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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(6): 566-576, nov. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1102643

ABSTRACT

This paper reports for the first time volatile compounds, anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils from the leaves of Waltheria indica L. (Stericullaceae) growing in Nigeria. The essential oil was hydro-distilled and characterized by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated on carrageenan induced rat paw edema while the anti-nociceptive test was based on hot plate model. The hydro-distillation afforded 0.41% (dry weight basis) of light green oil. Forty compounds representing 99.8% were identified in the oil. The main constituents of the oil were limonene (34.7%), sabinene (21.2%) and citronellal (9.7%). The anti-nociceptive property of the essential oils statically inhibited edema development (p<0.001) at a dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg independent of time of exposure. However, the 100 mg/kg Waltheria indica essential oils (WIEO) displayed a relatively low inhibition (p<0.01-p>0.5) which declines as exposure time increases. The anti-inflammatory activities shows a steady rate and non-dose dependent activity (p<0.001) up to the 3rd h of inflammation study. Conversely, a sharp reduction at the rate of p<0.5, 0.1 and 0.01 for the 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg WIEO doses respectively. Overall, the results presented sustain and establish the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties and justifies the need for further evaluation and development of the essential oils from this plant.


Este artículo informa por primera vez de compuestos volátiles, actividades anti-nociceptivas y antiinflamatorias de aceites esenciales de las hojas de Waltheria indica L. (Stericullaceae) que crecen en Nigeria. El aceite esencial fue hidro-destilado y se caracterizó por cromatografía de gases-detección de ionización de llama (GC-FID) y cromatografía de gases junto con análisis de espectrometría de masas (GC-MS). La actividad antiinflamatoria se evaluó en el edema de pata de rata inducido por carragenano, mientras que la prueba antinociceptiva se basó en el modelo de placa caliente. La destilación hidráulica proporcionó 0,41% (en peso seco) de aceite verde claro. Cuarenta compuestos que representan el 99.8% fueron identificados en el aceite. Los principales componentes del aceite fueron el limoneno (34,7%), el sabineno (21,2%) y el citronelal (9,7%). La propiedad anti-nociceptiva de los aceites esenciales inhibió estáticamente el desarrollo del edema (p<0.001) a una dosis de 200 y 400 mg/kg independientemente del tiempo de exposición. Sin embargo, los aceites esenciales de Waltheria indica de 100 mg/kg (WIEO) mostraron una inhibición relativamente baja (p<0.01-p>0.5) que disminuye a medida que aumenta el tiempo de exposición. Las actividades antiinflamatorias muestran una tasa constante y una actividad no dependiente de la dosis (p<0.001) hasta la tercera hora del estudio de inflamación. Por el contrario, una fuerte reducción a una tasa de p<0.5, 0.1 y 0.01 para las dosis de 100, 200 y 400 mg/kg de WIEO respectivamente. En general, los resultados presentados sostienen y establecen las propiedades anti-nociceptivas y antiinflamatorias y justifican la necesidad de una mayor evaluación y desarrollo de los aceites esenciales de esta planta.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Malvaceae/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Temperature , Carrageenan/toxicity , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Rats, Wistar , Monoterpenes/analysis , Flame Ionization , Analgesics/pharmacology , Inflammation/chemically induced
2.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(6): 555-565, nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-1007333

ABSTRACT

Species of Polygala genus have been used for the treatment of inflamation and pain in Turkish traditional medicine. The aim of the present study is to assess the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of P. anatolica. n-Hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the aerial parts and roots of P. anatolica were investigated for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. The methanol extracts prepared from the aerial parts and roots of P. anatolica were found to be active in carrageenan- and PGE2-induced paw edema models and in Whittle method. Methanolic extract of the aerial part inhibited serotonin-induced hind paw edema, while the root extract did not exert inhibitory effect in the same model. In addition, Fr. B and C obtained from the methanol extract of P. anatolica aerial parts showed significant anti- inflammatory activity. Morover, the analgesic effect of the methanol extracts prepared from the roots and aerial parts and Fr.B and Fr.C were found to be statistically significant without inducing ulceration. The methanol extract obtained from the aerial parts of the plant and its saponoside and flavonoid fractions showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in the trials.


Las especies del género Polygala se han utilizado para el tratamiento de la inflamación y el dolor en la medicina tradicional turca. El objetivo del presente estudio es evaluar las actividades antiinflamatorias y analgésicas de P. anatolica. Se investigaron los extractos de n-hexano, acetato de etilo y metanol de las partes aéreas y raíces de P. anatolica por sus efectos antiinflamatorios y analgésicos. Los extractos de metanol preparados a partir de las partes aéreas y raíces de P. anatolica se encontraron activos en modelos de edema de pata inducidos por carragenina y PGE2 por el método de Whittle. El extracto metanólico de la parte aérea inhibió el edema de la pata trasera inducido por serotonina, mientras que el extracto de raíz no ejerció un efecto inhibidor en el mismo modelo. En suma, la fracción B y C obtenidos a partir del extracto metanólico de partes aéreas de P. anatolica mostraron actividad antiinflamatoria significativa. Además, el efecto analgésico de los extractos de metanol preparados a partir de las raíces y las partes aéreas y la fracción B y C resultaron ser estadísticamente significativas sin inducir la ulceración. El extracto de metanol obtenido de las partes aéreas de la planta y sus fracciones de saponósidos y flavonoides mostraron actividades antiinflamatorias y analgésicas en los ensayos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Polygala , Edema/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Capillary Permeability/drug effects , Plant Roots/chemistry , Methanol/pharmacology , Edema/chemically induced , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Analgesics/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology
3.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(4): e7124, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-889061

ABSTRACT

Marasmius androsaceus is a medicinal fungus mainly used to treat various forms of pain in China. This study investigated the analgesic effects of an ethanol extract of M. androsaceus (MAE) and its potential molecular mechanisms. Oral administration of MAE (50, 200, and 1000 mg/kg) had significant analgesic effects in an acid-induced writhing test, a formalin test, and a hot-plate test, with effectiveness similar to tramadol (the positive control drug). The autonomic activity test showed that MAE had no harmful effects on the central nervous system in mice. MAE resulted in significantly enhanced levels of noradrenalin and 5-hydroxytryptamine in serum but suppressed both of these neurotransmitters in the hypothalamus after 30 s of hot-plate stimulation. Co-administration with nimodipine (10 mg/kg; a Ca2+ channel blocker) strongly enhanced the analgesic effect in the hot-plate test compared to MAE alone. Moreover, MAE down-regulated the expression of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in the hypothalamus after a 30-s thermal stimulus. These results suggested that the analgesic ability of MAE is related to the regulation of metabolism by monoamine neurotransmitters and Ca2+/CaMKII-mediated signaling, which can potentially aid the development of peripheral neuropathic pain treatments obtained from M. androsaceus.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Pain/drug therapy , Tramadol/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Marasmius/chemistry , Analgesics/pharmacology , Pain Measurement/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal
4.
Rev. Asoc. Odontol. Argent ; 105(3): 116-122, sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-973106

ABSTRACT

Una de las principales preocupaciones de los pacientes que van a ser sometidos a un procedimiento odontológico es el dolor que dicho procedimiento pueda ocasionar. Por lotanto, lograr un control eficaz y seguro de ese dolor es una parte esencial de la práctica odontológica diaria. Los fármacos de primera elección para el tratamiento del dolor y el edemason, sin lugar a dudas, los antiinflamatorios no esteroideos(AINEs). Principios activos como el ibuprofeno (y sus congéneres) o sus derivados permiten controlar simultáneamente el dolor y el edema posquirúrgicos de una forma eficaz y segura. En muchas ocasiones, el AINE prescrito para mantener al paciente asintomático o con síntomas tolerables es suficiente. Sin embargo, cuando esto no ocurre, debemos recurrir a otrosfármacos, o realizar asociaciones con fármacos que complementen el efecto analgésico y trabajen logrando un sinergismo de potenciación que incremente el efecto buscado y disminuya los efectos adversos de cada una de las sustancias por separado, utilizando menores dosis. Un ejemplo comprobado de esas asociaciones es la de ibuprofeno con paracetamol. En el presente artículo se sugieren diversas estrategias pre- y posoperatorias para el manejo del dolor de origen inflamatorio, y un protocolo para su tratamiento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacokinetics , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Ibuprofen/pharmacology , Acetaminophen/pharmacology , Drug Combinations , Drug Synergism , Dosage Forms , Analgesics/pharmacology , Analgesics/pharmacokinetics , Analgesics/therapeutic use
5.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017; 30 (1): 213-215
in English | IMEMR (Eastern Mediterranean) | ID: emr-185761

ABSTRACT

The present study was aimed to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous methanolic extract of Aerva javanica. For measuring analgesic activity, writhing test, hot plate method and formalin test were performed and abdominal writhing was induced by intra-peritoneal injection of 0.2ml of 3% acetic acid. While in formalin test, pain was experimentally induced by injecting 25 micro l of 2.5% formalin in left hind paw. In hot plate method, pain was induced thermally by keeping the animals on a hot plate with temperature of about 51[degree]C. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by carrageen an induced mice paw edema. The results showed that the extract had significant analgesic activity [p<0.05- p<0.001] and anti-inflammatory activity [p<0.01-p<0.001]. Therefore, it was concluded from this study that the extracts of Aerva javanica may be used against pain and inflammation


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Analgesics/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Phytotherapy , Plant Leaves , Plants, Medicinal , Mice
6.
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 52(4): 623-633, Oct.-Dec. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: biblio-951871

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Pro-inflammatory cytokines and glial cells, especially microglial cells, have been implicated in persistent pain sensitization. Less is known about the role of astrocytes in pain regulation. This study aimed to observe the expression of the astrocytic biomarker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and the serum levels of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) after short-term administration of central pain relievers in rats not submitted to noxious stimuli. Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups, receiving for nine days- (1) amitriptyline (Amt-10 mg/kg/day, by gavage); (2) gabapentin (Gb-60 mg/kg/day, by gavage; (3) methadone (Me-4.5 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneal route [IP]); (4) morphine (Mo-10 mg/kg/day, IP); or (5) 0.9% saline solution, IP. Brain samples were collected for immunohistochemical study of GFAP expression in the mesencephalon and nucleus accumbens (NAc). The area of GFAP-positive cells was calculated using MetaMorph software and serum levels of IL-1ß and TNF-α were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum TNF-α levels were decreased in the groups treated with Mo, Me and Gb, but not in the Amt-treated group. IL-1ß decreased only in rats treated with Me. The astrocytic expression of GFAP was decreased in the brainstem with all drugs, while it was increased in the NAc with Amt, Me and Mo


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/analysis , Analgesics/pharmacology , Pain/drug therapy , Astrocytes/immunology , Cytokines/classification
7.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(2): 433-441, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-787945

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Considerando os diferentes usos etnofarmacológicos apresentados pela planta Luehea divaricata, realizou-se este estudo com o objetivo de avaliar as atividades antinociceptiva e antinflamatória do extrato etanólico de suas folhas, em modelo animal, nas dosagens de 20, 40, 80 e 160 mg/Kg, por via oral. Foram realizados os seguintes testes: contorções abdominais induzidas pelo acido acético, placa quente, formalina e edema de pata induzido por carragenina. Foram utilizados camundongos Swiss (20-25 g) para os três primeiros testes e ratos Wistar (180-250 g), para o último, divididos em seis grupos de oito animais, totalizando 48 animais em cada parâmetro de avaliação. Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente pela análise de variância a 5% de probabilidade, para verificar quais os tratamentos que diferiram entre si, e estes foram submetidos aos testes de Kruskall-Wallis e Student-Newman-Keuls. O extrato etanólico das folhas de L. divaricata (EEtOH-Ld), nas diferentes doses estudadas, apresentou significativa atividade antinociceptiva sobre a dor induzida quimicamente por injeções intraperitoneal de acido acético e intraplantar de formalina. Na dosagem de 160 mg/Kg, esse extrato apresentou ação analgésica central, aos 120 minutos de observação, no teste de placa quente e reduziu o edema de pata induzido pela administração de carragenina, uma hora após a administração do agente inflamatório, semelhante ao efeito produzido pelo fármaco padrão.


ABSTRACT Considering the different ethnopharmacological uses submitted by the plant Luehea divaricata, this study took place in order to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanol extract of the leaves in an animal model, the dosages of 20, 40, 80 and 160 mg/kg by oral intake. The following tests were performed: writhing induced by acetic acid, hot plate, formalin, and paw edema induced by carrageenan. Swiss mice (20-25 g) were used for the first three tests and Wistar rats (180-250 g) for the last, divided into six groups, each of eight animals, totaling 48 animals for each assessment parameter. The results were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance at 5% probability to verify which treatments differ, and these were tested by Kruskal-Wallis and Student-Newman-Keuls. The ethanol extract of L. divaricataleaves (EEtOH-Ld) at the different studied doses showed significant antinociceptive activity on chemically induced pain by intraperitoneal injections of acetic acid and intraplantar formalin. At a dosage of 160 mg/kg, this extract showed a central analgesic action after 120 minutes of observation in the hot plate test and reduced action in the paw edema induced by carrageenan one hour after the administration of the inflammatory agent, similar to the effect produced by the standard drug.


Subject(s)
Mice , Analgesics/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Malvaceae/classification , Pain/pathology , Plants, Medicinal/classification
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(7): e5103, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-785054

ABSTRACT

Pharmacological treatment of inflammatory pain is usually done by administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). These drugs present high efficacy, although side effects are common, especially gastrointestinal lesions. One of the pharmacological strategies to minimize such effects is the combination of drugs and natural products with synergistic analgesic effect. The monoterpene terpinolene (TPL) is a chemical constituent of essential oils present in many plant species, which have pharmacological activities, such as analgesic and anti-inflammatory. The association of ineffective doses of TPL and diclofenac (DCF) (3.125 and 1.25 mg/kg po, respectively) presented antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects in the acute (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h, after treatment) and chronic (10 days) inflammatory hyperalgesia induced by Freund's complete adjuvant (CFA) in the right hind paw of female Wistar rats (170-230 g, n=6-8). The mechanical hyperalgesia was assessed by the Randall Selitto paw pressure test, which determines the paw withdrawal thresholds. The development of edema was quantified by measuring the volume of the hind paw by plethismography. The TPL/DCF association reduced neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes in the histological analysis of the paw, following a standard staining protocol with hematoxylin and eosin and the counts were performed with the aid of optical microscopy after chronic oral administration of these drugs. Moreover, the TPL/DCF association did not induce macroscopic gastric lesions. A possible mechanism of action of the analgesic effect is the involvement of 5-HT2A serotonin receptors, because ketanserin completely reversed the antinociceptive effect of the TPL/DCF association. These results suggest that the TPL/DCF association had a synergistic anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect without causing apparent gastric injury, and that the serotonergic system may be involved in the antinociceptive effect of this association.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Analgesics/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Diclofenac/pharmacology , Inflammation/drug therapy , Pain/drug therapy , Terpenes/pharmacology , Chronic Disease , Drug Combinations , Drug Synergism , Edema/drug therapy , Freund's Adjuvant , Hyperalgesia/drug therapy , Hyperalgesia/pathology , Inflammation/chemically induced , Inflammation/pathology , Pain Measurement , Pain/pathology , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Stomach/drug effects , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
9.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(11): 953-964, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-762901

ABSTRACT

Cocos nucifera (L.) (Arecaceae) is commonly called the “coconut tree” and is the most naturally widespread fruit plant on Earth. Throughout history, humans have used medicinal plants therapeutically, and minerals, plants, and animals have traditionally been the main sources of drugs. The constituents of C. nucifera have some biological effects, such as antihelminthic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antioxidant, antifungal, antimicrobial, and antitumor activities. Our objective in the present study was to review the phytochemical profile, pharmacological activities, and toxicology of C. nucifera to guide future preclinical and clinical studies using this plant. This systematic review consisted of searches performed using scientific databases such as Scopus, Science Direct, PubMed, SciVerse, and Scientific Electronic Library Online. Some uses of the plant were partially confirmed by previous studies demonstrating analgesic, antiarthritic, antibacterial, antipyretic, antihelminthic, antidiarrheal, and hypoglycemic activities. In addition, other properties such as antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, cardioprotective, antiseizure, cytotoxicity, hepatoprotective, vasodilation, nephroprotective, and anti-osteoporosis effects were also reported. Because each part of C. nucifera has different constituents, the pharmacological effects of the plant vary according to the part of the plant evaluated.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Cocos/chemistry , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Analgesics/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anticonvulsants/pharmacology , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Bone and Bones/drug effects , Cocos/toxicity , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology
11.
Ann Card Anaesth ; 2015 Jan-Mar ; 18(1): 15-20
Article in English | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-156494

ABSTRACT

Background: Median sternotomy, sternal spreading, and sternal wiring are the main causes of pain during the early recovery phase following cardiac surgery. Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of continuous presternal bupivacaine infusion through a single catheter after parasternal block following cardiac surgery. Materials and Methods: The total of 40 patients (American Society of Anesthesiologist status II, III), 45–60 years old, undergoing coronary – artery bypass grafting were enrolled in this prospective, randomized, double‑blind study. A presternal catheter was inserted with continuous infusion of 5 mL/h bupivacaine 0.25% (Group B) or normal saline (Group C) during the first 48 postoperative hrs. Primary outcomes were postoperative morphine requirements and pain scores, secondary outcomes were extubation time, postoperative respiratory parameters, incidence of wound infection, Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and hospital stay duration, and bupivacaine level in blood. Statistical Methods: Student’s t‑test was used to analyze the parametric data and Chi‑square test for categorical variables. Results: During the postoperative 48 h, there was marked reduction in morphine requirements in Group B compared to Group C, (8.6 ± 0.94 mg vs. 18.83 ± 3.4 mg respectively, P = 0.2), lower postoperative pain scores, shorter extubation time (117 ± 10 min vs. 195 ± 19 min, respectively, P = 0.03), better respiratory parameters (PaO2/ FiO2, PaCO2 and pH), with no incidence of wound infection, no differences in ICU or hospital stay duration. The plasma concentration of bupivacaine remained below the toxic threshold (at T24, 1.2 ug/ml ± 0.3 and T48 h 1.7 ± 0.3 ug/ml). Conclusion: Continuous presternal bupivacaine infusion has resulted in better postoperative analgesia, reduction in morphine requirements, shorter time to extubation, and better postoperative respiratory parameters than the control group.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Analgesics/pharmacology , Bupivacaine/administration & dosage , Bupivacaine/pharmacology , Cardiac Catheterization/methods , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Female , Humans , Male , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Sternotomy/methods , Sternum/surgery , Thorax/surgery
12.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2014 Dec; 52(12): 1186-1194
Article in English | IMSEAR (South-East Asia), GHL | ID: sea-153810

ABSTRACT

Mikania scandens, a twining herb that grows as a weed in India and Bangladesh is used as vegetables and is a good source of vitamin A, C, B complex, mikanin, sesquiterpenes, betasitosterin, stigmasterol and friedelin. The present communication reports CNS depressant activities with special emphasis to brain biogenic amines in mice. Ethanol extract of leaves of M. scandens (EEMS) was prepared by Soxhalation and analyzed chemically. EEMS potentiated sleeping time induced by pentobarbitone, diazepam and meprobamate and showed significant reduction in the number of writhes and stretches. EEMS caused significant protection against pentylene tetrazole-induced convulsion and increased catecholamines and brain amino acids level significantly. Results showed that EEMS produced good CNS depressant effects in mice.


Subject(s)
Analgesics/isolation & purification , Analgesics/pharmacology , Animals , Anticonvulsants/isolation & purification , Anticonvulsants/pharmacology , Biogenic Amines/metabolism , Brain/drug effects , Brain/metabolism , Central Nervous System Depressants/isolation & purification , Central Nervous System Depressants/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Ethanol/chemistry , Female , Male , Mice , Mikania/chemistry , Motor Activity/drug effects , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Reflex/drug effects , Seizures/chemically induced , Seizures/prevention & control , Tetrazoles , Toxicity Tests, Acute
13.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 21(4): 1437-1455, Oct-Dec/2014.
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-732514

ABSTRACT

In 1915 the Rockefeller Foundation took its hookworm eradication campaign to Suriname, but was soon disappointed because of opposition from its main target group: the Javanese. Moreover, authorities and planters objected to the construction of latrines because of the costs and their belief that the Javanese were “unhygienic”. In describing the labor migration from Java to Suriname, I show that this “lack of hygiene” was closely related to the system’s organization. I argue that uncleanliness was the consequence of harmful socio-economic and ecological conditions. Secondly I suggest that even though the Foundation did not manage to cleanse Suriname of hookworm, its educational efforts, its emphasis on prevention, and its training of local health workers probably had more impact than Rockefeller officials thought.


Em 1915, a Fundação Rockefeller levou sua campanha de erradicação da ancilostomíase ao Suriname, logo sofrendo a oposição de seu principal alvo, os javaneses. Autoridades e proprietários rurais também reagiram à instalação de latrinas devido aos custos implicados e à crença de que os javaneses eram “anti-higiênicos”. Ao descrever a migração de trabalhadores de Java para o Suriname, mostro que a “falta de higiene” ligava-se à organização do sistema. Argumento que a sujeira era consequência de condições ecológicas e socioeconômicas danosas. Sugiro ainda que, embora a Fundação não tenha livrado o Suriname da anciolostomíase, seus esforços educacionais, sua ênfase na prevenção e o treinamento de profissionais de saúde locais tiveram maior impacto do que o imaginado pelos funcionários da agência norte-americana.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Rats , Analgesics/pharmacology , Dimaprit/analogs & derivatives , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Folic Acid Antagonists/pharmacology , Histamine Agonists/pharmacology , Histamine N-Methyltransferase/antagonists & inhibitors , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Dimaprit/administration & dosage , Dimaprit/pharmacology , Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Folic Acid Antagonists/administration & dosage , Histamine Agonists/administration & dosage , Injections, Intraventricular , Methylhistamines/pharmacology , Muscle Contraction/drug effects , Pain Measurement/drug effects , Postural Balance/drug effects , Psychomotor Performance/drug effects , Pyrimidines/administration & dosage , Pyrimidines/antagonists & inhibitors , Rats, Wistar
14.
Psicofarmacologia (B. Aires) ; 14(85): 7-16, apr.2014. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-777901

ABSTRACT

Prospectiva, longitudinal, observacional sobre una población de 104 pacientes, representativa de las neoplasias de nuestra región, que padecían de dolor oncológico y síntomas depresivos. Objetivos generales: definir las características peculiares del dolor oncológico. Establecer el valor del diagnóstico diferencial de los síntomas. Investigar los niveles del cortisol a fin de precisar su importancia como marcador biológico. Objetivo específico: establecer si el control farmacológico de la depresión asociada pudiera tener algún efecto útil sobre el dolor neoplásico y la calidad de vida subsiguiente. Metodología: todos los pacientes ingresados recibieron analgésicos siguiendo pautas de la OMS. 50 p (48,07 %) continuaron igual tratamiento: Grupo I (control) 54 p (51,93 %) sumaron antidepresivos: Grupo II (previo al dolor 15 p). Grupo III (desde el dolor 39 p). El diagnóstico de trastorno depresivo se llevó a cabo según criterios del DSM-IV. La intensidad del dolor se cuantificó por interrogatorio con respuestas libres (RL) y escala verbal (EV), la escala numérica (EN), la escala visual analógica (EVA) y completando el McGill pain questionnaire MPQ (con adecuaciones de compatibilización), la inensidad de la depresión, por medio del inventario de depresión de Beck (BDI) y se midió el cortisol salival. Al tercer mes se repitieron iguales parámetros y se compararon ambas mediciones con metodología bioestadística apropiada. Al cuarto mes se efectuó reunión de consenso con familiares y médico de cabecera para analizar los efectos sobre la calidad de vida que se cuantificaron para su análisis matemático. Resultados: se define como cancroalgia al dolor de características específicas provocado por el crecimiento infiltrativo inflamatorio y distorsivo del tumor primario o sus metástasis. 95 % de los pacientes con dolor oncológico padecían trastornos depresivos. Los niveles del cortisol no presentaron variaciones significativas...


Prospective, longitudinal, observational about a population of 104 patients, which is reprresentative of our region's neoplasias and which suffered from oncologic pain and depressive symptoms. General objectives: To define the peculiar characteristics of oncologic pain. To establish the importance of the differential diagnosis of the symptoms. To investigate the levels of cortisol so as to determine its relevance as biological marker. Specific objective: To establish whether the pharmacological control of associated depression might have any useful effect on neoplastic pain and the subsequent quality of life. Methodology: All the patients enrolled received analgesics, following the guidelines of the WHO. 50 p (48,07 %) continued with the same treatment: Group I (control). 54 p (51,93 %) added antidepressants Group II (prior to pain 15 p), Group III (since the nset of pain 39 p). The diagnosis of depressive disorder was performed according to the DSM-IV criteria. The intensity of pain was quantified by a survey based on freee answers (FA) and a verbal scale (VS), the numeric scale (NS), the visual analogue scale (VAS) and by completing the McGill pain questionnaire MPQ (with adequations of compatibilization), the intensity of depression, by means of Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI), and saliva cortisol was measured. On the third month, the same parameters were repeated and both measurements were compared with appropriate biostatistical methodology. On the fourth month a consensus meeting with relatives and general practitioner was held to analyze the effects on the quality of life that had been quantified for mathematic analysis. Results: Oncologic pain is defined as pain of specific characteristics caused by the infiltrative inflammatory growth and distortive fo the primary tumor or its metastases. 95 % of the patients with oncologic pain suffered from depressive disorders. The levels of cortisol did not show significant variations...


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Analgesics/pharmacology , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Quality of Life/psychology , Diagnosis, Differential , Follow-Up Studies , Hydrocortisone , Longitudinal Studies , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Statistics, Nonparametric , Depressive Disorder/diagnosis
15.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 13(2): 152-162, mar. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-767358

ABSTRACT

The genus Erythoxylum plants are popularly used as anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and diuretic agentes, and for treating of respiratory problems. This study investigated the antinociceptive activity of methanolic extract of Erythroxylum caatingae (EcME) in chemical (formalin test and acetic acid test) and thermal models (hot plate test) of nociception. Intraperitoneal pre-treatment with EcME reduced the number of abdominal contortions and the licking time in the second phase of the formalin test. EcME did not show a significant effect in the hot plate test, rota-rod test, and the elevated plus maze test. These findings indicate that the antinociceptive activity of EcME is not because of a depressor effect on the central nervous system, and EcME is not a muscle relaxant. Nevertheless, Erythroxylum caatingae demonstrated peripheral antinociceptive activity, which confirms its popular use and contributes to the scientific knowledge of the species.


El género Erythoxylum es popularmente utilizado como agente anti-inflamatorio, antibacteriano y para el tratamiento de problemas respiratorios. Este estudio tiene como objetivo investigar la actividad antinociceptiva del extracto metanólico Erythroxylum caatingae (EcME), utilizando modelos químicos (prueba de la formalina y prueba de ácido acético) y térmico (prueba de la placa caliente) de nocicepción. El pretratamiento EcME por la vía intraperitoneal (i.p.), fue capaz de reducir el número de contorsiones abdominales y el tiempo de lamida en la segunda fase del test de formalina. EcME no tuvo efecto significativo en el test de la placa caliente, Rota-Rod y Laberinto en Cruz Elevado, mostrando que el efecto antinociceptivo no está relacionado con un efecto depresor del sistema nervioso central o miorelajante. Los datos experimentales muestran que Erythroxylum caatingae posee una actividad antinociceptiva periférica que confirma su uso popular, contribuyendo para el conocimiento científico de la especie.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Analgesics/pharmacology , Erythroxylaceae/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Methanol , Pain , Plants, Medicinal
16.
Acta cir. bras ; 29(1): 38-46, 01/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-697559

ABSTRACT

To measure the change in the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane (EtISO) associated with epidural nalbuphine and the postoperative analgesic requirements in dogs after ovariohysterectomy. METHODS: Twenty four healthy female dogs were randomly assigned to receive saline or nalbuphine at 0.3 or 0.6 mg/kg (n=8 for each group) administered via lumbosacral epidural catheter introduced cranially into the epidural canal. Changes in heart and respiratory rates and arterial blood pressure during surgery were recorded along with the corresponding EtISO. Immediately after tracheal extubation, analgesia, sedation, heart rate, respiratory rate, and arterial blood pressure were measured at predetermined intervals and every 60 min thereafter until the first rescue analgesic. RESULTS: A significant decrease in EtISO was associated with epidural nalbuphine at 0.3 mg/kg (26.3%) and 0.6 mg/kg (38.4%) but not with saline in ovariohysterectomized dogs. In the postoperative period, VAS and Colorado analgesic scores were lower for the dogs that received the higher nalbuphine dose, which only required supplemental analgesia 10 h following its administration, compared with dogs that received the lower dose. CONCLUSION: Epidural nalbuphine significantly reduces the intra-operative isoflurane requirement and provides prolonged postoperative analgesia after ovariohysterectomy in dogs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Anesthesiology , Analgesics/pharmacology , Isoflurane/pharmacology , Dogs
17.
Gut and Liver ; : 140-147, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-123199

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: DA-9701, a standardized extract of Pharbitis Semen and Corydalis Tuber, is a new prokinetic agent that exhibits an analgesic effect on the abdomen. We investigated whether DA-9701 affects visceral pain induced by colorectal distension (CRD) in rats. METHODS: A total of 21 rats were divided into three groups: group A (no CRD+no drug), group B (CRD+no drug), and group C (CRD+DA-9701). Expression of pain-related factors, substance P (SP), c-fos, and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord was determined by immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting. RESULTS: The proportions of neurons in the DRG and spinal cord expressing SP, c-fos, and p-ERK were higher in group B than in group A. In the group C, the proportion of neurons in the DRG and spinal cord expressing p-ERK was lower than that in group B. Western blot results for p-ERK in the spinal cord indicated a higher level of expression in group B than in group A and a lower level of expression in group C than in group B. CONCLUSIONS: DA-9701 may decrease visceral pain via the downregulation of p-ERK in the DRG and spinal cord.


Subject(s)
Analgesics/pharmacology , Animals , Colon , Dilatation, Pathologic/physiopathology , Down-Regulation , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/drug effects , Ganglia, Spinal/drug effects , Male , Phytotherapy/methods , Plant Preparations/pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rectum , Spinal Cord/drug effects , Substance P/metabolism , Visceral Pain/prevention & control
18.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 12(5): 446-456, sept. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-726545

ABSTRACT

Many plant substances are known for their interference with the central nervous system (CNS). Dioclea grandiflora Mart. Ex. Benth (Fabaceae) is a plant used in folk medicine to treat prostate disorders and kidney stones whose extracts from its seeds and root barks were reported to have a significant activity on the CNS and analgesic effect in rodents. In this study, the psychopharmacological activities of D. grandiflora were investigated, using the pods of this plant. Swiss mice were submitted to acute treatments with ethanol extract from the pods of D. grandiflora (EDgP) at doses of 75, 150 and 300 mg/kg by intraperitoneal administration followed by the evaluation of anxiety, depressant and anticonvulsant-related responses. The treatment with EDgP produced a depressant activity on the CNS and a sedative effect in mice. These findings suggest that EDgP has a central activity in mice, indicating an anxiogenic effect.


Varias sustancias de plantas son conocidas por su acción en el sistema nervioso central (SNC). La Dioclea grandiflora Mart. Ex. Benth (Fabaceae) es una planta utilizada en la medicina popular para tratar enfermedades en la próstata y piedras en los riñones, cuyos extractos de sus semillas y de las cáscaras de sus raíces presentan una actividad significativa sobre el SNC y efecto analgésico en roedores. En este estudio, las actividades psicofarmacológicas de D. grandiflora fueron investigadas, utilizando la vaina de la planta. Camudongos Swiss fueron sometidos a tratamientos agudos por la administración intraperitoneal del extracto etanólico de la vaina de D. grandiflora (EDgP) en dosis de 75, 150 y 300 mg/kg administrados intraperitonealmente seguida por la evaluación de respuestas relacionadas con la ansiedad, depresión y anticonvulsivo. El tratamiento con EDgP produjo una actividad depresora sobre el sistema nervioso central y un efecto sedante en camundongos. Estos resultados sugieren que EDgP tiene una actividad central en camundongos, indicando un efecto ansiogénico.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Analgesics/pharmacology , Dioclea/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Hypnotics and Sedatives/pharmacology , Central Nervous System , Ethanol
19.
Clinics ; 68(2): 199-204, 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-668807

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Ophthalmologic examination for retinopathy of prematurity is a painful procedure. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions have been proposed to reduce pain during eye examinations. This study aims to evaluate the analgesic effect of 25% glucose using a validated pain scale during the first eye examination for retinopathy of prematurity in preterm infants with birth weight <1,500 g and/or gestational age <32 weeks. METHODS: A masked, randomized clinical trial for one dose of 1 ml of oral 25% glucose solution 2 minutes before the first ophthalmologic examination for retinopathy of prematurity was conducted between March 2008 and April 2010. The results were compared to those of a control group that did not receive oral glucose solution. Pain was evaluated using a Neonatal Infant Pain Scale immediately before and immediately after the ophthalmologic examination in both groups. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00648687 RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-four patients who were examined for the first time for retinopathy of prematurity were included. Seventy were included in the intervention group and 54 in the control group. The number of patients with pain immediately before the procedure was similar in both groups. The number of patients with pain after ophthalmologic examination was 15.7% in the intervention group and 68.5% in the control group (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: One ml of oral 25% glucose solution given 2 minutes before an ophthalmologic examination for retinopathy of prematurity was an effective measure for pain relief.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Eye Pain/prevention & control , Eye/drug effects , Glucose/administration & dosage , Retinopathy of Prematurity/diagnosis , Administration, Oral , Analysis of Variance , Analgesics/pharmacology , Glucose/pharmacology , Pain Measurement , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
20.
Article in English | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: wprim-173129

ABSTRACT

Amiloride and benzamil showed antinocicepitve effects in several pain models through the inhibition of acid sensing ion channels (ASICs). However, their role in neuropathic pain has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the effect of the intrathecal amiloride and benzamil in neuropathic pain model, and also examined the role of ASICs on modulation of neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain was induced by L4-5 spinal nerve ligation in male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 100-120 g, and intrathecal catheterization was performed for drug administration. The effects of amiloride and benzamil were measured by the paw-withdrawal threshold to a mechanical stimulus using the up and down method. The expression of ASICs in the spinal cord dorsal horn was also analyzed by RT-PCR. Intrathecal amiloride and benzamil significantly increased the paw withdrawal threshold in spinal nerve-ligated rats (87%+/-12% and 76%+/-14%, P=0.007 and 0.012 vs vehicle, respectively). Spinal nerve ligation increased the expression of ASIC3 in the spinal cord dorsal horn (P=0.01), and this increase was inhibited by both amiloride and benzamil (P<0.001 in both). In conclusion, intrathecal amiloride and benzamil display antinociceptive effects in the rat spinal nerve ligation model suggesting they may present an alternative pharmacological tool in the management of neuropathic pain at the spinal level.


Subject(s)
Acid Sensing Ion Channels/genetics , Amiloride/analogs & derivatives , Analgesics/pharmacology , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Male , Neuralgia/drug therapy , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Spinal Cord/metabolism , Transcription, Genetic/drug effects
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