que recebeu o bloqueio. Conclusão O bloqueio anestésico do quadrado lombar posterior para artroplastia total do quadril primária está associado à diminuição do uso de opioides nas primeiras 48 horas, diminuição do escore de dor da Escala Visual Analógica em até 12 horas, e menor tempo de permanência na sala de recuperação pós-anestésica. Nível de evidência: III


Subject(s)
Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/adverse effects , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Anesthetics, Local/therapeutic use , Pain, Postoperative/etiology , Time Factors , Anesthesia Recovery Period , Retrospective Studies , Abdominal Muscles/innervation , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Perioperative Period/methods , Pain Management , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Anesthesia, General , Anesthesia, Spinal , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Nerve Block/methods
16.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 33: e076, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019609

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of opioid analgesics prescribed by Brazilian dentists, potential regional differences and their association with socioeconomic and health-related factors. Data for all opioid prescriptions by dentists was obtained from the 2012 database of the National Controlled Substances Management System, regulated by the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency. The number of defined daily doses (DDD) and DDDs per 1,000 inhabitants per day for each Brazilian state were calculated as the primary outcomes. DDDs were compared by regions and Brazilian states. Spearman's rho correlation coefficient was used to determine the influence of the states' characteristics, such as the Human Development Index; poverty; education; number of dentists per 100,000 inhabitants; visit to the dentist; dental care plan; good or very good oral health; number of pharmaceutical establishments per 100,000/inhabitants; and ability to get all prescribed medications. Data analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics 25.0. A total of 141,161 prescriptions for opioids analgesics by 36,929 dentists were recorded, corresponding to 658,855 doses of opioids dispensed in 2012. The most commonly dispensed opioids were codeine associated with paracetamol (83.2%; n = 117,493). The national DDDs per 1,000 inhabitants per day was 0.0093 (range: 0.0002-0.0216). DDD per 1,000 inhabitants per day was positively associated to visits to dentists (rs = 0.630; P < 0.001) and inversely associated to poverty (rs = -0.624; p = 0.001). There are significant differences in opioid prescriptions in dentistry among the Brazilian states. These differences may be associated with non-clinical factors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Dental Care/statistics & numerical data , Practice Patterns, Dentists'/statistics & numerical data , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Pharmacies/statistics & numerical data , Reference Values , Socioeconomic Factors , Tramadol/therapeutic use , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Codeine/therapeutic use , Statistics, Nonparametric , Drug Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Acetaminophen/therapeutic use
17.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(12): 1087-1094, Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973483

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the influence tramadol on functional recovery of acute spinal cord injury in rats. Methods: Ten rats were divided into two groups (n = 5). All animals were submitted by a laminectomy and spinal cord injury at eighth thoracic vertebra. In control group, the rats didn't receive any analgesic. In tramadol group, the rats received tramadol 4mg/Kg at 12/12h until 5 days by subcutaneous. Animals were following by fourteen days. Was evaluated the Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan scale (locomotor evaluation) and Rat Grimace Scale (pain evaluation) at four periods. Results: There no difference between the groups in locomotor evaluation in all periods evaluated (p>0.05) and in both groups there was a partial recover of function. The tramadol group show a lower pain levels at the first, third and seventh postoperatively days when comparing to the control group. Conclusion: The tramadol as an analgesic agent don't influence on functional recovery of acute spinal cord injury in rats


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Spinal Cord Injuries/drug therapy , Tramadol/therapeutic use , Recovery of Function/drug effects , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Spinal Cord Injuries/rehabilitation , Time Factors , Tramadol/pharmacology , Pain Measurement , Random Allocation , Acute Disease , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Chronic Pain/prevention & control , Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacology , Laminectomy
19.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 68(2): 149-153, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897834

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and goal of study: After laparoscopic cholecystectomy, patients have moderate pain in the early postoperative period. Some studies shown beneficial effects of subcostal transversus abdominis plane block on reducing this pain. Our goal was to investigate influence of subcostal transversus abdominis plane block on postoperative pain scores and opioid consumption. Materials and methods: We have randomized 76 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy to receive either subcostal transversus abdominis plane block (n = 38) or standard postoperative analgesia (n = 38). First group received bilateral ultrasound guided subcostal transversus abdominis plane block with 20 mL of 0.33% bupivacaine per side before operation and tramadol 1 mg.kg−1 IV for pain breakthrough (≥6). Second group received after operation tramadol 1 mg.kg−1/6 h as standard hospital analgesia protocol. Both groups received acetaminophen 1 g/8 h IV and metamizole 2.5 g/12 h. Pain at rest was recorded for each patient using NR scale (0-10) in period of 10 min, 30 min, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, 12 h and 16 h after the surgery. Results and discussion: We obtained no difference between groups according age, weight, intraoperative fentanyl consumption and duration of surgery. Subcostal transversus abdominis plane block significantly reduced postoperative pain scores compared to standard analgesia in all periods after surgery. Tramadol consumption was significantly lower in the subcostal transversus abdominis plane (24.29 ± 47.54 g) than in the standard analgesia group (270.2 ± 81.9 g) (p = 0.000). Conclusion: Our results show that subcostal transversus abdominis plane block can provide superior postoperative analgesia and reduction in opioid requirements after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivo: Após a colecistectomia laparoscópica, os pacientes apresentam dor moderada no pós-operatório imediato. Alguns estudos mostraram efeitos benéficos do bloqueio do plano transverso abdominal subcostal na redução dessa dor. Nosso objetivo foi investigar a influência do bloqueio do plano transverso abdominal subcostal nos escores de dor no pós-operatório e no consumo de opioides. Materiais e métodos: Foram randomizados 76 pacientes submetidos à colecistectomia laparoscópica para receber o bloqueio do plano transverso abdominal subcostal (n = 38) ou analgesia padrão no pós-operatório (n = 38). O primeiro grupo recebeu bloqueio do plano transverso abdominal subcostal bilateral guiado por ultrassom com 20 mL de bupivacaína a 0,33% em cada lado antes da operação e tramadol IV (1 mg.kg−1) para controle da dor (≥ 6). O segundo grupo recebeu tramadol (1 mg.kg−1/6 h) como protocolo-padrão de analgesia hospitalar pós-cirurgia. Ambos os grupos receberam acetaminofeno IV (1 g/8 h) e dipirona (2,5 g/12 h). A dor em repouso foi registrada para cada paciente com o uso da escala NR (0-10) nos períodos de 10 min, 30 min, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, 12 h e 16 h após a cirurgia. Resultados e discussão: Não houve diferença entre os grupos em relação a idade, peso, consumo intraoperatório de fentanil e duração da cirurgia. O bloqueio do plano transverso abdominal subcostal reduziu significativamente o escore de dor no pós-operatório em comparação com a analgesia-padrão em todos os períodos após a cirurgia. O consumo de tramadol foi significativamente menor no grupo bloqueio do plano transverso abdominal subcostal (24,29 ± 47,54 g) do que no grupo analgesia padrão (270,2 ± 81,9 g) (p = 0,000). Conclusão: Nossos resultados mostram que o bloqueio do plano transverso abdominal subcostal pode proporcionar analgesia superior no pós-operatório e redução da necessidade de opioides após colecistectomia laparoscópica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Pain, Postoperative/therapy , Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic , Analgesia , Nerve Block/methods , Pain Measurement , Prospective Studies , Abdominal Muscles , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Middle Aged
20.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 68(2): 122-127, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897824

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: Pain is an aggravating factor of postoperative morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of methadone versus morphine using the numerical rating scale of pain and postoperative on-demand analgesia in patients undergoing myocardial revascularization. Method: A randomized, double-blind, parallel clinical trial was performed with patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups: morphine group and methadone group. At the end of cardiac surgery, 0.1 mg.kg−1 adjusted body weight of methadone or morphine was administered intravenously. Patients were referred to the ICU, where the following was assessed: extubation time, time to first analgesic request, number of analgesic and antiemetic drug doses within 36 h, numerical pain scale at 12, 24, and 36 h postoperatively, and occurrence of adverse effects. Results: Each group comprised 50 patients. Methadone showed 22% higher efficacy than morphine as it yielded a number-needed-to-treat score of 6 and number-needed-to-harm score of 16. The methadone group showed a mean score of 1.9 ± 2.2 according to the numerical pain scale at 24 h after surgery, whereas as the morphine group showed a mean score of 2.9 ± 2.6 (p = 0.029). The methadone group required less morphine (29%) than the morphine group (43%) (p = 0.002). However, the time to first analgesic request in the postoperative period was 145.9 ± 178.5 min in the methadone group, and 269.4 ± 252.9 in the morphine group (p = 0.005). Conclusions: Methadone was effective for analgesia in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting without extracorporeal circulation.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: A dor é fator agravante da morbidade e mortalidade pós-operatória. O objetivo foi comparar o efeito da metadona versus morfina quanto à dor e demanda de analgesia pós-operatória em pacientes submetidos à revascularização do miocárdio. Método: Ensaio clínico randomizado, duplo-cego, em paralelo. Pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio foram randomizados por blocos em dois grupos: Grupo Morfina (Gmo) e Grupo Metadona (Gme). No fim da cirurgia cardíaca, 0,1 mg.Kg−1 peso corrigido de metadona ou morfina foi administrado por via venosa. Os pacientes foram levados à UTI, onde foram avaliados o tempo até a extubação e a necessidade do primeiro analgésico, o número de doses necessárias de analgésicos e antieméticos em 36 horas, a escala numérica de dor em 12, 24 e 36 horas após a cirurgia e a ocorrência de efeitos adversos. Resultados: Foram incluídos 50 pacientes em cada grupo. A metadona apresentou eficácia 22% maior do que a morfina com Number Needed to Treat(NNT) de 6 e Number Needed to Harm(NNH) de 16. Gme apresentou média de dor pela escala numérica em 24 horas após o procedimento de 1,9 ± 2,2 em comparação com o Gmo, cuja média foi de 2,9 ± 2,6 (p= 0,029). O Gme necessitou de menos morfina de resgate 29% do que o grupo Gmo 43% (p= 0,002). Entretanto, o tempo até a necessidade de analgésico no pós-operatório foi de 145,9 ± 178,5 minutos no Grupo Gme e de 269,4 ± 252,9 no Gmo (p= 0,005). Conclusões: A metadona mostrou-se eficiente para a analgesia em cirurgias cardíacas de revascularização do miocárdio sem circulação extracorpórea.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Coronary Artery Bypass , Analgesia, Patient-Controlled , Pain Management/methods , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Methadone/therapeutic use , Morphine/therapeutic use , Pain, Postoperative/diagnosis , Pain Measurement , Double-Blind Method , Middle Aged
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