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1.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(6): 620-626, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155779

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives Day-case pediatric sedation is challenging. Dexmedetomidine is a sedative analgesic that does not induce respiratory depression. We compared dexmedetomidine to propofol when it was added to ketamine for sedation during pediatric endoscopy, regarding recovery time and hemodynamic changes. Methods We enrolled 120 patients (2−7 years in age) and randomly assigned them into two groups. Each patient received intravenous (IV) ketamine at a dose of 1 mg.kg-1 in addition to either propofol (1 mg.kg-1) or dexmedetomidine (0.5 µg.kg-1). The recovery time was compared. Hemodynamics, oxygen saturation, need for additional doses, postoperative complications and endoscopist satisfaction were monitored. Results There was no significant difference in hemodynamics between the groups. The Propofol-Ketamine (P-K) group showed significantly shorter recovery times than the Dexmedetomidine-Ketamine (D-K) group (21.25 and 29.75 minutes, respectively, p < 0.001). The P-K group showed more oxygen desaturation. Eleven and 6 patients experienced SpO2 < 92% in groups P-K and D-K, respectively. A significant difference was noted regarding the need for additional doses; 10% of patients in the D-K group needed one extra dose, and 5% needed two extra doses, compared to 25% and 20% in the P-K group, respectively (p = 0.001). The P-K group showed less post-procedure nausea and vomiting. No statistically significant difference between both groups regarding endoscopist satisfaction. Conclusions The P-K combination was associated with a shorter recovery time in pediatric upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, while the D-K combination showed less need for additional doses. Registration number Clinical trials.gov (NCT02863861).


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos A sedação ambulatorial pediátrica é um desafio. A dexmedetomidina é um analgésico sedativo que não induz à depressão respiratória. Comparamos a dexmedetomidina ao propofol quando associados à cetamina para sedação durante endoscopia pediátrica, quanto ao tempo de recuperação e às alterações hemodinâmicas. Métodos Foram recrutados 120 pacientes (2−7 anos de idade) que foram aleatoriamente alocados em dois grupos. Cada paciente recebeu cetamina IV na dose de 1 mg.kg‐1, além de propofol (1 mg.kg‐1) ou dexmedetomidina (0,5 µg.kg‐1). Comparamos o tempo de recuperação. A hemodinâmica, saturação de oxigênio, necessidade de doses adicionais, complicações pós‐operatórias e satisfação do endoscopista foram monitoradas. Resultados Não houve diferença significante entre os grupos no que diz respeito à hemodinâmica. O grupo Propofol‐Cetamina (P‐C) apresentou tempos de recuperação significantemente mais curtos do que o grupo Dexmedetomidina‐Cetamina (D‐C) (21,25 e 29,75 minutos respectivamente, p < 0,001). Observou‐se frequência maior de dessaturação de oxigênio no grupo P‐C. Onze e 6 pacientes apresentaram SpO2 < 92% nos grupos P‐C e D‐C, respectivamente. Uma diferença significante foi observada em relação à necessidade de doses adicionais; 10% dos pacientes no grupo D‐C precisaram de uma dose extra e 5% precisaram de duas doses extras, em comparação com 25% e 20% no grupo P‐C, respectivamente (p = 0,001). O grupo P‐C apresentou menos náuseas e vômitos após o procedimento. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os dois grupos em relação à satisfação do endoscopista. Conclusões A combinação P‐C foi associada a tempo mais curto de recuperação na endoscopia digestiva alta pediátrica, enquanto a combinação D‐C mostrou menor necessidade de doses adicionais. Número de registro Clinical trials.gov (NCT02863861).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Propofol/administration & dosage , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Anesthetics, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Combined/administration & dosage , Dexmedetomidine/administration & dosage , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Oxygen/blood , Time Factors , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Anesthesia Recovery Period , Heart Rate/drug effects , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Hypotension/chemically induced , Ketamine/administration & dosage
2.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 24(1): 62-67, Jan.-Mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090549

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Posttonsillectomy pain results in significant morbidity to the patients. There is a disagreement in the literature regarding the use of local anesthetics during tonsillectomy. The aim of this placebo-controlled, double-blind study is to evaluate the effect of peritonsillar administration of local anesthetics. Objective To evaluate the role of intraoperative use of analgesics in tonsillar fossa and postoperative evaluation with visual analogue scale (VAS) scores in achieving pain relief after tonsillectomy procedure Methods In this study, 180 patients were randomized to 1 of the 6 groups: bupivacaine infiltration, lidocaine infiltration, normal saline infiltration, bupivacaine packing, lidocaine packing, and normal saline packing. Pain caused by speaking, swallowing, and on rest was assessed using VAS at 4, 8, 12, 16 hours, and at discharge. Results Significant analgesia was obtained in patients who received bupivacaine infiltration and packing compared with placebo (p < 0.05). The majority of the study subjects had no postoperative complications, and patients receiving bupivacaine infiltration required less additional analgesics in the first 24 hours after surgery. Conclusion We advocate the use of bupivacaine infiltration or packing immediately following the procedure to achieve adequate postoperative analgesia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Tonsillectomy , Analgesia , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Intraoperative Care , Pain, Postoperative/diagnosis , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Pakistan , Placebos/administration & dosage , Postoperative Complications , Pain Measurement/methods , Bupivacaine/administration & dosage , Bupivacaine/therapeutic use , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Injections, Intravenous , Lidocaine/administration & dosage , Lidocaine/therapeutic use
3.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1283629

ABSTRACT

The essential oil of Laurus nobilis L. was used to test their antinociceptive efficacy. It was applied intraperitoneally (i.p.) to rats subjected to a nociception test (C reflex and spinal wind-up). The results showed that the essential oil applied at higher doses (0.06 mg/Kg) causes a complete abolition of the spinal wind-up, while the C reflex was unchanged, indicating a clear antinociceptive effect. At lower concentrations (0.012 mg/Kg), there was a lowering in the wind-up by 85% within ten minutes of the essential i.p. oil application. Interestingly, there was an effect of naloxone (0.08 mg/Kg i.p.) When applied, a change occurs that almost entirely reversed the antinociception caused by the essential oil from Laurus nobilis. We conclude that there is a significant antinociceptive effect of the essential oil of Laurus nobilis subjected to electric nociception. In addition, it was observed that naloxone reversed the antinociceptive effect (wind-up) produced by Laurus nobilis.


El aceite esencial de Laurus nobilis L. se usó para probar su eficacia antinociceptiva. Se aplicó por vía intraperitoneal (i.p.) a ratas sometidas a una prueba de nocicepción (reflejo-C y wind-up espinal). Los resultados mostraron que el aceite esencial aplicado a dosis más altas (0.06 mg/Kg) abolió completamente el wind-up espinal, mientras que el reflejo-C no cambió, lo que indica un claro efecto antinociceptivo. A concentraciones más bajas (0.012 mg/Kg), hubo una disminución en el wind-up en un 85% dentro de los diez minutos del i.p. la aplicación del aceite esencial. Curiosamente, hubo un efecto de la naloxona (0.08 mg/Kg i.p.) la cual revierte casi por completo la antinocicepción causada por el aceite esencial de Laurus nobilis. Concluimos que existe un efecto antinociceptivo significativo del aceite esencial de Laurus nobilis sometido a nocicepción eléctrica. Además, se observó que la naloxona revirtió el efecto antinociceptivo (wind-up) producido por Laurus nobilis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Pain/drug therapy , Oils, Volatile/administration & dosage , Laurus/chemistry , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Reflex/drug effects , Spinal Cord/drug effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Naloxone/administration & dosage
5.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 31(4): 447-455, out.-dez. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058046

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o impacto de um protocolo de manejo da dor e redução do consumo de opioides no consumo geral de opioides e nos desfechos clínicos. Métodos: Estudo em centro único, quasi-experimental, retrospectivo, de coortes antes e depois. Utilizamos uma série temporal interrompida para analisar as alterações no nível e na tendência de utilização de diferentes analgésicos. Foram usadas comparações bivariadas nas coortes antes e depois, regressão logística e regressão quantílica para estimativas ajustadas. Resultados: Incluímos 988 pacientes no período pré-intervenção e 1.838 no período pós-intervenção. O consumo de fentanil teve ligeiro aumento gradual antes da intervenção (β = 16; IC95% 7 - 25; p = 0,002), porém diminuiu substancialmente em nível com a intervenção (β = - 128; IC95% -195 - -62; p = 0,001) e, a partir de então, caiu progressivamente (β = - 24; IC95% -35 - -13; p < 0,001). Houve tendência crescente de utilização de dipirona. A duração da ventilação mecânica foi significantemente menor (diferença mediana: - 1 dia; IC95% -1 - 0; p < 0,001), especialmente para pacientes mecanicamente ventilados por períodos mais longos (diferença no 50º percentil: -0,78; IC95% -1,51 - -0,05; p = 0,036; diferença no 75º percentil: -2,23; IC95% -3,47 - -0,98; p < 0,001). Conclusão: Um protocolo de manejo da dor conseguiu reduzir o consumo de fentanil na unidade de terapia intensiva. Esta estratégia se associou com menor duração da ventilação mecânica.


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the impact of an opioid-sparing pain management protocol on overall opioid consumption and clinical outcomes. Methods: This was a single-center, quasi-experimental, retrospective, before and after cohort study. We used an interrupted time series to analyze changes in the levels and trends of the utilization of different analgesics. We used bivariate comparisons in the before and after cohorts as well as logistic regression and quantile regression for adjusted estimates. Results: We included 988 patients in the preintervention period and 1,838 in the postintervention period. Fentanyl consumption was slightly increasing before the intervention (β = 16; 95%CI 7 - 25; p = 0.002) but substantially decreased in level with the intervention (β = - 128; 95%CI -195 - -62; p = 0.001) and then progressively decreased (β = - 24; 95%CI -35 - -13; p < 0.001). There was an increasing trend in the utilization of dipyrone. The mechanical ventilation duration was significantly lower (median difference: - 1 day; 95%CI -1 - 0; p < 0.001), especially for patients who were mechanically ventilated for a longer time (50th percentile difference: -0.78; 95%CI -1.51 - -0.05; p = 0.036; 75th percentile difference: -2.23; 95%CI -3.47 - -0.98; p < 0.001). Conclusion: A pain management protocol could reduce the intensive care unit consumption of fentanyl. This strategy was associated with a shorter mechanical ventilation duration.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Pain/drug therapy , Critical Care/methods , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Intensive Care Units , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , Dipyrone/administration & dosage , Fentanyl/administration & dosage , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Middle Aged
6.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(6): 529-536, nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057480

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: There are few data in the literature characterizing the pattern of analgesic use in Latin American countries, including Brazil. Little is known about the undertreatment of pain and its influence on the habit of self-medication with analgesics. The aim of this study is to define the pattern of analgesic use among chronic pain patients and its potential association with self-medication with analgesics. Method: Cross-sectional observational study with an urban population sample. Chronic pain was defined as a pain lasting for at least 90 days. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the institution. Results: 416 subjects were included; 45.7 % (n = 190) had chronic pain, with females (72.3 %; p = 0.04) being the most affected. Self-medication with analgesics is practiced by 78.4% of patients with chronic pain. The most common current analgesic treatment consists of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (dipyrone and acetaminophen). Weak opioids are rarely used and only 2.6% of subjects with chronic pain were taking these analgesics. None of the subjects were taking potent opioids. Conclusions: The practice of self-medication with analgesics is frequent among patients with chronic pain, which may be due to the underprescription of more potent analgesics, such as opioids. It can also be said that, given the data presented, there is no crisis of recreational opioid use in the studied population.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: Há poucos dados na literatura que caracterizam o padrão de uso de analgésicos na América Latina e no Brasil. Também se sabe pouco sobre o subtratamento da dor e sua influência no hábito de automedicação analgésica. O objetivo desta pesquisa é definir o padrão de uso de analgésicos entre os portadores de dor crônica (DC) e a sua potencial associação à automedicação analgésica. Método: Estudo observacional transversal com amostra de população urbana. A dor crônica foi definida como aquela presente por pelo menos 90 dias. A pesquisa foi aprovada pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa institucional. Resultados: Foram incluídos 416 indivíduos; 45,7% (n = 190) portadores de dor crônica, sendo os do sexo feminino (72,3%; p = 0,04) os mais acometidos. A automedicação analgésica é praticada por 78,4% dos portadores de dor crônica. O tratamento analgésico vigente mais frequente é composto pelos anti-inflamatórios não esteroides (AINES), dipirona e paracetamol. Os opioides fracos são pouco usados e apenas 2,6% dos indivíduos com dor crônica fazem uso desses analgésicos. Nenhum dos indivíduos estava em uso de opioides potentes. Conclusões: A prática de automedicação analgésica é frequente entre os portadores de dor crônica, o que pode ser consequência da pouca prescrição de analgésicos mais potentes, como os opioides. Pode-se também dizer que, pelos dados apresentados, não ocorre uma crise de uso recreativo de opioides na população estudada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Self Medication/statistics & numerical data , Chronic Pain/drug therapy , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Dipyrone/administration & dosage , Cross-Sectional Studies , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Acetaminophen/administration & dosage , Middle Aged
7.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(4): 350-357, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041999

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives The administration of ketamine as nebulized inhalation is relatively new and studies on nebulized ketamine are scarce. We aimed to investigate the analgesic efficacy of nebulized ketamine (1 and 2 mg.kg-1) administered 30 min before general anesthesia in children undergoing elective tonsillectomy in comparison with intravenous ketamine (0.5 mg.kg-1) and saline placebo. Methods One hundred children aged (7-12) years were randomly allocated in four groups (n = 25) receive; Saline Placebo (Group C), Intravenous Ketamine 0.5 mg.kg-1 (Group K-IV), Nebulized Ketamine 1 mg.kg-1 (Group K-N1) or 2 mg.kg-1 (Group K-N2). The primary endpoint was the total consumption of rescue analgesics in the first 24 h postoperative. Results The mean time to first request for rescue analgesics was prolonged in K-N1 (400.9 ± 60.5 min, 95% CI 375.9-425.87) and K-N2 (455.5 ± 44.6 min, 95% CI 437.1-473.9) groups compared with Group K-IV (318.5 ± 86.1 min, 95% CI 282.9-354.1) and Group C (68.3 ± 21.9 min, 95% CI 59.5-77.1; p < 0.001), with a significant difference between K-N1 and K-N2 Groups (p < 0.001). The total consumption of IV paracetamol in the first 24 h postoperative was reduced in Group K-IV (672.6 ± 272.8 mg, 95% CI 559.9-785.2), Group K-N1 (715.6 ± 103.2 mg, 95% CI 590.4-840.8) and Group K-N2 (696.6 ± 133.3 mg, 95% CI 558.8-834.4) compared with Control Group (1153.8 ± 312.4 mg, 95% CI 1024.8-1282.8; p < 0.001). With no difference between intravenous and Nebulized Ketamine Groups (p = 0.312). Patients in intravenous and Nebulized Ketamine Groups showed lower postoperative VRS scores compared with Group C (p < 0.001), no differences between K-IV, K-N1 or K-N2 group and without significant adverse effects. Conclusion Preemptive nebulized ketamine was effective for post-tonsillectomy pain relief. It can be considered as an effective alternative route to IV ketamine.


Resumo Objetivos A administração de cetamina por via inalatória através de nebulizador é relativamente nova e os estudos sobre este assunto são escassos. Nosso objetivo foi investigar a eficácia analgésica da cetamina nebulizada (1 e 2 mg.kg-1) administrada 30 minutos antes da anestesia geral em crianças submetidas à amigdalectomia eletiva, em comparação com cetamina intravenosa (0,5 mg.kg-1) e placebo (soro fisiológico). Métodos Cem crianças entre 7-12 anos foram randomicamente alocadas em quatro grupos (n = 25) e receberam: soro fisiológico para controle (Grupo C); 0,5 mg.kg-1 de cetamina intravenosa (Grupo C-IV); 1 mg.kg-1 de cetamina nebulizada (Grupo C-N1); 2 mg.kg-1 de cetamina nebulizada (Grupo C-N2). O desfecho primário foi o consumo total de analgésicos de resgate nas primeiras 24 horas de pós-operatório. Resultados O tempo médio para a primeira solicitação de analgésicos de resgate foi prolongado nos grupos C-N1 (400,9 ± 60,5 min, IC 95% 375,9-425,87) e C-N2 (455,5 ± 44,6 min, IC 95% 437,1-473,9) em comparação com o Grupo C-IV (318,5 ± 86,1 min, IC 95% 282,9-354,1) e o Grupo C (68,3 ± 21,9 min, IC 95% 59,5-77,1; p < 0,001), com uma diferença significativa entre os grupos C-N1 e C-N2 (p < 0,001). O consumo total de paracetamol IV nas primeiras 24 horas de pós-operatório foi reduzido no Grupo C-IV (672,6 ± 272,8 mg, IC 95% 559,9-785,2), Grupo C-N1 (715,6 ± 103,2 mg, IC 95% 590,4-840,8) e Grupo C-N2 (696,6 ± 133,3 mg, IC 95% 558,8-834,4) em comparação com o Grupo C (1153,8 ± 312,4 mg, IC 95% 1024,8-1282,8; p < 0,001). Não houve diferença entre os grupos de cetamina intravenosa e nebulizada (p = 0,312). Os pacientes dos grupos de cetamina intravenosa e nebulizada apresentaram escores VRS pós-operatórios menores, em comparação com o Grupo C (p < 0,001), sem diferenças entre os grupos C-IV, C-N1 ou C-N2 e sem efeitos adversos significativos. Conclusão A administração preventiva de cetamina nebulizada foi eficaz no alívio da dor pós-amigdalectomia. Cetamina nebulizada pode ser considerada como uma via alternativa eficaz à cetamina IV.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Tonsillectomy/methods , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Ketamine/administration & dosage , Administration, Inhalation , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Double-Blind Method , Administration, Intravenous , Anesthesia, General/methods , Acetaminophen/administration & dosage
8.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(3): 272-278, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013422

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: Inadequate pain relief after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction affects mobility leading to development of adhesions, weakened ligament insertion and muscle atrophy. Adductor canal block for postoperative analgesia preserves quadriceps strength. The present study was conducted to compare pain free period in patients undergoing arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, receiving ultrasound-guided adductor canal block with ropivacaine alone and ropivacaine with clonidine. Methods: A prospective randomized double blinded study was conducted including sixty-three adult, ASA class I, II patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. They were randomized into three groups: Group S - control group received adductor canal block with 30 mL saline, Group R - ropivacaine group received adductor canal block with 30 mL of 0.375% ropivacaine and Group RC - clonidine group received adductor canal block with 30 mL of 0.375% ropivacaine with clonidine 1 µg.kg-1. The primary aim was to compare the pain free period in patients receiving adductor canal block with ropivacaine alone or ropivacine with clonidine. The secondary outcomes were pain score at rest and movement, total analgesic requirement, sedation score and postoperative nausea and vomiting. Results: The mean pain free periods were 20 min, 384.76 min and 558.09 min for Group S, Group R and Group RC, respectively and this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between Group R and Group RC in terms of pain scores at rest and movement and total analgesic requirement. Conclusion: Addition of clonidine to ropivacaine in USG guided adductor canal block led to significant prolongation of pain free period though pain score at rest and movement, and rescue analgesic requirement, did not differ.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: O alívio inadequado da dor após a reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior afeta a mobilidade, leva ao desenvolvimento de aderências, inserção do ligamento enfraquecido e atrofia muscular. O bloqueio do canal adutor para analgesia pós-operatória preserva a força do quadríceps. O presente estudo foi feito para comparar o período sem dor em pacientes de reconstrução artroscópica do ligamento cruzado anterior, submetidos ao bloqueio do canal adutor guiado por ultrassom com ropivacaína isolada e ropivacaína + clonidina. Métodos: Um estudo prospectivo, randômico e duplo-cego foi conduzido com 63 pacientes adultos, estado físico ASA I-II, submetidos à reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior. Os pacientes foram randomizados em três grupos: Grupo S, que recebeu bloqueio do canal adutor com 30 mL de solução salina para controle; Grupo R, que recebeu bloqueio do canal adutor com 30 mL de ropivacaína a 0,375%; Grupo RC, que recebeu bloqueio do canal adutor com 30 mL de ropivacaína a 0,375% e 1 µg.kg-1 de clonidina. O desfecho primário do estudo foi comparar o período sem dor nos pacientes que receberam bloqueio do canal adutor com ropivacaína isolada ou ropivacina + clonidina. Os desfechos secundários foram escores de dor em repouso e movimento, necessidade total de analgésicos, escore de sedação, além de náusea e vômito no pós-operatório. Resultados: Os períodos médios sem dor foram 20 min, 384,76 min e 558,09 min para os grupos S, R e RC, respectivamente, e essa diferença foi estatisticamente significativa (p < 0,001). Não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos R e RC em termos de escores de dor em repouso e movimento e a necessidade total de analgésicos. Conclusão: A adição de clonidina à ropivacaína em bloqueio do canal adutor guiado por ultrassom levou a um prolongamento significativo do período sem dor, embora os escores de dor em repouso e movimento, e a necessidade de analgésico de resgate, não tenham diferido.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Arthroscopy/methods , Clonidine/administration & dosage , Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction/methods , Ropivacaine/administration & dosage , Nerve Block/methods , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods , Drug Therapy, Combination , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage
9.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(3): 259-265, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013414

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Pain management committee established a pain performance improvement plan in 2012. Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the trends in analgesic consumption in a tertiary teaching hospital and the associated economic impact. Methods: A descriptive, retrospective study was conducted between 2011 and 2015. The analysis included: anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products non-steroids, opioid analgesics and other analgesics and antipyretics. Data are converted into DDD/100 bed-days to analyze consumption trends. Main outcome measure: assessment of the analgesic consumption after the implementation of a pain performance improvement plan. Results: Overall, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products consumption decreased in 24.8 DDD/100 bed-days (-28.3%), accounting for most of the total analgesic consumption decrease (-13%) and total cost (-44.3%). Opioid consumption increased markedly from 22.3 DDD/100 bed-days in 2011 to 26.5 DDD/100 bed-days in 2015 (+18.9%). In 2011, the most consumed opioid was morphine (8.6 DDD/100 bed-days). However, there was an increasing trend in fentanyl consumption (from 8.1 to 12.1 DDD/100 bed-days in 2015), which resulted in fentanyl replacing morphine from the most consumed opioid in 2015 (12.1 DDD/100 bed-days). In 2015, the group of other analgesics and antipyretics represented 46.2% of the total analgesic consumption. Acetaminophen was the most commonly consumed analgesic drug (53.2 DDD/100 bed-days in 2015) and had the highest total cost, it represented 55.4% of the overall cost in 2015. Conclusion: Opioid consumption showed an increasing trend during the 5 year period, with fentanyl replacing morphine as the most used opioid. In general, analgesics diminished use was due to the decreasing trend of consumption of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic products.


Resumo Justificativa: A Comissão para o Manejo da Dor estabeleceu um plano de melhoria no controle da dor em 2012. Objetivo: Avaliar as tendências do consumo de analgésicos em um hospital de ensino terciário e o impacto econômico associado. Métodos: Estudo descritivo, retrospectivo, feito entre 2011 e 2015. A análise incluiu: produtos anti-inflamatórios e antirreumáticos não esteroides, analgésicos opioides e outros analgésicos e antipiréticos. Os dados foram convertidos em DDD/100 leitos-dia para analisar as tendências de consumo. Principal medida do desfecho: avaliação do consumo de analgésicos após o estabelecimento de um plano de melhoria no controle da dor. Resultados: O consumo total de produtos anti-inflamatórios e antirreumáticos não esteroides diminuiu em 24,8 DDD/100 leitos-dia (-28,3%), representando a maior parte da redução total do consumo de analgésicos (-13%) e o custo total (-44,3%). O consumo global de opioides aumentou acentuadamente de 22,3 DDD/100 leitos-dia em 2011 para 26,5 DDD/100 leitos-dia em 2015 (+18,9%). Em 2011, o opioide mais consumido foi a morfina (8,6 DDD/100 leitos-dia). No entanto, houve uma tendência crescente no consumo de fentanil (de 8,1 para 12,1 DDD/100 leitos-dia em 2015), o que resultou na substituição de morfina por fentanil como o opioide mais consumido em 2015 (12,1 DDD/100 leitos-dia). Em 2015, o grupo dos outros analgésicos e antipiréticos representou 46,2% do consumo total de analgésicos. Acetaminofeno foi o analgésico mais consumido (53,2 DDD/100 leitos-dia em 2015) e teve o maior custo total, representou 55,4% do custo total em 2015. Conclusão: O consumo de opioides mostrou uma tendência crescente durante o período de cinco anos, fentanil substituiu morfina como o opioide mais usado. Em geral, o uso diminuído de analgésicos foi devido à tendência decrescente do consumo de produtos anti-inflamatórios e antirreumáticos não esteroides.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pain/drug therapy , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Fentanyl/administration & dosage , Retrospective Studies , Antirheumatic Agents/administration & dosage , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Utilization/trends , Hospitals, Teaching , Morphine/administration & dosage
10.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(2): 137-143, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003403

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: Gabapentin is an antiepileptic drug. Widely used for the management of neuropathic pain. Although it is known to be well tolerated, somnolence and dizziness are the most frequent adverse effects. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of melatonin on daytime sleepiness side effect of gabapentin, sleep quality and pain intensity of patients with neuropathic pain. Methods: Patients suffering from "neuropathic pain" and planed to receive gabapentin therapy were randomly divided into two groups. Group 1 received melatonin 3 mg and gabapentin 900 mg orally, group 2 received matching placebo capsule and gabapentin 900 mg. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale, the Pittsburgh sleep quality index for assessment of sleep quality and Verbal Rating Scale were completed at the 0th, 10th and 30th days of treatment. Additive analgesic drug requirements were recorded. Results: Eighty patients were enrolled to the study; age, gender, ratio of additive analgesic consumption, baseline Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Pittsburg Sleep Quality index and Verbal Rating Scale scores were similar between the groups. Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores, Pittsburgh sleep quality index scores and Verbal Rating Scale scores in Group 1 were significantly lower than group 2 at the 10th day of treatment (p = 0.002, p = 0.003, p = 0.002 respectively). At the 30th day of treatment, Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores and Verbal Rating Scale scores were significantly lower in Group 1 (p = 0.002, p = 0.008 respectively). However, Pittsburgh sleep quality index scores did not significantly differ between the groups (p = 0.0566). Conclusions: Melatonin supplementation rapidly and significantly improved daytime sleepiness side-effect of gabapentin, however sleep quality of the patients with neuropathic pain was similar between groups.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: Gabapentina é um agente antiepiléptico, amplamente utilizado para o tratamento da dor neuropática. Embora conhecida por ser bem-tolerada, sonolência e tontura são os seus efeitos adversos mais frequentes. Neste estudo, nosso objetivo foi avaliar o efeito da melatonina sobre o efeito colateral de sonolência diurna da gabapentina, a qualidade do sono e a intensidade da dor em pacientes com dor neuropática. Métodos: Os pacientes que sofriam de "dor neuropática" e com prescrição para receber terapia com gabapentina foram divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos. O Grupo 1 recebeu 3 mg de melatonina e 900 mg de gabapentina por via oral, o Grupo 2 recebeu uma cápsula de placebo correspondente e 900 mg de gabapentina. A escala de sonolência de Epworth (ESS), o índice de qualidade do sono de Pittsburgh para avaliação da qualidade do sono (PSQI) e a escala de avaliação verbal (VRS) foram aplicados nos dias 0, 10 e 30 de tratamento. A necessidade de medicamentos analgésicos adicionais foi registrada. Resultados: Oitenta pacientes foram incluídos no estudo; idade, sexo, quantidade de analgésico adicional consumida e os escores basais de ESS, PSQI e VRS foram semelhantes entre os grupos. Os escores ESS, PSQI e VRS do Grupo 1 foram significativamente menores que os do Grupo 2 no décimo dia de tratamento (p = 0,002, p = 0,003, p = 0,002, respectivamente). No trigésimo dia de tratamento, os escores ESS e VRS foram significativamente menores no Grupo 1 (p = 0,002, p = 0,008, respectivamente). No entanto, os escores PSQI não diferiram significativamente entre os grupos (p = 0,0566). Conclusões: A suplementação de melatonina melhorou de forma rápida e significativa o efeito colateral de sonolência diurna da gabapentina, mas a qualidade do sono dos pacientes com dor neuropática foi semelhante entre os grupos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Gabapentin/administration & dosage , Disorders of Excessive Somnolence/prevention & control , Melatonin/administration & dosage , Neuralgia/drug therapy , Sleep/drug effects , Time Factors , Double-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome , Gabapentin/adverse effects , Disorders of Excessive Somnolence/chemically induced , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Analgesics/adverse effects , Middle Aged
11.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(1): 27-34, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977427

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: The combination of clonidine with local anesthetic administered for epidural anesthesia via caudal route seems to improve the quality of postoperative analgesia, but with conflicting results. This study compared the postoperative analgesia of three different doses of clonidine combined with bupivacaine in caudal epidural anesthesia in children undergoing hypospadias repair. Methods: Eighty children aged 1-10 years, candidates for surgical repair of hypospadias, were randomly divided into four groups of 20 patients to receive general anesthesia combined with caudal epidural anesthesia with bupivacaine 0.165% alone or in combination with 1, 2 or 3 µg.kg- 1 of clonidine. The primary outcome was morphine consumption in the first 24 h postoperatively. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, end-tidal concentration of sevoflurane, time to awakening, pain severity (FLACC scale), level of sedation (RAMSAY), duration of analgesia, and occurrence of adverse effects were also compared. Results: Intraoperatively, there was no difference between groups regarding mean arterial pressure, heart rate, end-tidal concentration of sevoflurane, and time to awakening. Postoperative morphine consumption and pain severity were similar between groups, but the group receiving clonidine (3 µg.kg-1) had lower heart rate and higher sedation level than the group receiving bupivacaine alone. Conclusions: The combination of clonidine at doses of 1, 2 or 3 µg.kg-1 with bupivacaine 0.16% via caudal epidural route did not alter the consumption of morphine in the early postoperative period of children undergoing hypospadias repair.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: A associação de clonidina ao anestésico local administrado por via peridural caudal parece melhorar a qualidade da analgesia pós-operatória, mas com resultados conflitantes. Este estudo comparou a analgesia pós-operatória de três diferentes doses de clonidina associada à bupivacaína na anestesia peridural caudal em crianças submetidas à correção de hipospádia. Método: Oitenta crianças entre um e dez anos, candidatas à correção cirúrgica de hipospádia, foram divididas, aleatoriamente, em quatro grupos de 20 pacientes para receber anestesia geral associada à anestesia peridural caudal com bupivacaína 0,166% isolada ou associada a 1, 2 ou 3 µg.Kg-1 de clonidina. Como desfecho principal avaliou-se o consumo de morfina nas primeiras 24 horas de pós-operatório. Compararam-se também pressão arterial média, frequência cardíaca, concentração expirada de sevoflurano, tempo de despertar da anestesia, intensidade da dor pela escala FLACC, nível de sedação (Ramsay), tempo de duração da analgesia e ocorrência de efeitos adversos. Resultados: No transoperatório, não houve diferença entre os grupos quanto à pressão arterial média, frequência cardíaca, concentração expirada de sevoflurano e ao tempo de despertar. No pós-operatório, o consumo de morfina e a intensidade da dor foram similares entre os grupos, mas o grupo que recebeu 3 µg.Kg-1 de clonidina apresentou menor frequência cardíaca e maior sedação do que o grupo que recebeu somente bupivacaína. Conclusões: A associação de clonidina nas doses de 1, 2 ou 3 µg.Kg-1 à bupivacaína 0,166% por via peridural caudal não alterou o consumo de morfina no pós-operatório imediato de crianças submetidas à correção de hipospádia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Bupivacaine/administration & dosage , Clonidine/administration & dosage , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Hypospadias/surgery , Anesthesia, Epidural/methods , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Single-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Drug Combinations
12.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(1): 35-41, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977411

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Postoperative pain control is important in terms of early recovery and rehabilitation in arthroscopic meniscectomy. For this purpose, we aimed to compare the effects of intraarticular tramadol, magnesium, and ketamine with combinations of pericapsular bupivacaine on postoperative pain and recovery in arthroscopic meniscectomy. Methods: Ninety patients who underwent arthroscopic meniscectomy were enrolled in the study. Group T was given tramadol, Group K was given ketamine, and Group M was given magnesium reconstituted intraarticularly, and all groups received periarticular bupivacaine. Comparisons were made in terms of the patients' postoperative Visual Analogue Scale scores with and without movement, need for additional analgesics, first analgesic time, mobilization times, adverse effects, and satisfaction with the analgesics. Results: The Visual Analogue Scale scores were lowest in Group T at 0 minutes, and were higher in the 15th and 30th minutes and 1st, 2nd, and 6th hours. Visual Analogue Scale values with movement were found to be high in Group M at 0 and 15 minutes, but they were found to be higher in group T in the 30th minute, 1st, 2nd and 6th hour. The groups were similar in terms of postoperative additional analgesic use, number of analgesic use, and satisfaction with analgesics; however, the first analgesic time was earlier in Group M, and the first mobilization time was earlier in Group K. Conclusion: Intraarticular ketamine enables early mobilization and less need for additional analgesics, it also provides a better analgesic effect in comparison with intraarticular tramadol and magnesium.


Resumo Objetivo: O controle da dor pós-operatória é importante para recuperação e reabilitação precoces em meniscectomia artroscópica. Portanto, nosso objetivo foi comparar os efeitos de tramadol, magnésio e cetamina administrados por via intra-articular em associação com bupivacaína pericapsular sobre a dor e a recuperação após meniscectomia artroscópica. Métodos: Noventa pacientes submetidos à meniscectomia artroscópica foram incluídos no estudo. O Grupo T recebeu tramadol, o Grupo K recebeu cetamina e o Grupo M recebeu magnésio em doses reconstituídas por via intra-articular e todos os grupos receberam bupivacaína por via periarticular. As avaliações foram feitas mediante comparação dos escores em escala visual analógica no pós-operatório dos pacientes em movimento e em repouso, necessidade de analgésicos adicionais, tempo até a primeira necessidade de analgésico, tempo de mobilização, efeitos adversos e satisfação com os analgésicos. Resultados: Os escores da escala visual analógica foram menores no minuto zero e maiores nos minutos 15 e 30 e nas horas 1, 2 e 6 no Grupo T. Os escores da escala visual analógica em movimento foram maiores nos minutos zero e 15 no Grupo M e maiores no minuto 30 e nas horas 1, 2 e 6 no Grupo T. Os escores dos grupos foram semelhantes em relação à necessidade de analgésico adicional no pós-operatório, ao consumo de analgésico e à satisfação com os analgésicos, mas os tempos até a primeira necessidade de analgesia e até a primeira mobilização foram mais curtos nos grupos M e K, respectivamente. Conclusão: A administração intra-articular de cetamina permite mobilização precoce e diminui a necessidade de analgésicos adicionais, além de proporcionar um melhor efeito analgésico em comparação com tramadol e magnésio por via intra-articular.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Arthroscopy , Tramadol/administration & dosage , Bupivacaine/administration & dosage , Meniscectomy/methods , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Ketamine/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Magnesium/administration & dosage , Prospective Studies , Drug Therapy, Combination , Injections, Intra-Articular , Middle Aged
13.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 17(4): eAO4905, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019804

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To compare analgesia and opioid consumption for patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty with preoperative posterior quadratus lumborum block with patients who did not receive quadratus lumborum block. Methods The medical records of patients undergoing unilateral total hip arthroplasty between January 1st, 2017 and March 31, 2018 were reviewed, and 238 patients were included in the study. The primary outcome was postoperative opioid consumption in the first 24 postoperative hours. Secondary outcomes were intraoperative, post anesthesia care unit, and 48-hour opioid consumption, postoperative pain Visual Analog Scale scores, and post-anesthesia care unit length of stay. Primary and secondary endpoint data were compared between patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty with preoperative posterior quadratus lumborum block with patients who did not receive quadratus lumborum block. Results For the patients who received quadratus lumborum block, the 24-hour total oral morphine equivalent (milligram) requirements were lower (53.82mg±37.41), compared to the patients who did not receive quadratus lumborum block (77.59mL±58.42), with p=0.0011. Opioid requirements were consistently lower for the patients who received quadratus lumborum block at each additional assessment time point up to 48 hours. Pain Visual Analog Scale scores were lower up to 12 hours after surgery for the patients who received a posterior quadratus lumborum block, and the post-anesthesia care unit length of stay was shorter for the patients who received quadratus lumborum block. Conclusion Preoperative posterior quadratus lumborum block for primary total hip arthroplasty is associated with decreased opioid requirements up to 48 hours, decreased Visual Analog Scale pain scores up to 12 hours, and shorter post-anesthesia care unit length of stay. Level of evidence: III


RESUMO Objetivo Comparar a analgesia e o uso de opioides em pacientes submetidos à artroplastia total do quadril primária com bloqueio pré-operatório do quadrado lombar posterior e pacientes que não receberam o bloqueio do quadrado lombar. Métodos Revisamos os prontuários de pacientes submetidos à artroplastia total do quadril unilateral entre 1º de janeiro de 2017 e 31 de março de 2018, e 238 pacientes foram incluídos no estudo. O desfecho primário foi o consumo de opioides no pós-operatório nas primeiras 24 horas. Os desfechos secundários foram consumo de opioide no intraoperatório, na sala de recuperação pós-anestésica e nas primeiras 48 horas, escores de Escala Visual Analógica de dor pós-operatória, e tempo de permanência na recuperação pós-anestésica. Os desfechos primário e secundários foram comparados entre os pacientes submetidos à artroplastia total do quadril primária com bloqueio pré-operatório do quadrado lombar posterior e aqueles que não receberam o bloqueio do quadrado lombar. Resultados Para o grupo que recebeu o bloqueio, as doses totais de morfina por via oral em 24 horas foram menores (53,82mg±37,41) em comparação ao grupo sem bloqueio (77,59mg±58,42), com p=0,0011. A utilização de opioides foi consistentemente menor para o grupo que recebeu o bloqueio em cada tempo adicional de avaliação até 48 horas. Os escores da Escala Visual Analógica até 12 horas após a cirurgia para os pacientes que receberam o bloqueio do quadrado lombar posterior e o tempo de permanência na sala de recuperação pós-anestésica foram menores para o grupo que recebeu o bloqueio. Conclusão O bloqueio anestésico do quadrado lombar posterior para artroplastia total do quadril primária está associado à diminuição do uso de opioides nas primeiras 48 horas, diminuição do escore de dor da Escala Visual Analógica em até 12 horas, e menor tempo de permanência na sala de recuperação pós-anestésica. Nível de evidência: III


Subject(s)
Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip/adverse effects , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Anesthetics, Local/therapeutic use , Pain, Postoperative/etiology , Time Factors , Anesthesia Recovery Period , Retrospective Studies , Abdominal Muscles/innervation , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Perioperative Period/methods , Pain Management , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Anesthesia, General , Anesthesia, Spinal , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Nerve Block/methods
14.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(2): e7773, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984030

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of ultrasound (US)-mediated phonophoresis alone or in association with diclofenac diethylammonium (DCF) administered topically in animal models of inflammation. A pre-clinical, prospective, and randomized experimental study of quantitative and qualitative nature was carried out. Phonophoresis was performed using a therapeutic ultrasound apparatus in two distinct models of acute inflammation. Edema was induced by an intraplantar injection of carrageenan and measured by plethysmography. The Hargreaves test was used to evaluate the antinociceptive activity and investigate the action of phonophoresis on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production. A histological analysis with hematoxylin-eosin was used to evaluate tissue repair, and the expression of COX-2 was determined by immunohistochemical analysis. At the peak of inflammatory activity (3 h), treatment with US, US+DCF, and DCF significantly reduced edema formation compared to the control group. Treatment with US+DCF was more effective than treatment with US alone at both analyzed times. In the analysis of the antinociceptive activity, the treatments significantly increased the latency time in response to the thermal stimulus. Histopathological analysis revealed a reduction of the inflammatory infiltrates and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the association was effective in reducing COX-2 expression compared to the control group. The association of DCF with US produced anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects in rat models of inflammation, which may be associated with inhibition of COX-2 and TNF-α production.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Phonophoresis , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/administration & dosage , Diclofenac/administration & dosage , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Inflammation/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Ultrasonic Therapy/methods , Random Allocation , Prospective Studies , Administration, Topical , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Inflammation/physiopathology , Inflammation/pathology
15.
J. Health NPEPS ; 3(2): 583-600, Julho-Dezembro. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-981437

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: realizar una revisión sistemática de la literatura para identificar los estudios que reportan la frecuencia del consumo drogas médicas, medicamentos de venta libre y alcohol, así como el consumo combinado de estas sustancias en los adultos mayores. Método: se utilizó como guía la Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, se identificaron 4,881 artículos a través de las bases de datos y tres artículos en el buscador google scholar, se eligieron doce estudios ya que cumplieron con los criterios de elegibilidad y por su calidad metodológica. Resultados: la revisión de la literatura permitió identificar que las drogas médicas más utilizadas fueron los benzodiacepinas, los sedantes, los antidepresivos y los psicotrópicos, los medicamentos de venta libre más usados fueron los analgésicos, laxantes, antiácidos y antihistamínicos; la combinación con el alcohol son prácticas observadas entre los adultos mayores. Conclusión: las drogas médicas y medicamentos de venta libre son consumidas para tratar los trastornos del sueño, depresión, ansiedad y estrés; con relación al alcohol entre el 20.3% y el 57.1% de los adultos mayores lo consumen; la combinación de alcohol y drogas médicas se observó entre el 9.3% y el 18.1%.(AU)


Objective: to perform a systematic review of the literature to identify the studies that report the frequency of consumption of medical drugs, over-the-counter medications and alcohol, as well as the combined use of these substances in the elderly. Method: the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyzes were used as a guide, 4,881 items through the databases and three items in the search google scholar were identified, twelve studies were chosen as they met the eligibility criteria and their methodological quality. Results: the literature review allowed us to identify that the most used medical drugs were benzodiazepines, sedatives, antidepressants and psychotropic drugs, the most used over-the-counter medications were analgesics, laxatives, antacids and antihistamines; the combination with alcohol are practices observed among the elderly. Conclusion: medical drugs and over-the-counter medications are consumed to treat sleep disorders, depression, anxiety and stress; in relation to alcohol between 20.3% and 57.1% of the elderly consume it; the combination of alcohol and medical drugs was observed between 9.3% and 18.1%.(AU)


Objetivo: realizar uma revisão sistemática da literatura para identificar os estudos que revelam a frequência do consumo de drogas médicas, medicamentos de venda livre e álcool, assim como o consumo combinado dessas substâncias em idosos. Método: foi utilizada como guia a Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and MetaAnalyses, foram identificados 4,881 artigos através das bases de dados e três artigos no Navegador Google Scholar, foram selecionados doze exames já que cumpriram com os critérios de elegibilidade e pela sua qualidade metodológica. Resultados: a revisão da literatura permitiu identificar que as drogas médicas mais utilizadas foram as benzodiazepínicas, sedativos, antidepressivos e os psicotrópicos. Os medicamentos de venda livre mais usados foram os analgésicos, laxantes, antiácidos e anti-histamínicos. A combinação com o álcool é um comportamento observado nos idosos. Conclusão: as drogas médicas e medicamentos de venda livre são consumidos para o tratamento dos distúrbios do sono, depressão, ansiedade e estresse. Com relação ao álcool, entre 20.3% e 57.1% das pessoas idosas o consomem. A combinação de álcool e drogas médicas foi observada entre 9.3% e 18.1%.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects , Health of the Elderly , Drug Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Psychotropic Drugs/administration & dosage , Anti-Anxiety Agents/administration & dosage , Benzodiazepines/administration & dosage , Laxatives/administration & dosage , Histamine Antagonists/administration & dosage , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Antacids/administration & dosage , Antidepressive Agents/administration & dosage , Narcotics/administration & dosage
16.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(6): 555-565, nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007333

ABSTRACT

Species of Polygala genus have been used for the treatment of inflamation and pain in Turkish traditional medicine. The aim of the present study is to assess the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of P. anatolica. n-Hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the aerial parts and roots of P. anatolica were investigated for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. The methanol extracts prepared from the aerial parts and roots of P. anatolica were found to be active in carrageenan- and PGE2-induced paw edema models and in Whittle method. Methanolic extract of the aerial part inhibited serotonin-induced hind paw edema, while the root extract did not exert inhibitory effect in the same model. In addition, Fr. B and C obtained from the methanol extract of P. anatolica aerial parts showed significant anti- inflammatory activity. Morover, the analgesic effect of the methanol extracts prepared from the roots and aerial parts and Fr.B and Fr.C were found to be statistically significant without inducing ulceration. The methanol extract obtained from the aerial parts of the plant and its saponoside and flavonoid fractions showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in the trials.


Las especies del género Polygala se han utilizado para el tratamiento de la inflamación y el dolor en la medicina tradicional turca. El objetivo del presente estudio es evaluar las actividades antiinflamatorias y analgésicas de P. anatolica. Se investigaron los extractos de n-hexano, acetato de etilo y metanol de las partes aéreas y raíces de P. anatolica por sus efectos antiinflamatorios y analgésicos. Los extractos de metanol preparados a partir de las partes aéreas y raíces de P. anatolica se encontraron activos en modelos de edema de pata inducidos por carragenina y PGE2 por el método de Whittle. El extracto metanólico de la parte aérea inhibió el edema de la pata trasera inducido por serotonina, mientras que el extracto de raíz no ejerció un efecto inhibidor en el mismo modelo. En suma, la fracción B y C obtenidos a partir del extracto metanólico de partes aéreas de P. anatolica mostraron actividad antiinflamatoria significativa. Además, el efecto analgésico de los extractos de metanol preparados a partir de las raíces y las partes aéreas y la fracción B y C resultaron ser estadísticamente significativas sin inducir la ulceración. El extracto de metanol obtenido de las partes aéreas de la planta y sus fracciones de saponósidos y flavonoides mostraron actividades antiinflamatorias y analgésicas en los ensayos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Polygala , Edema/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Capillary Permeability/drug effects , Plant Roots/chemistry , Methanol/pharmacology , Edema/chemically induced , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Analgesics/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology
17.
Rev. ADM ; 75(5): 250-254, sept.-oct. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-979846

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: El dolor y el miedo al dolor durante el tratamiento odontológico son frecuentes tanto en la práctica general como en la especialidad de la ortodoncia. El dolor de variada intensidad se presenta en 94% de los pacientes durante el primer día del tratamiento ortodóncico y todavía al sexto día lo padece aproximadamente 50%. Sin embargo, en muchas ocasiones los pacientes no reciben una receta médica o medicamentos para el alivio del dolor y esto puede conducir a la automedicación. Objetivos: El propósito de este estudio fue determinar el manejo del dolor que el ortodoncista realiza durante el tratamiento dental. Material y métodos: Este estudio es de tipo transversal mediante una encuesta de respuesta inmediata a 51 odontólogos especialistas en ortodoncia egresados de diferentes universidades y en diferentes tiempos. Asimismo, fueron entrevistados 100 pacientes ortodóncicos portadores de brackets a quienes se les realizaron preguntas relacionadas con la percepción de dolor y el manejo farmacológico de éste durante la cementación de brackets, cambio del arco de alambre o activación de sus aparatos. Resultados: 35.3% (n = 18/51) de los ortodoncistas prescriben analgésicos de manera habitual, mientras que 64.7% (n = 33/51) no lo hacen y 29.4% (n = 15/51) los indican con horario fijo. El analgésico de elección fue el paracetamol (64.7%; n = 33/51). 51% (n = 26/51) de los ortodoncistas refieren que no emplean analgésicos porque no existe dolor durante el tratamiento dental, o si lo hay, es leve, transitorio y tolerable. 52% (n = 52/100) recibió la instrucción verbal de tomar analgésicos en caso de ser necesario, mientras que al resto no se le dio tal indicación. Del total de pacientes sólo 4% (n = 4/100) no percibió dolor durante el tratamiento, en tanto que el resto presentó dolor leve (19%), moderado (57%) y severo (20%). La frecuencia de días con dolor posterior a la cementación o activación de los brackets fue de 1-3 días (56%). El principal trastorno ocasionado por el tratamiento fue la alteración de la masticación, es decir, la incapacidad y/o dolor durante la masticación se presentó en 86%, y 42% se adaptó a la presencia de los brackets en su boca en un tiempo de entre dos a cuatro semanas. Conclusiones: La mayoría de los ortodoncistas encuestados afirman que el dolor producido por las fuerzas ortodóncicas es de baja intensidad y el paciente lo tolera muy bien, por lo que la administración de analgésicos es innecesaria y cuando tienen que recetar algún medicamento, el de su preferencia es el paracetamol; sin embargo, no lo recetan con dosis y horario fijo. La afirmación de parte de 51% de los ortodoncistas respecto a que el paciente no presenta dolor durante el tratamiento ortodóncico no se cumple, ya que se encontró que 77% de los pacientes presentaron dolor entre moderado y severo durante al menos 1-3 días posteriores a la cementación o activación de los aparatos (AU)


Background: Pain and fear of suffering during the orthodontic treatment, are still frequent in both general and specialty dental practice, including the orthodontics. The pain with different intensity, it is shown in the 94% of the patient, during the 1st day of the orthodontic treatment but still, during the 6th day, it appears to the 50% of the patients. Nevertheless, on many occasions, the patients do not receive any prescription or pain relief medication and this may lead to self-medication. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the pain management that the orthodontist performs during dental treatment. Material and methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out by an immediate response survey to 51 orthodontic dentists graduated from different universities and at different times. We also interviewed 100 orthodontic patients who were asked questions related to their perception of pain and its pharmacological management during the activation of the devices. Results: 35.3% (n = 18/51) of orthodontists usually prescribe analgesics while the 64.7% (n = 33/51) they won't give any prescriptions; 29.4% (n = 15/51) indicating a specific time. The analgesic choice was paracetamol (64.7%; n = 33/51). 51% (n = 26/51) of the orthodontist they said that most of the time they won't give any prescription because there was no pain during the dental treatment, or in case that exists, they comment that is transitory or is a tolerated pain. The 52% (n = 52/100) they received the indication of taking analgesics in case they needed it, whereas the rest weren't receiving any indication. Of all patients only 4% (n = 4/100) did not feel pain during their treatment; meanwhile, the 19% felt a mild pain; 57% felt a moderate pain and 20% severe pain. The frequency with pain after the cementation or activation of the devices it is about 1 to 3 days (56%). The main disorder by the treatment was the chewing alteration (86%), and the 42% adapted to their braces in a time of 2-4 weeks. Conclusions: The majority of orthodontists enrolled, they had commented that the pain produced by the force of the braces is a low intensity and that the patient will tolerate without any problem, and because of that, there isn't a need to give them any prescription, and when there's a need the one of their preference is paracetamol, nevertheless they don't give the prescription with time and required doses. The affirmation from the 51% of the orthodontist about the patient that does not suffer any pain during their orthodontic treatment it's not according to the 77% who felt pain between moderate and severe during at least 1-3 days after the cementation or activation of devices (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Orthodontics, Corrective/adverse effects , Pain, Postoperative , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Analgesics/classification , Cross-Sectional Studies , Statistical Analysis , Orthodontic Brackets , Sex Distribution , Health Care Surveys , Mexico
18.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 21(236): 2021-2026, jan. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-907861

ABSTRACT

Estudo sobre a assistência de enfermagem nos pacientes queimados em uso de analgésicos e sedativos. Através de busca em bases de dados eletrônicas, num recorte temporal entre 2000 a 2011. Os resultados evidenciaram duas categorias: Tratamento farmacológico e Assistência de enfermagem ao paciente queimado submetido a sedação e analgesia. Conclui-se que a atuação do enfermeiro é fundamental no processo de identificação, tratamento e avaliação da dor do paciente queimado e deve estar baseado em evidências científicas para promover um cuidado de qualidade e seguro.


Study on the nursing assistance in burnt patients in use of analgesics and sedatives, by searching electronic databases, at a time frame from 2000to 2011. The results showed two categories: Drug Therapy and Nursing care to burnt patients undergoing sedation and analgesia. It is concludedthat the role of the nurse is fundamental in the process of identification, treatment and evaluation of pain in burnt patients and should be basedon scientific evidence to promote quality and safe care.


Estudio sobre la asistencia de enfermería en pacientes con quemaduras en uso de analgésicos y sedantes, mediante la búsqueda de bases de datoselectrónicas, a un marco de tiempo desde 2000 hasta 2011. Los resultados mostraron dos categorías: Farmacoterapia y Atención de enfermería apacientes quemados sometidos a sedación y analgesia. Se concluye que el papel del enfermero es fundamental en el proceso de identificación, tratamientoy evaluación del dolor en pacientes con quemaduras y debe basarse en la evidencia científica para promover una atención de calidad y segura.


Subject(s)
Humans , Analgesia , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Burns/nursing , Burns/therapy , Nursing Care , Pain
19.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 67(6): 632-636, Nov.-Dec. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897773

ABSTRACT

Abstract Vaginismus is a poorly understood disorder, characterized by an involuntary muscular spasm of the pelvic floor muscles and outer third of the vagina during intercourse attempt, which results in aversion to penetration. It is reported to affect 1-7% of women worldwide. With this report the authors aim to describe the case of a young patient with vaginismus in whom techniques usually from the chronic pain domain were used as part of her multimodal therapeutic regimen.


Resumo O vaginismo é uma doença pouco compreendida que se caracteriza por uma contração muscular involuntária dos músculos do pavimento pélvico e do terço externo da vagina durante as tentativas de intercurso sexual, o que resulta em aversão à penetração. Estima-se que possa afetar entre 1%-7% da população feminina mundial. Com este relato os autores pretendem apresentar o caso de uma paciente jovem com vaginismo na qual foram usadas técnicas habitualmente do domínio da medicina da dor crônica como parte do seu esquema terapêutico multimodal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Clonidine/administration & dosage , Vaginismus , Pulsed Radiofrequency Treatment , Ropivacaine/administration & dosage , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Combined Modality Therapy , Trigger Points , Pudendal Nerve , Anesthesia, Local
20.
Acta ortop. mex ; 31(5): 217-221, sep.-oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-886570

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Antecedentes: Las fracturas de radio distal constituyen hasta 15% de todas las lesiones óseas en los adultos. La rehabilitación es clave en la recuperación de la movilidad y la capacidad funcional. El sulfato de magnesio intraarticular ha sido utilizado para control postoperatorio del dolor; el objetivo fue determinar la mejoría del dolor y la capacidad funcional de los pacientes con fractura de radio distal usando sulfato de magnesio intraarticular. Material y métodos: Pacientes con fractura de radio distal tratados con clavos percutáneos e inmovilización fueron incluidos al azar en dos grupos. Grupo 1 infiltrado con 1.0 ml de sulfato de magnesio y 1.5 ml de agua estéril; en el grupo 2 esta última fue sustituida por 1 ml de bupivacaína (5 mg/ml). La infiltración se realizó al retiro de la inmovilización. El dolor, funcionalidad y rangos de movimiento fueron evaluados. Resultados: 20 pacientes, ocho masculinos y 12 femeninos con edad promedio de 53 años (± 17 DE) fueron evaluados. Se encontró disminución significativa en el dolor al primer minuto y a los tres minutos después de la infiltración en el grupo 2 (p < 0.05). Ambos grupos presentaron una mejoría significativa en la funcionalidad articular a las dos semanas (p < 0.05), así como una mejoría gradual en la movilidad articular en ese mismo período (p < 0.05). Conclusiones: La infiltración de sulfato de magnesio en combinación con bupivacaína ayuda a disminuir el dolor.


Abstract: Background: The distal radius fracture represent until 15% of all bone injuries in adults. The key in the recovery of mobility and functional outcomes are rehabilitation. The intra-articular application of magnesium sulphate has been used for postoperative pain. The objective was to determinate the improvement in pain and functional outcome of patients with distal radius fracture using intra-articular magnesium sulphate. Material and methods: Patients with distal radius fracture treated with percutaneous pinning and cast immobilization was included and randomized into two groups. The group 1 was applied 1.0 ml of magnesium sulphate and 1.5 ml of injectable water; meanwhile the group 2, the water was replaced with 1 ml of bupivacaine (5 mg/ml). The intra-articular infiltration was applied at the end of immobilization. Pain, functionality and movement of the wrist was evaluated for two weeks. Results: Twenty patients, 8 male and twelve females, with a mean age of 53 years (± 17 SD) was evaluated. A significative reduction of pain during the first minute and at three minutes after intra-articular infiltration in group 2 (p < 0.05). Both groups presented better articular outcomes at the two weeks (p < 0.05), and a better articular movement at same point (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The intra-articular infiltration of magnesium sulphate plus bupivacaine help to reduces the pain.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Radius Fractures/surgery , Bupivacaine/administration & dosage , Fracture Fixation, Internal , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Magnesium Sulfate/administration & dosage , Pilot Projects , Treatment Outcome , Middle Aged
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