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1.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 338-349, 2024.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007738

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive type of breast cancer associated with poor prognosis and limited treatment options. The androgen receptor (AR) has emerged as a potential therapeutic target for luminal androgen receptor (LAR) TNBC. However, multiple studies have claimed that anti-androgen therapy for AR-positive TNBC only has limited clinical benefits. This study aimed to investigate the role of AR in TNBC and its detailed mechanism.@*METHODS@#Immunohistochemistry and TNBC tissue sections were applied to investigate AR and nectin cell adhesion molecule 4 (NECTIN4) expression in TNBC tissues. Then, in vitro and in vivo assays were used to explore the function of AR and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) in TNBC. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq), co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP), molecular docking method, and luciferase reporter assay were performed to identify key molecules that affect the function of AR.@*RESULTS@#Based on the TNBC tissue array analysis, we revealed that ERβ and AR were positive in 21.92% (32/146) and 24.66% (36/146) of 146 TNBC samples, respectively, and about 13.70% (20/146) of TNBC patients were ERβ positive and AR positive. We further demonstrated the pro-tumoral effects of AR on TNBC cells, however, the oncogenic biology was significantly suppressed when ERβ transfection in LAR TNBC cell lines but not in AR-negative TNBC. Mechanistically, we identified that NECTIN4 promoter -42 bp to -28 bp was an AR response element, and that ERβ interacted with AR thus impeding the AR-mediated NECTIN4 transcription which promoted epithelial-mesenchymal transition in tumor progression.@*CONCLUSIONS@#This study suggests that ERβ functions as a suppressor mediating the effect of AR in TNBC prognosis and cell proliferation. Therefore, our current research facilitates a better understanding of the role and mechanisms of AR in TNBC carcinogenesis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Androgens/therapeutic use , Estrogen Receptor beta/metabolism , Receptors, Androgen/therapeutic use , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , Cell Line, Tumor
2.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 198-207, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971013

ABSTRACT

Mitogen-activated protein kinase-8-interacting protein 2 (MAPK8IP2) is a scaffold protein that modulates MAPK signal cascades. Although MAPK pathways were heavily implicated in prostate cancer progression, the regulation of MAPK8IP2 expression in prostate cancer is not yet reported. We assessed MAPK8IP2 gene expression in prostate cancer related to disease progression and patient survival outcomes. MAPK8IP2 expression was analyzed using multiple genome-wide gene expression datasets derived from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) RNA-sequence project and complementary DNA (cDNA) microarrays. Multivariable Cox regressions and log-rank tests were used to analyze the overall survival outcome and progression-free interval. MAPK8IP2 protein expression was evaluated using the immunohistochemistry approach. The quantitative PCR and Western blot methods analyzed androgen-stimulated MAPK8IP2 expression in LNCaP cells. In primary prostate cancer tissues, MAPK8IP2 mRNA expression levels were significantly higher than those in the case-matched benign prostatic tissues. Increased MAPK8IP2 expression was strongly correlated with late tumor stages, lymph node invasion, residual tumors after surgery, higher Gleason scores, and preoperational serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. MAPK8IP2 upregulation was significantly associated with worse overall survival outcomes and progression-free intervals. In castration-resistant prostate cancers, MAPK8IP2 expression strongly correlated with androgen receptor (AR) signaling activity. In cell culture-based experiments, MAPK8IP2 expression was stimulated by androgens in AR-positive prostate cancer cells. However, MAPK8IP2 expression was blocked by AR antagonists only in androgen-sensitive LNCaP but not castration-resistant C4-2B and 22RV1 cells. These results indicate that MAPK8IP2 is a robust prognostic factor and therapeutic biomarker for prostate cancer. The potential role of MAPK8IP2 in the castration-resistant progression is under further investigation.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Androgens/therapeutic use , Receptors, Androgen/genetics , Prognosis , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8/therapeutic use , Cell Line, Tumor , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/drug therapy , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
3.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 366-374, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981937

ABSTRACT

Studies have investigated the effects of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) use on the incidence and clinical outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, the results have been inconsistent. We searched the PubMed, Medline, Cochrane, Scopus, and Web of Science databases from inception to March 2022; 13 studies covering 84 003 prostate cancer (PCa) patients with or without ADT met the eligibility criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. We calculated the pooled risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to explore the association between ADT use and the infection risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and severity of COVID-19. After synthesizing the evidence, the pooled RR in the SARS-CoV-2 positive group was equal to 1.17, and the SARS-CoV-2 positive risk in PCa patients using ADT was not significantly different from that in those not using ADT (P = 0.544). Moreover, no significant results concerning the beneficial effect of ADT on the rate of intensive care unit admission (RR = 1.04, P = 0.872) or death risk (RR = 1.23, P = 0.53) were found. However, PCa patients with a history of ADT use had a markedly higher COVID-19 hospitalization rate (RR = 1.31, P = 0.015) than those with no history of ADT use. These findings indicate that ADT use by PCa patients is associated with a high risk of hospitalization during infection with SARS-CoV-2. A large number of high quality studies are needed to confirm these results.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Prostatic Neoplasms/chemically induced , Androgen Antagonists/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Androgens/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 24(3): e002106, 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1348697

ABSTRACT

A partir del caso de una paciente con trastorno por deseo sexual hipoactivo durante su climaterio y a través del resumen de los resultados de dos revisiones sistemáticas, los autores de este artículo revisan la evidencia sobre la suplementación con andrógenos para el tratamiento de esta condición clínica. Concluyen que su uso sería relativamente seguro a corto plazo, aunque su eficacia no alcanzaría la relevancia clínica y no contamos aún con mayor información sobre la seguridad en el largo plazo. Los autores destacan además que el abordaje de las pacientes con este problema de salud debería ser realizado en forma integral, incluyendo opciones terapéuticas no farmacológicas e informando sobre las incertidumbres todavía presentes. (AU)


Based on the case of a patient with hypoactive sexual desire disorder during her climacteric period and through the summary of the results of two systematic reviews, the authors of this article review the evidence supporting androgen supplementation for the treatment of this clinical condition. They conclude that its use would be relatively safe in the short term, although its efficacy would not reach clinical relevance and no further information on long-term safety is available. The authors also highlight that patients with this health problem should be approached comprehensively, including non-pharmacological therapeutic options and providing information on the uncertainties still present. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Testosterone/therapeutic use , Climacteric , Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological/drug therapy , Androgens/therapeutic use , Menopause , Off-Label Use , Systematic Reviews as Topic
9.
Chinese Journal of Hematology ; (12): 234-238, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1012175

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the prognostic factors of transfusion-dependent non-severe aplastic anemia (TD-NSAA) patients treated with cyclosporine A (CsA) and androgen. Methods: Clinical data of 77 consecutive TD-NSAA patients treated with CsA and androgen were retrospectively analyzed between 2010 and 2013. We obtained clinical manifestations and baseline parameters of routine blood test from responders, and compared those with non-responders. All data were analyzed by univariate analysis and multivariate analysis. Results: In 77 patients, there were 43 (55.8%) patients achieved hematological response after 6 months'treatment, and 53 (68.8%) patients got response after 12 months. Univariate analysis showed that platelets baseline was the only factor related to hematological response [19 (6-61) ×10(9)/L vs 13.5 (5-45) ×10(9)/L, P=0.001] after 6 months therapy. After 12 months, the statistical differences were maintained, which were platelets baseline [18 (6-61) ×10(9)/L vs 10.5 (5-45) ×10(9)/L, P<0.001], absolute reticulocytes [0.03 (0.01-0.06) ×10(12)/L vs 0.029 (0.02-0.06) ×10(12)/L, P=0.043], transfusion-dependent of platelet (P=0.007) , transfusion-dependent of platelet and erythrocyte (P=0.012) . Multivariate analysis showed that platelets baseline could be an independent prognostic factor of hematological response (P=0.010 or 0.009) . Cutoff value of platelets by receiver operating characteristic curve was 15.5×10(9)/L. Conclusion: Baseline of higher platelets, higher reticulocyte, and no transfusion dependence of platelet are favorable prognostic factors. When platelets baseline is higher than 15.5×10(9)/L, CsA and androgen regimen is rational.


Subject(s)
Humans , Androgens/therapeutic use , Anemia, Aplastic/drug therapy , Antilymphocyte Serum , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Immunosuppressive Agents , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
10.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(3): 190-198, May-June 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011166

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To summarize current evidence regarding testosterone treatment for women with low sexual desire. Materials and methods The Female Endocrinology and Andrology Department of the Brazilian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism invited nine experts to review the physiology of testosterone secretion and the use, misuse, and side effects of exogenous testosterone therapy in women, based on the available literature and guidelines and statements from international societies. Results Low sexual desire is a common complaint in clinical practice, especially in postmenopausal women, and may negatively interfere with quality of life. Testosterone seems to exert a positive effect on sexual desire in women with sexual dysfunction, despite a small magnitude of effect, a lack of long-term safety data, and insufficient evidence to make a broad recommendation for testosterone therapy. Furthermore, there are currently no testosterone formulations approved for women by the relevant regulatory agencies in the United States, Brazil, and most other countries, and testosterone formulations approved for men are not recommended for use by women. Conclusion Therefore, testosterone therapy might be considered if other strategies fail, but the risks and benefits must be discussed with the patient before prescription. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2019;63(3):190-8


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological/drug therapy , Testosterone/therapeutic use , Androgens/therapeutic use , Libido/drug effects , Societies, Medical , Testosterone/adverse effects , Testosterone/blood , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Androgens/adverse effects , Androgens/blood
12.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 83(4): 426-441, 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-978115

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN La identidad de género es la percepción intrínseca de una persona de ser hombre, mujer o alguna alternativa de género. Las personas transgénero perciben estar en un cuerpo equivocado, ya que se sienten del sexo opuesto al biológico. Cuando esta incongruencia entre identidad de género y el fenotipo físico del sexo asignado, genera gran angustia, ansiedad y malestar persistente, se denomina disforia de género. Se estima que el 0,4%- 1.3% de la población mundial experimentan distintos grados de Disforia de Género. (3), no todas las personas con disforia de género tienen las mismas necesidades, por lo que la evaluación del objetivo personal para lograr bienestar es muy importante. Todas las intervenciones médicas conllevan riesgos, por lo que, la comprensión de éstos últimos, la adherencia y el manejo por profesionales capacitados los minimiza. En Revista de la Sociedad Chilena de Obstetricia y Ginecología Infantil y de la Adolescencia, recientemente hemos publicado dos artículos de revisión sobre la introducción a la Hormonoterapia en personas transgénero, objetivos de la terapia, transición en la adolescencia, y la transición masculino a femenino, por lo que éste escrito se concentrará sólo en los Riesgos de la Terapia Hormonal en la transición. (4,5)


SUMMARY Gender identity is the intrinsic perception of a person to be a man, woman or some gender alternative. Transgender people feel that they are in the wrong body, since they feel the opposite sex to the assigned. When this incongruence between gender identity and the physical phenotype generates great anguish, anxiety and persistent discomfort, it is called gender dysphoria. It is estimated that 0.4% −1.3% of the world population experience different degrees of Gender Dysphoria. (3), and not all people with gender dysphoria have the same needs, so the evaluation of the personal goal to achieve well-being is very important. All medical interventions involve risks, so the understanding of the latter, adherence and management by trained professionals minimizes them. In the Journal of the Chilean Society of Obstetrics and Child and Adolescent Gynecology, we have recently published two review articles on the introduction to Hormonotherapy in transgender people, objectives of therapy, transition in adolescence, and the male to female transition, so this writing will focus only on the Risks of Hormonal Therapy in the transition. (4,5)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Testosterone/therapeutic use , Hormone Replacement Therapy/adverse effects , Transgender Persons , Gender Dysphoria , Gynecology , Androgens/therapeutic use , Obstetrics , Transsexualism/epidemiology , Sex Reassignment Procedures
13.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 120-130, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009581

ABSTRACT

Testosterone deficiency is common in men with cardiovascular disease (CVD), and randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) have reported beneficial effects of testosterone therapy on exercise-induced cardiac ischemia in chronic stable angina, functional exercise capacity, maximum oxygen consumption during exercise (VO2max) and muscle strength in chronic heart failure (CHF), shortening of the Q-T interval, and improvement of some cardiovascular risk factors. Testosterone deficiency is associated with an adverse CV risk profile and mortality. Clinical and scientific studies have provided mechanistic evidence to support and explain the findings of the RCTs. Testosterone is a rapid-onset arterial vasodilator within the coronary circulation and other vascular beds including the pulmonary vasculature and can reduce the overall peripheral systemic vascular resistance. Evidence has demonstrated that testosterone mediates this effect on vascular reactivity through calcium channel blockade (L-calcium channel) and stimulates potassium channel opening by direct nongenomic mechanisms. Testosterone also stimulates repolarization of cardiac myocytes by stimulating the ultra-rapid potassium channel-operated current. Testosterone improves cardiac output, functional exercise capacity, VO2maxand vagally mediated arterial baroreceptor cardiac reflex sensitivity in CHF, and other mechanisms. Independent of the benefit of testosterone on cardiac function, testosterone substitution may also increase skeletal muscle glucose metabolism and enhance muscular strength, both factors that could contribute to the improvement in functional exercise capacity may include improved glucose metabolism and muscle strength. Testosterone improves metabolic CV risk factors including body composition, insulin resistance, and hypercholesterolemia by improving both glucose utilization and lipid metabolism by a combination of genomic and nongenomic actions of glucose uptake and utilization expression of the insulin receptor, glucose transporters, and expression on regulatory enzymes of key metabolic pathways. The effect on high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) differs between studies in that it has been found to fall, rise, or have no change in levels. Testosterone replacement can suppress the levels of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines and stimulate the production of interleukin-10 (IL-10) which has anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic actions in men with CVD. No effect on C-reactive protein has been detected. No adverse effects on clotting factors have been detected. RCTs have not clearly demonstrated any significant evidence that testosterone improves or adversely affects the surrogate markers of atherosclerosis such as reduction in carotid intima thickness or coronary calcium deposition. Any effect of testosterone on prevention or amelioration of atherosclerosis is likely to occur over years as shown in statin therapy trials and not months as used in testosterone RCTs. The weight of evidence from long-term epidemiological studies supports a protective effect as evidenced by a reduction in major adverse CV events (MACEs) and mortality in studies which have treated men with testosterone deficiency. No RCT where testosterone has been replaced to the normal healthy range has reported a significant benefit or adverse effect on MACE nor has any recent meta-analysis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Androgens/therapeutic use , Angina, Stable/drug therapy , Body Composition , C-Reactive Protein , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Chronic Disease , Coronary Circulation , Cytokines , Exercise Tolerance , Glucose/metabolism , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Insulin Resistance , Lipid Metabolism , Muscle Strength , Oxygen Consumption , Pulmonary Circulation , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Testosterone/therapeutic use , Vascular Resistance , Vasodilation
14.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 107-108, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009578

ABSTRACT

Epidemiological studies hint at a beneficial influence of endogenous circulating testosterone (T), or its metabolite dihydrotestosterone (DHT), such that men with lower concentrations of T or DHT appear to have poorer health outcomes including frailty, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and mortality. Small interventional studies of T have shown favorable effects on surrogate outcome measures, but a large randomized controlled trial (RCT) with the prespecified outcome of cardiovascular events has not been performed and would be logistically demanding. In the absence of such a definitive RCT, there is a controversy about the cardiovascular risks of T-therapy fuelled by contradictory findings from retrospective analyses of insurance databases of men prescribed T. The US Testosterone Trials (T-Trials) are the largest published RCTs of T-therapy in older men with symptoms or signs of hypogonadism and circulating T <9.54 nmol l−1 at baseline. The T-Trials showed a modest benefit of T-therapy over a 12-month period on sexual function, a significant benefit in bone density and for anemia and neutral effect on cognition. The T-Trials cardiovascular sub-study was designed to determine the effects of T in these older men, and there was a statistically significant difference in the increase in noncalcified plaque volume in the T-treated group compared to placebo, but it is difficult to interpret these results due to differences in baseline coronary plaque burden (>50% difference) between the treatment and placebo arms of the subset involved. Therefore, there continues to be ongoing uncertainty over the effect of T-therapy on the cardiovascular system in men.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Age Factors , Androgens/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Dihydrotestosterone/metabolism , Hormone Replacement Therapy , Hypogonadism/metabolism , Protective Factors , Risk Factors , Testosterone/therapeutic use
15.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 145-148, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009571

ABSTRACT

The aim of hormonal male contraception is to prevent unintended pregnancies by suppressing spermatogenesis. Hormonal male contraception is based on the principle that exogenous administration of androgens and other hormones such as progestins suppress circulating gonadotropin concentrations, decreasing testicular Leydig cell and Sertoli cell activity and spermatogenesis. In order to achieve more complete suppression of circulating gonadotropins and spermatogenesis, a progestin has been added testosterone to the most recent efficacy trials of hormonal male contraceptives. This review focusses on the potential effects of male hormonal contraceptives on cardiovascular risk factors, lipids and body composition, mainly in the target group of younger to middle-aged men. Present data suggest that hormonal male contraception can be reasonably regarded as safe in terms of cardiovascular risk. However, as all trials have been relatively short (< 3 years), a final statement regarding the cardiovascular safety of hormonal male contraception, especially in long-term use, cannot be made. Older men with at high risk of cardiovascular event might not be good candidates for hormonal male contraception. The potential adverse effects of hormonal contraceptives on cardiovascular risk appear to depend greatly on the choice of the progestin in regimens for hormonal male contraceptives. In the development of prospective hormonal male contraception, data on longer-term cardiovascular safety will be essential.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Age Factors , Androgens/therapeutic use , Antispermatogenic Agents , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Contraceptive Agents, Male/therapeutic use , Gonadotropins/metabolism , Progestins/therapeutic use , Testosterone/therapeutic use
16.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 138-144, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009538

ABSTRACT

Over the past decade, there has been a substantial increase in the number of men who are treated with testosterone. Despite this increase in the use of testosterone, the risks of adverse cardiovascular events are unclear as meta-analyses have reported conflicting findings and no clinical studies have been large enough or long enough to adequately assess for cardiovascular risks. The goal of this paper is to review large prescription database studies of testosterone treatment and adverse cardiovascular events and mortality with the aim of providing some guidance for clinicians and researchers in this controversial area.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Androgens/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Databases, Pharmaceutical , Hormone Replacement Therapy , Mortality , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Testosterone/therapeutic use , Thrombosis/epidemiology
17.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 131-137, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009536

ABSTRACT

The numbers of testosterone prescriptions written have increased several-fold worldwide, but the incidence of pathological hypogonadism due to hypothalamic, pituitary, and testicular disease has remained unchanged. Most of these prescriptions are being dispensed to middle-aged and older men who have experienced age-related decline in serum testosterone levels; a subset of the population in which benefits of testosterone replacement is at best, modest. Recently, some randomized controlled trials have reported increased cardiovascular events in men (mainly older men and those with prevalent cardiovascular disease) with testosterone use, and a few recent meta-analyses have confirmed these findings. In this review, we discuss trials of testosterone therapy that have reported higher cardiovascular events, relevant trials that have not reported increased cardiovascular events and large trials that have focused on cardiovascular risk (mainly atherosclerosis progression) as their main outcome. We also review findings from meta-analyses that have evaluated cardiovascular events in various testosterone trials. Finally, we discuss some potential mechanisms by which testosterone use might result in an increased cardiovascular risk. As none of the trials conducted to date were adequately powered to evaluate cardiovascular events, no firm conclusions can be drawn regarding the cardiovascular safety of testosterone therapy at this time. In the interim, we hope that this review will help practitioners make informed decisions regarding the care of their patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Androgens/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Hormone Replacement Therapy , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Testosterone/therapeutic use , Thromboembolism/epidemiology
18.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 107(6): 532-541, Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838658

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Impaired angiogenesis in cardiac tissue is a major complication of diabetes. Protein kinase B (AKT) and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways play important role during capillary-like network formation in angiogenesis process. Objectives: To determine the effects of testosterone and voluntary exercise on levels of vascularity, phosphorylated Akt (P- AKT) and phosphorylated ERK (P-ERK) in heart tissue of diabetic and castrated diabetic rats. Methods: Type I diabetes was induced by i.p injection of 50 mg/kg of streptozotocin in animals. After 42 days of treatment with testosterone (2mg/kg/day) or voluntary exercise alone or in combination, heart tissue samples were collected and used for histological evaluation and determination of P-AKT and P-ERK levels by ELISA method. Results: Our results showed that either testosterone or exercise increased capillarity, P-AKT, and P-ERK levels in the heart of diabetic rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with testosterone and exercise had a synergistic effect on capillarity, P-AKT, and P-ERK levels in heart. Furthermore, in the castrated diabetes group, capillarity, P-AKT, and P-ERK levels significantly decreased in the heart, whereas either testosterone treatment or exercise training reversed these effects. Also, simultaneous treatment of castrated diabetic rats with testosterone and exercise had an additive effect on P-AKT and P-ERK levels. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that testosterone and exercise alone or together can increase angiogenesis in the heart of diabetic and castrated diabetic rats. The proangiogenesis effects of testosterone and exercise are associated with the enhanced activation of AKT and ERK1/2 in heart tissue.


Resumo Fundamento: Angiogênese prejudicada em tecido cardíaco é uma das principais complicações das diabetes. As vias de sinalização da proteína-quinase B (AKT) e a quinase regulada por sinal extracelular (ERK) exercem um importante papel durante a formação de uma rede similar à capilar no processo de angiogênese. Objetivos: Determinar os efeitos da testosterona e exercícios voluntários sobre os níveis de vascularidade, AKT fosforilada (P- AKT) e ERK fosforilada (P-ERK) sobre o tecido cardíaco de ratos diabéticos e castrados diabéticos. Métodos: A diabetes tipo 1 foi induzida através de injeção intraperitoneal de 50 mg/kg de estreptozotocina em animais. Após 42 dias de tratamento com testosterona (2mg/kg/dia) ou exercícios voluntários, individualmente ou em conjunto, as amostras de tecidos cardíacos foram coletadas e usadas para avaliação histológica e determinação de níveis de P-AKT e P-ERK através do método ELISA. Resultados: Os nossos resultados mostraram que a testosterona ou os exercícios aumentaram a capilaridade, os níveis de P-AKT, e P-ERK nos corações de ratos diabéticos. O tratamento de ratos diabéticos com testosterona e exercícios obteve um efeito sinérgico sobre a capilaridade, níveis de P-AKT, e P-ERK no coração. Além disto, na capilaridade do grupo diabético castrado, os níveis de P-AKT e P-ERK diminuíram significativamente no coração, ao passo que o tratamento com testosterona ou o treinamento com exercícios reverteu tais efeitos. O tratamento simultâneo de ratos diabéticos castrados com testosterona e exercícios obteve um efeito aditivo sobre os níveis de P-AKT e P-ERK. Conclusão: Nossas descobertas sugerem que a testosterona e exercícios, em conjunto ou individualmente, podem aumentar a angiogênese nos corações de ratos diabéticos e castrados diabéticos. Os efeitos favoráveis à angiogênese da testosterona e dos exercícios estão associados à ativação reforçada de AKT e ERK1/2 no tecido cardíaco.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Physical Conditioning, Animal/physiology , Testosterone/pharmacology , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/analysis , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/metabolism , Heart/drug effects , Androgens/pharmacology , Time Factors , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Hormone Replacement Therapy/methods , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/drug effects , Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/metabolism , Heart/physiopathology , Androgens/therapeutic use , Myocardium/chemistry
19.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 59(6): 482-486, Dec. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-767918

ABSTRACT

Objective Our aim was to investigate the thyroid function tests and thyroid volume differences among males with isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) who take androgen replacement treatment (ART). Materials and methods Forty-four male with IHH with a mean age 33.2 (18-54), diagnosed in Endocrinology and Metabolism Department between September 2013 and September 2014 and 40 healthy male control with a mean age 27.77 (18-55) were involved to study. Patient group was divided to testosterone-treated patients (n = 19) and human chorionic gonadotropine (hCG)-treated patients (n = 25). Patient group was compared in terms of total testosterone, thyroid function tests [thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4)] and thyroid volume, before and 6 months after treatment. Patient group was compared with control group as well. Results When we compared the patient group with the control group, there was no significant difference for age, Body mass index, TSH, fT4 and thyroid volume between two groups before treatment. There was no difference in terms of TSH, but fT4, testosterone levels and thyroid volume were significantly higher after treatment, when the patient group was compared before and after treatment (p < 0.05). When we compared testosterone-treated patients and hCG-treated patients; thyroid volume was higher among hCG-treated patients (p = 0.001) but there was no difference for thyroid volume before and after testosterone treatment (p > 0.05). There was no statistically significant correlation between testosterone levels with TSH, fT4 and thyroid volume (r = 0.09, p = 0.32; r = 0.14, p = 0.11; r = 0.15, p = 0.09, respectively). Conclusion Our study showed that ART increases the thyroid volume especially in hCG-treated patients. Therefore, we suggest that thyroid volume changes should be followed up in hCG-treated patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Androgens/therapeutic use , Chorionic Gonadotropin/therapeutic use , Hormone Replacement Therapy , Hypogonadism/drug therapy , Thyroid Gland/drug effects , Body Mass Index , Case-Control Studies , Hypogonadism/blood , Organ Size/drug effects , Thyroid Function Tests , Testosterone/blood , Testosterone/therapeutic use , Thyroid Gland , Thyrotropin/blood , Thyroxine/blood
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