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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(2): 367-373, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056449

ABSTRACT

Sexual dimorphism in Homo-sapiens is a phenomenon of a direct product of evolution by natural selection where evolutionary forces acted separately on the sexes which brought about the differences in appearance between male and female such as in shape and size. Advances in morphometrics have skyrocketed the rate of research on sex differences in human and other species. However, the current challenges facing 3D in the acquisition of facial data such as lack of homology, insufficient landmarks to characterize the facial shape and complex computational process for facial point digitization require further study in the domain of sex dimorphism. This study investigates sexual dimorphism in the human face with the application of Automatic Homologous Multi-points Warping (AHMW) for 3D facial landmark by building a template mesh as a reference object which is thereby applied to each of the target mesh on Stirling/ESRC dataset containing 101 subjects (male = 47, female = 54). The semi-landmarks are subjected to sliding along tangents to the curves and surfaces until the bending energy between a template and a target form is minimal. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is used for feature selection and the features are classified using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) with an accuracy of 99.01 % which demonstrates that the method is robust.


El dimorfismo sexual en el Homo-sapiens es un fenómeno directo de la evolución por selección natural, donde las fuerzas evolutivas actuaron por separado en los sexos, lo que provocó las diferencias en la apariencia entre hombres y mujeres, tal como la forma y tamaño. Los avances en el área de la morfometría, han generado un aumento significativo de las investigaciones en las diferencias de sexo en humanos y otras especies. Sin embargo, los desafíos actuales que enfrenta el 3D en el análisis de datos faciales, como la falta de homología, puntos de referencia insuficientes para caracterizar la forma facial y la complejidad del proceso computacional para la digitalización de puntos faciales, requiere un estudio adicional en el área del dimorfismo sexual. Este estudio investiga el dimorfismo sexual en el rostro humano con la aplicación de la deformación automática de múltiples puntos homólogos para el hito facial 3D, mediante la elaboración de una malla de plantilla como objeto de referencia, y se aplica en cada una de las mallas objetivas en el conjunto de datos Stirling / ESRC que contiene 101 sujetos (hombre = 47, mujer = 54). Los semi-puntos de referencia se deslizan a lo largo de las tangentes a las curvas y superficies hasta que la energía de flexión entre una plantilla y una forma objetivo es mínima. El análisis de componentes principales (PCA) se utiliza para la selección de características y las características se clasifican mediante el análisis discriminante lineal (ADL) con una precisión del 99,01 %, lo que demuestra la validez del método.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Sex Characteristics , Connective Tissue/anatomy & histology , Face/anatomy & histology , Discriminant Analysis , Multivariate Analysis , Connective Tissue/diagnostic imaging , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Face/diagnostic imaging , Anatomic Landmarks
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(2): 435-443, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056459

ABSTRACT

To accurately localize the centers of intramuscular nerve dense regions (CINDRs) of rotator cuff muscles. Twenty adult cadavers were used. The curves on skin connecting the superior angle of scapula with the acromion, and with the inferior angle of scapula were designed as the horizontal (H) and longitudinal (L) reference lines, respectively. One side of the rotator cuff muscles were removed and subjected to Sihler's staining to show intramuscular nerve dense regions, and the contralateral muscles' CINDRs were labeled with barium sulfate and scanned by computed tomography (to determine body surface projection points (P)). The intersection of the longitudinal line from point P to line H, and that of the horizontal line from point P to line L, were recorded as PH and PL, respectively. The projection of CINDRs on the anterior body surface across the saggital plane was defined as P' and the line connecting P to P' was recorded as Line PP'. Percentage positions of CINDRs of PH and PL on lines H and L, and the depths on line PP' were determined under the Syngo system. Two, four, one, and one CINDRs were identified in supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis muscles, respectively. The positions of PH of these CINDRs on the H-line are as follows: supraspinatus, 25.43 % and 26.59 %; infraspinatus, 53.85 %, 34.63 %, 35.96 % and 58.17 %; teres minor, 74.50 %; and subscapularis, 20.33 %. The PL on the L-line: supraspinatus, 11.09 % and 14.83 %; infraspinatus, 21.59 %, 27.93 %, 48.55 % and 57.52 %; teres minor, 68.28 %; and subscapularis, 52.82 %. The depth on line PP': supraspinatus, 24.83 % and 25.40 %; infraspinatus, 21.55 %, 16.10 %, 10.01 % and 8.14 %; teres minor, 13.27 %; and subscapularis, 22.88 %. The identification of these CINDRs should provide the optimal target position for injecting botulinum toxin A to treat rotator cuff muscles spasticity accompanied by shoulder pain and to improve the efficiency and efficacy of blocking target localization.


Con el objetivo de localizar con precisión los centros de las regiones densas del nervio intramuscular (CRDNI) de los músculos del manguito rotador, se utilizaron veinte cadáveres adultos. Las curvas en la piel que conectan el ángulo superior de la escápula con el acromion y con el ángulo inferior de la escápula se determinaron como líneas de referencia horizontales (H) y longitudinales (L), respectivamente. Se extrajo de un lado los músculos del manguito rotador y se sometió a la tinción de Sihler para mostrar regiones densas de nervios intramusculares, y los CRDNI de los músculos contralaterales se marcaron con sulfato de bario y se escanearon mediante tomografía computarizada (para determinar los puntos de proyección de la superficie corporal (P)). La intersección de la línea longitudinal desde el punto P a la línea H, y de la línea horizontal desde el punto P a la línea L, se registraron como PH y PL, respectivamente. La proyección de CRDNI en la superficie del cuerpo anterior a través del plano sagital se definió como P 'y la línea que conecta P a P' se registró como Línea PP '. Las posiciones porcentuales de los CRDNI de PH y PL en las líneas H y L, y las profundidades en la línea PP 'se determinaron bajo el sistema Syngo. Se identificaron dos, cuatro, uno y un CINDR en los músculos supraespinoso, infraespinoso, redondo menor y subescapular, respectivamente. Las posiciones de PH de estos CRDNI en la línea H son las siguientes: supraespinoso, 25,43 % y 26.59 %; infraspinatus, 53,85 %, 34,63 %, 35,96 % y 58,17 %; redondo menor, 74,50 %; y subescapular, 20,33 %. El PL en la línea L: supraespinoso, 11.09 % y 14.83 %; infraspinatus, 21,59 %, 27,93 %, 48,55 % y 57,52 %; redondo menor, 68.28 %; y subescapular, 52,82 %. La profundidad en la línea PP ': supraespinoso, 24,83 % y 25,40 %; infraspinatus, 21,55 %, 16,10 %, 10,01 % y 8,14 %; redondo menor, 13.27 %; y subescapularis, 22,88 %. La identificación de estos CRDNI debería proporcionar la posición objetivo óptima para inyectar la toxina botulínica A para tratar la espasticidad de los músculos del manguito rotador acompañada de dolor en el hombro y para mejorar la eficiencia y la eficacia del bloqueo de la localización del objetivo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Peripheral Nerves/anatomy & histology , Rotator Cuff/innervation , Botulinum Toxins, Type A , Nerve Block , Cadaver , Anatomic Landmarks , Muscle Spasticity
3.
Biociencias ; 15(1): 29-39, jun.2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1122927

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la programación estructurada del entrenamiento físico contribuye a reducir las probabilidades de padecer enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles, de igual manera aumenta la calidad de la salud de las personas, especialmente en los sistemas, cardiovascular, respiratoria, neuromuscular y musculoesquelético. Esto facilita la optimización de la condición física saludable, aspecto que favorece en el individuo el desarrollo de las actividades diarias con máxima funcionalidad, eficiencia y eficacia. Objetivo: Verificar los efectos de un programa estructurado de entrenamiento funcional sobre la resistencia muscular en adultos jóvenes. Materiales y Métodos: Tipo de estudio cuasi experimental, con evaluación pre intervención y post intervención en un grupo experimental. En 15 adultos jóvenes que asisten a un gimnasio de la ciudad de Barranquilla se aplicaron las pruebas: resistencia muscular del tren superior sin límite de tiempo, resistencia muscular del abdomen en 1 min, resistencia muscular de miembros inferiores y flexibilidad, la intervención se realizó con un programa estructurado de entrenamiento funcional comparando pre test y post test. Resultados: post intervención se presentaron cambios significativos comparando los resultados del pre test con los del post test, en resistencia muscular de miembros superiores (media: 33,29 vs 45,57) P: 0,04, flexibilidad (media: 13,57 vs 3,86) P: 0,05. Conclusiones: Se puede constatar que las capacidades de resistencia muscular y flexibilidad se pueden adaptar de manera positiva a través de una intervención con un programa estructurado de entrenamiento funcional, por 8 semanas, con una frecuencia de tres veces por semana por 45 minutos/día.


Introduction: the structured programming of physical training helps to reduce the chances of suffering from chronic noncommunicable diseases, in the same way it increases the quality of people's health, especially in the cardiovascular, respiratory, neuromuscular and musculoskeletal systems. This facilitates the optimization of healthy physical condition, an aspect that favors the individual, the development of daily activities with maximum functionality, efficiency and effectiveness. Objective: To verify the effects of a structured program of functional training on muscular endurance in young adults. Materials and Methods: Type of quasi-experimental study, with pre intervention and post intervention evaluation in an experimental group. In 15 young adults attending a gym in the city of Barranquilla, the tests were applied: upper end muscle resistance without time limit, abdominal muscle resistance in 1 min, lower limb muscle resistance and flexibility, the intervention was performed with a structured program of functional training comparing pretest and postest. Results: significant changes were presented after the intervention, comparing the results of the pre-test with those of the post-test, in muscular resistance of the upper limbs (mean: 33.29 vs 45.57) P: 0.04, flexibility (mean: 13.57 vs. 3.86) P: 0.05. Conclusions: It can be seen that muscular endurance and flexibility capacities can be adapted in a positive way through an intervention with a structured program of functional training, for 8 weeks, with a frequency of three times per week for 45 minutes/day.


Subject(s)
Humans , Exercise , Body Regions , Anatomic Landmarks , Musculoskeletal System
4.
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190435, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1056593

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To quantify the bone volume that can be safely withdrawn from 3 donor sites: (1) the mandibular symphysis, (2) the oblique mandibular line and (3) the skullcap. Methodology For the symphysis, 200 tomographic exams were evaluated by the extension of the anterior loop of mental foramen, by the nerve, by the distance of the foramens, by the distance between the vestibular cortical and the lingual plates and by the distance between the apexes, or lower anterior teeth, and the mandibular base, using the "distance" tool of the I-CAT Vision, in the panoramic and parasagittal reformations. For the oblique line, 70 TCFC exams were analyzed retrospectively in panoramic and parasagittal reformations, evaluating the thickness of the vestibular cortical and the distance between the cortical and the mandibular canal. For the cranial bone, a hexagonal donor site located in parietal area was considered. Results The average dimensions of the bone blocks that can be safely removed from the region of the mandibular symphysis are: 32.27 mm in length, 4.87 mm in height and 4 mm in thickness, providing a volume of 628.61 mm3 available for grafting. In the oblique line, the available bone volume for grafting was 859.61 mm3. In the region of the cranial vault, multiplying the average bone thickness by the area of the hexagon, an average volume of 2,499 mm3 was obtained. Conclusions Comparing the donor sites, the bone availability in the cranial vault is 3 times greater than in the mandibular posterior region, and at least 2 times greater than in the mandibular symphysis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Skull/transplantation , Bone Transplantation/methods , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography/methods , Transplant Donor Site , Mandible/transplantation , Skull/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Anatomic Landmarks , Transplant Donor Site/diagnostic imaging , Cortical Bone/transplantation , Cortical Bone/diagnostic imaging , Mandible/diagnostic imaging , Medical Illustration
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(4): 1498-1503, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040160

ABSTRACT

El músculo cuadríceps femoral es un músculo que participa principalmente en los movimientos de la rodilla y también en la cadera, pudiendo ser afectado por alteraciones en el trofismo muscular, tras lesiones de estas articulaciones o afecciones en el tono muscular, como la espasticidad, tras lesiones cerebrovasculares. Cada una de sus cabezas está inervada por ramos del nervio femoral. El presente estudio tuvo por objetivo la identificación y medición de la distancia de los puntos motores (Pm) del músculo cuadríceps femoral, en relación a estructuras anatómicas de relevancia clínica. Se utilizaron 30 miembros inferiores de 23 cadáveres formolizados, de individuos brasileños adultos. El estudio fue realizado en la Universidade Estadual de Ciências da Saúde de Alagoas (UNCISAL), Maceió, Brasil. Se realizó la disección por planos en la zona medial, anterior y lateral del muslo, identificando a los ramos del nervio femoral para cada componente, músculos recto femoral (mRf), vasto medial (mVm), vasto intermedio (mVint) y vasto lateral (mVlat), localizando cada uno de los Pm. Las mediciones se realizaron con un cáliper marca Mitutoyo de 0,05 mm de precisión. Los datos obtenidos fueron tratados estadísticamente, utilizando para ello, el software STATA (versión 14.1). El mRf, tuvo un promedio de 2,45 ± 1,39 Pm, estando la gran mayoría de los Pm (63 %), en la zona distal del tercio proximal del muslo; el mVm presentó 4,42 ± 2,74 Pm en promedio, encontrándose el 41 % de ellos en el tercio medio del muslo, zona distal; el mVint tuvo 3,99 ± 2,34 Pm en promedio y el 58 % de ellos, se localizaron en la zona proximal del tercio medio del muslo; el mVlat presentó un promedio de 3,88 ± 2,37 Pm y el 50 % de éstos se encontraron en del tercio proximal del muslo. La localización biométrica de los Pm se informa en resultados. La ubicación biométrica de los Pm, favorecerá el quehacer, tanto clínico como quirúrgico, de la zona anterior del muslo.


The quadriceps femoris muscle is a muscle that participates mainly in the movements of the knee and also in the hip, being able to be affected by alterations in muscle trophism, after injuries of these joints or muscular tone conditions, such as spasticity, after injuries cerebrovascular. Each of its heads is innervated by branches of the femoral nerve. The objective of this study was to identify and measure the distance of the motor points (MP) of the quadriceps femoris muscle, in relation to anatomical structures of clinical relevance. Thirty lower limbs of 23 formolized corpses of adult Brazilian individuals were used. The study was conducted at the State University of Ciências da Saúde de Alagoas (UNCISAL), Maceió, Brazil. The dissection was performed by planes in the medial, anterior and lateral thigh, identifying the femoral nerve branches for each component, rectus femoris muscles (Rfm), medial vastus (mVm), vastus intermedius (intVm) and vastus lateralis ( latVm), locating each of the MP. The measurements were made with a Mitutoyo caliper of 0.05 mm accuracy. The data obtained were treated statistically, using the STATA software (version 14.1). The Rfm had an average of 2.45 ± 1.39 MP, the great majority of the MP (63 %) being in the distal area of the proximal third of the thigh; the mVm presented 4.42 ± 2.74 MP on average, with 41 % of them in the middle third of the thigh, distal zone; the intVm had 3.99 + 2.34 MP on average and 58 % of them were located in the proximal area of the middle third of the thigh; the latVm presented an average of 3.88 ± 2.37 MP and 50 % of these were found in the proximal third of the thigh. The biometric localization of the MP is reported in results. The biometric location of the MP, will favor the task, both clinical and surgical of the anterior thigh area.


Subject(s)
Humans , Quadriceps Muscle/anatomy & histology , Femur/anatomy & histology , Anatomic Landmarks , Brazil , Cadaver , Quadriceps Muscle/innervation , Femur/innervation
7.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 54(5): 587-590, Sept.-Oct. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057925

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective The objective of this paper was to identify safety parameters in the posterior surgical approach of the scapula through a cross-sectional cadaver study. Methods Thirteen cadaver shoulders with no history of surgery or prior musculoskeletal dysfunction, with mean age, weight, and height of 70.1 years, 61.5 kg, and 1.64 m, respectively, were dissected. The anatomic landmark of the studied pathway (infraglenoid tubercle) and its distance to the axillary and suprascapular nerves were measured. Results The mean distance between the infraglenoid tubercle (IT) and the axillary nerve (AN) was 23.8 mm, and the mean distance from the IT to the suprascapular nerve (SN) was 33.2 mm. Conclusion The posterior approach may be considered safe through the interval between the infraspinatus and teres minor. However, caution should be taken during muscle spacing because of the short distance between the fracture site and the location of the SN and AN. These precautions help to avoid major postoperative complications.


Resumo Objetivo O presente trabalho teve como objetivo identificar parâmetros de segurança para a realização da via de acesso cirúrgico posterior da escápula por meio de um estudo transversal em cadáveres. Métodos Foram dissecados 13 ombros de cadáveres sem história de cirurgia ou disfunção musculoesquelética prévia e em bom estado de conservação, com médias de idade, peso e altura de 70,1 anos, 61,5 kg, 1,64m, respectivamente. Identificou-se marco anatômico da via estudada (tubérculo infraglenoidal) e sua distância para os nervos axilar e supraescapular foi medida. Resultados A distância média encontrada entre o tubérculo infraglenoidal (TI) e o nervo axilar (NA) foi de 23,8 mm e distância média do TI ao nervo supraescapular (NSE) foi de 33,2 mm. Conclusão A via posterior pelo intervalo entre os músculos infraespinal e redondo menor é considerada segura; porém, é preciso atenção e cautela durante o afastamento muscular, devido à curta distância média entre o sítio de fratura e a localização do NSE e do NA. Tais precauções podem evitar maiores complicações pós-operatórias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Scapula/anatomy & histology , Scapula/surgery , Cadaver , Fractures, Bone , Anatomic Landmarks , Muscles
8.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 34(3): 331-335, jul.-sep. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047148

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Em 1988, Baroudi et al. publicaram um trabalho descrevendo a utilização de pontos de adesão entre o retalho dermoadiposo e a bainha anterior do músculo reto do abdome, no intuito de diminuir a formação de seroma. O presente estudo propõe-se a demonstrar uma provável correlação entre os pontos de adesão de Baroudi com a força tensional do retalho, através da medida da distância da cicatriz abdominal inferior ao xifoide antes e após os pontos de Baroudi, no transoperatório de dermolipectomia. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo prospectivo observacional. Foram selecionadas submetidas a lipoabdominoplastia no Serviço de Cirurgia Plástica da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Porto Alegre, no período de janeiro a abril de 2019. Aferiram-se as medidas transoperatórias da distância do apêndice xifoide esternal à cicatriz umbilical, e da primeira à cicatriz cirúrgica, pré e pós-realização dos pontos de adesão de Baroudi. A análise estatística foi realizada com o software Excel®. Resultados: Verificou-se a diminuição das distâncias apêndice xifoidecicatriz umbilical e apêndice xifoide-cicatriz após a realização da sutura de Baroudi (média de 1,5cm), pressupondo-se diminuição da tensão da cicatriz. Conclusão: As medidas aferidas no presente estudo mostraram uma diminuição da distância xifoide-cicatriz umbilical e xifoide-cicatriz abdominal inferior após a realização dos pontos de Baroudi, evidenciando uma menor tensão na cicatriz. Sugere-se estudos para avaliar como essas medidas se comportam a longo prazo e se realmente se correlacionam a uma cicatriz de melhor qualidade.


Introduction: In 1988, Baroudi et al. published a paper describing the use of adhesion points between the dermoadipose flap and the anterior rectus abdominis sheath to reduce seroma formation. This study aimed to demonstrate a probable correlation between the use of Baroudi adhesion points and reduction in flap tension force by measuring the distance from the lower abdominal scar to the xiphoid before and after using Baroudi points in dermolipectomy transoperatory. Methods: This was a prospective observational study that selected patients who underwent lipoabdominoplasty at the Santa Casa de Misericórdia Plastic Surgery Service of Porto Alegre from January to April 2019. The transoperatory measurements of distance from the sternal xiphoid appendix to the umbilical scar and from the pre-xiphoid to the postxiphoid scar before and after execution of Baroudi's adhesion points were compared. Statistical analysis was performed using Excel® software. Results: A reduction in the distances between the xiphoid-umbilical scar appendix and xiphoidscar appendix was verified after execution of Baroudi suture (mean 1.5 cm), indicating a decrease in scar tension. Conclusion: There was a decrease in the xiphoid-umbilical scar and xiphoid-lower abdominal scar distance after Baroudi stitches, indicating lower scar-tissue tension. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate these measurements in the long term and their correlation with a better-quality scar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , History, 21st Century , Weights and Measures , Statistical Analysis , Prospective Studies , Cicatrix , Anatomic Landmarks , Abdominoplasty , Weights and Measures/standards , Cicatrix/surgery , Cicatrix/complications , Anatomic Landmarks/surgery , Anatomic Landmarks/injuries , Abdominoplasty/adverse effects , Abdominoplasty/methods , /methods
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 1016-1022, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012390

ABSTRACT

To allow students and surgeons to learn the sites for botulinum toxin injection, new types of educational images are needed because MRI, CT, and sectioned images are inadequate. This article describes browsing software that displays face peeled images that allow layers along the curved surface of the face to be peeled gradually in even depths across the surface. Two volume models of the head were reconstructed from sectioned images and segmented images of Visible Korean, respectively. These volume models were peeled serially at a thickness of 0.2 mm along the curved surface of the facial skin to construct the peeled images and peeled segmented images. All of the peeled images were marked with botulinum toxin injection sites, facial creases and wrinkles, and fat compartments. All peeled images and the text information were entered into browsing software. The browsing software shows 12 botulinum toxin injection sites on all peeled images of the anterior and lateral views. Further, the software shows 23 anatomic landmarks, 13 facial creases and wrinkles, and 7 face fat compartments. When a user points at any structure on the peeled images, the name of the structure appears. Our software featuring the peeled images will be particularly effective for helping medical students to quickly and easily learn the accurate facial anatomy for botulinum toxin injection sites. It will also be useful for explaining plastic surgery procedures to patients and studying the anatomic structure of the human face.


Para permitir que los estudiantes y cirujanos aprendan los sitios para la inyección de toxina botulínica, se necesitan nuevos tipos de imágenes educativas ya que las imágenes de MRI, CT e imágenes seccionadas son inadecuadas. Este artículo describe el software de navegación que muestra imágenes de cara sin piel que permiten que las capas a lo largo de la superficie curva de la cara se despeguen gradualmente en profundidades uniformes a lo largo de la superficie. Se reconstruyeron dos modelos de volumen de la cabeza a partir de imágenes seccionadas e imágenes segmentadas visibles, respectivamente. En estos modelos de volumen se retiró la piel en serie con un grosor de 0,2 mm a lo largo de la superficie curva de la cara para construir las imágenes sin piel y las imágenes segmentadas sin piel. Todas las imágenes sin piel se marcaron con puntos de inyección de toxina botulínica, arrugas y arrugas faciales y compartimientos de grasa. Todas las imágenes despegadas y la información de texto se ingresaron en el software de navegación. El software de navegación muestra 12 sitios de inyección de toxina botulínica en todas las imágenes de las vistas anterior y lateral. Además, el software muestra 23 puntos de referencia anatómicos, 13 pliegues y arrugas faciales y 7 compartimentos de grasa facial. Cuando un usuario selecciona cualquier estructura en las imágenes sin piel, aparece el nombre de la estructura. Nuestro software con las imágenes sin piel será particularmente efectivo para ayudar a los estudiantes de medicina a aprender rápida y fácilmente la anatomía facial precisa para los sitios de inyección de toxina botulínica. También será útil para explicar los procedimientos de cirugía plástica a pacientes y estudiar la estructura anatómica del rostro humano.


Subject(s)
Humans , Surgery, Plastic/education , Visible Human Projects , Face/anatomy & histology , Botulinum Toxins , Cadaver , Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted , Color , Anatomic Landmarks , Models, Anatomic
10.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(2): 213-221, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001558

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Imaging studies have hystorically been used to support the clinical otorhinolaryngological evaluation of the upper respiratory tract for the diagnosis of obstructive causes of oral breathing. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare 3D volumetric measurements of nasal cavity, nasopharynx and oropharynx of obstructed mouth-breathing children with measurements of non-obstructed mouth-breathing children. Methods: This retrospective study included 25 mouth-breathing children aged 5-9 years evaluated by otorhinolaryngological clinical examination, flexible nasoendoscopy and full-head multi-slice computed tomography. Tomographic volumetric measurements and dichotomic otorhinolaryngological diagnosis (obstructed vs. non-obstructed) in three anatomical regions (the nasal cavity, nasopharynx and oropharynx) were compared and correlated. An independent sample t-test was used to assess the association between the 3D measurements of the upper airways and the otorhinolaryngological diagnosis of obstruction in the three anatomical regions. Inter- and intra-observer intraclass correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the reliability of the 3D measurements. Results: The intra-class correlation coefficients ranged from 0.97 to 0.99. An association was found between turbinate hypertrophy and nasal cavity volume reduction (p < 0.05) and between adenoid hyperplasia and nasopharynx volume reduction (p < 0.001). No association was found between palatine tonsil hyperplasia and oropharynx volume reduction. Conclusions: (1) The nasal cavity volume was reduced when hypertrophic turbinates were diagnosed; (2) the nasopharynx was reduced when adenoid hyperplasia was diagnosed; and (3) the oropharynx volume of mouth-breathing children with tonsil hyperplasia was similar to that of non-obstructed mouth-breathing children. The adoption of the actual anatomy of the various compartments of the upper airway is an improvement to the evaluation method.


Resumo Introdução: O exame clínico otorrinolaringológico da via aérea superior tem sido historicamente feito com a ajuda de imagens radiográficas para diagnosticar causas obstrutivas da respiração bucal. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar as medidas volumétricas em 3D da cavidade nasal, nasofaringe e orofaringe entre crianças com respiração bucal e obstrução respiratória e crianças respiradoras bucais sem obstrução respiratória. Método: Estudo retrospectivo que inclui 25 crianças respiradoras bucais de 5 a 9 anos. As crianças foram avaliadas por exame clínico otorrinolaringológico, nasofibroscopia flexível e tomografia computadorizada multi-slice. Medidas volumétricas obtidas tomograficamente de três regiões anatômicas (cavidade nasal, nasofaringe e orofaringe) foram correlacionadas e comparadas com diagnóstico dicotômico otorrinolaringológico (obstruído vs. não obstruído). Um teste t de amostra independente foi usado para avaliar a associação entre as medidas em 3D das vias aéreas superiores e o diagnóstico otorrinolaringológico de obstrução nas três regiões anatômicas. Os coeficientes de correlação intraclasse inter e intraobservador foram usados para avaliar a confiabilidade das medidas em 3D. Resultados: O coeficiente de correlação intraclasse variou de 0,97 a 0,99. Uma associação foi encontrada entre a hipertrofia de conchas e a redução do volume da cavidade nasal (p < 0,05) e entre a hiperplasia de tonsila faríngea e a redução do volume da nasofaringe (p < 0,001). Não foi encontrada associação entre a hiperplasia da tonsila palatina e a redução do volume da orofaringe. Conclusões: 1) O volume da cavidade nasal estava reduzido nas crianças com diagnóstico de hipertrofia de conchas; 2) O volume da nasofaringe estava reduzido nas crianças com diagnóstico de hiperplasia de tonsila faríngea; e 3) O volume da orofaringe de crianças com respiração bucal e hiperplasia de tonsila palatina foi semelhante ao de crianças respiradoras bucais sem aumento da tonsila palatina. A adoção da mensuração anatômica dos vários compartimentos da via aérea superior complementa o método de avaliação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Oropharynx/diagnostic imaging , Nasopharynx/diagnostic imaging , Airway Obstruction/diagnostic imaging , Multidetector Computed Tomography/methods , Mouth Breathing/diagnostic imaging , Nasal Cavity/diagnostic imaging , Oropharynx/anatomy & histology , Reference Values , Nasopharynx/anatomy & histology , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Anatomic Landmarks , Nasal Cavity/anatomy & histology
11.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(2): 136-143, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001548

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The type of endoscopic approach chosen for vidian neurectomy can be specified by evaluating the vidian canal and the surrounding sphenoid sinus structures. Objective: The variations and morphometry of the vidian canal were investigated, focusing on the functional correlations between them which are crucial anatomical landmarks for preoperative planning. Methods: This study was performed using paranasal multidetector computed tomography images that were obtained with a section thickening of 0.625 mm of 250 adults. Results: The distributions of 500 vidian canal variants were categorized as follows; Type 1, within the sphenoid corpus (55.6%); Type 2, partially protruding into the sphenoid sinus (34.8%); Type 3, within the sphenoid sinus (9.6%). The pneumatization of the pterygoid process is mostly seen in vidian canal Type 2 (72.4%) and Type 3 (95.8%) (p < 0.001). The mean distances from the vidian canal to the foramen rotundum and the palatovaginal canal were greater in the vidian canal Type 2 and 3 with the pterygoid process pneumatization (p < 0.001). The prevalence of the intrasphenoid septum between the vidian canal and the vomerine crest and lateral attachment which ending on carotid prominence were much higher in vidian canal Type 3 than other types (p < 0.001). The mean angle between the posterior end of the middle turbinate and the lateral margin of the anterior opening of the vidian canal was measured as 33.05 ± 7.71°. Conclusions: Preoperative radiologic analysis of the vidian canal and the surrounding structures will allow surgeons to choose an appropriate endoscopic approach to ensure predictable postoperative outcomes.


Resumo Introdução: O tipo de abordagem endoscópica para a neurectomia do vidiano pode ser definido pela avaliação do canal do vidiano e das estruturas adjacentes aos seios esfenoidais. Objetivo: Investigar as variações e a morfometria do canal vidiano com enfoque nas suas correlações funcionais, pois são parâmetros anatômicos cruciais para o planejamento pré-operatório. Método: Esse estudo foi realizado utilizando-se imagens de tomografia computadorizada multidetectores dos seios paranasais com espessura de corte de 0,625 mm obtidas de 250 indivíduos adultos. Resultados: A distribuição das 500 variantes do canal vidiano foi categorizada da seguinte forma: Tipo 1, dentro do corpo ósseo esfenoidal (55,6%); Tipo 2, protrusão parcial no interior do seio esfenoidal (34,8%); Tipo 3, no interior do seio esfenoidal (9,6%). A pneumatização do processo pterigoide foi observada principalmente no canal vidiano Tipo 2 (72,4%) e Tipo 3 (95,8%) (p < 0,001). As distâncias médias do canal vidiano até o forame redondo e o canal palatovaginal foram maiores no canal vidiano do Tipo 2 e 3, com a pneumatização do processo pterigoide (p < 0,001). A presença do septo intraesfenoidal entre o canal vidiano e a crista vomeriana e a extensão lateral, que termina na proeminência da carótida, foi muito maior no canal vidiano Tipo 3 do que nos outros tipos (p < 0,001). A angulação média entre a cauda da concha média e a margem lateral da abertura anterior do canal vidiano foi de 33,05° ± 7,71°. Conclusões: A análise radiológica pré-operatória do canal do vidiano e das estruturas circunjacentes permitem ao cirurgião escolher uma abordagem endoscópica apropriada e prever resultados pós-operatórios.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Sphenoid Sinus/anatomy & histology , Sphenoid Sinus/diagnostic imaging , Denervation/methods , Pterygopalatine Fossa/anatomy & histology , Pterygopalatine Fossa/diagnostic imaging , Multidetector Computed Tomography/methods , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Anatomic Landmarks
12.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 46(4): e2249, 2019. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1020369

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar se a projeção lateral da glândula tireoide, chamada tubérculo de Zuckerkandl (TZ), pode auxiliar o cirurgião na identificação do nervo laríngeo inferior durante a tireoidectomia convencional aberta. Métodos: estudo prospectivo de 51 pacientes submetidos à tireoidectomia, com um total de 100 lobos tireoidianos ressecados, e observação da presença ou não do TZ em dimensões suficientes para ser identificado sem magnificação de imagem, suas dimensões de base e altura, sua localização na glândula e sua relação anatômica com o nervo laríngeo inferior. Resultados: o TZ estava presente em 68 dos 100 lobos de tireoide analisados (68%). A dimensão média da base foi 6,7mm no lado direito e 7,1mm no lado esquerdo, e a altura média foi 5,7mm no lado direito e 6,1mm no lado esquerdo. Na maioria dos lobos estudados, o tubérculo tinha altura mínima de 5mm (55,9%) sem diferença significativa entre o lobo direito e esquerdo da glândula tireoide. Durante a cirurgia, 100% dos TZ identificados estavam anteriores ao nervo laríngeo inferior, imediatamente abaixo da entrada do nervo na laringe. Conclusão: o TZ é bastante frequente e em dimensões suficientes para ser usado como referência anatômica na localização intraoperatória do nervo laríngeo inferior, próximo à sua entrada na laringe, junto com as demais referências anatômicas.


ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate whether the lateral projection of the thyroid gland, called Zuckerkandl's tubercle (ZT), can assist the surgeon in identifying the inferior laryngeal nerve during conventional open thyroidectomy. Methods: we conducted a prospective study with 51 patients submitted to thyroidectomy, with a total of 100 resected thyroid lobes, and observed the presence or absence of ZT in sufficient dimensions to be identified without image magnification, its base and height, its location in the gland, and its anatomical relationship with the inferior laryngeal nerve. Results: ZT was present in 68 of the 100 thyroid lobes analyzed (68%). The mean base was 6.7mm on the right side and 7.1mm on the left side, and the average height was 5.7mm on the right side and 6.1mm on the left side. In most of the lobes studied, the tubercle had a minimum height of 5mm (55.9%), with no significant difference between the right and left lobes of the thyroid gland. During surgery, 100% of the identified ZTs were anterior to the inferior laryngeal nerve, just below the nerve entry in the larynx. Conclusion: the ZT is a quite frequent entity and large enough to serve as an intraoperative anatomical reference for the inferior laryngeal nerve, next to its entry in the larynx, along with other anatomical references.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve/anatomy & histology , Thyroid Gland/anatomy & histology , Thyroid Gland/surgery , Anatomic Landmarks , Thyroid Diseases/surgery , Thyroidectomy/methods , Prospective Studies , Middle Aged
13.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 890-894, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785499

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Cadaveric, observational study.PURPOSE: Atlantoaxial instability (AAI) is characterized by excessive movement at the C1–C2 junction between the atlas and axis. An anterior surgical approach to expose the upper cervical spine for internal fixation and bone grafting has been developed to fix AAI. Currently, no anatomic information exists on the anterior transarticular atlantoaxial screw or screw and plate fixation between C1 and C2 in the Indian population. The objective of this study is to assess the anatomic landmarks of C1–C2 vertebrae: entry point, trajectory, screw length, and safety of the procedure.OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Methods outlined by Magerl and Harms are the optimal approaches among the dorsal techniques. Contraindications for these techniques include aberrant location of vertebral arteries, fractures of C1–C2 posterior structures. In these cases, anterior transarticular fixation is an alternative. Several available screw insertion trajectories have been reported. Biomechanical studies have demonstrated that adequate rigidity of this fixation is comparable with posterior fusion techniques.METHODS: Direct measurements using Vernier calipers and a goniometer were recorded from 30 embalmed human cadavers. The primary parameters measured were the minimum and maximum lateral and posterior angulations of the screw in the sagittal and coronal planes, respectively, and optimum screw length, if it was placed accurately.RESULTS: The posterior and lateral angles of screw placement in the coronal and sagittal planes ranged from 16° to 30° (mean±standard deviation [SD], 23.93°±3.93°) and 8° to 17° (mean±SD, 13.3°±2.26°), respectively. The optimum screw length was 25–38 mm (mean±SD, 28.76±3.69 mm).CONCLUSIONS: If the screw was inserted without lateral angulation, the spinal canal or cord could be violated. If a longer screw was inserted with greater posterior angulation, the vertebral artery at the posterior or posterolateral aspect of the C1 superior facet could be violated. Thus, 26° and 30° of lateral and posterior angulations, respectively, are the maximum angles permissible to avoid injury of the vertebral artery and violations of the spinal canal or atlanto-occipital joint.


Subject(s)
Anatomic Landmarks , Atlanto-Occipital Joint , Bone Transplantation , Cadaver , Humans , Observational Study , Spinal Canal , Spine , Vertebral Artery
14.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(1): 205-211, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990028

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The purpose of this research was to develop a free radiological anatomy software for radiologic anatomy education to assist students and professionals in health science. The study was divided into two phases: image acquisition and software development. The first phase was to obtain plain radiographic images and computed tomographic (CT) scans of an anthropomorphic phantom of head and neck. In addition, plain radiographic images of an anthropomorphic phantom of the chest were obtained. The second phase was the development of the anatomy software as an ImageJ macro. The software was developed through the insertion of the radiologic anatomy landmarks into the images that were obtained and application of multiple choice questions. The software was then tested for usability by getting the professors to answer the multiple choice questions. The software presented radiologic anatomy from 1) Head projections: Waters view, Towne view, Caldwell view, Lateral view, Submentovertex, PA view; 2) Thoracic Spine projections: AP and Lateral View and 3) Chest: PA view, Lateral and Oblique. Tomographic imaging presented one hundred radiologic landmarks of head. In total, there were 354 questions. A final report containing the score of correct answers, as well as the user ID, Date and Time of the test were showed. The test were available in three languages (Spanish, English and Portuguese). A user-friendly and inexpensive software was developed and presented. Students and professionals from several countries are able to practice, repeatedly, the recognition of radiologic anatomical landmarks.


RESUMEN: El propósito de esta investigación fue desarrollar un software gratuito de anatomía radiológica para la educación de anatomía radiológica para ayudar a estudiantes y profesionales de ciencias de la salud. El estudio se dividió en dos fases: adquisición de imágenes y desarrollo de software. La primera fase consistió en obtener imágenes radiográficas simples y tomografías computarizadas (TC) de un fantasma antropomórfico de cabeza y cuello. Además, se obtuvieron imágenes radiográficas simples de un fantasma antropomórfico del tórax. La segunda fase fue el desarrollo del software de anatomía como una macro ImageJ. El software se desarrolló a través de la inserción de los puntos de referencia de la anatomía radiológica en las imágenes que se obtuvieron y la aplicación de preguntas de opción múltiple. Luego, se probó la usabilidad del software haciendo que los profesores respondieran las preguntas de opción múltiple. El software presentó la anatomía radiológica de 1) Proyecciones de la cabeza: vista de aguas, vista de Towne, vista de Caldwell, vista lateral, Submentovertex, vista de PA; 2) proyecciones de la columna torácica: vista AP y lateral y 3) Cofre: vista de PA, lateral y oblicua. Las imágenes tomográficas presentaron cien puntos de referencia radiológica de la cabeza. En total, hubo 354 preguntas. Se mostró un informe final con la puntuación de las respuestas correctas, así como la identificación del usuario, la fecha y la hora de la prueba. Las pruebas estaban disponibles en tres idiomas (español, inglés y portugués). Se desarrolló y presentó un software fácil de usar y de bajo costo. Estudiantes y profesionales de varios países pueden practicar, repetidamente, el reconocimiento de puntos de referencia anatómicos radiológicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Software , Computer-Assisted Instruction , Educational Technology , Education, Medical/methods , Anatomy/education , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Phantoms, Imaging , Anatomic Landmarks , Head/diagnostic imaging , Learning , Neck/diagnostic imaging
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(1): 338-343, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990048

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Craniofacial morphology is a risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. The general aim of this study was to investigate the craniofacial shape differences in adults with and without obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, using geometric morphometric methods. A descriptive study conducted in 106 adult Turkish subjects, consisting of 50 patients with OSAS diagnosed by polysomnography and 56 non-OSAS controls. Three dimensional craniofacial scanning processes were performed on patient subjects on the same day as the PSG. Twelve standard craniofacial landmarks were collected from each subject's 3D craniofacial scan. Geometric morphometric analysis was used to compare the craniofacial shape differences between the OSAS and non-OSAS control groups. No statistically significant difference in terms of general shape in face shapes was found between the OSAS group and control group. However, local significance differences were found. There were significant differences between the groups in some of the interlandmark distances: 11 % of the interlandmark distances were greater in OSAS patients, and 29 % were greater in controls. Greater measured distances in OSAS are concentrated in the nasal region. In the control group, the difference is not concentrated in a specific region. Given the relationship of craniofacial structural alterations and sleep disordered breathing, we hypothesized that inter-landmark distance measurements in the craniofacial anatomy of patients might be predictive of OSA.


RESUMEN: La morfología craneofacial es un factor de riesgo para el síndrome de apnea obstructiva del sueño. El objetivo general de este estudio fue investigar las diferencias de forma craneofacial en adultos con y sin síndrome de apnea obstructiva del sueño utilizando métodos morfométricos geométricos. Un estudio descriptivo realizado en 106 sujetos turcos adultos, de 50 pacientes con SAOS diagnosticados mediante polisomnografía y 56 controles no SAOS. El proceso de escaneo craneofacial tridimensional se realizó en pacientes sujetos el mismo día que el PSG. Se recogieron doce puntos de referencia craneofaciales estándar del escaneo craneofacial 3D de cada sujeto. Se usó el análisis morfométrico geométrico para comparar las diferencias de forma craneofacial entre los grupos de control SAOS y no SAOS. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en términos de forma general en las formas de la cara entre el grupo SAOS y el grupo control. Sin embargo, se encontraron diferencias de significación local. Hubo diferencias significativas entre los grupos en algunas de las distancias interlandmark: el 11 % de las distancias interlandmark fueron mayores en los pacientes con SAOS y el 29 % en los controles. Las mayores distancias medidas en SAOS se concentran en la región nasal. En el grupo de control, la diferencia no se concentra en una región específica. Dada la relación de las alteraciones estructurales craneofaciales y la alteración de la respiración durante el sueño, planteamos la hipótesis de que las mediciones de distancias inter-hito en la anatomía craneofacial de los pacientes podrían ser predictivas de la SAOS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Skull/anatomy & histology , Cephalometry/methods , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Face/anatomy & histology , Turkey , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Anatomic Landmarks
16.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180380, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1012516

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Three-dimensional (3D) angular measurements between craniofacial planes pose challenges to quantify maxillary and mandibular skeletal discrepancies in surgical treatment planning. This study aims to compare the reproducibility and reliability of two modules to measure angles between planes or lines in 3D virtual surface models. Methodology: Twenty oriented 3D virtual surface models de-identified and constructed from CBCT scans were randomly selected. Three observers placed landmarks and oriented planes to determine angular measurements of pitch, roll and yaw using (1) 3D pre-existing planes, (2) 3D planes created from landmarks and (3) lines created from landmarks. Inter- and intra-observer reproducibility and repeatability were examined using the Intra-Class Correlation (ICC) test. One observer repeated the measurements with an interval of 15 days. ANOVA was applied to compare the 3 methods. Results: The three methods tested provided statistically similar, reproducible and reliable angular measurements of the facial structures. A strong ICC varying from 0.92 to 1.00 was found for the intra-observer agreement. The inter-observer ICC varied from 0.84 to 1.00. Conclusion: Measurements of 3D angles between facial planes in a common coordinate system are reproducible and repeatable either using 3D pre-existing planes, created based on landmarks or angles between lines created from landmarks.


Subject(s)
Humans , Skull/anatomy & histology , Cephalometry/methods , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Face/anatomy & histology , Anatomic Landmarks , Models, Anatomic , Reference Standards , Observer Variation , Cephalometry/instrumentation , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography/methods
17.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180434, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1012505

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to compare the linear dimensions of the dental arches of adult patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) after orthodontic and prosthetic treatment with fixed partial dentures (FPD) to patients without clefts, using 3D technology. This retrospective longitudinal study sample consisted of 35 subjects divided into two groups. Included in this sample were 15 complete UCLP individuals who had received orthodontic treatment before rehabilitation with a fixed partial denture (FG), as well as 20 patients without cleft as control group (CG). All patients were aged between 18 and 30 years. Digital dental casts were obtained in two stages: (T1) end of orthodontic treatment and (T2) one year after prosthetic rehabilitation (FG); and (T1) end of orthodontic treatment and (T2) one year after removal of the orthodontic appliance (CG). Intercanine, interfirst premolar and intermolar distances, and incisor-molar length were obtained. A precalibrated and trained examiner performed the assessments. Intergroup differences between T2 and T1 were compared between the groups using the t test or Mann-Whitney test with a significance level of 5% (p<0.05). The intercanine distance variation (T2-T1) showed statistical difference (p=0.005) increasing in the FG group and decreasing in the CG group. In the interfirst premolar distance variation, FG decreased, while CG increased with statistically significant difference (p=0.008). The intercanine distance of individuals with cleft showed stability, while that of the CG had no stability. The CG showed stability in the interfirst premolar distance, while FG had no stability. These findings showed that the FPD is capable of restricting orthodontic results, leading to a stabilization of the dental arches.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Orthodontics, Corrective/methods , Cleft Lip/rehabilitation , Cleft Palate/rehabilitation , Dental Prosthesis, Implant-Supported/methods , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Dental Arch/pathology , Orthodontic Appliances , Reference Values , Retrospective Studies , Cleft Lip/pathology , Cleft Palate/pathology , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Anatomic Landmarks , Maxilla/pathology
18.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(12): 1078-1086, Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973488

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To validate the porcine spine as a model for learning and practicing transforaminal percutaneous endoscopic lumbar procedures (TF-PELP). Methods: TF-PELP was performed in three porcine cadaver lumbar spine levels. Anatomical features of the current cadaver were compared to human and porcine spines. Performance and documentation of endoscopic procedures were described. Results: This study shows that this representative animal model reflects anatomical characteristics of the human spine. Transforaminal approaches were successfully completed. Although lower disc heights make disc puncture more difficult, the outside-in technique is feasible and more useful to identify anatomical parameters and to practice different surgical steps and maneuvers. Conclusion: This is an effective and representative model for learning and practicing this procedure. Difficulties of the procedure, as well as the differences compared to the human spine, were described.


Subject(s)
Animals , Models, Animal , Endoscopy/education , Endoscopy/methods , Lumbar Vertebrae/surgery , Reference Standards , Reference Values , Swine , Cadaver , Reproducibility of Results , Diskectomy, Percutaneous/education , Diskectomy, Percutaneous/methods , Endoscopy/instrumentation , Anatomic Landmarks , Lumbar Vertebrae/anatomy & histology , Lumbar Vertebrae/diagnostic imaging , Needles
19.
Braz. dent. j ; 29(6): 619-623, Nov.-Dec. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974191

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of the present study is to describe the simplified facial pattern of young Brazilian men and women using the facial index (FI), upper face index (UFI), and nasal index (NI) in indirect anthropometric measurements applied to frontal photographic images. The images were obtained from 660 adult white men and 689 adult white women aged 30 years ± 6 months, and classified according to regions of birth, as follows: south (S), southeast (SE), midwest (MW), northeast (NE), and north (N). The nasion, zygion, gnathion, stomion, subnasale, and alare landmarks were labeled on the images using the SAFF 2D® software. Based on the coordinates, the linear distances between the landmarks of interest were calculated and presented as indices. The analysis of variance and Student's t-test were used for assessing the regions of birth and gender, respectively. The collected data allowed obtaining the facial profile of the young adult Brazilian population. There were differences in the facial profiles between men and women and also between some regions, especially between the N and the other Brazilian regions (p<0.05). The UFI did not show a statistically significant difference (p>0.05) between genders for any of the regions. The discriminant analysis for gender assessment demonstrated higher accuracy when the three indices were analyzed together. In the decision tree for gender assessment, the NI showed better results than the other indices.


Resumo O objetivo do estudo é verificar o padrão facial simplificado a partir dos índices facial (IF), da face superior (IFS) e nasal (IN) de homens e mulheres jovens brasileiros a partir da antropometria indireta aplicada em imagens fotográficas em norma frontal. Foram utilizadas imagens de adultos brancos de 30 anos (± 6 meses), sendo 689 do gênero feminino e 660 do masculino, divididos pela região de nascimento, sendo Sul, Sudeste, Centro-oeste, Nordeste e Norte. Os pontos: násio, zígio, gnátio, estômio, subnasal e alar foram marcados nas imagens por meio do software SAFF 2D®. A partir das coordenadas geradas em pixels, foram calculadas as distâncias lineares entre os pontos de interesse, que foram transformadas em índices. Os índices foram analisados estatisticamente de acordo com a região do nascimento pela análise de variância e o gênero pelo teste t de Student. Com os dados foi possível traçar o perfil simplificado da face da população brasileira de adultos jovens por meio da fotoantropometria. Foram observadas diferenças no perfil facial entre os gêneros e também entre algumas regiões, com maior frequência entre a região N e as demais partes do país (p<0,05). Quando separados por regiões do país, o IFS não mostrou diferença estatisticamente significante (p>0,05) entre os gêneros para nenhuma região. A análise discriminante para estimativa de gênero mostra que melhores taxas de acerto são alcançadas quando considerados os três índices em conjunto. Para a árvore de decisão de estimativa de gênero, o IN desempenhou os melhores resultados, quando comparado aos demais índices analisados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Photography , Anthropometry/methods , Face/anatomy & histology , Software , Brazil , Sex Characteristics , Anatomic Landmarks
20.
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 23(6): 48-55, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-975027

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Maxillary incisal display is one of the most important attributes of smile esthetics. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between maxillary incisal display at rest (MIDR) and various soft tissue, hard tissue and dental components. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 subjects (75 males, 75 females) aged 18-30 years. The MIDR was recorded from the pretreatment orthodontic records. The following parameters were assessed on lateral cephalograms: ANB angle, mandibular plane angle, palatal plane angle, lower anterior and total anterior facial heights, upper incisor inclination, upper anterior dentoalveolar height, and upper lip length, thickness and protrusion. The relationship between MIDR and various skeletal, dental and soft tissue components was assessed using linear regression analyses. Results: The mean MIDR was significantly greater in females than males (p = 0.011). A significant positive correlation was found between MIDR and ANB angle, mandibular plane angle and lower anterior facial height. A significant negative correlation was found between MIDR and upper lip length and thickness. Linear regression analysis showed that upper lip length was the strongest predictor of MIDR, explaining 29.7% of variance in MIDR. A multiple linear regression model based on mandibular plane angle, lower anterior facial height, upper lip length and upper lip thickness explained about 63.4% of variance in MIDR. Conclusions: Incisal display at rest was generally greater in females than males. Multiple factors play a role in determining MIDR, nevertheless upper lip length was found to be the strongest predictor of variations in MIDR.


RESUMO Introdução: a exposição dos incisivos superiores é um dos fatores mais importantes na estética do sorriso. Objetivo: o objetivo desse estudo foi determinar a relação entre a exposição dos incisivos superiores em repouso (EISR) e diferentes componentes em tecidos moles, tecidos duros e dentários. Métodos: um estudo transversal foi conduzido com 150 pacientes (75 homens, 75 mulheres), com idades entre 18 e 30 anos. A EISR foi obtida nos registros pré-tratamento ortodôntico. Os seguintes parâmetros foram analisados nas radiografias laterais: ângulo ANB; ângulo do plano mandibular; ângulo do plano palatino; altura facial anterior inferior; altura facial anterior total; inclinação dos incisivos superiores; altura dentoalveolar anterior superior; comprimento, espessura e protrusão do lábio superior. A relação entre a EISR e os diferentes componentes esqueléticos, dentários e em tecidos moles foi analisada por meio de uma análise de regressão linear. Resultados: a EISR média foi significativamente maior nas mulheres do que nos homens (p= 0,011). Foi encontrada correlação positiva significativa entre a EISR e: o ângulo ANB, ângulo do plano mandibular e a altura facial anterior inferior. Uma correlação negativa significativa foi encontrada entre a EISR e o comprimento e a espessura do lábio superior. A análise de regressão linear mostrou que o comprimento do lábio superior foi o maior preditor da EISR, explicando 29,7% das variações na exposição dos incisivos superiores em repouso. Um modelo de regressão linear múltipla baseado no ângulo do plano mandibular, na altura facial anterior inferior, comprimento do lábio superior e espessura do lábio superior explicou cerca de 63,4% das variações na EISR. Conclusões: a exposição dos incisivos em repouso foi, de um modo geral, maior nas mulheres do que nos homens. Múltiplos fatores exercem influência na quantidade da exposição dos incisivos superiores em repouso; porém, o comprimento do lábio superior foi identificado como o maior preditor das variações na EISR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Esthetics, Dental , Face/anatomy & histology , Incisor/anatomy & histology , Maxilla/anatomy & histology , Skull/anatomy & histology , Smiling , Vertical Dimension , Linear Models , Cephalometry , Cross-Sectional Studies , Anatomic Landmarks , Gingiva/anatomy & histology , Lip/anatomy & histology , Mandible
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