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Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 15(1): 23-28, 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359362


Históricamente la sociedad ha rechazado el abuso sexual de menores de 13 años, dictándose leyes al respecto. La justicia luego de un debido proceso condenaba al victimario con reclusión incluso hasta la década del 70-80, con orquiectomía. Los adelantos en neurobiología, endocrinología, sicofarmacología y sicología se consideraron las bases para tratar al pedófilo y someterlo a libertad condicional, ahorrándose el costo financiero de la reclusión de por vida. Diversos países dictaron leyes contra la conducta pedófila. En dicha legislación ejerció gran influencia la promulgación en EE.UU. (estado de Washington "sobre el ofensor sexual" y el dictamen de la Corte Suprema en 1997 en el juicio de Kansas vs Hendricks). En Chile en los 90 el caso del pedófilo apodado "Zacarach" sacó a la luz pública el tema que no se quería ver. En esa fecha se presentó al parlamento un proyecto de Ley para "curar" la pedofilia con acetato de Medroxiprogesterona imitando legislación de EE.UU. Causó sorpresa en el medio endocrinológico que se usara terapia hormonal como "cura" de la pedofilia. Se ha utilizado en varios países la castración química producida por gestágenos o agonístas del GnRH más antiandrógenos (acetato de Ciproterona), para inhibir la secreción y acción de la testosterona disminuyendo líbido y erección. No se ha demostrado que exista curación de la orientación pedófila y existen dudas de la prevención primaria y secundaria de la pedofilia. Pese al adelanto tecnológico en neurociencias para estudio de las zonas vinculadas a la sexualidad, aún no existen marcadores que permitan diagnosticar o pronosticar futuros resultados de la terapia. El tratamiento médico de la pedofilia no garantiza curación ni prevención del delito pedofílico.

Historically, society has rejected sexual abuse of children under 13, with there having been laws enacted in this regard. The judicial system, after a due process, condemned the perpetrator with reclusion and even up until the decades of the 70s and 80s with orchiectomy. Advances in neurobiology, endocrinology, psychopharmacology and psychology were considered the basis for treating the pedophile and putting them on probation, saving the financial cost of imprisonment for life. Multiple countries have enacted laws against pedophilic behaviour. Such legislation was greatly influenced by the enactment in the USA (state of Washington "on the sex offender" and the ruling of the Supreme Court in 1997 in the trial of Kansas against Hendricks). In Chile in the 90s, the case of a pedophile nicknamed "Zacarach" brought to light an issue that nobody wanted to see. Around that time, a bill was presented to Parliament to try and "cure" pedophilia with Medroxyprogesterone acetate, imitating US legislation. It was a surprise in the endocrinological world that hormonal therapy would be used as a "cure" for pedophilia. Chemical castration produced by gestagens or GnRH agonists plus antiandrogens (Cyproterone acetate) has been used in several countries to inhibit the secretion and action of testosterone, reducing libido and erection. It has not been proven that there is a cure for pedophile orientation and there are doubts about the primary and secondary prevention of pedophilia. Despite technological advances in neurosciences for the study of the zones pertaining to sexuality, there are still no indicators that allow for diagnosis or prediction of future results of therapy. The medical treatment of pedophilia does not guarantee cure or prevention of pedophilic crime.

Humans , Male , Pedophilia/drug therapy , Castration/methods , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Pedophilia/diagnosis , Pedophilia/etiology , Pedophilia/therapy , Sex Offenses/legislation & jurisprudence , Testis/drug effects , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone/agonists , Medroxyprogesterone Acetate/therapeutic use , Cyproterone Acetate/therapeutic use
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 20: eRW6339, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364802


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate whether the addition of statins to the new antiandrogens (enzalutamide or abiraterone) affects overall survival in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Methods We searched studies in English language including the keywords statins, overall survival, and metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, at PubMed® (MEDLINE®), Embase and Cochrane databases. Results A total of 195 articles were initially identified, but only four met the inclusion criteria and were selected for the meta-analysis. A total of 955 patients, 632 on the new antiandrogens only group, and 323 on the new antiandrogens + statins group, were analyzed. In all four studies the combination therapy (new antiandrogens + statin) was well tolerated, regardless of which new antiandrogens were used. Neither the type of statin nor the doses and duration of use were well specified in the studies. The combination therapy in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer was associated with an overall survival improvement, and a 46% reduction in death (hazard ratio of 0.54; 95%CI 0.34-0.87; p<0.01) in multivariate analysis. Conclusion There seems to be a clinical benefit with the association of statins to the new antiandrogens in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, suggesting longer overall survival with no important collateral effect. However, due to fragility of the studies available in the literature, we are not yet capable of recommending this combination of drugs in the clinical practice. Further randomized prospective studies are warranted to confirm these beneficial outcomes.

Humans , Male , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 820-827, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927550


BACKGROUND@#Till date, the optimal treatment strategy for delivering adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in localized and locally advanced prostate cancer (PCa), as a lower stage in PCa progression compared with metastatic PCa, is still unclear. This study compares the efficacy of castration alone with complete androgen blockade (CAB) as adjuvant ADT in patients with localized and locally advanced PCa undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP).@*METHODS@#Patients diagnosed with PCa, without lymph node or distant metastasis, who received RP in West China Hospital between January 2009 and April 2019, were enrolled in this study. We performed survival, multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression, and subgroup analyses.@*RESULTS@#A total of 262 patients were enrolled, including 107 patients who received castration alone and 155 patients who received CAB. The survival analysis revealed that there was no significant difference between the two groups (hazard ratios [HR] = 1.07, 95% confidence intervals [95% CI] = 0.60-1.90, P = 0.8195). Moreover, the multivariable Cox model provided similarly negative results before and after adjustment for potential covariant. Similarly, there was no significant difference in the clinical recurrence between the two groups in both non-adjusted and adjusted models. Furthermore, our subgroup analysis showed that CAB achieved better biochemical recurrence (BCR) outcomes than medical castration alone as adjuvant ADT for locally advanced PCa (P for interaction = 0.0247, HR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.14-1.00, P = 0.0497).@*CONCLUSION@#Combined androgen blockade achieved better BCR outcomes compared with medical castration alone as adjuvant ADT for locally advanced PCa without lymph node metastasis.

Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Androgens , Castration , Humans , Male , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Prostatectomy/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Retrospective Studies
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(supl.1): 50-61, July 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134281


ABSTRACT Purpose: Propose an approach of prostate cancer (PCa) patients during COVID-19 pandemic. Material and Methods: We conducted a review of current literature related to surgical and clinical management of patients during COVID-19 crisis paying special attention to oncological ones and especially those suffering from PCa. Based on these publications and current urological guidelines, a manual to manage PCa patients is suggested. Results: Patients suffering from cancer are likely to develop serious complications from COVID-19 disease together with an increased risk of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the management of oncological patients should be taken into special consideration and most of the treatments postponed. In case the procedure is not deferrable, it should be adapted to the current situation. While the shortest radiotherapy (RT) regimens should be applied, surgical procedures must undergo the following recommendations proposed by main surgical associations. PCa prognosis is generally favourable and therefore one can safely delay most of the biopsies up to 6 months without interfering with survival outcomes in the vast majority of cases. In the same way, most of the localised PCa patients are suitable for active surveillance (AS) or hormonal therapy until local definitive treatment could be reconsidered. In metastatic as well as castration resistant PCa stages, adding androgen receptor targeted agents (abiraterone, apalutamide, darolutamide or enzalutamide) to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) could be considered in high risk patients. On the contrary, chemotherapy, immunotherapy and Radium-223 must be avoided with regard to the consequence of hematologic toxicity and risk of COVID-19 infection because of immunodepression. Conclusions: Most of the biopsies should be delayed while AS is advised in those patients with low risk PCa. ADT allows us to defer definitive local treatment in many cases of intermediate and high risk PCa. In regard to metastatic and castration resistant PCa, combination therapies with abiraterone, apalutamide, darolutamide or enzalutamide could be considered. Chemotherapy, Radium-223 and immunotherapy are discouraged.

Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Prostatic Neoplasms/therapy , Urology/methods , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use
Actual. osteol ; 16(3): 176-186, 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1253780


Una persona transgénero es aquella en la cual el género autopercibido difiere del asignado al nacer, mientras que el término cisgénero es utilizado en aquellos individuos no trans. El tratamiento hormonal cruzado (THC) constituye una opción para lograr caracteres sexuales secundarios deseados. Es conocido que los esteroides sexuales desempeñan un rol fundamental en la adquisición de la densidad mineral ósea (DMO) durante la pubertad. Por lo tanto, el impacto del THC sobre la masa ósea se ha convertido en materia de estudio. En estadios puberales tempranos, los análogos de la hormona liberadora de gonadotrofinas (GnRH) son utilizados con un efecto reversible. Si bien la DMO parece mantenerse estable, cuando se compara con una población de referencia del mismo sexo biológico y edad, el Z-score se encuentra por debajo de lo esperado. En adultos, durante el THC no se informaron disminuciones en la DMO. Está reportado que las mujeres trans antes del inicio del TH presentan características densitométricas diferentes de los hombres cisgénero. Hasta el momento, la carga de datos para los calculadores del riesgo de fractura y el software del equipo DXA se basan en el sexo biológico y no en identidad de género. Recientemente, la International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) emitió sus recomendaciones para la evaluación de la masa ósea en personas transgénero y en aquellos individuos no conformes con el género. Si bien la ISCD sugiere realizar la evaluación únicamente en aquellos pacientes con factores de riesgo, es de importancia realizar DXA basal, sobre todo en mujeres transgénero, para determinar el riesgo inicial de dicha población. En este artículo se revisa la evidencia disponible sobre el impacto del THC en la salud ósea de personas transgénero. (AU)

Cross sex hormone therapy (CSHT) in transgender women (TW) it is an option to achieve desired secondary sexual characteristics. It is known that sex steroids play a fundamental role in the acquisition of bone mineral density during puberty, in addition to determining a different characteristic bone pattern between both biological sexes. So the impact of affirming HT on bone is it has become in subject of study. In early pubertal stages, GnRH analogs are used with a reversible effect. Although bone mineral density (BMD) seems to remain stable, when compared with a reference population of the same biological sex and age, the Z-score is lower than expected. In adults, during CSHT no decreases in BMD were reported. However, it was reported that TW prior to starting CSHT present different densitometric characteristics than cisgender men. So far, the data load for the fracture risk calculators and DXA software is based on biological sex and not gender identity. Recently the ISCD issued its recommendations for the evaluation of bone mass in transgender subjects and in those non-conforming to gender. Although the ISCD suggests performing the evaluation only in those patients with risk factors, our group recognizes that baseline DXA, especially in TW, constitutes a useful tool to determine the initial risk of this population. Our proposal arises from our own experience and from that compiled in the international literature, where it is observed that even without starting CSHT, transgender women have lower BMD. DXA. This article reviews the available evidence regarding the effect of CSHT on health bone in transgender people. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Bone Density/drug effects , Cisgender Persons , Gonadal Steroid Hormones/therapeutic use , Testosterone/therapeutic use , Sex Factors , Risk Factors , Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone/analogs & derivatives , Puberty , Sex Characteristics , Densitometry , Estrogens/therapeutic use , Sex Reassignment Procedures , Transgender Persons , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use
Rev. méd. Maule ; 34(2): 18-22, dic. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1371198


INTRODUCTION: Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (CAIS) is a X-linked recessive disorder characterized by a complete resistance of the Androgen Receptor (AR) to androgens. As a result, affected individuals present complete female external genitalia, but are genetically male with a 46, XY karyotype. The typical presentation for this syndrome is either inguinal swellings in a new born or infant, or primary amenorrhoea in an adolescent. CAIS is commonly diagnosed in one of these clinical scenarios, although recently prenatal diagnosis has been reported. We present a case of a phenotypically female infant with an inguinal swelling, which was biopsied and exposed as testicular tissue, doing the diagnosis of CAIS. A review of the literature on this disorder is made.

Humans , Female , Infant , Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome/genetics , Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome/drug therapy , Receptors, Androgen , Ultrasonography , Hernia, Inguinal/surgery , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Mutation
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(3): 459-467, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012312


ABSTRACT Purpose: 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT imaging is a promising modality for the staging of recurrent prostate cancer (PCa). Current evidence suggests limited diagnostic value of the 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT in PSA-levels ≤0.3ng/mL. Experimental data have demonstrated an increase in PSMA-expression in PCa metastases by androgen deprivation in vitro. The aim of the current study was to investigate a possible enhancing effect of PSMA with low-dose androgen deprivation in patients with BCR and low PSA-levels. Materials and Methods: Five patients with PCa and BCR, following radical prostatectomy, underwent 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT. A consecutive 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT was performed 6 to 11 days after injection of 80mg of Degarelix (Firmagon®). We recorded PSA and testosterone serum-levels and changes of PSMA-uptake in 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT images. Results: Median PSA prior 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT was 0.27ng/mL. All patients had a decrease in testosterone serum levels from median 2.95μg/l to 0.16μg/l following Degarelix injection. We observed an increase in the standardized uptake value (SUV) in PSMA-positive lymphogenous and osseous lesions in two patients following androgen deprivation. In another two patients, no PSMA positive signals were detected in either the first or the second scan. Conclusion: Our preliminary results of this feasibility assessment indicate a possible enhancing effect of PSMA-imaging induced by low-dose ADT. Despite several limitations and the small number of patients, this could be a new approach to improve staging by 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT in PCa patients with BCR after primary therapy. Further prospective studies with larger number of patients are needed to validate our findings.

Humans , Male , Aged , Organometallic Compounds , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Membrane Glycoproteins , Radiopharmaceuticals , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Neoplasm Metastasis/diagnostic imaging , Oligopeptides/therapeutic use , Reference Values , Time Factors , Reproducibility of Results , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Neoplasm Grading , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 17(2): eGS4414, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989781


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the addition of chemotherapy or abiraterone to androgen deprivation. Methods We developed an analytical model to determine the cost-effectiveness of the addition of docetaxel or abiraterone versus androgen deprivation therapy alone. Direct and indirect costs were included in the model. The effects were expressed in Quality-Adjusted Life Years adjusted for side effects. Results Compared to androgen deprivation therapy alone, the addition of chemotherapy and of abiraterone generated 0.492 and 0.999, respectively, in Quality-Adjusted Life Years. Abiraterone led to a Quality-Adjusted Life Years gain of 0.506 compared to docetaxel. The incremental costs per Quality-Adjusted Life Years were R$ 133.649,22 for docetaxel, R$ 330.828,70 for abiraterone and R$ 571.379,42 for abiraterone compared to docetaxel, respectively. Conclusion The addition of chemotherapy to androgen deprivation therapy is more cost-effective than the addition of abiraterone to androgen deprivation therapy. However, discounts on abiraterone cost might improve cost-effectiveness.

RESUMO Objetivo Avaliar a relação custo-efetividade da adição de quimioterapia ou abiraterona à terapia de privação hormonal. Métodos Um modelo analítico foi desenvolvido para determinar a relação custo-efetividade da adição de docetaxel ou abiraterona comparada à terapia de privação hormonal isolada. Custos diretos e indiretos foram incluídos no modelo. Os efeitos foram expressos em Anos de Vida Ajustados para Qualidade corrigidos pelos efeitos colaterais de cada terapia. Resultados A adição de quimioterapia e de abiraterona à terapia de privação hormonal aumentou os Anos de Vida Ajustados para Qualidade em 0,492 e 0,999, respectivamente, em comparação à terapia de privação hormonal isolada. A abiraterona promoveu ganho de Anos de Vida Ajustados para Qualidade de 0,506 em relação ao docetaxel. O custo incremental por Anos de Vida Ajustados para Qualidade foi R$ 133.649,22 para o docetaxel, R$ 330.828,70 para a abiraterona e R$ 571.379,42 para a abiraterona comparada ao docetaxel. Conclusão A adição de quimioterapia à terapia de privação hormonal é mais custo-efetiva que a adição de abiraterona à terapia de privação hormonal. Contudo, descontos no custo da abiraterona poderiam tornar esse tratamento mais custo-efetivo.

Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/economics , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Cost-Benefit Analysis/methods , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/economics , Docetaxel/economics , Androgen Antagonists/economics , Androstenes/economics , Placebos/economics , Placebos/therapeutic use , Prostatic Neoplasms/mortality , Reference Values , Time Factors , Brazil , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/economics , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/therapeutic use , Docetaxel/therapeutic use , Progression-Free Survival , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Androstenes/therapeutic use
Santiago; Chile. Ministerio de Salud; 2017. ilus, tab.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BRISA | ID: biblio-882384


INTRODUCCIÓN: El cáncer de próstata es uno de los tumores sólidos más frecuentes en hombres en el mundo, siendo el más incidente en Europa con una tasa de 214 casos por cada 1000 hombres, superando al cáncer de pulmón y colorrectal. En Chile, el cáncer de próstata se ubica como la segunda causa de muerte por cáncer en hombres, siendo superado sólo por el cáncer de estómago, pero a diferencia de éste, el cáncer de próstata ha tenido una tendencia al alza en las últimas décadas. En efecto, se estima una tasa de mortalidad ajustada de 17,82 varones por 100.000 habitantes el año 2010, lo que se traduce en 1.924 muertes por cáncer de próstata en ese mismo año, ubicándose también como la primera causa de muerte por cáncer en mayores de 80 años en este período. Este informe evalúa abiraterona y enzalutamida para pacientes con cáncer de próstata metastásico que hayan sido sometidos a castración previa, con (segunda línea) o sin el uso de quimioterapia como segunda línea (tercera línea). TECNOLOGÍAS SANITARIAS EVALUADAS: Acetato de Abiraterona y Enzalutamida. EFICACIA DE LOS TRATAMIENTOS: Se encontraron 13 revisiones sistemáticas que incluyen 3 ensayos clínicos aleatorizados de abiraterona y 2 en enzalutamida en pacientes con cáncer de próstata metastásico/avanzado. En pacientes con cáncer de próstata resistente a castración que no han sido previamente tratados con quimioterapia (segunda línea), la abiraterona disminuye la mortalidad, no obstante que probablemente se asocie a un aumento de los efectos adversos. El tratamiento tiene el mismo comportamiento (disminuye la mortalidad y probablemente aumenta efectos adversos) en pacientes que hayan sido previamente tratados con quimioterapia (tercera línea). La enzalutamida disminuye la mortalidad en pacientes con cáncer de próstata resistente a castración que no han sido previamente tratados con quimioterapia (segunda línea), mientras que aumenta los efectos adversos. En el caso de pacientes que han sido previamente tratados con quimioterapia (tercera línea), la enzalutamida disminuye la mortalidad y probablemente aumenta los efectos adversos sérios. ANÁLISIS ECONÓMICO: Se encontraron evaluaciones económicas que comparaban abiraterona con el tratamiento estándar, o abiraterona con enzalutamida. En países como Estados Unidos, Reino Unido, Canadá se consideró que la abiraterona no era costo-efectivo cuando se comparaba con el tratamiento estándar o con enzalutamida, dado su alto costo. Por otra parte, países como República Dominicana, Costa Rica y Panamá consideraron a la abiraterona como costo ahorrativa cuando se comparaba con cabazitaxel más prednisona. Sin embargo, estos países no reportan su umbral de pago. En Brasil y Estados Unidos un análisis de costos mostró que el uso de abiraterona al compararla con enzalutamida estuvo asociada a un menor costo por mes de sobrevida. No se encontraron evaluaciones económicas que hayan evaluado la costo-efectividad de la enzalutamida en pacientes con cáncer de próstata avanzado/metastásico en países de América Latina. En el resto del mundo, aquellos que la consideraron una opción costo efectiva fueron al considerar un costo mensual de tratamiento similar al de la abiraterona. En países como Australia, Alemania, Canadá, Estados Unidos, Francia e Inglaterra recomiendan el uso de abiraterona en combinación con corticoides. Enzalutamida también lo recomiendan aunque alguno de ellos restringe su uso para aquellos pacientes que no utilizaron abiraterona previamente, o tras un acuerdo de precios. El impacto presupuestario estimado para el año 2018 fue de MM $10.131 (abiraterona) y MM $12.316 (enzalutamida) para pacientes que no han recibido previamente quimioterapia (segunda línea), y de MM$ 2.263 (abiraterona) y $MM 2.751 (enzalutamida) en pacientes que si recibieron quimioterapia de manera previa (tercera línea). CONCLUSIÓN: Para dar cumplimiento al artículo 28° del Reglamento que establece el proceso destinado a determinar los diagnósticos y tratamientos de alto costo con Sistema de Protección Financiera, según lo establecido en los artículos 7°y 8° de la ley N°20.850, aprobado por el decreto N°13 del Ministerio de Salud, se concluye que el presente informe de evaluación se considera favorable, de acuerdo a lo establecido en el Título III. de las Evaluaciones Favorables de la Norma Técnica N° 0192 de este mismo ministerio.

Humans , Abiraterone Acetate/therapeutic use , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Health Evaluation/economics , Technology Assessment, Biomedical/economics
Int. braz. j. urol ; 41(3): 425-434, May-June 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755863



To investigate current evidence on the optimal duration of adjuvant hormone deprivation for prostate cancer treated with radiation therapy with curative intent.

Materials and Methods:

A systematic search was performed in electronic databases. Data from randomized trials comparing different durations of hormone blockade was collected for pooled analysis. Overall survival, disease-free survival, disease-specific survival and toxicity were the outcomes of interest. Meta-analyses were performed using random-effects model.


Six studies met the eligibility criteria. For overall survival, the pooled data from the studies demonstrated a statistically significant benefit for longer hormone deprivation (Hazard Ratio 0.84; 95% CI 0.74 – 0.96). A statistically significant benefit was also found for disease-free survival (Hazard Ratio 0.74; 95% CI 0.62 – 0.89), and disease-specific survival (Hazard Ratio 0.73; 95% CI 0.62 – 0.85). Studies with longer blockade duration arm demonstrated greater benefit. Toxicity was low, with no increase in cardiovascular events.


Longer duration of androgen deprivation combined to radiotherapy prolongs OS, DFS and DSS in patients with intermediate and high-risk non-metastatic prostate cancer. However, this evidence is based on trials using older radiation techniques, and further research of combination of androgen deprivation and new RT technologies may be warranted.


Humans , Male , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prostatic Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant/methods , Disease-Free Survival , Neoadjuvant Therapy/methods , Prognosis , Prostatic Neoplasms/mortality , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Assessment , Time Factors
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 630-636, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-47850


PURPOSE: To determine whether statin use delays the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in patients with metastatic prostate cancer treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 171 patients with metastatic prostate cancer at the time of diagnosis who were treated with ADT between January 1997 and December 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were classified into two groups: the nonstatin use group (A group) and the statin use group (B group). Multivariate analysis was performed on statin use and other factors considered likely to have an effect on the time to progression to CRPC. RESULTS: The mean patient age was 67.1+/-9.1 years, and the mean follow-up period was 52 months. The mean initial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level was 537 ng/mL. Of the 171 patients, 125 (73%) were in group A and 46 (27%) were in group B. The time to progression to CRPC was 22.7 months in group A and 30.5 months in group B, and this difference was significant (p=0.032). Blood cholesterol and initial PSA levels did not differ significantly according to the time to progression to CRPC (p=0.288, p=0.198). Multivariate analysis using the Cox regression method showed that not having diabetes (p=0.037) and using a statin (p=0.045) significantly increased the odds ratio of a longer progression to CRPC. CONCLUSIONS: Statin use in metastatic prostate cancer patients appears to delay the progression to CRPC. Large-scale, long-term follow-up studies are needed to validate this finding.

Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Body Mass Index , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Disease Progression , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Grading , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/drug therapy , Protective Factors , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate , Time Factors
Int. braz. j. urol ; 40(4): 474-483, Jul-Aug/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723961


Purpose To assess outcomes with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and a low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy boost without or with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer. Materials and Methods From January 2001 through August 2011, 120 intermediate-risk or high-risk prostate cancer patients were treated with EBRT to a total dose of 4,500 cGy in 25 daily fractions and a palladium-103 LDR brachytherapy boost of 10,000 cGy (n = 90) or an iodine-125 LDR brachytherapy boost of 11,000 cGy (n = 30). ADT, consisting of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist ± an anti-androgen, was administered to 29/92 (32%) intermediate-risk patients for a median duration of 4 months and 26/28 (93%) high-risk patients for a median duration of 28 months. Results Median follow-up was 5.2 years (range, 1.1-12.8 years). There was no statistically-significant difference in biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), or overall survival (OS) without or with ADT. Also, there was no statistically-significant difference in bDFS, DMFS, or OS with a palladium-103 vs. an iodine-125 LDR brachytherapy boost. Conclusions There was no statistically-significant difference in outcomes with the addition of ADT, though the power of the current study was limited. The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0815 and 0924 phase III trials, which have accrual targets of more than 1,500 men, will help to clarify the role ADT in locally-advanced prostate cancer patients treated with EBRT and a brachytherapy boost. Palladium-103 and iodine-125 provide similar bDFS, DMFS, and OS. .

Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Brachytherapy/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prostatic Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Conformal/methods , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Iodine Radioisotopes/therapeutic use , Palladium/therapeutic use , Radiotherapy Dosage , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
Int. braz. j. urol ; 40(3): 322-329, may-jun/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-718248


Purpose To evaluate outcomes of patients with high risk prostate cancer (PCa) who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) in a context of a multidisciplinary approach including adjuvant radiation (RT) + androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Matherials and Methods 244 consecutive patients with high risk localized PCa underwent RP and bilateral extended pelvic lymph node dissection at our institution. Adjuvant RT + 24 months ADT was carried out in subjects with pathological stage ≥ T3N0 and/or positive surgical margins or in patients with local relapse. Results After a median follow-up was 54.17 months (range 5.4-117.16), 13 (5.3%) subjects had biochemical progression, 21 (8.6%) had clinical progression, 7 (2.9%) died due to prostate cancer and 15 (6.1%) died due to other causes. 136 (55.7%) patients did not receive any adjuvant treatment while 108 (44.3%) received respectively adjuvant or salvage RT+ADT. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that pre-operative PSA value at diagnosis is a significant predictive factor for BCR (HR: 1.04, p < 0.05) and that Gleason Score 8-10 (HR: 2.4; p<0.05) and PSMs (HR: 2.01; p < 0.01) were significant predictors for clinical progression. Radical prostatectomy group was associated with BPFS, CPFS, CSS and OS at 5-years of 97%, 90%, 95% and 86% respectively, while adjuvant radiation + androgen deprivation therapy group was associated with a BPFS, CPFS and CSS at 5-years of 91%, 83%, 95% and 88%, without any statistical difference. Conclusions Multimodality tailored treatment based on RP and adjuvant therapy with RT+ADT achieve similar results in terms of OS after 5-years of follow-up. .

Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Prostatectomy/methods , Prostatic Neoplasms/therapy , Combined Modality Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Neoplasm Grading , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Neoplasm Staging , Prospective Studies , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant/methods , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
Rev. chil. dermatol ; 30(1): 52-61, 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-835915


La pérdida excesiva y falta de crecimiento capilar son un motivo frecuente de consulta dermatológica. En las últimas décadas, la investigación constante en la biología folicular ha permitido desarrollar numerosos productos farmacológicos que serían capaces de modificar la biología folicular y capilar, con resultados prometedores. No obstante, su indicación así como también las expectativas de éxito terapéutico deben ser tomadas con prudencia, ya que muchos de estos productos carecen de evidencia científica clínica en enfermedades capilares. En la siguiente revisión, se analizarán los mecanismos de acción y evidencia científica clínica de los principales productos capilares comercializados.

Insufficient growth and excessive hair loss are a common complaint in dermatologic consultation. In the past decades, a sustained research in hair follicle biology has prompted the development of many drugs that modify hair shaft and follicle biology, with promising results. However, their use as well as positive expectations have to be taken with caution, since many of them lack clinical evidence in hair diseases. In this paper, the mechanism of action and clinical evidence of the most common hair products available will be analyzed.

Humans , Alopecia/drug therapy , Dermatologic Agents/therapeutic use , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Hair Follicle/growth & development , Hair Follicle , Hair Follicle/blood supply
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 570-575, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-58603


PURPOSE: To evaluate the kinetics of serum testosterone (T) recovery following short-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), as the understanding thereof is essential for the proper management of prostate cancer (PCa), especially intermittent ADT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective analysis included male sex offenders who voluntarily received leuprolide acetate in order to alleviate sexual aberrance. Thirty-three and 25 patients who received 3 and 6 months of ADT were assigned to Group A and Group B, respectively. Serum T levels were obtained every week during the on-cycle period, then monthly during the off-cycle period for at least 12 months. RESULTS: The kinetics of serum T during the on-cycle period were similar in both groups. After flare reaction at week 2, a nadir of 0.45+/-0.29 ng/mL was achieved. In Group A, an abrupt rebound-upsurge was observed during the first 2 month off-cycle period, which surpassed the baseline level and reached a plateau level of 8.74+/-2.11 ng/mL during the flare (p<0.001). This upsurge was followed by a gradual decline back to baseline over the following 10 months. In Group B, a gradual increase was observed, and a baseline level of 7.26+/-1.73 ng/mL was reached at 5 months. Thereafter, an ongoing upsurge that surpassed baseline levels was observed until 12 months (8.81+/-1.92 ng/mL; p=0.002). CONCLUSION: The kinetics of serum T recovery during the off-cycle period varied according to the duration of ADT. Serum T should be monitored beyond normalization, as an excessive rebound may improve quality-of-life, but hamper the treatment efficacy of PCa.

Adult , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Follicle Stimulating Hormone/blood , Humans , Luteinizing Hormone/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Testosterone/blood , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 2013 Sept-Oct; 79(5): 626-640
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-148755


Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a common cause of hair loss in women characterized by diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline. Its prevalence increases with advancing age and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. The pathophysiology of FPHL is still not completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Although androgens have been implicated, the involvement of androgen-independent mechanisms is evident from frequent lack of clinical or biochemical markers of hyperandrogenism in affected women. The role of genetic polymorphisms involving the androgen and estrogen receptors is being increasingly recognized in its causation and predicting treatment response to anti-androgens. There are different clinical patterns and classifications of FPHL, knowledge of which facilitates patient management and research. Chronic telogen effluvium remains as the most important differential diagnosis. Thorough history, clinical examination, and evaluation are essential to confirm diagnosis. Patients with clinical signs of androgen excess require assessment of biochemical parameters and imaging studies. It is prudent to screen the patients for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. The treatment comprises medical and/or surgical modalities. Medical treatment should be initiated early as it effectively arrests hair loss progression rather than stimulating regrowth. Minoxidil continues to be the first line therapy whereas anti-androgens form the second line of treatment. The progressive nature of FPHL mandates long-term treatment for sustained effect. Medical therapy may be supplemented with cosmetic concealment in those desirous of greater hair density. Surgery may be worthwhile in some carefully selected patients.

5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Alopecia/diagnosis , Alopecia/drug therapy , Alopecia/genetics , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Female , Finasteride/therapeutic use , Humans , Minoxidil/therapeutic use , Vasodilator Agents/therapeutic use
Clinics ; 67(4): 389-394, 2012.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-623119


Prostate cancer is the most common non-cutaneous neoplasm in the male population worldwide. It is typically diagnosed in its early stages, and the disease exhibits a relatively indolent course in most patients. Despite the curability of localized disease with prostatectomy and radiation therapy, some patients develop metastatic disease and die. Although androgen deprivation is present in the majority of patients with metastatic prostate cancer, a state of androgen resistance eventually develops. Castration-resistant prostate cancer, defined when there is progression of disease despite low levels of testosterone, requires specialized care, and improved communication between medical and urologic oncologists has been identified as a key component in delivering effective therapy. Despite being considered a chemoresistant tumor in the past, the use of a prostate-specific antigen has paved the way for a new generation of trials for castration-resistant prostate cancer. Docetaxel is a life-prolonging chemotherapy that has been established as the standard first-line agent in two phase III clinical trials. Cabazitaxel, a novel taxane with activity in cancer models resistant to paclitaxel and docetaxel, is the only agent that has been compared to a chemotherapy control in a phase III clinical trial as a second-line therapy; it was found to prolong the overall survival of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer previously treated with docetaxel when compared to mitoxantrone. Other agents used in this setting include abiraterone and sipuleucel-T, and novel therapies are continually being investigated in an attempt to improve the outcome for patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer.

Humans , Male , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Orchiectomy , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Androstenols/therapeutic use , Clinical Trials as Topic , Disease Progression , Evidence-Based Medicine , Prostatic Neoplasms/surgery , Taxoids/therapeutic use , Tissue Extracts/therapeutic use