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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 578-584, June 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098290

ABSTRACT

Los cursos de anatomía constituyen un componente esencial del currículo de medicina, aportando las bases morfológicas para el examen clínico, la interpretación de imágenes médicas y la práctica segura de intervenciones quirúrgicas y procedimientos. Recientemente, la tecnología de impresión 3D ha permitido generar réplicas de disecciones de segmentos corporales a escala real que se utilizan como recursos docentes para el estudio de la anatomía humana, generando así modelos docentes de alta verosimilitud que sirven como alternativa al uso de preparaciones cadavéricas para la docencia anatómica. En este trabajo presentamos los resultados obtenidos al utilizar nuestro kit KAN3D que incluye réplicas físicas de secciones transversales del tronco y de las extremidades y una plataforma que aloja los modelos digitales debidamente rotulados, producto financiado con el proyecto FONDEF IT16I10073. La aplicación de estos productos en docencia señalan que las réplicas de secciones transversales de segmentos corporales presentan una alta verosimilitud en términos de forma, color, topografía y texturas, características que las validan como un excelente recurso docente para la docencia y el aprendizaje de la anatomía seccional humana. El kit KAN3D pone a disposición de los estudiantes de las carreras de la salud recursos de alta verosimilitud, disponibles a libre demanda, que les permita reproducir la experiencia de la actividad práctica de Morfología en el momento y lugar en que ellos se encuentren dispuestos, superando así las limitaciones de acceso a los pabellones de Anatomía y a material cadavérico de calidad.


Anatomy courses constitute an essential component of the medical curriculum, providing the morphological basis for the clinical examination, the interpretation of medical images and the safe practice of surgical interventions and procedures. Recently, 3D printing technology has allowed to generate replicas of dissections of body segments on a real scale that are used as teaching resources for the study of human anatomy, thus generating high-likelihood teaching models that serve as an alternative to the use of cadaveric preparations for Anatomical teaching. In this paper we present the results obtained by using our KAN3D kit that includes physical replicas of cross sections of the trunk and extremities and a platform that houses properly labeled digital models, a product financed with the FONDEF IT16I10073 project. The application of these products in teaching indicate that replicas of cross sections of body segments have a high likelihood in terms of shape, color, topography and textures, characteristics that validate them as an excellent teaching resource for teaching and learning the human sectional anatomy. The KAN3D kit makes available to students of health careers a high-likelihood resources, accesible on demand, that allows them to reproduce the experience of the practical activity of Morphology at the time and place where they are willing, exceeding thus the limitations of access to the Anatomy pavilions and quality cadaveric material.


Subject(s)
Humans , Software , Anatomy, Cross-Sectional/education , Education, Medical/methods , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Anatomy/education
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(1): 147-152, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056413

ABSTRACT

Dog ear is very important because of disease vulnerability. Therefore, gross anatomy and sectional anatomy on CT and MRI of the dog ear should be mastered by veterinarian. The purpose of this research was to present the digital atlases which high quality sectioned images and 3D models of detailed structures of dog ear could be displayed freely. In the sectioned images of a female beagle, ear structures were reconstructed by surface modeling to make 3D models. The sectioned images and 3D models were put into the browsing software and PDF file, respectively. Using the browsing software and the PDF file, gross and radiological anatomy of dog ear could be learned easily and accurately. The auditory tube of a dog was placed anterior to the tympanic cavity unlike human. The tensor tympani muscle of a dog was connected to the dorsal wall of the tympanic cavity with the malleus. No remarkable difference in the auditory ossicles, semicircular ducts, facial nerve, and endolymphatic duct was observed between dogs and humans. The software and the PDF file will be provided to other researchers freely to help contribute to veterinary research and education.


La oreja del perro es importante debido a la vulnerabilidad de enfermedad. Por lo tanto, el veterinario debe conocer plenamente la anatomía macroscópica y la anatomía seccional en la TC y la RM del oído del perro. El objetivo de esta investigación fue presentar los atlas digitales que podían mostrar imágenes seccionadas de alta calidad y modelos 3D de estructuras detalladas de orejas de perro. En las imágenes seccionadas de una hembra Beagle, las estructuras de las orejas se reconstruyeron mediante modelado de superficie con el objetivo de crear modelos 3D. Las imágenes seccionadas y los modelos 3D se colocaron en un software de navegación y un archivo PDF. El uso de software de navegación y el archivo PDF permiten un aprendizaje fácil y preciso de la anatomía macroscópica y radiológica de la oreja de perro. El músculo tensor del tímpano de un perro estaba conectado a la pared dorsal de la cavidad timpánica con el martillo. No se observaron diferencias notables en los huesecillos auditivos, los conductos semicirculares, el nervio facial y el conducto endolinfático entre perros y humanos. El software y el archivo PDF estarán disponibles libremente para los investigadores para ayudar en la investigación y educación veterinaria.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Ear/diagnostic imaging , Software , Anatomy, Cross-Sectional , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Ear/anatomy & histology , Visible Human Projects , Ear Auricle/diagnostic imaging
3.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1135546

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To determine the prevalence of cross-sectional variations in the apical thirds of the root canals in maxillary and mandibular teeth. Material and Methods: Eighty tooth samples (maxillary second premolar, maxillary first molar, and mandibular first molar) were scanned using micro-computed tomography. The apical third area of each root canal was sectioned and the maximum and minimum diameters were calculated from the mesiodistal and buccolingual diameters. The shapes were categorized as a round, oval, long oval, and flat based on the ratios obtained. Results: The most common shape of the apical third of the root canals in the maxillary second premolars was oval (66.7%), followed by long oval (24.6%), flat (7%), and round (1.7%). The corresponding values in the mesiobuccal root of the maxillary first molars were oval (68.2%), long oval (22.7%), flat (9.1%), 94.1% of the distobuccal roots were oval, while the remaining were long oval (5.9%). All the palatal root canals were oval. In the mesiobuccal root of the mandibular first molars, 47.4% were long oval in shape, followed by 36.8% oval and 15.8% flat canals. All the mesiolingual root canals were oval, whereas, in the distal root, 68.4% were oval, 21.1% long oval, and 10.5% were flat. Conclusion: The oval shape was most commonly observed in the majority of the root canals. Knowledge about the apical anatomy of the root can help the operator improve the root canal treatment's success.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bicuspid , Anatomy, Cross-Sectional/instrumentation , Dental Pulp Cavity , Endodontics , Molar , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/instrumentation , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Indonesia/epidemiology
4.
Rev. cuba. obstet. ginecol ; 45(3): e487, jul.-set. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093661

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La hemivértebra es un raro defecto congénito de la columna vertebral fetal en la que solo se desarrolla el cuerpo vertebral de un lado, lo cual provoca su deformidad. Objetivo: Presentar un caso con diagnóstico ecográfico tridimensional prenatal de hemivértebra, como único defecto. Método: Se realizó evaluación ecográfica prenatal y examen anátomo patológico y radiológico posmortem al feto con escoliosis congénita provocado por hemivértebra. Se revisó la literatura sobre este defecto congénito, su diagnóstico prenatal y otros aspectos genéticos que deben tenerse en cuenta para el asesoramiento a la familia. Presentación de caso: Gestante de 28 años remitida a la consulta provincial de Genética Médica en la ciudad de Camagüey, Cuba, el 25 de septiembre del 2018, por sospecha ultrasonográfica de hemivértebra fetal con 20 semanas de gestación. Se confirma diagnóstico a esta instancia, mediante ultrasonografía tridimensional. Con el consentimiento familiar informado se realiza interrupción de la gestación y se comprueba el diagnóstico prenatal realizado por estudios radiológicos y anátomo patológico de la región dorso lumbar. Conclusiones: Se concluye como un defecto congénito múltiple, aislado, de posible etiología multifactorial. Se destacó el valor de la ecografía tridimensional, vista sagital coronal, como método no invasivo más empleado para el diagnóstico prenatal(AU)


Introduction: The hemivertebrae is a rare congenital defect of the fetal spine in which only the vertebral body develops on one side, resulting in deformity. Objective: To present a case with three-dimensional prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of hemivertebrae, as the only defect. Method: Prenatal ultrasound evaluation, postmortem anatomopathological and radiological examination were performed in a fetus with congenital scoliosis caused by hemivertebrae. The literature on this congenital defect, the prenatal diagnosis and other genetic aspects that should be taken into account for family counseling was reviewed. Case report: A 28-year-old pregnant woman referred to the provincial office of Medical Genetics in Camagüey, Cuba, on September 25, 2018, due to ultrasonographic suspicion of fetal hemivertebrae. She was 20 weeks of gestation. Diagnosis is confirmed by three-dimensional ultrasonography. After the informed family consent, the pregnancy was interrupted. The prenatal diagnosis was verified by radiological and pathological studies of the lumbar back region. Conclusions: It is concluded as a multiple congenital defect, isolated, of possible multifactorial etiology. The value of three-dimensional ultrasound, coronal sagittal view, was highlighted as the most commonly used, non-invasive method for prenatal diagnosis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Ultrasonography, Prenatal/methods , Spine/anatomy & histology , Spine/abnormalities , Spine/diagnostic imaging , Anatomy, Cross-Sectional/methods
5.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(4): 879-888, jul.-ago. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1094095

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: diversos autores reflejan que la morfología de la silla turca constituye un factor predisponente para algunas enfermedades. Por ejemplo, se considera que existe correlación entre la morfología de esta estructura anatómica y varias patologías; como el síndrome de la silla turca vacía, síndrome de Williams, paladar hendido, entre otras. Objetivo: describir las variaciones anatómicas de la silla turca que se observan en las radiografías laterales de cráneo del Hospital Universitario "Faustino Pérez" de la ciudad de Matanzas, en el período de enero del 2017 a enero del 2018. Materiales y métodos: el universo fue 140 radiografías laterales de cráneo, de estas 85 pertenecieron al sexo femenino y 55 al masculino. Las variables estudiadas fueron edad, sexo y variaciones anatómicas de la silla turca. Se emplearon métodos teóricos y empíricos. Resultados: se observó un predominio de la variación anatómica de la silla turca en forma de U, en ambos sexos. Seguido de la forma de J, predominando la variación en forma de U en el grupo etario de 41 a 50 años y la forma de J en los pacientes mayores de 60 años. Conclusiones: es imprescindible el conocimiento de la anatomía normal de la silla turca y de sus variaciones anatómicas, tanto para las especialidades quirúrgicas como para las no quirúrgicas. Un análisis exhaustivo de la morfología de esta estructura es necesario para establecer parámetros que excluyan determinadas patologías.


ABSTRACT Introduction: several authors declare that sella turcica morphology is a predisposing factor to several diseases. For example, it is considered that there is a correlation between the morphology of this anatomical structure and several pathologies like empty sella turcica syndrome, Williams syndrome, cleft palate and others. Objective: to describe the anatomical variants of sella turcica observed in side cranial radiographies of the University Hospital ¨Faustino Perez¨ of Matanzas, in the period January 2017-January 2018. Materials and methods: the universe was 140 side cranial radiography: 85 belonged to female patients and 55 to male patients. The studied variables were age, sex and sella turcica anatomical variables. Theoretic and empirical methods were used. Results: it was observed a predominance of the U-shaped sella turcica anatomical variant in both sexes, followed by the J-shaped one. The U-shaped form predominated in the 41-50-years-old age-group and the J-shaped form in patients elder than 60 years. Conclusions: it is essential to know sella turcica normal anatomy and its anatomical variables, both for the surgical specialties and for the non-surgical ones. It is necessary the exhaustive analysis of this structure to establish parameters excluding several pathologies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Aged , Sella Turcica/abnormalities , Sella Turcica/pathology , Sella Turcica/diagnostic imaging , Stomatognathic Diseases/diagnosis , Stomatognathic Diseases/epidemiology , Williams Syndrome/epidemiology , Williams Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Empty Sella Syndrome/epidemiology , Empty Sella Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Endocrine System Diseases/diagnosis , Endocrine System Diseases/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Causality , Anatomy, Cross-Sectional , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Observational Study
6.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(1): 1-8, mar 2019. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1026309

ABSTRACT

La disección virtual es una herramienta educativa sumamente valiosa en anatomía. Es particularmente útil cuando hay escasez de cadáveres o en los casos en que la disección no sea posible por motivos religiosos o éticos. En este trabajo los autores presentan una reconstrucción 3D de un corazón masculino a partir de la información del proyecto Korean Visible Human, realizado en el marco de asociaciones de la cátedra de anatomía digital de la UNESCO creada recientemente en la Universidad Descartes. La segmentación manual de 1640 cortes anatómicos se logró a través del software Winsurf, produciendo un modelo vectorial 3D interactivo del corazón y la anatomía que lo rodea. Se reconstruyeron ochenta y cuatro estructuras, incluyendo el corazón y sus vasos (27 estructuras), tráquea, esófago, pulmones, cayado aórtico, vena cava inferior, riñones, sistema esquelético conformado por 58 estructuras, entre ellas: esternón, cartílagos costales, vértebras torácicas y discos intervertebrales, sacro, coxales y piel. El modelo vectorial 3D obtenido se exportó en formato PDF 3D produciendo una verdadera herramienta de disección virtual a través de la interfaz de Acrobat: las estructuras anatómicas pueden individualizarse y manipularse interactivamente como 84 objetos 3D separados. Además, se pueden agregar "etiquetas" con el nombre de cada elemento anatómico. Esta nueva mesa de disección virtual computarizada es una herramienta simple y poderosa tanto para alumnos como para docentes de anatomía. Además, resulta ser la base para futuras herramientas de simulación que contribuirán al entrenamiento de cirujanos


The virtual dissection is a remarkable learning tool in anatomy. It is particularly useful in the case of lack of cadavers or if anatomical dissection is impossible due to ethical or religious reasons. The authors present here a 3D reconstruction of the female's heart from the Visible Korean human data, made in the frame of the projects of the UNESCO chair of digital anatomy created recently at the Descartes University.The manual segmentation of 1640 anatomical slices was achieved with the Winsurf ® software producing an interactive 3D vectorial model of the heart and surrounding anatomy. Eighty four anatomical structures were reconstructed, including the heart and its vessels (27 structures), trachea, oesophagus, lungs, aortic arch, superior vena cava, azygos system, inferior vena cava, right and left kidneys, skeletal system (58) structures including: sternum, xiphoid process, clavicles, ribs, costal cartilage, thoracic vertebrae, intervertebrales discs, sacrum, hip bones, and femurs) and skin. The obtained 3D vectorial model was exported in 3D PDF format, producing a true virtual dissection tool through the Acrobat's interface: the anatomical structures can be individually and interactively manipulated as 84 separated 3D objects. 3D labels can be added with the name of each anatomical element. This new computerized virtual dissection table is a simple and powerful learning tool for students and anatomy teachers. It is also the basis of future simulation tools for surgeon's training


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Cadaver , Anatomy, Cross-Sectional , Coronary Vessels , Dissection/education , Visible Human Projects , Simulation Training , Virtual Reality , Heart , Models, Anatomic
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765161

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gross anatomy and sectional anatomy of a monkey should be known by students and researchers of veterinary medicine and medical research. However, materials to learn the anatomy of a monkey are scarce. Thus, the objective of this study was to produce a Visible Monkey data set containing cross sectional images, computed tomographs (CTs), and magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of a monkey whole body. METHODS: Before and after sacrifice, a female rhesus monkey was used for 3 Tesla MRI and CT scanning. The monkey was frozen and sectioned at 0.05 mm intervals for the head region and at 0.5 mm intervals for the rest of the body using a cryomacrotome. Each sectioned surface was photographed using a digital camera to obtain horizontal sectioned images. Segmentation of sectioned images was performed to elaborate three-dimensional (3D) models of the skin and brain. RESULTS: A total of 1,612 horizontal sectioned images of the head and 1,355 images of the remaining region were obtained. The small pixel size (0.024 mm × 0.024 mm) and real color (48 bits color) of these images enabled observations of minute structures. CONCLUSION: Due to small intervals of these images, continuous structures could be traced completely. Moreover, 3D models of the skin and brain could be used for virtual dissections. Sectioned images of this study will enhance the understanding of monkey anatomy and foster further studies. These images will be provided to any requesting researcher free of charge.


Subject(s)
Anatomy, Cross-Sectional , Brain , Dataset , Female , Haplorhini , Head , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Primates , Skin , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Veterinary Medicine
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765058

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The sectioned images of a cadaver head made from the Visible Korean project have been used for research and educational purposes. However, the image resolution is insufficient to observe detailed structures suitable for experts. In this study, advanced sectioned images with higher resolution were produced for the identification of more detailed structures. METHODS: The head of a donated female cadaver was scanned for 3 Tesla magnetic resonance images and diffusion tensor images (DTIs). After the head was frozen, the head was sectioned serially at 0.04-mm intervals and photographed repeatedly using a digital camera. RESULTS: On the resulting 4,000 sectioned images (intervals and pixel size, 0.04 mm³; color depth, 48 bits color; a file size, 288 Mbytes), minute brain structures, which can be observed not on previous sectioned images but on microscopic slides, were observed. The voxel size of this study (0.04 mm³) was very minute compared to our previous study (0.1 mm³; resolution, 4,368 × 2,912) and Visible Human Project of the USA (0.33 mm³; resolution, 2,048 × 2,048). Furthermore, the sectioned images were combined with tractography of the DTIs to elucidate the white matter with high resolution and the actual color of the tissue. CONCLUSION: The sectioned images will be used for diverse research, including the applications for the cross sectional anatomy and three-dimensional models for virtual experiments.


Subject(s)
Anatomy, Cross-Sectional , Brain , Cadaver , Diffusion , Diffusion Tensor Imaging , Female , Head , Humans , White Matter
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764922

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Volume models made from magnetic resonance images on computed tomographs can produce horizontal, coronal, sagittal, and oblique planes that are used widely in clinics, although detailed structures cannot be identified. Existing real color volume models are mostly commercial and their production methods have not been released. The aim of this study was to distribute free of charge, real-color volume models produced from sectioned images with the production method. METHODS: The original voxel size of sectioned images was increased appropriately so that the volume model could be handled by typical personal computers. By using Dicom Browser and MRIcroGL, the sectioned images were processed to become the volume models. RESULTS: On the MRIcroGL, the resultant volume model with the voxel size of 0.5 × 0.5 × 0.5 mm3 could be displayed and freely rotated. By adjusting variables of the software, desired oblique planes could be produced instantly. With overlay function, a model of segmented structure can be overlapped to the entire volume models. The sectioned images with high quality and the segmentation data of Visible Korean enabled the identification of detailed anatomical structures on the planes. CONCLUSION: The volume models can be used by medical students and doctors for learning sectional anatomy. Other researchers can utilize the method of this study to produce volume models from their own sectioned images.


Subject(s)
Anatomy, Cross-Sectional , Computer Simulation , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Learning , Methods , Microcomputers , Students, Medical , Visible Human Projects
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719571

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The curved sectional planes of the human body can provide a new approach of surface anatomy that the classical horizontal, coronal, and sagittal planes cannot do. The purpose of this study was to verify whether the curved sectional planes contribute to the morphological comprehension of anatomical structures. METHODS: By stacking the sectioned images of a male cadaver, a volume model of the right half body was produced (voxel size 1 mm). The sectioned images with the segmentation data were also used to build another volume model. The volume models were peeled and rotated to be screen captured. The captured images were loaded on user-friendly browsing software that had been made in the laboratory. RESULTS: The browsing software was downloadable from the authors' homepage (anatomy.co.kr). On the software, the volume model was peeled at 1 mm thicknesses and rotated at 30 degrees. Since the volume models were made from the cadaveric images, actual colors of the structures were displayed in high resolution. Thanks to the segmentation data, the structures on the volume model could be automatically annotated. Using the software, the sternocleidomastoid muscle and the internal jugular vein in the neck region, the cubital fossa in the upper limb region, and the femoral triangle in the lower limb region were observed to be described. CONCLUSION: For the students learning various medical procedures, the software presents the needed graphic information of the human body. The curved sectional planes are expected to be a tool for disciplinary convergence of the sectional anatomy and surface anatomy.


Subject(s)
Anatomy, Cross-Sectional , Cadaver , Comprehension , Education , Human Body , Humans , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Jugular Veins , Learning , Lower Extremity , Male , Neck , Upper Extremity , Visible Human Projects
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760141

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The embryological development of paranasal sinuses has been revealed by previous articles although few studies have reported on the differences of paranasal sinus pneumatization according to age after adolescence. We evaluated changes in paranasal sinus pneumatization in the ages ranging from 10s to over 60s. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: A retrospective review was carried out for patients who underwent osteomeatal unit three-dimensional computed tomography from January 2008 to March 2017. Two hundred and forty patients were selected and matched for age, sex, and existence of sinusitis. The biggest cross-sectional area (CSA) of each sinus was selected from each patient, which was then corrected to the size of the face. CSA and corrected CSA (cCSA) values were used together for analysis. RESULTS: CSAs of frontal, maxillary, sphenoid sinuses gradually increased in the ages ranging in the 30s, and then significantly decreased from those in the 40s onwards. In particular, these tendencies were statistically significant in all types of sinuses between the 30s and 40s, (p0.05). CSAs in patients with chronic sinusitis were not different from those in patients without chronic sinusitis in every sinus and all age groups (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: This study shows that older people have smaller sinuses, and sex difference and existence of sinusitis have no effect on the pneumatization of the sinuses.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Anatomy, Cross-Sectional , Female , Humans , Male , Methods , Paranasal Sinuses , Retrospective Studies , Sex Characteristics , Sinusitis , Sphenoid Sinus
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(2): 402-406, jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954128

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The liver dimensional (3D) models, consists of eight segments including portal triad (portal vein, hepatic artery, and bile duct), are necessary because it is difficult to dissect a liver and its inner structures. But it is difficult to produce 3D models from high resolution and color sectioned-images. This study presents automatic and accurate methods for producing liver 3D models from the sectionedimages. Based on the sectioned-images and color-filled-images of the liver, a 3D model including both the portal triad and hepatic vein was made. Referring to the 3D model, 3D models of liver's eight segments including the segmental branches of the portal triad and hepatic vein were completed and saved as STL format. All STL files were combined and saved as Liver-3D in PDF format for the common user. By functional subdivision of liver, the Liver-3D was divided into left (segments II, III, and, IV) and right (segments V, VI, VII, and VIII) liver in bookmark window of the PDF file. In addition, in Liver-3D, the primary to tertiary segmental branches of the portal triad could be shown in different colors. Owing to the difficulty of 3D modeling of liver including eight segments and segmental branches of the portal triad and hepatic, we started this research to find automatic methods for producing 3D models. The methods for producing liver 3D models will assist in 2D selection and 3D modeling of other complicated structures.


RESUMEN: Los modelos hepáticos dimensionales (3D) consisten en ocho segmentos que incluyen la tríada portal (vena porta, arteria hepática y conducto biliar), y son necesarios ya que es difícil disecar un hígado y sus estructuras internas. Sin embargo, es difícil producir modelos 3D a partir de imágenes en alta resolución e imágenes seccionadas en color. Este estudio presenta métodos automáticos y precisos para producir modelos 3D de hígado a partir de las imágenes seccionadas. Sobre la base de las imágenes seccionadas y las imágenes del hígado llenas de color, se realizó un modelo 3D que incluía tanto la tríada portal como la vena hepática. En referencia al modelo 3D, se completaron modelos 3D de los ocho segmentos del hígado que incluían las ramas segmentarias de la tríada portal y la vena hepática y se guardaron como formato STL. Todos los archivos STL fueron combinados y guardados como Liver-3D en formato PDF para el usuario común. Por subdivisión funcional del hígado, el hígado-3D se dividió en hígado izquierdo (segmentos II, III y IV) y derecho (segmentos V, VI, VII y VIII) en la ventana de marcador del archivo PDF. Además, en Liver-3D, las ramas segmentarias primarias a terciarias de la tríada portal podrían mostrarse en diferentes colores. Debido a la dificultad del modelado 3D del hígado, incluidos ocho segmentos y ramas segmentarias de la tríada portal y hepática, comenzamos esta investigación para encontrar métodos automáticos para producir modelos 3D. Los métodos para producir modelos 3D de hígado ayudarán en la selección 2D y el modelado 3D de otras estructuras complicadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anatomy, Cross-Sectional , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Hepatic Veins/diagnostic imaging , Liver/diagnostic imaging , Visible Human Projects , Hepatic Veins/anatomy & histology , Liver/blood supply , Models, Anatomic
14.
Int. j. morphol ; 36(2): 537-543, jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954151

ABSTRACT

The sectional anatomy of a cat head is essential when interpreting CTs and MRIs of the region. In learning the sectional anatomy, sectioned images of a cat could be quite effective data. The main objective was to assist veterinary physicians who learn the sectional anatomy of a cat head by presenting high-quality sectioned images. A short-haired female cat was frozen and sectioned frontally using a cryomacrotome. Every sectioned surface in real body color was photographed with a digital camera. The frontal planes were stacked to produce dorsal and sagittal planes. High-quality sectioned images of a cat head allowed the identification of small, complicated structures. The notable structures were as follows: each bone of the cranium, structures of the brain, tympanic cavity (larger than human), oval window (larger than human), vestibular nerve, cochlear nerve, ear ossicles, six extraocular muscles, pupil (larger than human), retractor bulbi muscle (not found in human), optic nerve, olfactory bulb (considerably large), vomeronasal organ duct (not found in human), infraorbital gland (not found in human), masticatory muscles (larger than human), maxillary nerve (larger than human), and mandibular nerve. This pacesetting report describes the detailed head structures of a cat from the viewpoint of sectional anatomy. The sectioned images will be given to other interested researchers free of charge.


El conocimiento de la anatomía seccional de cabeza de gato es esencial para interpretar estudios por tomografía computada y resonancia magnética de la región. En el conocimiento de esta anatomía seccional, las imágenes seccionadas de un gato podrían aportar datos bastante efectivos. El objetivo principal consistió en ayudar a los médicos veterinarios para que aprendan la anatomía seccional de una cabeza de gato mediante la presentación de imágenes seccionadas de alta calidad. Una gata de pelo corto fue congelada y seccionada frontalmente usando un criomicrótomo. Cada sección, con el color real del cuerpo, fue fotografiada con una cámara digital. Los planos frontales se apilaron para producir planos dorsales y sagitales. Las imágenes seccionadas de alta calidad de una cabeza de gato permitieron la identificación de estructuras pequeñas y de dificil visualización. Las estructuras destacadas fueron las siguientes: cada hueso del cráneo, las estructuras del cerebro, la cavidad timpánica (más grande que en el humano), la ventana oval (más grande que en el humano), el nervio vestibular, el nervio coclear, los huesecillos del oído, seis músculos extraoculares, la pupila, el músculo retractor del ojo (no se encuentra en el ser humano), nervio óptico, bulbo olfatorio (considerablemente grande), conducto del órgano vomeronasal (no se encuentra en el ser humano), glándula infraorbitaria (no se encuentra en los humanos), músculos masticatorios (más grandes que en el humano), nervio maxilar (más grande que en el humano) y nervio mandibular. En este trabajo describimos detalladamente, desde el punto de vista de la anatomía seccional, las estructuras de la cabeza de un gato. Las imágenes seccionadas estarán a disponibles para otros investigadores en forma gratuita.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Cats/anatomy & histology , Visible Human Projects , Head/diagnostic imaging , Anatomy, Cross-Sectional
15.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 943-950, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739276

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional design. PURPOSE: To determine the characteristics of lumbar extensor muscle (LEM) size and isometric muscle strength and examine their correlations in women with lumbar degenerative diseases (LDDs). OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Many studies have evaluated the relationship between muscle size and strength, but the results have been controversial. METHODS: Seventy-four female patients (mean age, 66 years) who consecutively underwent posterior lumbar interbody fusion (L1–S1) were recruited. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of the back extensor muscles was measured between L1–2 to L5–S1, and the total sum of the CSAs at each disc level was calculated. Back extensor muscle strength was evaluated using a MedX lumbar extension machine. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI, 0–100) and Visual Analog Scale (VAS, 0–10) of lower back pain were determined. RESULTS: The mean CSAs of the LEM at each level (L1/2–L5/S1) and the total sum were 34.3, 36.3, 35.1, 31.4, 21.9, and 156.2 cm2, respectively. The mean isometric strength at each angle (range, 0°–72°) was 32.5, 50.1, 72.0, 88.7, 100.7, 112.2, and 126.2 ft-lb, respectively. The mean ODI and VAS scores were 54.6 and 6.6, and the mean body weight and body mass index (BMI) were 59.9 kg and 24.9 kg/m2, respectively. The CSAs of the upper lumbar level (L1–4) and the total sum of the CSAs were associated with isometric strength, which was negatively correlated with patients’ age and ODI and positively associated with body weight and BMI, mainly at higher lumbar flexion angles (48°–72°). CONCLUSIONS: In women with LDD, LEM sizes of the upper lumbar levels (L1–4) were larger than those of the lower levels (L4–S1) and were positively associated with muscle strength. The upper lumbar levels in patients with LDDs appear to play a compensatory role when degenerative lesions are present in the lower lumbar levels.


Subject(s)
Anatomy, Cross-Sectional , Back Muscles , Body Mass Index , Body Weight , Female , Humans , Intervertebral Disc Degeneration , Low Back Pain , Muscle Strength , Muscles , Visual Analog Scale
16.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170282, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-954494

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of volumetric reconstruction of the pharynx by comparing the volume and minimum crosssectional area (mCSA) determined with open-source applications (ITK-Snap, www.itksnap.org ; SlicerCMF) and commercial software (Dolphin3D, 11.8, Dolphin Imaging & Management Solutions, Chatsworth, CA, USA) previously validated in the literature. Material and Methods: The sample comprised of 35 cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans of patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate, with mean age of 29±15. Three-dimensional volumetric models of the pharynx were reconstructed using semi-automatic segmentation using the applications ITK-Snap (G1) and Dolphin3D (G2). Volumes and minimum cross-sectional areas were determined. Inter- and intra-observer error were calculated using ICC test. Comparison between applications was calculated using the Wilcoxon test. Results: Volumes and minimum crosssectional area were statistically similar between applications. ITK-Snap showed higher pharynx volumes, but lower mCSA. Visual assessment showed that 62.86% matched the region of mCSA in Dolphin3D and SPHARM-PDM. Conclusion: Measurements of volume and mCSA are statistically similar between applications. Therefore, open-source applications may be a viable option to assess upper airway dimensions using CBCT exams.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pharynx/pathology , Pharynx/diagnostic imaging , Software , Cleft Lip/diagnostic imaging , Cleft Palate/diagnostic imaging , Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods , Reference Values , Observer Variation , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Age Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Anatomy, Cross-Sectional , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Middle Aged
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(4): 1377-1382, Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893145

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: The purpose of this research was to enable anyone to learn the sectional anatomy of the head anywhere, anytime by presenting software to browse sectioned images on a Google Android mobile device. Among the 2,343 sectioned images at 0.1 mm intervals, 234 sectioned images at 1 mm intervals were chosen. The corresponding 234 segmented images containing 236 head structures were selected. The software of the mobile version was programmed and debugged in the Java programming language. The folders of the sectioned images and segmented images and the txt file of the segmentation data were arranged in the source code of the software. The software was distributed free of charge at the homepage (neuroanatomy.kr) and Google Play Store. After installing the software, the sectioned images and corresponding segmented images could be browsed by touching and swiping the screen. In the medical category of the Google Play Store, the software earned a good reputation. The software of the Android mobile version was usable regardless of the time and place. The software is under the authors' non-commercial policy. Other investigators may modify the mobile software to browse their own images. The mobile version of the software will aid medical students and doctors in learning sectional anatomy.


RESUMEN: El propósito de esta investigación fue permitir que toda persona aprendiera la anatomía de secciones de la cabeza, en cualquier lugar y en cualquier momento, a través de un software para examinar imágenes seccionadas en un dispositivo móvil Android de Google. De las 2.343 imágenes seccionadas a intervalos de 0,1 mm, se seleccionaron 234 imágenes seccionadas a intervalos de 1 mm. Se seleccionaron las 234 imágenes segmentadas que contenían 236 estructuras de cabeza. El software de la versión móvil fue programado y depurado en el lenguaje de programación Java. Las carpetas de las imágenes seccionadas y las imágenes segmentadas y el archivo .txt de los datos de segmentación se organizaron en el código fuente del software. El software se distribuyó gratuitamente en la página principal (neuroanatomy.kr) y Google Play Store. Después de instalar el software, las imágenes seccionadas y las imágenes segmentadas correspondientes se pueden navegar tocando y deslizando la pantalla. En la categoría médica de Google Play Store, el software obtuvo buena recepción. El software de la versión móvil de Android fue utilizado independientemente de la hora y el lugar. El software está bajo la política no comercial de los autores. Otros investigadores pueden modificar el software móvil para navegar por sus propias imágenes. La versión móvil del software ayudará a los estudiantes de medicina y los médicos en el aprendizaje de la anatomía seccional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Education, Medical/methods , Mobile Applications , Smartphone , Head/anatomy & histology , Anatomy, Cross-Sectional , Visible Human Projects , Head/diagnostic imaging , Anatomy/education , Learning
18.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 15(1): 71-76, Jan.-Mar. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840300

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To investigate if electrical stimulation through Russian current is able to maintain morphology of the cranial tibial muscle of experimentally denervated rats. Methods Thirty-six Wistar rats were divided into four groups: the Initial Control Group, Final Control Group, Experimental Denervated and Treated Group, Experimental Denervated Group. The electrostimulation was performed with a protocol of Russian current applied three times per week, for 45 days. At the end, the animals were euthanized and histological and morphometric analyses were performed. Data were submitted to statistical analysis with a significance level of p<0.05. Results The Experimental Denervated Group and the Experimental Denervated and Treated Group had cross-sectional area of smaller fiber compared to the Final Control Group. However, there was significant difference between the Experimental Denervated Group and Experimental Denervated and Treated Group, showing that electrical stimulation minimized muscle atrophy. The Experimental Denervated and Treated Group and Initial Control Group showed similar results. Conclusion Electrical stimulation through Russian current acted favorably in maintaining morphology of the cranial tibial muscle that was experimentally denervated, minimizing muscle atrophy.


RESUMO Objetivo Investigar se a estimulação elétrica pela corrente russa é capaz de manter a morfologia do músculo tibial cranial de ratos desnervados experimentalmente. Métodos Foram utilizados 36 ratos Wistar, distribuídos em quatro grupos: Grupo Controle Inicial, Grupo Controle Final, Grupo Experimental Desnervado Tratado, Grupo Experimental Desnervado. A eletroestimulação foi realizada com um protocolo de corrente russa aplicada três vezes por semanas, durante 45 dias. Ao final, os animais foram eutanasiados e, em seguida, foram realizadas as análises histológica e morfométrica. Os dados foram submetidos à análise estatística, com nível de significância de p<0,05. Resultados Os Grupos Experimental Desnervado e o Grupo Experimental Desnervado Tratado apresentaram área de secção transversal da fibra menor quando comparados ao Grupo Controle Final. Entretanto, constatou-se diferença significativa entre o Grupo Experimental Desnervado e o Grupo Experimental Desnervado Tratado, mostrando que a estimulação elétrica minimizou atrofia muscular. Ainda, observou-se que o Grupo Experimental Desnervado Tratado apresentou resultados semelhantes ao Grupo Controle Inicial. Conclusão A estimulação elétrica por meio da corrente russa foi favorável na manutenção da morfologia do músculo tibial cranial desnervado experimentalmente, minimizando a atrofia muscular.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Muscular Atrophy/prevention & control , Electric Stimulation Therapy/methods , Muscle, Skeletal/physiopathology , Muscle, Skeletal/innervation , Muscle Denervation , Tibia/innervation , Muscular Atrophy/physiopathology , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Anatomy, Cross-Sectional
19.
Ortho Sci., Orthod. sci. pract ; 10(39): 303-312, 2017. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-868280

ABSTRACT

Na Ortodontia atual tem-se criado diferentes opções de tratamento devido à rápida evolução de tecnologia e ferramentas de diagnóstico. Esse fato tem aumentado a abrangência de pacientes beneficiados. O tratamento ortodôntico em adultos deve ser implementado com a preocupação de oferecer maior conforto e estética. A deficiência transversal da maxila pode ser corrigida de diferentes formas com uma diversidade de aparelhos. A expansão maxilar deve ser realizada na quantidade devida para a correção e estabilidade da atresia maxilar. Sendo assim, este artigo tem o objetivo de auxiliar no diagnóstico da discrepância transversal da maxila e descrever alternativas para a expansão maxilar em pacientes adultos.(AU)


The current Orthodontics has been creating different treatment options due to the rapid evolution of technology and diagnostic tools. This fact has improved the coverage of patients benefited. Orthodontic treatment in adults should be implemented with the concern of offering greater comfort and aesthetics. Transverse maxillary deficiency can be treated with different approaches using a variety of devices. Maxillary expansion should be performed according to the necessary amount to reach correction and stability of maxillary transversal dimension. Therefore, this article aims to aid in the diagnosis of transversal maxillary discrepancy and to describe alternatives for maxillary expansion in adult patients.(AU)


Subject(s)
Anatomy, Cross-Sectional , Orthodontics , Palatal Expansion Technique
20.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 31: e20, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839524

ABSTRACT

Abstract This in situ study aimed to investigate the effect of a tin-containing fluoride solution in preventing enamel erosion. Also, its effects on the partly demineralized zone were assessed for the first time. Thirteen volunteers participated in this 2-phase study, wearing removable intra-oral appliances containing four sterilized bovine enamel slabs, for 8 days, where 2 treatment protocols were tested using samples in replicas (n = 13): CO - no treatment (negative control) and FL - AmF/NaF/SnCl2 solution (500 ppm F-, 800 ppm Sn2+, pH = 4.5). Samples were daily exposed to an erosive challenge (0.65% citric acid, pH 3.6, 4 min, 2x/day). In the 2nd phase, volunteers switched to the other treatment protocol. Samples were evaluated for surface loss using a profilometer (n = 13) and a cross-sectional nanohardness (CSNH) test (n = 13) was carried out in order to determine how deep the partly demineralized zone reaches below the erosive lesion. The data were statistically analyzed by two-way ANOVA. Erosive challenges lead to smaller enamel surface loss (p < 0.001) in the FL group when compared to group CO. Data from CSNH showed that there was no significant difference in demineralized enamel zone underneath erosion lesions between the groups. An amorphous layer could be observed on the surface of enamel treated with tin-containing solution alone. Under the experimental conditions of this in situ study, it can be concluded that AmF/NaF/SnCl2 solution prevents enamel surface loss but does not change the hardness of the partly demineralized zone near-surface enamel.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Adult , Cattle , Young Adult , Sodium Fluoride/therapeutic use , Tin Fluorides/therapeutic use , Tooth Erosion/prevention & control , Cariostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Fluorides, Topical/therapeutic use , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Surface Properties/drug effects , Time Factors , Analysis of Variance , Treatment Outcome , Statistics, Nonparametric , Anatomy, Cross-Sectional , Hardness Tests
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