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Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246312, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339357


Abstract The antioxidant, photoprotective and antinociceptive Marcetia macrophylla active extract was investigated as an active ingredient in a sunscreen cream formulation. Thus, the M. macrophylla extract showed IC50 of 3.43 mg/ml of the antioxidant (DPPH∙ scavenging test) and Sun Protection Factor of 20.25 (SPF/UV-B, at 250 µg/ml) and UV-A of 78.09% (photobleaching trans-resveratrol test). The antinociceptive activity was superior to all standards tested using the in vivo acetic acid-induced writhing test (99.14% at the dose of 200 mg/kg) and the high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector and mass spectroscopy multi-stage (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS) enabled the structural characterization of the quercetin-3-O-hexoside, quercetin-3-O-pentoside and quercetin-3-O-desoxihexoside. The pharmaceutical formulation containing the Marcetia macrophylla crude active extract was prepared and the physicochemical tests (organoleptic characteristics, pH analysis and centrifugation), the in vitro UVB (sun protection factor, SPF) and UVA (β-carotene) using the spectroscopic method were investigated. The formulation showed satisfactory results concerning the physicochemical parameters evaluated and active against the UV test. Thus, M. macrophylla showed biological activities with potential use in pharmaceutical preparations.

Resumo O extrato bruto de Marcetia macrophylla mostrou atividade antioxidante, fotoprotetora e antinociceptiva, sendo em seguida investigado como ingrediente ativo em uma formulação fotoprotetora. Assim, o extrato de M. macrophylla apresentou atividade antioxidante com IC50 de 3,43 mg/mL (teste de sequestro do DPPH∙) e Fator de Proteção Solar de 20,25 (FPS/UV-B, 250 µg/mL) e UV-A de 78,09% (teste de fotobranqueamento do trans-resveratrol). A atividade antinociceptiva usando o teste in vivo de contorções abdominais induzidas por ácido acético foi superior a todos os padrões testados (99,14% na dose de 200 mg/Kg). A análise por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência acoplada a detector de fotodiodos e espectroscopia de massas multi-estágio (CLAE-DAD-EM/EM) possibilitou a caracterização dos flavonoides quercetina-3-O-hexosídeo, quercetina-3-O-pentosídeo e quercetina-3-O-desoxihexosídeo. A formulação farmacêutica contendo o extrato ativo bruto de Marcetia macrophylla foi preparada e os testes físico-químicos (características organolépticas, análise de pH e centrifugação), o UVB in vitro (fator de proteção solar, FPS) e UVA (β-caroteno) foram investigados. A formulação apresentou resultados satisfatórios frente aos parâmetros físico-químicos avaliados e ativos contra UV. Assim, M. macrophylla apresentou atividades biológicas com potencial uso em preparações fitofarmacêuticas.

Sunscreening Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Analgesics/pharmacology
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e240359, 2022. graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285603


Abstract Hymenaea martiana is a species popularly known in Northeastern Brazil as "jatobá" and used in folk medicine to treat pain and inflammation. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of H. martiana. In the present study, we carried out an investigation about the effects of the crude ethanolic extract (Hm-EtOH) and the ethyl acetate fraction (Hm-AcOEt) in models of nociception and inflammation in mice. Chemical (acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin) and thermal stimuli (hot plate) were used for the evaluation of antinociceptive activity, while for the anti-inflammatory profile paw edema induced by carrageenan was used, along with leukocyte migration to the peritoneal cavity. The presence of the flavonoid astilbin in the samples was characterized through HPLC-DAD-MS analysis. Hm-EtOH and Hm-AcOEt (100, 200 and 400, i.p.) significantly reduced the number of abdominal contortions and decreased the paw licking time in the formalin test. In the hot plate, the extract increased the latency time of animals. Hm-EtOH and Hm-AcOEt inhibited significantly the increase in the edema after the administration of carrageenan. Hm-EtOH and Hm-AcOEt inhibited leukocyte migration in the peritonitis test. HPLC-DAD-MS analysis of Hm-EtOH and Hm-AcOEt revealed the presence of the flavonoid astilbin in the samples. According to the results of this study, both Hm-EtOH and Hm-AcOEt have antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities, which could be related with the presence of flavonoid in the extracts. The results reinforce the popular use of this plant.

Resumo Hymenaea martiana é uma espécie popularmente conhecida no Nordeste do Brasil como "jatobá" e usada na medicina popular para tratar a dor e a inflamação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade antinociceptiva e anti-inflamatória de H. martiana. No presente estudo, foram avaliados os efeitos do extrato etanólico bruto (Hm-EtOH) e da fração acetato de etila (Hm-AcOEt) em modelos de nocicepção e inflamação em camundongos. Foram utilizados estímulos químicos (contorções abdominais induzidas por ácido acético e teste da formalina) e estímulo térmico (teste da placa quente) para avaliação da atividade antinociceptiva, enquanto no perfil anti-inflamatório foi utilizado o teste do edema de pata induzido por carragenina e migração de leucócitos para a cavidade peritoneal. A presença do flavonoide astilbina nas amostras foi caracterizada através de análise por CLAE-DAD-EM. Hm-EtOH e o Hm-AcOEt (100, 200 e 400, i.p.) reduziram significativamente o número de contorções abdominais e diminuíram o tempo de lambida da pata no teste da formalina. No teste da placa quente, houve aumento do tempo de latência dos animais. Hm-EtOH e Hm-AcOEt inibiram significativamente o aumento do edema após a administração de carragenina, bem como inibiram a migração de leucócitos no teste de peritonite. A análise por CLAE-DAD-EM de Hm-EtOH e Hm-AcOEt revelou a presença do flavonoide astilbina nas amostras. De acordo com os resultados deste estudo, tanto Hm-EtOH quanto o Hm-AcOEt possuem atividades antinociceptiva e anti-inflamatória, o que pode estar relacionado à presença do flavonoide. Os resultados reforçam o uso popular desta planta.

Animals , Rabbits , Hymenaea , Fabaceae , Brazil , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Carrageenan , Analgesics/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 1555-1569, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922668


Quantitative evaluation of analgesic efficacy improves understanding of the antinociceptive mechanisms of new analgesics and provides important guidance for their development. Lappaconitine (LA), a potent analgesic drug extracted from the root of natural Aconitum species, has been clinically used for years because of its effective analgesic and non-addictive properties. However, being limited to ethological experiments, previous studies have mainly investigated the analgesic effect of LA at the behavioral level, and the associated antinociceptive mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, electrocorticogram (ECoG) technology was used to investigate the analgesic effects of two homologous derivatives of LA, Lappaconitine hydrobromide (LAH) and Lappaconitine trifluoroacetate (LAF), on Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to nociceptive laser stimuli, and to further explore their antinociceptive mechanisms. We found that both LAH and LAF were effective in reducing pain, as manifested in the remarkable reduction of nocifensive behaviors and laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) amplitudes (N2 and P2 waves, and gamma-band oscillations), and significantly prolonged latencies of the LEP-N2/P2. These changes in LEPs reflect the similar antinociceptive mechanism of LAF and LAH, i.e., inhibition of the fast signaling pathways. In addition, there were no changes in the auditory-evoked potential (AEP-N1 component) before and after LAF or LAH treatment, suggesting that neither drug had a central anesthetic effect. Importantly, compared with LAH, LAF was superior in its effects on the magnitudes of gamma-band oscillations and the resting-state spectra, which may be associated with their differences in the octanol/water partition coefficient, degree of dissociation, toxicity, and glycine receptor regulation. Altogether, jointly applying nociceptive laser stimuli and ECoG recordings in rats, we provide solid neural evidence for the analgesic efficacy and antinociceptive mechanisms of derivatives of LA.

Aconitine/pharmacology , Analgesics/pharmacology , Animals , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888041


To explore the mechanism of anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of Zanthoxyli Pericarpium based on network pharmacology and inflammatory or pain mouse models. The effective components of Zanthoxyli Pericarpium were screened out by TCMSP database. And their potential corresponding targets were predicted by PharmMapper software. The possible targets relating to inflammation and pain were mainly collected through DrugBank, TTD and DisGeNET databases. The "active ingredient-gene-disease" network diagram was constructed by Cytoscape 3.7.0 software. The network pharmacology results showed 5 potential effective compounds, which were related to 29 targets; 132 targets relating to inflammation and pain were screened out in the DrugBank, TTD and DisGeNET databases. The network analysis results indicated that the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit gamma isoform(PIK3 CG) gene may be the key to the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of Zanthoxyli Pericarpium. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of essential oil extract and dichloromethane extract of Zanthoxyli Pericarpium were explored through the mouse model of inflammation induced by xylene or carrageenan and the mouse model of pain induced by acetic acid or formalin. The experimental results showed that essential oil extract and dichloromethane extract of Zanthoxyli Pericarpium could reduce xylene-induced ear swelling and carrageenan-induced paw swelling and decrease the number of writhing responses in mice induced by acetic acid and the licking foot time of mice in phase Ⅱ induced by formalin. Western blot results showed that Zanthoxyli Pericarpium extract could inhibit the expressions of PIK3 CG, phosphonated nuclear factor kappaB(p-NF-κB) and phosphonated p38(p-p38 MAPK) protein. The present study showed the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of Zanthoxyli Pericarpium through multiple components and targets, so as to provide a pharmacodynamic basis for the study of Zanthoxyli Pericarpium and its mechanism.

Analgesics/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Edema/drug therapy , Inflammation/genetics , Mice , Oils, Volatile , Plant Extracts
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(1): 21-27, Jan. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088987


Abstract Objective: The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) as a signaling molecule exists in various types of organisms from early multicellular to animal cells and tissues. It has been demonstrated that ABA has an antinociceptive effect in rodents. The present study was designed to assess the possible role of PKA and phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) on the antinociceptive effects of intrathecal (i.t.) ABA in male Wistar rats. Methods: The animals were cannulated intrathecally and divided into different experimental groups (n=6‒7): Control (no surgery), vehicle (received ABA vehicle), ABA-treated groups (received ABA in doses of 10 or 20 µg/rat), ABA plus H.89 (PKA inhibitor)-treated group which received the inhibitor 15 min prior to the ABA injection. Tail-flick and hot-plate tests were used as acute nociceptive stimulators to assess ABA analgesic effects. p-ERK was evaluated in the dorsal portion of the spinal cord using immunoblotting. Results: Data showed that a microinjection of ABA (10 and 20 µg/rat, i.t.) significantly increased the nociceptive threshold in tail flick and hot plate tests. The application of PKA inhibitor (H.89, 100 nM/rat) significantly inhibited ABA-induced analgesic effects. Expression of p-ERK was significantly decreased in ABA-injected animals, which were not observed in the ABA+H.89-treated group. Conclusions: Overall, i.t. administration of ABA (10 µg/rat) induced analgesia and p-ERK down-expression likely by involving the PKA-dependent mechanism.

Resumo Objetivo: O ácido fito-hormônio abscísico (ABA) existe como molécula sinalizadora em vários tipos de organismos, de multicelulares a células e tecidos animais. Foi demonstrado que o ABA tem efeito antinociceptivo em roedores. O presente estudo foi desenhado para avaliar o possível papel da PKA e da ERK fosforilada (p-ERK) nos efeitos antinociceptivos do ABA intratecal (i.t.) em ratos Wistar machos. Métodos: Os animais foram canulados por via i.t. e divididos em diferentes grupos experimentais (n=6‒7): controle (sem cirurgia), veículo (veículo ABA recebido), grupos tratados com ABA (recebeu ABA em doses de 10 ou 20 µg/rato), grupo tratado com ABA mais H.89 (inibidor de PKA) que recebeu o inibidor 15 minutos antes da injeção de ABA. Os testes de movimento da cauda e placa quente foram utilizados como estimuladores nociceptivos agudos para avaliar os efeitos analgésicos da ABA. A p-ERK foi avaliada na porção dorsal da medula espinhal por imunotransferência. Resultados: A microinjeção de ABA (10 e 20 µg/rato, i.t.) aumentou significativamente o limiar nociceptivo nos testes de movimento da cauda e placa quente. A aplicação de inibidor de PKA (H.89, 100 nM/rato) inibiu significativamente os efeitos analgésicos induzidos por ABA. A expressão de p-ERK diminuiu significativamente em animais injetados com ABA que não foram observados no grupo tratado com ABA+H.89. Conclusões: No geral, a administração i.t. de ABA (10 µg/rato) induziu a analgesia e expressão negativa de p-ERK provavelmente envolvendo mecanismo dependente de PKA.

Animals , Male , Plant Growth Regulators/pharmacology , Spinal Cord/metabolism , Abscisic Acid/pharmacology , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/drug effects , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/drug effects , Analgesics/pharmacology , Reference Values , Spinal Cord/drug effects , Time Factors , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases/analysis , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/analysis , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/pharmacology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(10): e10204, 2020. graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1132473


Several isatin derivatives have shown important biological activities, which have attracted interest from researchers. For this reason, the present study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of the isatin derivative (Z)-2-(5-chloro-2-oxoindolin-3-ylidene)-N-phenyl-hydrazinecarbothioamide (COPHCT) in mice. Three doses of this compound were tested: 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/kg. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed using the carrageenan-induced paw edema model and the zymosan-induced air pouch model. The evaluation of the antinociceptive effect was performed through the formalin test and the acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing test. The paw edema assay demonstrated that all doses of the compound showed a significant reduction of the edema in the second hour evaluated, but a better response was observed in the fourth hour. The zymosan-induced air pouch model indicated that the compound, in all doses, significantly reduced leukocyte migration and total protein concentration levels. In the formalin test, the doses 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/kg of COPHCT showed activity only in the second phase, with reduction in paw pain time of 73.61, 79.46, and 73.85%, respectively. The number of abdominal writhings decreased with the increasing dose, but only 5.0 mg/kg COPHCT exhibited a significant response, with a reduction of 24.88%. These results demonstrated the ability of this compound to interfere in the anti-inflammatory activity of edema, vascular permeability, and cell migration. In addition, its possible antinociceptive effect may be related to the dose used.

Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Analgesics/pharmacology , Isatin/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Plant Extracts , Carrageenan , Edema
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 56: e18158, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132035


Psychotria fractistipula L.B.Sm, R.M. Klein & Delprete (Rubiaceae) is found in the existing Atlantic Forest in the South of Brazil, in the Paraná and Santa Catarina States. The members of Rubiaceae are characterized chemically by the presence of alkaloids, some pharmacological properties of which include antifungal, antibacterial, analgesic, antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antiviral activities. In this study, we report the results of anatomical, morphological, and histochemical analyses of the leaves and stems of the Rubiaceae family member, P. fractistipula. The anatomical analysis involved of light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Morpho-anatomical and histochemical characterization were made using standard methodology. The isolated compounds were identified by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopic analysis. The following structures are highlighted as the distinctive features of the species: presence of petiolate leaves and a petiole base, leaf blade with smooth cuticle on both surfaces, paracytic stomata, and, dorsiventral mesophyll and presence of trichomes on the leaves and stems. Phytosteroids, identified as β-sitosterol and campesterol, were observed in the hexane fraction of the stem. Future studies should focus on the isolation of other fractions of interest and their characterization through specific biological and cytotoxicity assays.

Rubiaceae/classification , Psychotria/classification , Phytochemicals/adverse effects , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/instrumentation , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning Transmission/methods , Research Report , Trichomes/anatomy & histology , Analgesics/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 63: e20190364, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132221


Abstract Chronic inflammation is a common indication of several diseases, e.g. asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), atherosclerosis, etc. Benzimidazole derivatives are preferable compounds to design new analgesic and anti-inflammatory substances due to their unique biological features. We aimed to investigate the effect of a newly synthesized benzimidazole derivative, ORT-83, on A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell line. ORT-83 was synthesized, and a non-cytotoxic concentration of ORT-83 on A549 cells was detected with MTT assay. To analyze the anti-inflammatory effect of ORT-83, an inflammatory cell culture model was established by stimulating A549 cell line with IL1-β (10 ng/ml). After 2 hours of treatment with IL1-β to induce inflammation, A549 cells were exposed to ORT-83 (0.78 µg/ml) for 24 hours. Thereafter gene expression analyses were performed with qRT-PCR. We found that ORT-83 significantly suppressed the gene expression levels of the proinflammatory cytokines; IL-6, NFkB, and TNF-α. However, the increased levels of IL-10 (2.8 folds) by IL-1β induction did not change after ORT-83 and/or dexamethasone (Dex: positive control) treatments. While Dex; a COX-2 inhibitor, reduced the COX-2 expression level in inflammatory cells from 10.03 folds to 0.71 folds, ORT-83 reduced its level to 4.37 folds. iNOS expression levels did not change in any experimental groups. In conclusion, we showed that ORT-83 exerted its anti-inflammatory effects by repressing the gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the inflammation-induced A549 cell line. Although ORT-83 had a weaker COX-2 inhibitory effect compared to Dex, it was shown to be still a strong anti-inflammatory compound.

Humans , Benzimidazoles/pharmacology , Drugs, Investigational , Analgesics/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Toxicity Tests , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , A549 Cells
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(6): 594-604, nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057482


Abstract Background and objectives: Calcitonin is a polypeptide hormone regulating the metabolism of calcium in the body. For many years calcitonin has been used to maintain and improve bone mineral density and to reduce the fracture rate. Many studies showed that calcitonin had analgesic role in several painful circumstances. This pain-ameliorating effect is irrelevant to its osteoclastic inhibitory effect and mechanisms like altering Na+ channel and serotonin receptor expression or hypothesis including the endorphin-mediated mechanism were used to explain this effect. In this study we performed a thorough review on the role of calcitonin as an analgesic agent in different scenarios and investigated the fact that calcitonin can be a feasible medication to relieve pain. Method: Many studies focused on the analgesic effect of calcitonin in several painful circumstances, including acute pains related to vertebral fractures, metastasis, migraine and reflex sympathetic dystrophy as well as neuropathic pains related to spinal injuries or diabetes, and phantom pain. Also, calcitonin was showed to be a useful additive to local anesthesia in the case of controlling postoperative pain or trigeminal neuralgia more effectively. However we faced some contradictory data for conditions like lumbar canal stenosis, complex regional pain syndrome, phantom pain and malignancies. Conclusion: This study showed that calcitonin could be helpful analgesic agent in different painful situations. Calcitonin can be considered an eligible treatment for acute pains related to vertebral fractures and a feasible alternative for the treatment of the acute and chronic neuropathic pains where other medications might fail.

Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: A calcitonina é um hormônio polipeptídico que regula o metabolismo do cálcio no organismo. Por muitos anos a calcitonina tem sido usada para manter e melhorar a densidade mineral óssea e reduzir a incidência de fraturas. Muitos estudos mostraram que a calcitonina teve efeito analgésico em várias condições físicas de dor. Esse efeito de melhoria da dor é irrelevante diante de seu efeito inibidor osteoclástico e de mecanismos, tais como a alteração do canal de Na+ e da expressão do receptor de serotonina, inclusive a hipótese do mecanismo mediado pela endorfina, que foram usados para explicar esse efeito. Neste estudo, fizemos uma revisão completa sobre o papel da calcitonina como agente analgésico em diferentes cenários e investigamos o fato de que a calcitonina pode ser uma medicação viável para aliviar a dor. Método: Muitos estudos centraram no efeito analgésico da calcitonina em várias condições de dor, inclusive dores agudas relacionadas a fraturas vertebrais, metástases, enxaqueca e distrofia simpática reflexa, bem como dores neuropáticas relacionadas a lesões medulares ou ao diabetes e dor fantasma. Além disso, a calcitonina mostrou ser um aditivo útil à anestesia local para o controle mais efecaz da dor pós-operatória ou neuralgia do trigêmeo. Porém, nos deparamos com alguns dados contraditórios em condições como estenose do canal lombar, síndrome complexa da dor regional, dor fantasma e malignidades. Conclusão: Este estudo mostrou que a calcitonina pode ser um analgésico útil em diferentes condições de dor. A calcitonina pode ser considerada um tratamento elegível para as dores agudas relacionadas a fraturas vertebrais e uma opção viável para o tratamento das dores neuropáticas agudas e crônicas em que outros medicamentos podem falhar.

Humans , Animals , Calcitonin/therapeutic use , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Calcitonin/pharmacology , Acute Pain/etiology , Acute Pain/physiopathology , Acute Pain/drug therapy , Chronic Pain/etiology , Chronic Pain/physiopathology , Chronic Pain/drug therapy , Analgesics/pharmacology , Neuralgia/etiology , Neuralgia/physiopathology , Neuralgia/drug therapy
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(6): 566-576, nov. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102643


This paper reports for the first time volatile compounds, anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils from the leaves of Waltheria indica L. (Stericullaceae) growing in Nigeria. The essential oil was hydro-distilled and characterized by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated on carrageenan induced rat paw edema while the anti-nociceptive test was based on hot plate model. The hydro-distillation afforded 0.41% (dry weight basis) of light green oil. Forty compounds representing 99.8% were identified in the oil. The main constituents of the oil were limonene (34.7%), sabinene (21.2%) and citronellal (9.7%). The anti-nociceptive property of the essential oils statically inhibited edema development (p<0.001) at a dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg independent of time of exposure. However, the 100 mg/kg Waltheria indica essential oils (WIEO) displayed a relatively low inhibition (p<0.01-p>0.5) which declines as exposure time increases. The anti-inflammatory activities shows a steady rate and non-dose dependent activity (p<0.001) up to the 3rd h of inflammation study. Conversely, a sharp reduction at the rate of p<0.5, 0.1 and 0.01 for the 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg WIEO doses respectively. Overall, the results presented sustain and establish the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties and justifies the need for further evaluation and development of the essential oils from this plant.

Este artículo informa por primera vez de compuestos volátiles, actividades anti-nociceptivas y antiinflamatorias de aceites esenciales de las hojas de Waltheria indica L. (Stericullaceae) que crecen en Nigeria. El aceite esencial fue hidro-destilado y se caracterizó por cromatografía de gases-detección de ionización de llama (GC-FID) y cromatografía de gases junto con análisis de espectrometría de masas (GC-MS). La actividad antiinflamatoria se evaluó en el edema de pata de rata inducido por carragenano, mientras que la prueba antinociceptiva se basó en el modelo de placa caliente. La destilación hidráulica proporcionó 0,41% (en peso seco) de aceite verde claro. Cuarenta compuestos que representan el 99.8% fueron identificados en el aceite. Los principales componentes del aceite fueron el limoneno (34,7%), el sabineno (21,2%) y el citronelal (9,7%). La propiedad anti-nociceptiva de los aceites esenciales inhibió estáticamente el desarrollo del edema (p<0.001) a una dosis de 200 y 400 mg/kg independientemente del tiempo de exposición. Sin embargo, los aceites esenciales de Waltheria indica de 100 mg/kg (WIEO) mostraron una inhibición relativamente baja (p<0.01-p>0.5) que disminuye a medida que aumenta el tiempo de exposición. Las actividades antiinflamatorias muestran una tasa constante y una actividad no dependiente de la dosis (p<0.001) hasta la tercera hora del estudio de inflamación. Por el contrario, una fuerte reducción a una tasa de p<0.5, 0.1 y 0.01 para las dosis de 100, 200 y 400 mg/kg de WIEO respectivamente. En general, los resultados presentados sostienen y establecen las propiedades anti-nociceptivas y antiinflamatorias y justifican la necesidad de una mayor evaluación y desarrollo de los aceites esenciales de esta planta.

Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Malvaceae/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Temperature , Carrageenan/toxicity , Chromatography, Gas/methods , Rats, Wistar , Monoterpenes/analysis , Flame Ionization , Analgesics/pharmacology , Inflammation/chemically induced
Braz. j. biol ; 78(3): 436-442, Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951571


Abstract In this study were evaluated the anaesthesia and analgesic effects of clove Eugenia caryophyllata, tea tree Melaleuca alternifolia and basil Ocimum basilicum essential oils (EO) during handling of yellowtail clownfish Amphiprion clarkii. Juveniles (3.70 ± 0.75 cm and 1.03 ± 0.50 g; mean ± standard deviation) were submitted to concentrations of 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 µl L-1 of clove, 150, 200, 250, 300 and 350 µl L-1 of basil and 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 µl L-1 of tea tree oils (n=10/concentration), previously defined in pilot tests. Individually and only once, fish from each treatment were placed in a glass recipient containing 1 L of seawater at a temperature of 25 °C, salinity of 35 g L-1 and the specific concentration of diluted EO (stock solution). Control (only seawater) and blank (seawater and ethanol at the highest concentration used to dilute the oils) treatments were also conducted. After reaching the stage of surgical anaesthesia, fish were submitted to biometry and a sensibility test. After that, they were transferred to clean seawater for anaesthesia recovery. The times of induction needed to reach each anaesthesia stage and anaesthesia recovery were recorded. Animals were observed for 72 hours after the procedures. All the EO provoked anaesthesia and analgesic effects in A. clarkii, but basil oil is not recommended because it caused involuntary muscle contractions and mortality in 100% and 12% of fish, respectively. The lower concentrations that promote suitable induction and recovery times are 50 µl L-1 of clove oil and 500 µl L-1 of tea tree oil. However, due to its complementary high analgesic efficiency, clove oil is recommended as the ideal anaesthetic for A. clarkii.

Resumo Neste estudo foram avaliados os efeitos anestésicos e analgésicos dos óleos essenciais (OE) de cravo Eugenia caryophyllata, melaleuca Melaleuca alternifolia e manjericão Ocimum basilicum durante manejo de peixes-palhaços Amphiprion clarkii. Juvenis (3.70 ± 0.75 cm e 1.03 ± 0.50 g; média ± desvio padrão) foram submetidos às concentrações de 40, 50, 60, 70 e 80 µl L-1 de cravo, 150, 200, 250, 300 e 350 µl L-1 de manjericão e 200, 300, 400, 500 e 600 µl L-1 de melaleuca (n=10/concentração), previamente definidas em testes pilotos. Individualmente e somente uma vez, os peixes de cada tratamento foram colocados em recipiente de vidro contendo 1 L de água salgada, em temperatura de 25 °C, salinidade de 35 g L-1 e a concentração específica de OE diluída (solução estoque). Tratamentos controle (apenas água marinha) e branco (água marinha e a maior concentração de etanol utilizada para diluição dos óleos) também foram conduzidos. Após atingirem o estágio de anestesia cirúrgica, os peixes foram submetidos à biometria e teste de sensibilidade. Em seguida, foram transferidos para água marinha limpa. Os tempos necessários para atingir cada estágio anestésico e recuperação foram registrados. Os animais foram observados por 72 horas após os procedimentos. Todos os OE provocaram anestesia e analgesia em A. clarkii, porém o óleo de manjericão não é recomendado, pois causou contrações musculares involuntárias e mortalidade em 100% e 12% dos animais, respectivamente. As menores concentrações que promovem indução anestésica e recuperação em tempos adequados são 50 µl L-1 de óleo de cravo e 500 µl L-1 de óleo de melaleuca. Entretanto, devido à sua alta eficiência analgésica complementar, o óleo de cravo é recomendado como o anestésico ideal para A. clarkii.

Animals , Plant Oils/toxicity , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Tea Tree Oil/pharmacology , Clove Oil/pharmacology , Analgesia/veterinary , Analgesics/pharmacology , Anesthesia/veterinary , Anesthetics/pharmacology , Species Specificity , Plant Oils/adverse effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Fishes , Analgesia/methods , Anesthesia/methods , Muscle Contraction/drug effects
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 17(6): 555-565, nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007333


Species of Polygala genus have been used for the treatment of inflamation and pain in Turkish traditional medicine. The aim of the present study is to assess the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of P. anatolica. n-Hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the aerial parts and roots of P. anatolica were investigated for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. The methanol extracts prepared from the aerial parts and roots of P. anatolica were found to be active in carrageenan- and PGE2-induced paw edema models and in Whittle method. Methanolic extract of the aerial part inhibited serotonin-induced hind paw edema, while the root extract did not exert inhibitory effect in the same model. In addition, Fr. B and C obtained from the methanol extract of P. anatolica aerial parts showed significant anti- inflammatory activity. Morover, the analgesic effect of the methanol extracts prepared from the roots and aerial parts and Fr.B and Fr.C were found to be statistically significant without inducing ulceration. The methanol extract obtained from the aerial parts of the plant and its saponoside and flavonoid fractions showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in the trials.

Las especies del género Polygala se han utilizado para el tratamiento de la inflamación y el dolor en la medicina tradicional turca. El objetivo del presente estudio es evaluar las actividades antiinflamatorias y analgésicas de P. anatolica. Se investigaron los extractos de n-hexano, acetato de etilo y metanol de las partes aéreas y raíces de P. anatolica por sus efectos antiinflamatorios y analgésicos. Los extractos de metanol preparados a partir de las partes aéreas y raíces de P. anatolica se encontraron activos en modelos de edema de pata inducidos por carragenina y PGE2 por el método de Whittle. El extracto metanólico de la parte aérea inhibió el edema de la pata trasera inducido por serotonina, mientras que el extracto de raíz no ejerció un efecto inhibidor en el mismo modelo. En suma, la fracción B y C obtenidos a partir del extracto metanólico de partes aéreas de P. anatolica mostraron actividad antiinflamatoria significativa. Además, el efecto analgésico de los extractos de metanol preparados a partir de las raíces y las partes aéreas y la fracción B y C resultaron ser estadísticamente significativas sin inducir la ulceración. El extracto de metanol obtenido de las partes aéreas de la planta y sus fracciones de saponósidos y flavonoides mostraron actividades antiinflamatorias y analgésicas en los ensayos.

Animals , Male , Mice , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Polygala , Edema/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Capillary Permeability/drug effects , Plant Roots/chemistry , Methanol/pharmacology , Edema/chemically induced , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Analgesics/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(11): e7356, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951728


Essential oils (EO) are volatile liquids responsible for the aroma of plants. Pterodon polygalaeflorus seeds have received widespread use in folk medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. For this reason and because Pterodon polygalaeflorus seeds have great EO content, which is frequently pharmacologically active, the present study aimed to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of EO from Pterodon polygalaeflorus (EOPPgfl) and its acute toxic effects. The EEOPPgfl sample, which was extracted by steam distillation of the seeds, had a yield of 2.4% of the seeds weight and had, as major constituents, beta-elemene (48.19%), trans-caryophyllene (19.51%), and epi-bicyclosesquiphellandrene (12.24%). The EOPPgfl sample showed mild acute toxicity and its calculated median lethal dose (LD50) was 3.38 g/kg. EOPPgfl (20-60 mg/kg) showed antinociceptive activity as evidenced by several tests and inhibited writhing induced by acetic acid. The maximum effect was obtained with the 30 mg/kg dose and at 60 min after its administration. EOPPgfl also decreased formalin-induced nociception, as verified by the inhibition of the first and second phase of the formalin test. At 30 mg/kg, EOPPgfl also decreased thermally stimulated nociception. Nociception may be related to inflammatory and antiedematogenic activity and at doses ranging 10-100 mg/kg, EOPPgfl blocked dextran- and carrageenan-induced edema. The results demonstrated that EOPPgfl presented, at doses approximately 100 times smaller than LD50, an antinociceptive effect that probably was due to anti-inflammatory activities.

Animals , Rabbits , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Nociception/drug effects , Analgesics/pharmacology , Fabaceae/chemistry , Seeds/chemistry , Time Factors , Pain Measurement , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(4): e7124, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889061


Marasmius androsaceus is a medicinal fungus mainly used to treat various forms of pain in China. This study investigated the analgesic effects of an ethanol extract of M. androsaceus (MAE) and its potential molecular mechanisms. Oral administration of MAE (50, 200, and 1000 mg/kg) had significant analgesic effects in an acid-induced writhing test, a formalin test, and a hot-plate test, with effectiveness similar to tramadol (the positive control drug). The autonomic activity test showed that MAE had no harmful effects on the central nervous system in mice. MAE resulted in significantly enhanced levels of noradrenalin and 5-hydroxytryptamine in serum but suppressed both of these neurotransmitters in the hypothalamus after 30 s of hot-plate stimulation. Co-administration with nimodipine (10 mg/kg; a Ca2+ channel blocker) strongly enhanced the analgesic effect in the hot-plate test compared to MAE alone. Moreover, MAE down-regulated the expression of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in the hypothalamus after a 30-s thermal stimulus. These results suggested that the analgesic ability of MAE is related to the regulation of metabolism by monoamine neurotransmitters and Ca2+/CaMKII-mediated signaling, which can potentially aid the development of peripheral neuropathic pain treatments obtained from M. androsaceus.

Animals , Male , Mice , Pain/drug therapy , Tramadol/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Marasmius/chemistry , Analgesics/pharmacology , Pain Measurement/drug effects , Disease Models, Animal
Rev. Asoc. Odontol. Argent ; 105(3): 116-122, sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-973106


Una de las principales preocupaciones de los pacientes que van a ser sometidos a un procedimiento odontológico es el dolor que dicho procedimiento pueda ocasionar. Por lotanto, lograr un control eficaz y seguro de ese dolor es una parte esencial de la práctica odontológica diaria. Los fármacos de primera elección para el tratamiento del dolor y el edemason, sin lugar a dudas, los antiinflamatorios no esteroideos(AINEs). Principios activos como el ibuprofeno (y sus congéneres) o sus derivados permiten controlar simultáneamente el dolor y el edema posquirúrgicos de una forma eficaz y segura. En muchas ocasiones, el AINE prescrito para mantener al paciente asintomático o con síntomas tolerables es suficiente. Sin embargo, cuando esto no ocurre, debemos recurrir a otrosfármacos, o realizar asociaciones con fármacos que complementen el efecto analgésico y trabajen logrando un sinergismo de potenciación que incremente el efecto buscado y disminuya los efectos adversos de cada una de las sustancias por separado, utilizando menores dosis. Un ejemplo comprobado de esas asociaciones es la de ibuprofeno con paracetamol. En el presente artículo se sugieren diversas estrategias pre- y posoperatorias para el manejo del dolor de origen inflamatorio, y un protocolo para su tratamiento.

Humans , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacokinetics , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Ibuprofen/pharmacology , Acetaminophen/pharmacology , Drug Combinations , Drug Synergism , Dosage Forms , Analgesics/pharmacology , Analgesics/pharmacokinetics , Analgesics/therapeutic use
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1,supl): 457-467, May. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886663


ABSTRACT The present study investigated the antioxidant effect of a new class of quinoline derivatives (a-d) on assays in vitro. Lipid peroxidation, thiol peroxidase-like and free radical scavenging activities were determined to evaluate antioxidant activity of compounds. Thiol oxidase-like and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase activities were performed as a toxicological parameter. A second objective of this study was to evaluate the in vivo antinociceptive effect of the compound with better antioxidant effect and without toxic effects in a model of nociception induced by formalin in mice. In liver, at 100 µM, compound a reduced the lipid peroxidation to the control levels, while compounds c and d partially reduced it. In brain, only compound d partially reduced the lipid peroxidation at 50 and 100 µM. Compound b did not have an effect on the lipid peroxidation. Thiol peroxidase-like and free radical scavenging activities are not involved in the antioxidant mechanisms of these compounds. Compounds did not present thiol oxidase-like activity and effect on the δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase. In vivo experiments showed that compound a caused an inhibition of licking time in the first and second phases, and edema formation induced by formalin. In conclusion, quinoline derivative without selenium presented better in vitro antioxidant effect and in vivo antinociceptive activity.

Animals , Male , Rats , Quinolines/pharmacology , Selenium/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Analgesics/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Oxidation-Reduction , Quinolines/chemistry , Pain Measurement , Free Radical Scavengers , Disease Models, Animal , Oxidoreductases Acting on Sulfur Group Donors/pharmacology , Porphobilinogen Synthase/pharmacology
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017; 30 (1): 213-215
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-185761


The present study was aimed to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous methanolic extract of Aerva javanica. For measuring analgesic activity, writhing test, hot plate method and formalin test were performed and abdominal writhing was induced by intra-peritoneal injection of 0.2ml of 3% acetic acid. While in formalin test, pain was experimentally induced by injecting 25 micro l of 2.5% formalin in left hind paw. In hot plate method, pain was induced thermally by keeping the animals on a hot plate with temperature of about 51[degree]C. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by carrageen an induced mice paw edema. The results showed that the extract had significant analgesic activity [p<0.05- p<0.001] and anti-inflammatory activity [p<0.01-p<0.001]. Therefore, it was concluded from this study that the extracts of Aerva javanica may be used against pain and inflammation

Animals, Laboratory , Analgesics/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Phytotherapy , Plant Leaves , Plants, Medicinal , Mice
Braz. j. pharm. sci ; 52(4): 623-633, Oct.-Dec. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951871


ABSTRACT Pro-inflammatory cytokines and glial cells, especially microglial cells, have been implicated in persistent pain sensitization. Less is known about the role of astrocytes in pain regulation. This study aimed to observe the expression of the astrocytic biomarker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and the serum levels of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) after short-term administration of central pain relievers in rats not submitted to noxious stimuli. Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups, receiving for nine days- (1) amitriptyline (Amt-10 mg/kg/day, by gavage); (2) gabapentin (Gb-60 mg/kg/day, by gavage; (3) methadone (Me-4.5 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneal route [IP]); (4) morphine (Mo-10 mg/kg/day, IP); or (5) 0.9% saline solution, IP. Brain samples were collected for immunohistochemical study of GFAP expression in the mesencephalon and nucleus accumbens (NAc). The area of GFAP-positive cells was calculated using MetaMorph software and serum levels of IL-1ß and TNF-α were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum TNF-α levels were decreased in the groups treated with Mo, Me and Gb, but not in the Amt-treated group. IL-1ß decreased only in rats treated with Me. The astrocytic expression of GFAP was decreased in the brainstem with all drugs, while it was increased in the NAc with Amt, Me and Mo

Animals , Male , Rats , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/analysis , Analgesics/pharmacology , Pain/drug therapy , Astrocytes/immunology , Cytokines/classification
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(2): 433-441, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-787945


RESUMO Considerando os diferentes usos etnofarmacológicos apresentados pela planta Luehea divaricata, realizou-se este estudo com o objetivo de avaliar as atividades antinociceptiva e antinflamatória do extrato etanólico de suas folhas, em modelo animal, nas dosagens de 20, 40, 80 e 160 mg/Kg, por via oral. Foram realizados os seguintes testes: contorções abdominais induzidas pelo acido acético, placa quente, formalina e edema de pata induzido por carragenina. Foram utilizados camundongos Swiss (20-25 g) para os três primeiros testes e ratos Wistar (180-250 g), para o último, divididos em seis grupos de oito animais, totalizando 48 animais em cada parâmetro de avaliação. Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente pela análise de variância a 5% de probabilidade, para verificar quais os tratamentos que diferiram entre si, e estes foram submetidos aos testes de Kruskall-Wallis e Student-Newman-Keuls. O extrato etanólico das folhas de L. divaricata (EEtOH-Ld), nas diferentes doses estudadas, apresentou significativa atividade antinociceptiva sobre a dor induzida quimicamente por injeções intraperitoneal de acido acético e intraplantar de formalina. Na dosagem de 160 mg/Kg, esse extrato apresentou ação analgésica central, aos 120 minutos de observação, no teste de placa quente e reduziu o edema de pata induzido pela administração de carragenina, uma hora após a administração do agente inflamatório, semelhante ao efeito produzido pelo fármaco padrão.

ABSTRACT Considering the different ethnopharmacological uses submitted by the plant Luehea divaricata, this study took place in order to evaluate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanol extract of the leaves in an animal model, the dosages of 20, 40, 80 and 160 mg/kg by oral intake. The following tests were performed: writhing induced by acetic acid, hot plate, formalin, and paw edema induced by carrageenan. Swiss mice (20-25 g) were used for the first three tests and Wistar rats (180-250 g) for the last, divided into six groups, each of eight animals, totaling 48 animals for each assessment parameter. The results were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance at 5% probability to verify which treatments differ, and these were tested by Kruskal-Wallis and Student-Newman-Keuls. The ethanol extract of L. divaricataleaves (EEtOH-Ld) at the different studied doses showed significant antinociceptive activity on chemically induced pain by intraperitoneal injections of acetic acid and intraplantar formalin. At a dosage of 160 mg/kg, this extract showed a central analgesic action after 120 minutes of observation in the hot plate test and reduced action in the paw edema induced by carrageenan one hour after the administration of the inflammatory agent, similar to the effect produced by the standard drug.

Mice , Analgesics/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Malvaceae/classification , Pain/pathology , Plants, Medicinal/classification