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1.
Rev. Odontol. Araçatuba (Impr.) ; 42(1): 54-58, jan.-abr. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1252879

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo é relatar de forma descritiva e qualitativa a experiência vivida durante as dissecações nas monitorias de anatomia humana sob a ótica do aluno-monitor. O estudo baseou-se no levantamento bibliográfico de artigos científicos encontrados nas plataformas BVS, Scielo e Google Acadêmico entre os anos de 2014 e 2019. As dissecações foram realizadas após a aprovação da instituição. Foi utilizado um cadáver masculino conservado em formaldeído a 10%, a seleção do cadáver foi realizada com base na integridade e conservação da cabeça. O foco do estudo foi a dissecação da ATM e regiões circunjacentes. Após a excisão da pele, tela subcutânea, elementos vasculonervosos, músculos e ossos foi possível expor a área alvo. O cadáver dissecado foi incorporado às monitoras de anatomia do curso de Odontologia e outros cursos da instituição nos semestres 2018.2 e 2019.1, bem como nos semestres seguintes, permitindo que peças que não disponíveis nos laboratórios fossem utilizadas como complemento ao aprendizado em anatomia. Dessa forma, foi possível atingir os objetivos deste estudo, que pode contribuir para o crescimento acadêmico do aluno-monitor, especialmente de habilidades manuais, fundamentais na prática de procedimentos cirúrgicos durante a vida profissional, bem como dos discentes, sendo beneficiados com uma forma mais atrativa de aprendizado. Contudo, isso não é realidade da maioria das instituições brasileiras, onde nota-se carência de dissecações e estudos com peças anatômicas. Por fim, notou-se poucas publicações acerca do tema, o que levou a realização deste estudo. Assim sendo, mais estudos devem ser realizados(AU)


The objective of this study is to describe in a descriptive and qualitative way the experience lived during dissections in the monitoring of human anatomy from the perspective of the student-monitor. The study was based on a bibliographic survey of scientific articles found on the VHL, Scielo and Google Scholar platforms between the years 2014 and 2019. The dissections were carried out after the institution's approval. A male cadaver preserved in 10% formaldehyde was used, the selection of the corpse was carried out based on the integrity and conservation of the head. The focus of the study was the dissection of the TMJ and surrounding regions. After excision of the skin, subcutaneous mesh, vasculonervous elements, muscles and bones, it was possible to expose the target area. The dissected corpse was incorporated into the anatomy monitors of the Dentistry course and other courses of the institution in the semesters 2018.2 and 2019.1, as well as in the following semesters, allowing pieces that were not available in the laboratories to be used as a complement to learning in anatomy. Thus, it was possible to achieve the objectives of this study, which can contribute to the academic growth of the studentmonitor, especially of manual skills, fundamental in the practice of surgical procedures during professional life, as well as of students, being benefited with a more attractive learning. However, this is not the reality of most Brazilian institutions, where there is a lack of dissections and studies with anatomical pieces. Finally, there were few publications on the topic, which led to the realization of this study. Therefore, more studies should be performed(AU)


Subject(s)
Dissection , Anatomy/education , Monitoring , Dissection/education , Education, Dental , Anatomy , Learning
2.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 54(1): 143-146, 20210000.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178960

ABSTRACT

Se presenta el caso de un paciente de 47 años quien consultó por cuadro de cicatrización tórpida de una lesión cutánea superficial única en hemi-escroto izquierdo. Se procedió a resección biópsica de la lesión con resultado de la anatomía patológica de un Carcinoma Escamoso del tipo Condilomatoso (Warty) el cual confirma su relación con el HPV 16 mediante estudio de inmunohistoquímica. Por ser un caso infrecuente no existe actualmente un consenso sobre el manejo del carcinoma del escroto motivo el cual se realiza una revisión de la literatura y se expone los resultados.


A case of a 47-year-old patient who consulted for torpid healing of skin lesion in left hemi-scrotum is presented. We proceed to resection-biopsy of the lesion and the pathology report informed a warty squamous cell carcinoma (Warty type) and the relationship with HPV 16 is confirmed by immunohistochemical study. As a rare case there is currently no consensus on the management of carcinoma of the scrotum reason that we do a review of the literature and the results are exposed.


Subject(s)
Scrotum , Biopsy , Carcinoma , Human papillomavirus 16 , Immunohistochemistry , Anatomy
3.
Rev. bras. educ. méd ; 45(4): e197, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341004

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Introduction: Motivation contributes greatly to learning, being a predictor of student performance. Thus, instruments that assess motivation after exposure to different teaching strategies and materials can contribute to the analysis and decision on its effectiveness. In this sense, the Instructional Materials Motivation Survey (IMMS) instrument measures students' motivation after instructional activities. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the evidence of validity of the IMMS, previously translated and cross-culturally adapted to Brazilian Portuguese. Method: Cross-sectional study used to evaluate the psychometric properties of the IMMS questionnaire, applied to 211 students from the first, third and fourth semesters of the medical course at José do Rosário Vellano University (Unifenas - Campus Belo Horizonte). The principal component analysis (PCA) with Varimax rotation and Cronbach's alpha coefficient were used to assess the validity and reliability of the instrument. Results: The PCA reduced the instrument's items from 36 to 25 items, distributed in four dimensions. The saturation of the items in the dimensions ranged from 0.529 to 0.790 and the total explained variance was 63.12%. The reliability of the modified IMMS (IMMS-BRV), measured by Cronbach's alpha, ranged from 0.76 (Attention dimension) to 0.93 (Interest dimension). Conclusion: The IMMS application in the remote education scenario, through asynchronous video lectures of human anatomy, resulted in an alternative instrument (IMMS-BRV), with fewer items (more parsimonious) and good internal consistency, demonstrating preliminary evidence of its validity and reliability adequacy.


Resumo: Introdução: A motivação contribui sobremaneira para a aprendizagem, sendo um fator preditor da performance do estudante. Assim, instrumentos que avaliam a motivação, após exposição a diferentes estratégias e materiais de ensino, podem contribuir para a análise de sua efetividade e decisão sobre esta. Nesse sentido, o instrumento Instructional Materials Motivation Survey (IMMS) mede a motivação dos estudantes após atividades instrucionais. Objetivo: Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar as evidências de validade do IMMS, previamente traduzido e adaptado transculturalmente para o português brasileiro. Método: Trata-se de um estudo transversal de avaliação das propriedades psicométricas do questionário IMMS, aplicado a 211 estudantes do primeiro, terceiro e quarto períodos do curso de Medicina da Universidade José do Rosário Vellano (Unifenas - câmpus de Belo Horizonte). Adotaram-se a análise de componentes principais (ACP) com rotação Varimax e o coeficiente alfa de Cronbach para avaliação da validade e da confiabilidade do instrumento. Resultado: A ACP reduziu os itens do instrumento de 36 para 25, distribuídos em quatro dimensões. A saturação dos itens nas dimensões variou de 0,529 a 0,790, e a variância total explicada foi de 63,12%. A confiabilidade do IMMS modificado (IMMS-BRV), medida pelo alfa de Cronbach, variou de 0,76 (dimensão atenção) a 0,93 (dimensão interesse). Conclusão: A aplicação do IMMS no cenário de ensino remoto, por meio de videoaulas assíncronas de anatomia humana, resultou em instrumento alternativo (IMMS-BRV), modificado com menor número de itens (mais parcimonioso) e boa consistência interna, demonstrando evidências preliminares de adequação de sua validade e confiabilidade.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Psychometrics , Translating , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Surveys and Questionnaires , Education, Distance , Motivation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Educational Measurement , Anatomy/education
4.
Rev. ANACEM (Impresa) ; 15(1): 80-85, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253917

ABSTRACT

La anatomía humana es la ciencia que estudia la estructura y forma de los componentes del cuerpo humano desde una perspectiva macroscópica. Esta ciencia presenta diferentes disciplinas, entre ellas, la anatomía clínica, que brinda un conjunto de conocimientos anatómicos fundamentales para el ejercicio de la medicina. No obstante, en la actualidad la enseñanza de la anatomía carece de las herramientas y orientación pedagógica necesarias que permitan que los estudiantes adquieran los conocimientos anatómicos necesarios para el ejercicio de su futura carrera médica. En consideración a esta problemática, se relatan algunas experiencias didácticas que describen la integración de competencias clínicas a la enseñanza de la anatomía, tales como elementos del razonamiento clínico y herramientas de uso constante para el diagnóstico y manejo de pacientes. Finalmente, consideramos que la educación médica debe orientarse a obtener conocimiento anatómico y desarrollar la habilidad de aplicar ese conocimiento en el ámbito clínico, bajo el uso de herramientas que estimulen ese dominio, así como también incentiven el desenvolvimiento médico correcto.


Human anatomy is the science that studies the structure and form of the components of the human body. This science presents different disciplines, among them, clinical anatomy, which provides a set of fundamental anatomical knowledge for the practice of medicine. However, at present, the teaching of anatomy lacks the necessary tools and pedagogical orientation that would allow students to acquire the anatomical knowledge useful for their future medical career. In consideration of this problem, some experiences are reported that describe the integration of clinical competencies to anatomy teaching, such as elements of clinical reasoning and tools of constant use for diagnosis and patient management. Finally, we consider that medical education must be oriented to obtain anatomical knowledge and to develop the ability to apply that knowledge in the clinical environment, under the use of tools that stimulate that domain, as well as to encourage the correct medical development.


Subject(s)
Humans , Education, Medical , Anatomy/education , Learning , Students, Medical , Teaching , Clinical Competence , Curriculum
5.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1179869

ABSTRACT

Anatomia e Radiologia são disciplinas amplamente presentes nas grades curriculares de cursos da área da saúde. A interseção entre a Anatomia Radiológica e as tecnologias recentes, como plataformas de ensino interativo, caracteriza-se como uma tendência a ser seguida na esfera educacional, sendo as implicações desse processo ainda não muito debatidas. O Departamento de Anatomia da Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora iniciou o desenvolvimento de um atlas de anatomia vascular radiológica, o qual apresenta versões impressa e interativa. Possui imagens de angiotomografias computadorizadas feitas em aparelhos multislice de 16 a 128 canais, sendo as imagens de arquivo pessoal dos organizadores. O atlas promove a identificação das estruturas vasculares em questão e propicia a integração do conhecimento adquirido em salas de aula com a visualização de exames de imagem complementares rotineiros. A indiscutível presença de exames de imagem adicionais na rotina dos profissionais da saúde atuais faz com que seja válida a estratégia de integração entre o método tradicional de ensino e as práticas ativas de aprendizagem, as quais vêm ganhando destaque recentemente, devido a sua efetividade na fixação de conhecimentos.


Anatomy and Radiology are subjects widely present in health courses at universities. The intersection between Radiological Anatomy and recent technologies, such as interactive teaching platforms, is characterized as a tendency to be followed in the educational sphere, and the implications of this process are not much debated. The Department of Anatomy of Juiz de Fora Federal University has begun the development of an atlas of radiological vascular anatomy, which features printed and interactived versions. It presents computed tomography images taken on multislice devices from 16 to 128 channels, and the images are from the personal authors' archives. The Radiologic Vascular Atlas provides the identification of vascular structures in study and makes easier the integration of knowledge acquired in classrooms with the visualization of routine complementary imaging exams. The indisputable presence of complementary imaging examinations in the routine of current health professionals makes valid the strategy of integration between the traditional teaching method and active learning practices, which have recently gained prominence, due to its effectiveness in setting knowledge.


Subject(s)
Radiology , Anatomy , Technology, Radiologic , Education, Medical
6.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 54(2): 131-136, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1281109

ABSTRACT

El Angiomixoma Agresivo (AA) del suelo pélvico es una rara neoplasia mesenquimal de histología benigna, pero con un comportamiento característico localmente agresivo, que frecuentemente se presenta en mujeres en edad reproductiva. Suele presentar un crecimiento insidioso desde su origen en la musculatura perineal, lo que conlleva una clínica inespecífica, sutil y generalmente de larga evolución. El diagnóstico por la imagen, principalmente a expensas de la Tomografía Computarizada (TC) y la Resonancia Magnética (RM) con contraste, es de notable importancia, tanto por permitir detectar y caracterizar fiablemente una entidad poco frecuente, como por facilitar una planificación quirúrgica adecuada que permita obtener márgenes de resección libres de enfermedad, incluso en aquellos con infiltración de las estructuras vecinas. Presentamos el caso de una paciente adolescente con antecedente de tumoración en región vulvar derecha, en relación con extensión de un gran tumor retroperitoneal cuyo estudio histológico confirmó un Angiomixoma Agresivo.


Aggressive angiomyxoma of the pelvic floor is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm of benign histology, but with a characteristic locally aggressive behavior, which mostly occurs in women of reproductive age. It usually presents an insidious growth from its origin in the perineal musculature, which leads to a non-specific, subtle and generally long-lasting clinical course. Diagnostic imaging, mainly at the expense of CT and MRI with contrast, is of notable importance, both for allowing detection and reliable characterization of a rare entity, and for facilitating adequate surgical planning to obtain disease-free resection margins, even in those with infiltration of neighboring structures. We present the case of an adolescent patient with a history of tumor in the right vulvar region, which imaging studies confirmed to be the extension of a large retroperitoneal tumor whose pathological anatomy describes as an aggressive pelvic an angiomyxoma.


Subject(s)
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Pelvic Floor , Neoplasms , Diagnosis , Anatomy
7.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 54(2): 145-150, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1281112

ABSTRACT

Paciente de sexo femenino de 60 años de edad, con antecedente de carcinoma ductal de mama izquierda, presentó dolor agudo en epigastrio que se acompaña de 6 meses de dispepsia, saciedad precoz y pirosis; con una pérdida de 9 kilogramos en 2 meses. Refirió coluria, negó ictericia y acolia. Las pruebas de función hepática mostraron un patrón de colestasis con elevación de gama glutamiltrasferasa (GGT) y fosfatasa alcalina (FA). Fue diagnosticada con un Colangiocarcinoma perihiliar basado en hallazgos abdominales de tomografía y resonancia, con un nódulo parenquimatoso en el segmento 8 del hígado como un tumor infiltrante periductal. El diagnóstico presuntivo fue el de Tumor de Klatskin, pero la anatomía patológica fue compatible con metástasis de carcinoma ductal de mama (CK7 + / GATA3 +). El informe complementario mostró HER-2 negativo y estrógeno negativo (ER) y progesterona (PR) por lo que el inmunofenotipo final fue ER- / PR-; HER2- con índice de proliferación Ki67 <5%, una metástasis de cáncer de mama triple negativo.


A 60-year-old female, with a medical history of a ductal carcinoma of the left breast, presented with sharp pain in epigastrium with 6 months of dyspepsia, early satiety and pyrosis and with the loss of 9 kilograms in 2 months. She referred choluria and denied jaundice and acholia. Liver function tests showed a cholestasis pattern with only elevated Gama Glutamyl Teransferase and alkaline phosphatase. She was diagnosed with a hilar cholangiocarcinoma based on abdominal CT and MRI findings, with a parenchymal nodule in segment 8 of the liver as a periductal infiltrating tumor. The presumed diagnosis was Klatskin Tumor, but the biopsied site was compatible with breast ductal carcinoma metastasis (CK7 + / GATA3 +). The complementary report showed negative HER-2 and negative estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) so the final immunophenotype is ER- / PR-; HER2- with proliferation index Ki67 <5%, a triple-negative breast cancer metastasis.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma , Cholestasis , Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast , Dyspepsia , Alkaline Phosphatase , Acute Pain , Anatomy
8.
Braz. dent. sci ; 24(2): 1-12, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1178269

ABSTRACT

Objetive: This study aimed to compare the anatomical characteristics of the mandible in patients with skeletal class I, II and class III disorders using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Material and Methods: CBCT scans of patients between 17 to 40 years taken with NewTom 3G CBCT system with 12-inch field of view (FOV) were selected from the archive. Lateral cephalograms were obtained from CBCT scans of patients, and type of skeletal malocclusion was determined (Class I, II or III). All CBCT scans were evaluated in the sagittal, coronal and axial planes using the N.N.T viewer software. Results: The ramus height and distance from the mandibular foramen to the sigmoid notch in class II patients were significantly different from those in skeletal class I (P < 0.005). Distance from the mandibular canal to the anterior border of ramus in class III individuals was significantly different from that in skeletal class I individuals (P < .005). Conclusion: Length of the body of mandible in skeletal class I was significantly different from that in skeletal class II and III patients. Also, ramus height in skeletal class I was significantly different from that in skeletal class II patients. CBCT had high efficacy for accurate identification of anatomical landmarks. (AU)


Objetivo: Este estudo teve como objetivo comparar as características anatômicas da mandíbula em pacientes com desordem esquelética Classe I, II e III usando imagens de tomografia computadorizada de feixe cônico (TCFC). Material e Métodos: Foram selecionadas de arquivo, imagens de TCFC (Sistema NewTon 3G) com FOV (campo de visão) 12 polegadas e incluindo pacientes entre 17 a 40 anos. Cefalometrias laterais foram obtidas a partir das imagens de TCFC e o tipo de maloclusão esquelética foi determinada (Classe I, II ou III). Todas as imagens de TCFC foram avaliadas nos planos sagital, coronal e axial usando o software de visualização N.N.T. Resultados: A altura do ramo e distância do forame mandibular para a incisura da mandíbula em pacientes Classe II foi significativamente diferente daqueles Classe I esquelética (p< 0.005). A distância do canal mandibular até a borda anterior do ramo em indivíduos Classe III foi significativamente diferente daqueles indivíduos Classe I esquelética (p<0.005). Conclusão: O comprimento do corpo da mandíbula na Classe I esquelética foi diferente significativamente daqueles pacientes em Classe II e III esquelética. Além disso, a altura do ramo na Classe I esquelética foi significativamente diferente daqueles pacientes Classe II esquelética. A TCFC apresentou alta eficácia para a identificação precisa de marcos anatômicos. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Prognathism , Retrognathia , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Anatomy , Mandible
9.
Braz. dent. sci ; 24(4): 1-7, 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1337600

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine the prevalence of C-shaped canals in lower molars (first and second molars) in a Chilean subpopulation, and to identify root configuration and demographic characteristics using cone beam tomography.Materials and method: 912 molars (456 first and 456 second molars) resulting from the analysis of 228 mandibular CBCT scans (89 men and 139 women between 15 and 80 years old) were evaluated. Through panoramic reconstruction and axial tomographic sections, the root configuration was established, and the presence and type of C-shaped canal were classified, analyzing 5 levels along the root canal. Data were statistically analyzed with a 5% significance level. Results: Of the 912 molars analyzed, 69 were classified as C-shaped (7.57%), constituting 65.72% of those molars that presented fused roots. 100% of this configuration of canals was observed in lower second molars, presenting a higher prevalence in women (n = 49, 71.01%). 40.82% of the cases that presented a C-shaped configuration manifested bilaterally. The most frequent C-shaped canal configuration was C3 (n = 347, 66.10%), according to Melton's classification. Conclusion: The C-shaped canals in the studied population were observed entirely in lower second molars, showing a clear predilection for the female sex and a high rate of bilaterality (AU)


Objetivo: Determinar a prevalência de canais em forma de C em molares inferiores (primeiros e segundos molares) em uma subpopulação chilena e identificar a configuração radiculares e características demográficas utilizando tomografia feixe cônico. Material e Métodos: Foram avaliados 912 molares ( 456 primeiros e 456 segundos molares) resultando da análise de 228 tomografias de feixe cônico de mandíbulas (89 homens e 139 mulheres entre 15 e 80 anos). Através da reconstrução panorâmica e secções axiais de tomografias, a configuração da raiz foi estabelecida e a classificada a presença e tipo de canal em forma de C, analisando 5 níveis ao longo do canal radicular. Os dados foram analisados estatisticamente com significância de 5%. Resultados: Dos 912 molares analisados, 69 foram classificados como formato de C (7,57%), constituindo 65,72% dos molares que apresentavam raiz fusionadas. 100% dessas configurações de canais foram observados em segundos molares inferiores, com maior prevalência em mulheres (n=49, 71,01%). 40,82% dos casos presentes como formato de C manifestaram-se bilateralmente. A maior frequência das configurações do canal em forma de C no canal foram C3 ( n=347, 66.10%) de acordo com a classificação de Melton. Conclusão: Canais em forma de C no estudo populacional foram observados em sua totalidade nos segundos molares inferiores, demonstrando nítida predileção pelo sexo feminino e alto índice de bilateralidade. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Dental Pulp Cavity , Endodontics , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Anatomy
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1686-1692, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134499

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The emergence of the digital society in the 21st century due to great advances in information and communication technologies (ICT) has allowed the development of research, communication, and collaboration activities related to knowledge and information. ICTs have influenced many aspects of society, especially educational work, and many educational establishments have adopted these technologies in a bid to enhance their teaching methods. One of the most representative cases is the global expansion of e-learning platforms. Until now, the traditional method of study of human anatomy, a key component of any study plan in the health education area, has been mainly based on classic texts. However, different types of software made an appearance in this century such as the three-dimensional (3D) atlases consisting of digital illustrations of the human body. However, there might be a high cost of investment involved when purchasing these kind of software. This research aimed to study the perception of human anatomy students regarding the use of models of 3D-scanned real cadaveric samples available at http://anatomiahumana3d.com, as a complementary educational resource to conventional study. A satisfaction survey was designed which consisted of four items. The survey was answered by 134 students. The format of the models, functionality of the resource, content and teaching of the resource, and finally the general evaluation, reached 96.8%, 84.05%, 81.14%, and 89.4% of perception of satisfaction, respectively. The results show that the new generations of students are immersed in a technological environment, therefore, both general and anatomy teaching could benefit from the use of new technologies.


RESUMEN: El comienzo de la sociedad digital en el siglo XXI debido a los grandes avances en las tecnologías de la información y comunicación (TIC) ha permitido el desarrollo de actividades de investigación, comunicación y colaboración relacionadas con el conocimiento y la información. Las TIC han influido en muchos aspectos de la sociedad, especialmente en el trabajo educativo, y muchos establecimientos educativos han adoptado estas tecnologías en un intento por mejorar sus métodos de enseñanza. Uno de los casos más representativos es la expansión global de las plataformas de e-learning. Hasta ahora, el método tradicional de estudio de la anatomía humana, componente clave de cualquier plan de estudios en el área de educación para la salud, se ha basado principalmente en textos clásicos. Sin embargo, en este siglo aparecieron diferentes tipos de software, como los atlas tridimensionales (3D) que consisten en ilustraciones digitales del cuerpo humano. Sin embargo, puede haber un alto costo de inversión involucrado al adquirir este tipo de software. Esta investigación tuvo como objetivo estudiar la percepción de los estudiantes de anatomía humana sobre el uso de modelos de muestras de cadáveres reales escaneados en 3D disponibles en http://anatomiahumana3d.com, como recurso educativo complementario al estudio convencional. Se diseñó una encuesta de satisfacción que constaba de cuatro ítems. La encuesta fue respondida por 134 estudiantes. El formato de los modelos, funcionalidad del recurso, contenido y didáctica del recurso, y finalmente la evaluación general, alcanzaron el 96,8%, 84,05%, 81,14% y 89,4% de percepción de satisfacción, respectivamente. Los resultados muestran que las nuevas generaciones de estudiantes se encuentran inmersas en un entorno tecnológico, por lo que tanto la enseñanza general como la de anatomía podrían beneficiarse del uso de las nuevas tecnologías.


Subject(s)
Humans , Students, Health Occupations/psychology , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Anatomy/education , Models, Anatomic , Personal Satisfaction , Cadaver , Surveys and Questionnaires , Human Body , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Educational Measurement , Information Technology
11.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(6): 1818-1836, Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134516

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: La presente revisión entrega una visión actualizada del estudio de la morfometría geométrica y sus aplicaciones más actuales en ecología y biología evolutiva, metodología con una amplia variación en los últimos 5 años de su primera versión en International Journal of Morphology. La Morfometría geométrica es una herramienta que permite evaluar las variaciones morfológicas con factores subyacentes, siendo una herramienta más sensible que la morfometría tradicional, lo que permite detectar mínimos cambios de variación morfológica. Lo que la ha vuelto una herramienta notable para responder preguntas de biología comparada centradas en caracteres anatómicos. En sus comienzos fue una herramienta usada principalmente para responder preguntas taxonómicas, y para diferenciar a nivel de individuos, poblaciones o especies. No obstante, en los últimos años la cantidad de preguntas y problemáticas en las que se aplica, ha diversificado considerablemente, pasando a ser una herramienta muy precisa para responder preguntas de variación morfológica en contextos ecológicos y evolutivos. Ya ha pasado casi media década desde la última revisión del método, por lo que éste trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar los cambios metodológicos y los nuevos enfoques usados en Morfometría geométrica, y presentar una pequeña guía introductoria a éstos nuevos métodos, sus usos y aplicaciones.


SUMMARY: This study provides an updated vision of the study of Geometric Morphometrics and its most recent application in ecology and evolutionary biology, covering a wide variation in methodology occurring in the last 5 years since the first version published in the International Journal of Morphology. Geometric Morphometrics is a tool that allows evaluating morphological variations with underlying factors, with a higher sensitivity than traditional morphology, so that minimum changes of morphological variation can be detected. Therefore, it has turned into an outstanding tool to answer questions of comparative biology focused on anatomic characters. At the beginning, it was a tool mainly used to answer taxonomic questions and for differentiation at individual, population or species level. However, in the last years, the number of questions and problematic on which it is applied, has diversified considerably, turning it into a very accurate tool to answer questions of morphological variation in ecologic and evolutionary contexts. Almost half a decade has elapsed since the last revision of the method, so this work is intended to analyze the methodological changes and the new approaches used in Geometric Morphometrics, including a brief introductory guideline to these new methods, their uses and applications.


Subject(s)
Anatomy/methods , Developmental Biology , Ecology
12.
Acta méd. colomb ; 45(4): 48-55, Oct.-Dec. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1278141

ABSTRACT

Abstract Human anatomy is a basic science which allows healthcare professionals (in training and graduated) to acquire a detailed and global understanding of what it means to study the human body. It provides a foundation in the technical language required for other basic, clinical and surgical sciences. The manner of teaching and learning anatomy has changed over time, and several pedagogical models exist which may be confused with didactic ones. The purpose is to observe educational aspects and reflect on the pedagogical models, resources and didactics used for teaching/learning human anatomy (history, the present and tendencies), recovering the value of anatomical knowledge in the training of doctors and other healthcare professionals. Current tools and new tendencies in anatomy informatics may complement, enliven and improve (but not replace) the basic pedagogical models of regional, system and clinical descriptive anatomy.


Resumen La anatomía humana es una ciencia básica que permite adquirir en los profesionales de la salud (en formación y ya graduados), una comprensión detallada y global de lo que implica estudiar el cuerpo humano; otorga fundamentación en el lenguaje técnico que se requiere en otras ciencias básicas, clínicas y quirúrgicas. La forma de enseñar y aprender anatomía ha evolucionado con el tiempo, existiendo varios modelos pedagógicos que se pueden confundir con las didácticas. Es propósito contemplar aspectos educativos y reflexionar sobre los modelos pedagógicos, recursos y didácticas empleadas en la enseñanza/aprendizaje de la anatomía humana (historia, presente y tendencias), rescatando el valor del conocimiento anatómico en la formación médica y de otros profesionales de la salud. Las herramientas actuales y nuevas tendencias de la anatomía informática pueden complementar, dinamizar y mejorar (mas no reemplazar) los modelos pedagógicos básicos de la anatomía descriptiva regional, por sistemas y clínica.


Subject(s)
Teaching , Anatomy , Models, Educational , Knowledge , Education , Learning
13.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(6): 764-770, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156206

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To analyze the anatomical variations of the motor branches of the radial nerve in the elbow region. The origin, course, length, branches, motor points and relationships with neighboring structures were evaluated. Materials and Methods Thirty limbs from15 adult cadavers were dissected and prepared by intra-arterial injection of a 10% glycerin and formaldehyde solution. Results The first branch of the radial nerve in the forearm went to the brachioradialis muscle (BR), originating proximally to the division of the radial nerve into superficial branch of the radial nerve (SBRN) and posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) in all limbs. The branches to the extensor carpi radialis longus muscle (ECRL) detached from the proximal radial nerve to its division into 26 limbs, in 2, at the dividing points, in other 2, from the PIN. In six limbs, the branches to the BR and ECRL muscles originated from a common trunk. We identified the origin of the branch to the extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle (ECRB) in the PIN in 14 limbs, in the SBRN in 12, and in the radial nerve in only 4. The branch to the supinator muscle originated from the PIN in all limbs. Conclusion Knowledge of the anatomy of the motor branches of the radial nerve is important when performing surgical procedures in the region (such as the approach of the proximal third and the head of the radius, release of compressive syndromes of the posterior interosseous nerve and radial tunnel, and distal nerve transfers) in order to understand the order of recovery of muscle function after a nerve injury.


Resumo Objetivo Analisar as variações anatômicas dos ramos motores do nervo radial na região do cotovelo. Foram avaliadas a origem, curso, comprimento, ramificações, pontos motores e relações com estruturas vizinhas. Materiais e Métodos Foram dissecados 30 membros de 15 cadáveres adultos, preparados por injeção intra-arterial de uma solução de glicerina e formol a 10%. Resultados O primeiro ramo do nervo radial no antebraço foi para o músculo braquiorradial (BR), que se origina proximalmente à divisão do nervo radial em ramo superficial do nervo radial (RSNR) e nervo interósseo posterior (NIP) em todos os membros. Os ramos para o músculo extensor radial longo do carpo (ERLC) se desprenderam do nervo radial proximalmente à sua divisão em 26 membros, em 2, nos pontos de divisão, em outros 2, do NIP. Em seis, os ramos para os músculos BR e ERLC originavam-se de um tronco comum. Identificamos a origem do ramo para o músculo extensor radial curto do carpo (ERCC) no NIP em 14 membros, no RSNR em 12, e no nervo radial em apenas 4. O ramo para o músculo supinador originou-se do NIP em todos os membros. Conclusão O conhecimento da anatomia dos ramos motores do nervo radial é importante quando se realizam procedimentos cirúrgicos na região, como a abordagem do terço proximal e da cabeça do rádio, a liberação das síndromes compressivas do nervo interósseo posterior e do túnel radial, as transferências nervosas distais, e para entender a ordem de recuperação da função muscular após uma lesão nervosa.


Subject(s)
Radial Nerve , Radius , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Wrist , Cadaver , Nerve Transfer , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Elbow , Extremities , Forearm , Forearm Injuries , Glycerol , Head , Anatomy , Injections, Intra-Arterial
14.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 34(4): 245-261, dic. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1150433

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Describir la anatomía quirúrgica de la fisura silviana (FS) a través de disecciones cadavéricas y neuroimágenes; desarrollar su aplicación microquirúrgica. Materiales y métodos: Se estudiaron 10 hemisferios cadavéricos humanos fijados y un cráneo humano en seco, a través de la disección de fibras blancas y de la anatomía arterial y neural, utilizando un microscopio quirúrgico. Las arterias cerebrales fueron inyectadas con silicona coloreada. La anatomía quirúrgica fue correlacionada con la anatomía neuroimagenológica. Finalmente, se recolectó la experiencia microquirúrgica adquirida y, a su vez, la anatomía del Complejo Silviano, fue revisada. Resultados: La FS se extiende desde la cara basal a la lateral del cerebro. Cada superficie tiene una parte superficial (tronco silviano y sus ramos), intermedia (compartimientos anterior y opercular lateral) y profunda (compartimiento esfenoidal, hendidura insular anterior y lateral y la región retroinsular). En 7 de los 10 hemisferios, el surco central no se intersectó con la FS en la superficie lateral del cerebro. En el 80% de los hemisferios, la principal bifurcación de la arteria cerebral media se localizó en o proximal al limen insular. Debajo de la pars triangularis se localiza el punto más ancho de la superficie lateral de la FS. Los autores comienzan la disección de la misma en o proximalmente a este punto. Conclusiones: El conocimiento anatómico profundo y su aplicación a las neuroimágenes, son herramientas esenciales para el planeamiento prequirúrgico y son requisitos mandatorios para operar con seguridad a través y alrededor de la FS


Objective: The aim of this study is to describe the microsurgical anatomy of the sylvian fissure, through cadaveric dissections and neuroimaging and to elucidate its clinical application for microsurgery. Methods: One human skull and ten cadaveric human hemispheres were studied through white matter fiber dissections and arterial and neural anatomy of the sylvian fissure and insular dissections under the microscope. The cerebral arteries were perfused with colored latex. The surgical anatomy was correlated with neuroimaging anatomy. Finally, the microsurgical experienced gained applying this anatomical knowledge was gathered, and the literature about the anatomy of the sylvian complex was revised, as well. Results: The Sylvian fissure extends from the basal to the lateral surface of the brain. Each surface has a superficial (sylvian stem and its rami), intermediate (anterior and lateral opercular compartments) and deep parts (sphenoidal compartment, anterior and lateral insular clefts and retroinsular region). In 7 out of 10 hemispheres, the central sulcus did not intersect with the sylvian fissure on the lateral surface of the brain. In 80% of the hemispheres, the middle cerebral artery main bifurcation was localized at or proximal to the limen insulae. Beneath the pars triangularis, the widest point of the lateral surface of the sylvian fissure is located. The authors start dissecting the sylvian fissure at this point. Conclusion: The thorough anatomical knowledge with its clinical application in modern neuroimaging are essential tools for preoperative planning and are mandatory requisites to safely operate through and around the sylvian fissure anatomical complex.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aneurysm , Middle Cerebral Artery , Anatomy , Neoplasms
15.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(6): 2211-2219, 01-11-2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1148291

ABSTRACT

Obtaining craniometric data is key to establishing parameters that can help in the anatomic identification and understanding of species. The aim of the present study was to establish the craniometric data and describe the main skull bones and structures of Amazona aestiva, which has become common in veterinary clinics, originated from the legalized purchase or trafficking of animals. A total of 20 adult specimens were used, donated for studies by the Paraíba Wild Animal Screening Center (Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres da Paraíba (CETAS-PB)/IBAMA-PB, Brazil. The skulls were dissected and macerated with water. First were identified the frontal, maxilla, mandible, nasal, jugal and quadrate bones that served as a base to identify other bone structures that were then compared with the skull of other bird species already described in the literature, especially psitacids. Values were obtained by measuring with a digital pachymeter, and the maximum skull length was 63.0 mm, the maximum width 33.0 mm and the rhamphotheca was 33.8 mm long. No significant differences were observed between males and females and well developed cranial kinesis was a remarkable characteristic of the species. The data obtained serve as a base to identify and characterize the species. These data can also aid in the clinic, imaging and veterinary surgery.


A obtenção de dados craniométricos é fundamental para o estabelecimento de parâmetros que auxiliem na identificação anatômica e na compreensão das espécies. O objetivo do presente estudo foi estabelecer os dados craniométricos e descrever os principais ossos e estruturas do crânio do Amazona aestiva, que se tornou comum em clínicas veterinárias, oriundos de aquisição legal ou tráfico de animais. Foram utilizados 20 indivíduos adultos, doados para estudos do Centro de Triagem de Animais Silvestres da Paraíba (CETAS-PB) / IBAMA-PB, Brasil. Os crânios foram dissecados e macerados com água. Identificaram-se os ossos frontal, maxilar, mandibular, nasal, jugal e quadrado, que serviram de base para identificar outras estruturas ósseas que foram então, comparadas com o crânio de outras espécies de aves já descritas na literatura, principalmente psitacideos. Valores numéricos foram adquiridos através de mensuração com paquímetro digital, sendo o comprimento máximo do crânio de 63,0 mm, largura máxima de 33,0 mm e ranfoteca de 33,8 mm de comprimento. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre machos e fêmeas e, uma craniocinese bem desenvolvida foi característica marcante da espécie. Os dados obtidos servem de base para identificar e caracterizar as espécies. Estes dados também podem auxiliar na clínica, imagem e cirurgia veterinária.


Subject(s)
Skull , Amazona , Anatomy
16.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1179-1183, oct. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134421

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Postgraduate refresher courses may address deficiencies in the gross anatomy preparedness of medical graduates. However, the literature does not offer a method to identify such deficiencies. Our aim is to develop and validate a scale to measure the gross anatomy preparedness of medical graduates. First, we defined gross anatomy preparedness (the construct) as "the benchmark of personal ability in gross anatomy against the standard required for clinical practice." Next, we conducted a literature search for extant items related to our definition. To develop our scale, we grouped the items under three headings: proficiency, preference, and pertinence. Finally, we constructed item-specific response anchors to "Likertize" the items. We recruited experts to validate the content and conducted cognitive interviews to validate the response process. To evaluate the internal structure and reliability of the scale, we invited a purposive sample of 120 surgery residents to complete the scale and explored the results of the pilot test using data reduction and reliability analysis. A total of 77 surgery residents completed the scale. Varimax-rotated principal components analysis revealed three components with eigenvalues greater than one, and the components explained 64 % of the total variance. The rotated solution was consistent with the original structure of the questionnaire. The components, which represented the proficiency, preference, and pertinence item sets, explained 25 %, 23 %, and 16 %, respectively, of the total variance. Cronbach's α coefficients for the item sets were 0.72, 0.71, and 0.61, respectively. We developed and validated a scale to measure the gross anatomy preparedness of medical graduates. In addition, we offer conceptual guidelines to help users interpret the results of the scale. Outcome data are required to substantiate the predictive validity of the scale.


RESUMEN: Los cursos de actualización de posgrado pueden abordar las deficiencias en la preparación de la anatomía macroscópica de los graduados médicos. Sin embargo, la literatura no ofrece un método para identificar tales deficiencias. Nuestro objetivo fue desarrollar y validar una escala para medir la preparación anatómica general de los graduados médicos. Primero, definimos la preparación para la anatomía macroscópica (el constructo) como "el punto de referencia de la capacidad personal en anatomía macroscópica frente al estándar requerido para la práctica clínica". A continuación, realizamos una búsqueda bibliográfica de elementos existentes relacionados con nuestra definición. Para desarrollar nuestra escala, agrupamos los ítems bajo tres encabezados: competencia, preferencia y pertinencia. Finalmente, construimos anclas de respuesta específicas del ítem para "dar me gusta" a los ítems. Reclutamos expertos para validar el contenido y realizamos entrevistas cognitivas para validar el proceso de respuesta. Para evaluar la estructura interna y la confiabilidad de la escala, invitamos a una muestra intencional de 120 residentes de cirugía a completar la escala y exploramos los resultados de la prueba piloto utilizando la reducción de datos y el análisis de confiabilidad. Un total de 77 residentes de cirugía completaron la escala. El análisis de componentes principales rotados con Varimax reveló tres componentes con valores propios mayores que uno, y los componentes explicaron el 64 % de la varianza total. La solución rotada fue consistente con la estructura original del cuestionario. Los componentes, que representaban los conjuntos de ítems de competencia, preferencia y pertinencia, explicaban el 25 %, el 23 % y el 16 %, respectivamente, de la varianza total. Los coeficientes de Cronbach para los conjuntos de elementos fueron 0,72, 0,71 y 0,61, respectivamente. Desarrollamos y validamos una escala para medir la preparación anatómica general de los graduados médicos. Además, ofrecemos pautas conceptuales para ayudar a los usuarios a interpretar los resultados de la escala. Se requieren datos de resultados para corroborar la validez predictiva de la escala.


Subject(s)
Humans , Physicians/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Education, Medical, Graduate/methods , Anatomy/education , General Surgery/education , Reproducibility of Results , Clinical Competence , Educational Measurement/methods , Internship and Residency
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1184-1191, oct. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134422

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Positive effects on reducing students' stress have been reported across numerous university settings when anatomy preparatory seminars have been provided. To date, this type of preparation for coping with cadaver dissection has not been studied in Spanish universities. The aim of this study is to evaluate how first-year Spanish medical students face the dissecting room and whether previous preparation about death and dying reduces the stress generated. We performed an interventional study with students who received preparatory classes before the dissection practices (Experimental Group, EG) and with students who did not (Control Group, CG). Sociodemographic data and a self-assessment on stress symptoms were collected through a questionnaire completed before and after the dissection practices. No differences were found in the self-report of symptoms of stress among students who consider themselves religious or not, or between students who had a family member in the healthcare environment or not. However, in the EG, the students who had ample experience with terminally ill patients or death reported fewer stress symptoms. Unexpectedly, the number of selfreported stress symptoms after the dissection practice was higher in EG students. In conclusion the stress levels of first-year Spanish medical students not only did not improve after receiving preparatory classes about death and dying and discussion groups, but it gets worse. We found a relationship between student stress measured and experience with terminally ill patients or death. Additional studies are needed to identify the most suitable preparation for Spanish medical students.


RESUMEN: Se han informado efectos positivos en la reducción del estrés en los estudiantes de numerosos entornos universitarios cuando se han impartido seminarios preparatorios de anatomía. Hasta la fecha, este tipo de preparación para hacer frente a la disección del cadáver no se ha estudiado en las universidades españolas. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar cómo los estudiantes de medicina españoles de primer año se enfrentan a la sala de disección y si la preparación previa sobre la muerte y el moribundo reduce el estrés generado. Realizamos un estudio de intervención con estudiantes que recibieron clases preparatorias antes de las prácticas de disección (Grupo Experimental, GE) y con estudiantes que no las recibieron (Grupo de Control, GC). Se recogieron datos sociodemográficos y síntomas de estrés mediante un cuestionario de autoevaluación antes y después de las prácticas de disección. No se encontraron diferencias en los síntomas de estrés valorados, entre los estudiantes que se consideran religiosos y los que no, ni tampoco entre los estudiantes que tenían o no un familiar en el entorno sanitario. Sin embargo, en el GE, en los estudiantes que tenían una amplia experiencia con pacientes con enfermedades terminales o con la muerte se observaron menos síntomas de estrés. Inesperadamente, el número de síntomas de estrés recogidos después de la práctica de disección fue mayor en los estudiantes del GE. En conclusión, los niveles de estrés de los estudiantes españoles de medicina de primer año no solo no mejoraron después de recibir las clases preparatorias sobre la muerte y el moribundo y establecer grupos de discusión, sino que empeoraron. Encontramos una relación entre la medición del estrés en los estudiantes y la experiencia con pacientes con enfermedades terminales o con la muerte. Se necesitan estudios adicionales para identificar la preparación más adecuada para los estudiantes de medicina españoles.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Stress, Psychological/prevention & control , Students, Medical/psychology , Attitude to Death , Dissection/psychology , Anatomy/education , Self-Assessment , Cadaver , Surveys and Questionnaires , Analysis of Variance , Dissection/education , Education, Medical, Undergraduate
18.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(5): 557-563, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144210

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective To perform an anatomical study of the location of the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve in relation to the structures of the knee. Methods An anatomical study was performed by dissection of 18 humans knees (9 right and 9 left knees). After exposure of the infrapatellar branch and its direct and indirect branches, they were then measured. We adopted a quadrant in the medial region of the knee delimited by two transversal planes as a parameter of the study. Results In 17 of the 18 knees (94.4%) studied, a single infrapatellar branch was observed. The infrapatellar branch emerged as fibers of the womb of the sartorius muscle in 17 of the 18 knees (94.4%). In relation to the branch, we observed that in 100% of the knees the infrapatellar branch had at least one primary branch, resulting in a superior branch and an inferior branch. In 9 limbs (50% of the cases) this branch occurred outside the proposed quadrant, and, in the remaining limbs, it occurred within the quadrant. Conclusion The infrapatellar saphenous nerve branch was found in all dissected knees, and, in 94.4% of the cases, it was of the penetrating type; in 100% of the cases, it originated two primary direct branches. The direct and indirect branches presented great variability regarding their path.


Resumo Objetivo Realizar um estudo anatômico da localização do ramo infrapatelar do nervo safeno em relação às estruturas do joelho. Métodos Estudo anatômico realizado por meio de dissecação de 18 joelhos (9 direitos e 9 esquerdos). Após a exposição do ramo infrapatelar e de seus ramos diretos e indiretos, seguiram-se as medidas deles. Como parâmetro do estudo, adotamos um quadrante na região medial do joelho delimitado por dois planos transversais. Resultados Em 17 dos 18 joelhos estudados (94,4%), observou-se um único ramo infrapatelar. O ramo infrapatelar emergia por entre as fibras do ventre do músculo sartório em 17 dos 18 joelhos (94,4%). Em relação à ramificação, observamos que em 100% dos joelhos o ramo infrapatelar apresentava pelo menos uma ramificação primária, resultando num ramo superior e em outro inferior. Em 9 membros (50% dos casos), esta ramificação ocorria fora do quadrante proposto, e, no restante, dentro do quadrante. Conclusão O ramo infrapatelar do nervo safeno foi encontrado em todos os joelhos dissecados e, em 94,4% dos casos, ele era do tipo penetrante; em 100% dos casos, ele originava 2 ramos diretos primários. Seus ramos diretos e indiretos apresentaram grande variabilidade quanto ao trajeto.


Subject(s)
Anatomy , Knee/innervation , Nerve Compression Syndromes
19.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1258-1265, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134434

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The aim of this exploratory design science research (DSR) study was to design a computer-based teaching simulation tool (CBTST) for training medical imaging (MI) students in chest pattern recognition. A DSR methodology used in the design of the CBTST entailed the following phases: 1) awareness of the problem (proposal design); 2) suggestion; 3) development; 4) evaluation; and 5) conclusion. The CBTST was designed using Microsoft Visual Studio which operates on the Structured Query Language server. The designed CBTST was evaluated using the System Usability Scale (SUS) and MI educators. The designed CBTST evaluation yielded an average score of 70.1 which exceeded the score of 68 which is generally accepted to indicate that the CBTST has good usability. The CBTST proved to be an authentic tool that is user-friendly and allows communication and feedback between the educator and the students. It is envisaged that the implementation of this tool will enhance the future training of MI students in pattern recognition while contributing immensely to the current development of the use of computer-based simulation.


RESUMEN: El objetivo de este estudio de investigación en ciencias de diseño (DSR) fue desarrollar una herramienta de simulación de enseñanza basada en computadora (CBTST) para capacitar a los estudiantes en el reconocimiento de patrones de tórax a través de la imagenología médica. Una metodología DSR utilizada en el diseño del CBTST implicaba las siguientes fases: 1) conciencia del problema (diseño de la propuesta); 2) sugerencia; 3) desarrollo; 4) evaluación; y 5) conclusión. El CBTST se diseñó con Microsoft Visual Studio, que opera en el servidor de Structured Query Language. El CBTST diseñado se evaluó utilizando la escala de usabilidad del sistema (SUS) y educadores de IM. La evaluación CBTST diseñada arrojó un puntaje promedio de 70,1 que excedió el puntaje de 68 que generalmente se acepta para indicar que el CBTST tiene buena usabilidad. El CBTST demostró ser una herramienta auténtica, fácil de usar y que permite la comunicación y la retroalimentación entre el educador y los estudiantes. Se prevé que la implementación de esta herramienta mejorará la formación futura de los estudiantes de IM en el reconocimiento de patrones y contribuirá de manera importante al desarrollo actual del uso de la simulación basada en computadora.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Computer Simulation , Pattern Recognition, Automated , Computer-Assisted Instruction/methods , Education, Medical/methods , Aptitude , Software , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Educational Measurement , Simulation Training/methods , Anatomy/education
20.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(5): 1302-1310, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134440

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: En Chile, los primeros médicos se formaron en la Universidad Real de San Felipe y el Instituto Nacional, entre 1758 y 1833. Sus maestros Domingo Nevín, Manuel Chaparro y Pedro Morán, usaron y recomendaron los pocos libros existentes. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar estos libros con ilustraciones anatómicas que se utilizaron durante este período y en las que los primeros estudiantes de medicina encontraron una guía visual para la comprensión de la anatomía humana y la práctica de la disección. Para este estudio, se analizaron los trabajos de Lorenz Heister (1755), Martin Martínez (1764), Friedrich Tiedemann (1822a,b) y François Chaussier (1823). Para estos autores, se desarrolló una síntesis con datos biográficos relevantes. Para los libros se realizó un análisis bibliográfico, cuantitativo y descriptivo-cualitativo. Las imágenes también se analizaron según las clasificaciones de Gómez (2005), Choulant (1852) y Kemp (1990). En cuanto a los autores de los textos, eran médicos, cirujanos, anatomistas y / o legistas médicos, de origen alemán, español o francés. Los textos están escritos en español, francés, alemán y/o latín. Presentan imágenes con diferentes niveles de detalle, en blanco y negro o en color. Toda la bibliografía anatómica utilizada durante el período de estudio es de origen europeo, transfiriéndose a través de sus páginas, una realidad centrada en la Europa de los siglos XVIII y XIX. Esta visión sesgada del conocimiento se ha mantenido hasta ahora, donde la enseñanza de la anatomía humana todavía se basa en textos de origen extranjero. El estudio profundo de las características de la formación de médicos en Chile es esencial para comprender el nacimiento de la identidad profesional, que ha sido de gran influencia en las ciencias de la salud y en la historia político-social de Chile.


SUMMARY: In Chile, the first doctors were trained at the Universidad Real de San Felipe and the National Institute, between 1758 and 1833, where docents Domingo Nevín, Manuel Chaparro and Pedro Morán, used and recommended the few existing books. The objective of this work was to analyze these books with anatomical illustrations that were used during this period and in which, the first medical students found a visual guide for the understanding of human anatomy and the practice of dissection. For this study, the works of Lorenz Heister (1755), Martin Martínez (1764), Friedrich Tiedemann (1822) and François Chaussier (1823) were analyzed. A synthesis with relevant biographical data was developed for these authors, and for the books a bibliographic, quantitative and descriptive-qualitative analysis was performed. The images were also analyzed according to the classifications of Gomez (2005), Choulant (1852) and Kemp (1990). Regarding the authors of the texts, they were doctors, surgeons, anatomists and / or medical legists, of German, Spanish or French origin. The texts are written in Spanish, French, German and / or Latin. They present images with different levels of detail, in black and white or in color. All the anatomical bibliography used during the period under study is of European origin, transferring through its pages, a reality centered on 18th and 19th century Europe. This biased view of knowledge has been maintained until the present, where the teaching of human anatomy is still based on texts of foreign origin. A profound study of the training characteristics of doctors in Chile, is essential to understand the beginning of a professional identity, which has been important influence in health sciences and the political - social history of Chile.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Education, Medical/history , History of Medicine , Anatomy/history , Chile
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