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Braz. j. anesth ; 73(2): 165-170, March-Apr. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439581


Abstract Background Opioids are the cornerstone in managing postoperative pain; however, they have many side effects. Ketamine and Magnesium (Mg) are NMDA receptor antagonists used as adjuvant analgesics to decrease postoperative opioid consumption. Objective We assumed that adding Mg to ketamine infusion can improve the intraoperative and postoperative analgesic efficacy of ketamine infusion alone in cancer breast surgeries. Methods Ninety patients aged between 18 and 65 years and undergoing elective cancer breast surgery were included in this prospective randomized, double-blind study. Group K received ketamine 0.5 bolus then 0.12 infusion for the first 24 hours postoperatively. Group KM: received ketamine 0.5 and Mg sulfate 50, then ketamine 0.12 and Mg sulfate 8 infusions for the first 24 hours postoperative. The primary outcome was the morphine consumption in the first 24 hours postoperative, while the secondary outcomes were: intraoperative fentanyl consumption, NRS, side effects, and chronic postoperative pain. Results Group KM had less postoperative opioid consumption (14.12 ± 5.11 mg) than Group K (19.43 ± 6.8 mg). Also, Group KM had less intraoperative fentanyl consumption. Both groups were similar in postoperative NRS scores, the incidence of side effects related to opioids, and chronic neuropathic pain. Conclusion Adding Mg to ketamine infusion can safely improve intraoperative and postoperative analgesia with opioid-sparing effect in cancer breast surgery.

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Analgesia , Ketamine , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Breast Neoplasms/surgery , Fentanyl , Double-Blind Method , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Magnesium Sulfate/therapeutic use , Morphine/therapeutic use
Braz. j. anesth ; 72(5): 648-656, Sept.-Oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420587


Abstract Introduction Chronic pain is defined as a pain lasting more than 3-6 months. It is estimated that 25% of the pediatric population may experience some kind of pain in this context. Adolescence, corresponding to a particular period of development, seems to present the ideal territory for the appearance of maladaptive mechanisms that can trigger episodes of persistent or recurrent pain. Methods A narrative review, in the PubMed/Medline database, in order to synthetize the available evidence in the approach to chronic pain in adolescents, highlighting its etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Results Pain is seen as a result from the interaction of biological, psychological, individual, social, and environmental factors. Headache, abdominal pain, and musculoskeletal pain are frequent causes of chronic pain in adolescents. Pain not only has implications on adolescents, but also on family, society, and how they interact. It has implications on daily activities, physical capacity, school performance, and sleep, and is associated with psychiatric comorbidities, such as anxiety and depression. The therapeutic approach of pain must be multimodal and multidisciplinary, involving adolescents, their families, and environment, using pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies. Discussion and conclusion The acknowledgment, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of chronic pain in adolescent patients seem not to be ideal. The development of evidence-based forms of treatment, and the training of health professionals at all levels of care are essential for the diagnosis, treatment, and early referral of these patients.

Humans , Child , Adolescent , Musculoskeletal Pain/etiology , Musculoskeletal Pain/therapy , Chronic Pain/drug therapy , Chronic Pain/therapy , Anxiety , Abdominal Pain , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use
Braz. j. anesth ; 72(5): 637-647, Sept.-Oct. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420588


Abstract Introduction Burns are a common trauma that cause acute severe pain in up to 80% of patients. The objective of this narrative review is to evaluate the efficacy of opioids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, paracetamol, gabapentinoids, ketamine, and lidocaine in the treatment of acute pain in burn victims. Methodology The databases explored were PubMed, Embase, ClinicalTrials, and OpenGrey. The included randomized, controlled clinical trials assessed the analgesic efficacy of these drugs on hospitalized patients, had no age limit, patients were in the acute phase of the burn injury and were compared to placebo or other analgesic drugs. Studies describing deep sedation, chronic opioid use, chronic pain, and patients taken to reconstructive surgeries were excluded. The Jadad scale was used to evaluate quality. Results Six randomized controlled clinical trials (397 patients) that evaluated the analgesic efficacy of fentanyl (n = 2), nalbuphine (n = 1), ketamine (n = 1), gabapentin (n = 1), and lidocaine (n = 1) to treat post-procedural pain were included. Fentanyl, nalbuphine, and ketamine were effective, while lidocaine was associated with a slight increase in reported pain and gabapentin showed no significant differences. Two studies were of high quality, one was of medium high quality, and three were of low quality. No studies on the efficacy of NSAIDs or paracetamol were found. Conclusion Evidence of efficacy is very limited. Fentanyl, nalbuphine, and ketamine seem to be effective for controlling acute pain in burn patients, whereas gabapentin and lidocaine did not show any efficacy.

Humans , Burns/complications , Analgesics, Non-Narcotic , Acute Pain/etiology , Acute Pain/drug therapy , Pain, Procedural , Ketamine/therapeutic use , Nalbuphine/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Fentanyl , Gabapentin , Analgesics , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Lidocaine , Acetaminophen
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 44(1): 55-66, Jan. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365664


Abstract Objective To summarize the available evidence of TAP Block in efficacy in laparoscopic or robotic hysterectomy. Data Sources We searched databases and gray literature for randomized controlled trials in which transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block was compared with placebo or with no treatment in patients who underwent laparoscopic or robot-assisted hysterectomy. Method of Study Selection Two researchers independently evaluated the eligibility of the selected articles. Tabulation, Integration, and Results Seven studies were selected, involving 518 patients. Early postoperative pain showed a difference in the mean mean difference (MD): - 1.17 (95% confidence interval [CI]: - 1.87-0.46) in pain scale scores (I2=68%), which was statistically significant in favor of using TAP block, but without clinical relevance; late postoperative pain: DM 0.001 (95%CI: - 0.43-0.44; I2=69%); opioid requirement: DM 0.36 (95%CI: - 0.94-1.68; I2=80%); and incidence of nausea and vomiting with a difference of 95%CI=- 0.11 (- 0.215-0.006) in favor of TAP. Conclusion With moderate strength of evidence, due to the high heterogeneity and imbalance in baseline characteristics among studies, the results indicate that TAP block should not be considered as a clinically relevant analgesic technique to improve postoperative pain in laparoscopic or robotic hysterectomy, despite statistical significance in early postoperative pain scale scores. Clinical Trial Number and Registry: PROSPERO ID - CRD42018103573.

Resumo Objetivo Resumir as evidências disponíveis sobre a eficácia do bloqueio TAP em histerectomia laparoscópica ou robótica. Fontes de Dados Pesquisamos bancos de dados e literatura cinza por ensaios clínicos randomizados nos quais o bloqueio do plano transverso do abdome (TAP na sigla em inglês) foi comparado com placebo ou com nenhum tratamento em pacientes que foram submetidos a histerectomia laparoscópica ou assistida por robô. Métodos de Seleção de Estudos Dois pesquisadores avaliaram independentemente a elegibilidade dos artigos selecionados. Tabulação, Integração e Resultados Sete estudos foram selecionados envolvendo 518 pacientes. A dor pós-operatória precoce apresentou diferença nasmédias (DM) de: -1 17 (intervalo de confiança [IC] de 95%: - 1 87-0 46) nos escores da escala de dor (I2=68%) o que foi estatisticamente significativo a favor do uso do bloqueio TAP mas sem relevância clínica; dor pós-operatória tardia: DM 0001 (IC95%: - 043-044; I2=69%); necessidade de opioides: DM0 36 (95%CI: - 0 94-168; I2=80%); e incidência de náuseas e vômitos com diferença de 95% CI=- 011 (- 0215-0006) a favor do TAP. Conclusão Com moderada força de evidência devido à alta heterogeneidade e ao desequilíbrio nas características basais entre os estudos os resultados indicam que o bloqueio do TAP não deve ser considerado como uma técnica analgésica clinicamente relevante para melhorar a dor pós-operatória em histerectomia laparoscópica ou robótica apesar da significância estatística nas pontuações da escala de dor pósoperatória inicial. Número e Registro do Ensaio Clínico: PROSPERO ID - CRD42018103573.

Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Laparoscopy/methods , Robotic Surgical Procedures/methods , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Robotics , Abdominal Muscles , Hysterectomy/methods
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 321-328, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939890


BACKGROUND@#Patients commonly develop postoperative pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Acupuncture-related techniques and low-level laser therapy could be beneficial for pain management for older individuals.@*OBJECTIVE@#To examine the effect of low-level laser acupuncture (LA) in reducing postoperative pain, pain-related interference in daily life, morphine consumption, and morphine-related side effects in older patients with knee osteoarthritis who underwent TKA.@*DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTION@#A single-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted. Patients (N = 82) were recruited and randomly assigned via a computer-generated list to the LA group or a placebo group. The LA group received low-level laser therapy at Sanyinjiao (SP6), Taixi (KI3), Kunlun (BL60), Fengshi (GB31), Futu (ST32) and Neiguan (PC6) after TKA, while the placebo acupuncture group received the same treatment procedure without laser energy output.@*MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES@#The primary outcome was postoperative pain intensity, and it was measured at baseline and hours 2, 6, 10, 24, 48 and 72 after TKA. The secondary outcomes, including relative pain, postoperative pain-related interference in daily life and morphine consumption, were measured at hours 24, 48 and 72 after TKA.@*RESULTS@#Generalized estimating equations revealed significant between-group differences in pain intensity (P = 0.01), and trend differences in pain intensity for the LA group starting at hours 10 to 72 (P < 0.05) and morphine consumption at hours 48 and 72 (P < 0.05). The changes in pain-related interference in daily life were significant (P < 0.05) at 72 h, with the exception of the parameters for worst pain, mood, and sleep. Nausea and vomiting side effects from morphine had significant between-group differences at hours 10 and 24 (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Low-level LA gradually reduced older patients' postoperative pain intensity and morphine consumption within the first 72 h after their TKA for osteoarthritis. Low-level LA may have benefits as an adjuvant pain management technique for clinical care.@*TRIAL registration number NCT03995446.

Aged , Humans , Acupuncture Therapy , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Morphine/therapeutic use , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Single-Blind Method
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 32: 32111, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1418966


Introdução: O manejo da cefaleia nas salas de urgência e emergência deve ser baseada em uma anamnese detalhada para que o diagnóstico e tratamento sejam adequados, entretanto não é o que se encontra nos atendimentos. Objetivo: Avaliar o manejo do atendimento das cefaleias em uma sala de Urgência e Emergência. Métodos: Estudo de corte transversal retrospectivo, realizado através da análise de dados de 1317 prontuários eletrônicos de pacientes com queixa de cefaleia que procuraram o serviço de emergência do Hospital Regional de Barbacena durante o período de 01 de janeiro de 2017 a 30 de junho de 2019. Os diagnósticos relatados nos prontuários foram classificados de acordo com os critérios da Classificação Internacional das Cefaleias (ICHD-3). Os dados foram submetidos à análise estatísticas, pelo teste de qui-quadrado. Considerou-se diferenças estatisticamente significativas aquelas cujo valor p≤0,05. Resultados: Do total de prontuários, três foram excluídos, sendo analisados 1314. Entre os prontuários analisados, 73,21% apresentaram diagnósticos iniciais eram cefaleia, 16,67% migrânea e 10,12% cefaleia do tipo tensão. Já no diagnóstico final, cefaleia correspondeu a 59,67%, migrânea a 17,95% e cefaleia do tipo tensão a 8,52%. Em relação ao tratamento, foi receitado opioides para 43,99% dos pacientes e para o restante foram prescritos medicamentos não opioides. Conclusão: O trabalho sugeriu falha no manejo da cefaleia nas salas de urgência e emergência, provavelmente pela limitação do conhecimento dos profissionais de saúde acerca da dor de cabeça. O que acarretou no grande número de diagnósticos inespecíficos e inadequada abordagem terapêutica.

Introduction: Detailed clinical evaluation should be the basis for the proper management of headaches in emergency rooms, in order to allow adequate diagnosis and treatment. However, this is not usually observed on clinical rounds. Objective: To evaluate the management of headache consultations in an emergency rooms. Methods: This is a cross-section study was performed analyzing data from 1,317 electronic medical records of patients with headache complaints who sought treatment at the Barbacena City Regional Hospital's between January 1, 2017, and June 20, 2019. Medical records were classified according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3). The data collected were statistically analyzed using chi-square tests. The study considered a p-value≤0.05 to define statistically significant differences. Results: Three medical records were excluded and 1,314 were analyzed. Among the medical records analyzed, 73.21% of initial diagnoses were classified as headache, 16.67% as migraine, and 10.12% as tension-type headache. Headache corresponded to 59.76% of final diagnoses, migraine to 17.95%, and tension-type headache to 8.52%. Regarding the treatment, 43.99% of patients were prescribed opioids for the remaining were prescribed nonopioid medications. Conclusion: The study suggests that the management of headaches is inadequate in emergency rooms, probably due to limited knowledge of health professionals about headache. This resulted in a large number of nonspecific diagnoses and inadequate therapeutic approaches.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Diagnostic Errors , Emergency Service, Hospital , Headache/diagnosis , Medical Records , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Inappropriate Prescribing , Headache/classification , Headache/drug therapy , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use
Dolor ; 31(74): 26-34, sept. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362804


El paciente oncológico de cuidados paliativos puede presentar una variedad importante de condiciones clínicas que producen sufrimiento y disminución en la calidad de vida; esto se presenta como un reto para el clínico en la identificación y correcto abordaje de los pacientes. El dolor se ha considerado por años como el síntoma cardinal a tratar en el paciente oncológico, donde se deben considerar sus condicionantes fisiopatológicos, la farmacología de las intervenciones, los posibles efectos secundarios y los condicionantes familiares, sociales y personales del dolor, pero a pesar de su relevancia, no es el único síntoma, estando acompañado de un abanico de patologías, como las afectaciones gastrointestinales, pulmonares, vasculares, hematológicas y neurológicas, que favorecen la pérdida de capacidad del paciente y, en muchas ocasiones, la muerte. Se realizó una revisión actualizada en bases de datos como EMBASE, PUBMED, SCIELO, además de la revisión de guías de asociaciones internacionales con el objetivo de acercar a todos los médicos, sin distinguir su especialidad o área de trabajo, al abordaje y manejo del paciente oncológico en cuidado paliativo, favoreciendo la sensibilización con estas patologías y la importancia en el curso de vida de los pacientes.

The palliative care cancer patient can present a significant variety of clinical conditions that produce suffering and a decrease in the quality of life. This is a challenge for the clinician in the identification and correct approach of patients. Pain has been considered for years as the cardinal symptom to be treated in cancer patients, where its pathophysiological factors, the pharmacology of the interventions, possible side effects and the family, social and personal conditions of pain must be considered, but despite its relevance is not the onset of symptoms and is accompanied by a range of pathologies such as gastrointestinal, pulmonary, vascular, hematological and neurological affectations that favor the loss of capacity of the patient and in many cases death. An updated review was carried out in databases such as EMBASE, PUBMED, SCIELO in addition to the revision of guides from international associations with the aim of bringing all doctors without distinguishing their specialty or area of work to the approach and management of cancer patients in palliative care favoring awareness of these pathologies and their importance in the life course of patients.

Humans , Palliative Care/methods , Cancer Pain/drug therapy , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Superior Vena Cava Syndrome/diagnosis , Tumor Lysis Syndrome/diagnosis , Emergencies , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Intestinal Obstruction/diagnosis , Morphine/therapeutic use , Neoplasms/complications
Rev. méd. Chile ; 149(6): 899-905, jun. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1389543


Cancer related pain is one of the most frequent and relevant symptoms in patients with malignant tumors, causing a huge impact in their quality of life. According to the Chilean Public Health System Technical Report of the Cancer Pain Control and Palliative Care Program 2013-2014, 90% of cancer patients admitted to the Program experienced pain, being moderate or intense in 34%. International and local standards recommend the use of strong opioids (morphine, methadone, or fentanyl) associated with adjuvants such as paracetamol as an initial strategy for pain management. This recommendation assumes that the use of combined analgesics could allow the use of lower opioid doses to obtain similar analgesic effect, decreasing the occurrence of opioid side effects. However, this technical report also describes that there is uncertainty about the impact of paracetamol as an adjuvant in patients with cancer pain who are already receiving strong opioids. This review aims to describe the current state of the art regarding the role of paracetamol as a coadjuvant in cancer pain patients.

Humans , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Neoplasms/complications , Quality of Life , Pain Management , Acetaminophen/therapeutic use , Morphine
Online braz. j. nurs. (Online) ; 20: e20216500, 05 maio 2021. ilus
Article in English, Spanish, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1248393


OBJETIVO: Mapear as práticas de segurança do paciente realizadas em pacientes oncológicos paliativos em uso de morfina para o controle da dor. MÉTODO: Revisão de escopo para responder à pergunta: Quais as evidências sobre as práticas de segurança do paciente realizadas em pacientes oncológicos paliativos que fazem uso de morfina para o controle da dor? A busca será realizada nas bases de dados MEDLINE, LILACS, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane e CINAHL e literatura cinzenta. Após a busca, todos as citações serão agrupadas no software Rayyan e as duplicatas removidas. Os títulos e resumos serão selecionados por dois revisores independentes. O texto completo das citações selecionadas será avaliado em detalhes em relação aos critérios de inclusão por dois revisores independentes. Os dados extraídos serão apresentados em um diagrama ou forma tabular de maneira que se alinhe com o objetivo desta revisão de escopo, e um resumo narrativo será fornecido

OBJECTIVE: To map the patient safety practices performed in palliative cancer patients using morphine for pain control. METHOD: A scoping review to answer the following question: What is the evidence on the patient safety practices performed in palliative cancer patients using morphine for pain control? The search will be carried out in the MEDLINE, LILACS, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane and CINAHL databases, as well as in the gray literature. After the search, all citations will be grouped in the Rayyan software and the duplicates will be removed. Titles and abstracts will be selected by two independent reviewers. The full text of the selected citations will be evaluated in detail in relation to the inclusion criteria by two independent reviewers. The extracted data will be presented in diagram or table formats so that it aligns with the objective of this scoping review, and a narrative abstract will be provided.

OBJETIVO: Mapear las prácticas de seguridad del paciente realizadas en pacientes con cáncer paliativo que utilizan morfina para el control del dolor. MÉTODO: Revisión de alcance para responder a la pregunta: ¿Cuál es la evidencia sobre las prácticas de seguridad del paciente que se implementan en pacientes con cáncer paliativo que utilizan morfina para el control del dolor? La búsqueda se realizará en las bases de datos MEDLINE, LILACS, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane y CINAHL y literatura gris. Después de la búsqueda, todas las citas se agruparán en el software Rayyan y se eliminarán los duplicados. Los títulos y resúmenes serán seleccionados por dos revisores independientes. El texto completo de las citas seleccionadas será evaluado en detalle según los criterios de inclusión por dos revisores independientes. Los datos extraídos se presentarán en un diagrama o en forma de tabla para que se alineen con el objetivo de esta revisión de alcance, y se proporcionará un resumen narrativo.

Humans , Palliative Care , Pain Management , Patient Safety , Cancer Pain/drug therapy , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Morphine/therapeutic use
Dolor ; 31(73): 26-31, ene. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362747


Objetivo: El presente trabajo de investigación tuvo como objetivo explorar la eficacia analgésica mediante la comparación de la respuesta analgésica de los parches transdérmicos (PTD) de buprenorfina y fentanilo en dolor oncológico y patrón de uso. Material y Método: Se obtuvieron los datos y variables desde los registros clínicos de pacientes ingresados a la Unidad de Cuidados Paliativos (UCP) del Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (INC) que estaban bajo tratamiento en mayo del 2017. Se incluyó en este estudio a 78 pacientes con PTD, que representan el 13% de los pacientes en control mensual. De estos, 66 estaban bajo tratamiento con buprenorfina y 8 bajo tratamiento con fentanilo. Resultados: Los resultados mostraron que el PTD de buprenorfina se utiliza más frecuentemente que el de fentanilo. El principal motivo de rotación fue dolor no controlado, seguido por imposibilidad de contar con la administración por vía oral. En pacientes con mayores intensidades de dolor somático o visceral se indicó fentanilo y en aquellos con componente neuropático se prefirió el uso de buprenorfina. PTD de fentanilo fue indicado en dosis mayores que buprenorfina, incluso al comparar sus dosis equianalgésicas, siendo la variación de dosis alta para ambos parches: aumentó en promedio 257%. Se logró una mejor respuesta analgésica con buprenorfina, con una variación de intensidad de escala numérica verbal (ENV) de 2,94 y 1,88 puntos de promedio para buprenorfina y fentanilo, respectivamente. Adicionalmente, se presentó mayor reacción local dérmica con fentanilo. Conclusiones: Se evidenció diferencias en patrón de uso y, a diferencia de lo esperado, se obtuvo una mejor eficacia analgésica con buprenorfina. Datos que deben ser corroborados en estudios con mayor número de pacientes bajo tratamiento con fentanilo.

Objective: This study aims to explore analgesic efficacy comparisons of buprenorphine and fentanyl transdermal patches (TDP) in cancer pain and it's usage pattern. Material and Method: Data and variables were collected from patient's clinical reports who were admitted in the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Palliative Care Unit (PCU) and were under treatment with TDP in May 2017. 78 TDP patients were studied and represented 13% of the monthly control patients in the PCU. Of these, 66 were under buprenorphine treatment and 8 under fentanyl treatment. Results: The results showed that buprenorphine TDP is more frequently used than fentanyl TDP, and the main reason for exchange between them was uncontrolled pain, followed by oral administration impossibility. Fentanyl TDP was indicated in patients with higher somatic or visceral pain intensities and Buprenorphine TDP was preferred in patients with neuropathic pain. Fentanyl TDP was indicated in higher doses than buprenorphine, even when comparing its equianalgesic doses, the dose variation was high for both patches throughout the treatment: it increased on average by 257%. A better analgesic response was achieved with buprenorphine, with a variation of intensity of the Verbal Numerical Scale (VNS) of 2.94 and 1.88 average points, for buprenorphine and fentanyl respectively. Additionally, there was a higher local dermal reaction with fentanyl TDP. Conclusions: Differences in usage patterns were evidenced and, unlike what was expected, better analgesic efficacy was obtained with buprenorphine TDP. This data should be corroborated in receiving fentanyl treatment.

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Buprenorphine/administration & dosage , Fentanyl/administration & dosage , Transdermal Patch , Cancer Pain/drug therapy , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Palliative Care/methods , Buprenorphine/therapeutic use , Fentanyl/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use
Clinics ; 76: e2805, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249586


OBJECTIVES: Demonstrate that continuous peripheral nerve block (CPNB) may be an alternative with adequate analgesia and a lower incidence of side effects for ischemic pain due peripheral obstructive arterial disease (POAD). METHODS: Retrospective cohort study with 21 patients with POAD, Fontaine IV graded, with foot pain. Patients were submitted to continuous sciatic nerve block (CSNB), through a perineural catheter. Primary outcomes were pain intensity (by numerical rating scale) and opioid consumption (in oral morphine equivalents). RESULTS: During CSNB, pain scores markedly decreased in comparison to the pre-block period. CONCLUSIONS: CPNB may be a good option for ischemic pain treatment in in-patients, as it provides effective pain control with fewer adverse effects.

Humans , Nerve Block , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Peripheral Nerves , Retrospective Studies , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Anesthetics, Local/therapeutic use , Leg
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e011, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1142615


Abstract The objective of this study was to describe dental prescriptions of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), opioids, and analgesics dispensed by the Brazilian National Health System (BNHS, SUS in Portuguese) of a Southeastern state from January to December 2017, and to analyze their association with socioeconomic and oral health care services' characteristics at municipal level. Data were collected from the Brazilian Integrated Pharmaceutical Care Management System. Medicines were grouped according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. The total number of Defined Daily Doses (DDD) and DDD per 1,000 inhabitants (inhab.) per year were presented and compared between groups of municipalities. Data analysis used the Classification and Regression Tree model performed with IBM SPSS 25.0. The total number of NSAID, opioids, and analgesics prescriptions was 70,747 and accounted for 354,221.13 DDD. The most frequently prescribed medicine was ibuprofen (n = 24,676; 34.88%). The number of dental practitioners in the BNHS per 1,000 inhab. (p < 0.001), first dental appointment coverage (p = 0.010), oral health teams per 1,000 inhab. (p=0.022), and the proportion of rural population (p = 0.014) were variables positively associated with the number of DDD of NSAID per 1,000 inhab. per year. Bolsa Família program coverage per 1,000 inhab. (p = 0.022) was negatively associated with NSAID prescription. Regarding analgesics, first dental appointment coverage (p=0.002) and Bolsa Família program coverage per 1,000 inhab. (p = 0.012) were positively associated with DDD per 1,000 inhab. per year. In conclusion, dental prescriptions of analgesics and NSAID in the BNHS were associated with socioeconomic and oral health care services' characteristics.

Humans , Drug Prescriptions , Dentists , Brazil , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Cities , Professional Role , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use
Clinics ; 76: e1907, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153930


OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of controlled-release morphine tablets combined with celecoxib in relieving osteocarcinoma-related pain and the effects of the combination on WNK1 expression. METHODS: A total of 110 patients with osteocarcinoma-related pain were selected and divided into two groups based on the treatment administered, including the control group (treated with controlled-release morphine tablets alone) and the study group (treated with a combination of controlled-release morphine tablets and celecoxib). We compared the treatment efficacy, pain level (visual analog scale (VAS)), time of onset of breakthrough pain (BTP), dose of morphine, incidence of adverse events, quality of life (QOL) score, and With-no-lysine 1 (WNK1) expression in the peripheral blood (PB) as determined with qRT-PCR before and after treatment, of the two groups. RESULTS: The total effective rate of the study group was higher than that of the control group, while the VAS score, time of onset of BTP, dose of morphine, incidence of adverse events, QOL score, and relative WNK1 expression in the PB were lower than those of the control group (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Combination treatment with controlled-release morphine tablets and celecoxib can be extensively used in the clinical setting because it effectively improves the symptoms, QOL score, and adverse effects in patients with osteocarcinoma-related pain.

Humans , Quality of Life , Morphine , Treatment Outcome , Delayed-Action Preparations , Computers, Handheld , Pain Management , Celecoxib , WNK Lysine-Deficient Protein Kinase 1 , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use
Dolor ; 30(72): 14-18, nov. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362436


Se llevó a cabo un estudio observacional para analizar si tapentadol de liberación prolongada (LP) puede considerarse un tratamiento de primera línea para pacientes con dolor crónico postraumático (DCPT). Métodos: Se presenta una serie de casos de la práctica clínica real de pacientes con DCPT producido por accidentes de trabajo. Antes de ingresar al estudio, todos los pacientes recibían tramadol, que se interrumpió cuando se inició la administración de tapentadol LP. Las evaluaciones de dolor incluyeron una escala de valoración numérica, el cuestionario DN4 y la escala de Impresión Global de Cambio del Paciente (PGIC, Patients' Global Impression of Change). Se recuperaron y registraron los eventos adversos. Resultados: 94 pacientes participaron en el estudio y 77 (82 %) completaron todas las visitas predefinidas. Cerca de la mitad de los pacientes informaron dolor crónico que tenía una duración de al menos 3 años; se observó un componente neuropático en el 87 % de los pacientes. El puntaje de dolor se redujo en 1,5 puntos luego del primer mes de tratamiento con tapentadol LP y en 2,48 puntos luego de 4 meses (p<0,05). También se asoció la administración de tapentadol LP con una reducción del 28,9 % de la dosis concomitante de pregabalina (p<0,01). De acuerdo con el cuestionario PGIC, el 74 % y el 77,9 % de los pacientes informó mejoría luego de uno y cuatro meses de tratamiento, respectivamente. El perfil de seguridad fue consistente con los datos actuales sobre tapentadol LP. Conclusión: El dolor osteomuscular crónico es una enfermedad prevalente que se caracteriza por tener resultados terapéuticos deficientes y se asocia a una mayor discapacidad y una mala calidad de vida. En este estudio de la práctica clínica real en pacientes que trabajan y que cuentan con un componente de dolor neuropático elevado, se observó que tapentadol LP produce efectos beneficiosos en términos del control del DCPT, y se obtuvieron índices altos de eficacia y seguridad.

An observational study was carried out to analyze whether prolonged-release (PR) tapentadol may be considered a first-line treatment for patients with chronic post-traumatic pain (PTD). Methods: A case series of cases of patients with PTFE caused by work accidents in a real clinical practice setting is described. Before entering the study, all patients were receiving tramadol, which was discontinued when PR tapentadol was started. Pain assessments included a numerical rating scale, the DN4 questionnaire, and the Patients' Global Impression of Change (PGIC) scale. Adverse events were retrieved and described. Results: 94 patients participated in the study and 77 (82%) completed all the predefined visits. About half of the patients reported chronic pain that lasted for at least 3 years. A neuropathic component was reported in 87% of patients. The pain score was reduced by 1.5 points after the first month of treatment with PR tapentadol and by 2.48 points after 4 months (p < 0.05). Administration of PR tapentadol was also associated with a concomitant reduction of pregabalin dose of 28.9% (p < 0.01). According to the PGIC questionnaire, 74% and 77.9% of patients reported improvement after one and four months of treatment, respectively. The safety profile was consistent with current data on PR tapentadol. Conclusion: Chronic musculoskeletal pain is a prevalent disease characterized by poor therapeutic results and associated with increased disability and poor quality of life. In our study in a real clinical practice setting with patients with a high neuropathic pain component, PR tapentadol produced beneficial effects in terms of DCPT control, and high efficacy and safety rates were obtained. Keywords: tapentadol, chronic pain, pain caused by work accidents, chronic post-traumatic pain, evidence from real clinical practice.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Wounds and Injuries/complications , Accidents, Occupational , Chronic Pain/drug therapy , Tapentadol/therapeutic use , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Chronic Pain/etiology , Tapentadol/adverse effects , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; ago 25, 2020. 28 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117908


En el transcurso de la pandemia de COVID-19, numerosos países, de ingresos bajos, medianos y alto, han visto agotadas sus reservas de medicamentos esenciales necesarios para el manejo de los pacientes con COVID-19 en las unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI). El plan de preparación para emergencias sanitarias de los países requiere incluir una lista de medicamentos esenciales y otros dispositivos médicos necesarios en las UCI para afrontar emergencias sanitarias. La lista de medicamentos esenciales para el manejo de pacientes que ingresan a unidades de cuidados intensivos con sospecha o diagnóstico confirmado de COVID-19 es un documento de orientación fundamental que ayuda a los sistemas de salud de los países a priorizar los medicamentos esenciales que deben estar ampliamente disponibles y ser asequibles para manejar los pacientes en las UCI durante las situaciones de emergencia sanitaria, en este caso con sospecha o diagnóstico confirmado de COVID-19. Está dirigida a las autoridades sanitaras y a los encargados del manejo del sistema de salud de los países. Esta lista incluye fundamentalmente los medicamentos considerados esenciales para el manejo de los cuadros clínicos que con se observan con mayor frecuencia en pacientes hospitalizados en UCI a causa de una infección por SARS-CoV-2. No se incluyen la mayoría de los medicamentos que comúnmente se encuentran en las UCI para el manejo de otras patologías, comorbilidades o la estabilización del paciente (p. ej., insulina o antihipertensivos), salvo aquellos que pueden requerirse para el tratamiento o apoyo (p. ej., bloqueantes neuromusculares o anestésicos) de las dolencias generadas por la infección. Tampoco se incluyen medicamentos específicos para el tratamiento de la infección por SARS-CoV-2, puesto que no existe, por el momento, evidencia científica de alta calidad que avale su uso, salvo en el contexto de ensayos clínicos controlados. Un equipo de expertos en el tema realizó una búsqueda de información sobre la atención de pacientes en UCI durante la pandemia de COVID-19, en Medline (a través de PubMed), Cochrane, Tripdatabase, Epistemonikos y en buscadores generales de internet (Google). Se identificaron también revisiones o guías generadas por ministerios de Salud de varios países de la Región de las Américas, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS), el Instituto Nacional de Salud y Excelencia Clínica (NICE) de Reino Unido, los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades (CDC) de Estados Unidos y los Institutos Nacionales de Salud (NIH) de Estados Unidos.

Humans , Child , Adult , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Succinylcholine/therapeutic use , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Benzodiazepines/therapeutic use , Patient Care Management/organization & administration , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drugs, Essential/supply & distribution , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Antipyretics/therapeutic use , Pandemics/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Haloperidol/therapeutic use , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Respiration, Artificial/nursing , Shock, Septic/prevention & control , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Evidence-Based Medicine , Intubation/nursing , Hypoxia/drug therapy
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(2): 153-158, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137159


Abstract Objective This study aimed to investigate the impact of post-thoracotomy analgesia with dexmedetomidine and morphine on immunocytes. Methods A total of 118 patients with post-thoracotomy Patient-Controlled Intravenous Analgesia (PCIA) in our hospital from March 2016 to July 2018 were randomly selected and divided into the Composite (COM) Group (57 patients administered with dexmedetomidine [1.0 µ body weight] and morphine [0.48 body weight]) and the Morphine (MOR) group (61 patients administered with morphine [0.48]). The values of lymphocyte subsets (CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+) and Natural Killer cells in the peripheral blood of these two groups were detected by FACSCalibur flow cytometry at different time points (before anesthesia induction [T0], immediately after tracheal extubation [T1], 12 hours after surgery [T2], 24 hours after surgery [T3], 48 hours after surgery [T4], 72 hours after surgery [T5], and 7 days after surgery [T6]). The doses of morphine at T3 to T5 and the adverse reactions between the two groups were also recorded and compared. Results The CD3+ level and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio at T2 to T5 and the CD4+ level and NK cells at T3 to T5 were significantly higher in the COM Group than in the MOR Group (p< 0.05). The postoperative morphine dose and the incidence of postoperative itching, nausea, and vomiting were significantly lower in the COM Group than in the MOR Group (p< 0.05). Conclusions Dexmedetomidine combined with morphine for post-thoracotomy PCIA can improve the function of immunocytes, reduce morphine consumption, and reduce the adverse reactions during analgesia induction.

Resumo Objetivo Estudar o impacto em linfócitos causado pelo uso da dexmedetomidina associada à morfina para analgesia pós-toracotomia. Método Um total de 118 pacientes utilizando Analgesia Intravenosa Controlada pelo Paciente (AICP) pós-toracotomia em nosso hospital, de março de 2016 a julho de 2018, foram selecionados aleatoriamente e divididos em dois grupos: o Grupo Combinado [COM, 57 pacientes que receberam dexmedetomidina (1,0 µ de peso corpóreo) associada à morfina (0,48 de peso corpóreo)] e o Grupo Morfina [MOR, 61 pacientes, que receberam somente morfina (0,48]. Os valores dos subconjuntos de linfócitos (CD3+, CD4+ e CD8+) e das células NK no sangue periférico desses dois grupos foram medidos por citometria de fluxo FACSCalibur em diferentes momentos do estudo [antes da indução anestésica (T0), imediatamente após extubação traqueal (T1), 12 horas após a cirurgia (T2), 24 horas após a cirurgia (T3), 48 horas após a cirurgia (T4), 72 horas após a cirurgia (T5) e 7 dias após a cirurgia (T6)]. As doses de morfina do momento T3 ao T5 e as reações adversas entre os dois grupos também foram registradas e comparadas. Resultados O nível de CD3+ e a razão CD4+/CD8+ de T2 a T5, e o nível de CD4+ e as células NK de T3 a T5 do Grupo COM foram significantemente maiores (p< 0,05) quando comparados ao Grupo MOR. A dose de morfina no pós-operatório e a incidência de prurido, náusea e vômito no pós-operatório foram significantemente menores no grupo MOR (p< 0,05). Conclusões Dexmedetomidina combinada com morfina para AICP no período pós-toracotomia pode melhorar a função dos linfócitos, reduzir o consumo de morfina e diminuir reações adversas durante a analgesia.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Thoracotomy , Killer Cells, Natural/drug effects , Analgesia, Patient-Controlled , Lymphocyte Subsets/drug effects , Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/pharmacology , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacology , Morphine/pharmacology , Analgesics, Non-Narcotic/therapeutic use , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Morphine/therapeutic use
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 19(1): e525, ene.-abr. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | CUMED, LILACS | ID: biblio-1093129


Introducción: El cáncer es la segunda causa de muerte en el mundo y en Cuba. Su estrategia de tratamiento implica fármacos oncoespecíficos y cirugía; y diariamente aumentan los pacientes intervenidos quirúrgicamente lo que conlleva a un periodo perioperatorio y la administración de múltiples medicamentos anestésicos. Objetivo: Describir los principales factores relacionados con la anestesia que, durante el perioperatorio, influyen en la recurrencia oncológica. Desarrollo: El estrés quirúrgico y la anestesia general, con la subsecuente respuesta neuroendocrina e inflamatoria, por sí mismos, limitan la respuesta inmune y alteran el balance entre el potencial metastásico del tumor y antimetastásico de las defensas, lo cual representa un mecanismo plausible en el incremento de las metástasis y recurrencia oncológica. Conclusiones: La proliferación del cáncer y recidiva tumoral en el contexto quirúrgico asociado a la anestesia, es un tema relativamente nuevo y por tanto es necesario realizar estudios con mayor alcance que validen este fenómeno. No obstante, el efecto inmunosupresor que produce el estrés perioperatorio, fármacos anestésicos como opioides y halogenados pueden ser la clave para explicar este fenómeno. La anestesia general endovenosa total libre de opioides y adecuada analgesia regional contribuyen a disminuir este efecto(AU)

Introduction: Cancer is the second cause of death worldwide and in Cuba. Its treatment strategy involves oncospecific drugs and surgery. Every day, the number of patients who undergo surgery increases, which leads to a perioperative period and the administration of multiple anesthetic medications. Objective: To describe the main factors related to anesthesia and that, during the perioperative period, influence oncological recurrence. Development: Surgical stress and general anesthesia, with the subsequent neuroendocrine and inflammatory response, by themselves, limit the immune response and alter the balance between the metastatic potential of the tumor and the antimetastatic defense, which represents a plausible mechanism for increased metastasis and oncological relapse. Conclusions: The proliferation of cancer and tumor relapse in the surgical context associated with anesthesia is a relatively new issue and it is therefore necessary to carry out studies with greater scope that validate this phenomenon. However, the immunosuppressive effect produced by perioperative stress, as well as anesthetic drugs such as opioids and halogenated drugs, can be the key to explaining this phenomenon. Total intravenous opioid-free general anesthesia and adequate regional analgesia contribute to diminish this effect(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Recurrence , Perioperative Period/methods , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Anesthesia, General/methods , Ketamine/therapeutic use , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/prevention & control
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 42(1): 48-54, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099399


Abstract Introduction The opioid epidemic is a severe problem in the world, especially in the United States, where prescription opioid overdose accounts for a quarter of drug overdose deaths. Objective To describe psychiatrists' prescription of opioid, benzodiazepine, and buprenorphine in the United States. Methods We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study of the 2016 Medicare Part D claims data and analyzed psychiatrists' prescriptions of: 1) opioids; 2) benzodiazepines, whose concurrent prescription with opioids can cause overdose death; 3) buprenorphine, a partial opioid agonist for treating opioid addiction; 4) and naltrexone microsphere, a once-monthly injectable opioid antagonist to prevent relapse to opioid dependence. Prescribers with 11 or more claims were included in the analysis. Results In Medicare Part D in 2016, there were a total of 1,131,550 prescribers accounting for 1,480,972,766 total prescriptions and 78,145,305 opioid prescriptions, including 25,528 psychiatrists (2.6% of all prescribers) accounting for 44,684,504 total prescriptions (3.0% of all prescriptions) and 131,115 opioid prescriptions (0.2% of all opioid prescriptions). Psychiatrists accounted for 17.3% of benzodiazepine, 16.3% of buprenorphine, and 33.4% of naltrexone microsphere prescriptions. The opioid prescription rate of psychiatrists was much lower than that of all prescribers (0.3 vs 5.3%). The buprenorphine prescription rate of psychiatrists was much higher than that of all prescribers (2.3 vs. 0.1%). There was a substantial geographical variation across the United States. Conclusions The results show that, proportionally, psychiatrists have lower rates of opioid prescription and higher rates of benzodiazepine and buprenorphine prescription.

Adult , Humans , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Psychiatry/statistics & numerical data , Benzodiazepines/therapeutic use , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Buprenorphine/therapeutic use , Medicare Part D/statistics & numerical data , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Narcotic Antagonists/therapeutic use , United States , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies