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1.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(3): 646-654, mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364346

ABSTRACT

Resumo A deficiência de ferro (DF) ou ferropenia é uma importante comorbidade na insuficiência cardíaca com fração de ejeção reduzida (ICFER) estável, e muito prevalente tanto nos anêmicos como não anêmicos. A ferropenia na ICFER deve ser pesquisada por meio da coleta de saturação de transferrina e ferritina. Há dois tipos de ferropenia na IC: absoluta, em que as reservas de ferro estão depletadas; e funcional, onde o suprimento de ferro é inadequado apesar das reservas normais. A ferropenia está associada com pior classe funcional e maior risco de morte em pacientes com ICFER, e evidências científicas apontam melhora de sintomas e de qualidade de vida desses pacientes com tratamento com ferro parenteral na forma de carboximaltose férrica. O ferro exerce funções imprescindíveis como o transporte (hemoglobina) e armazenamento (mioglobina) de oxigênio, além de ser fundamental para o funcionamento das mitocôndrias, constituídas de proteínas à base de ferro, e local de geração de energia na cadeia respiratória pelo metabolismo oxidativo. A geração insuficiente e utilização anormal de ferro nas células musculares esquelética e cardíaca contribuem para a fisiopatologia da IC. A presente revisão tem o objetivo de aprofundar o conhecimento a respeito da fisiopatologia da ferropenia na ICFER, abordar as ferramentas disponíveis para o diagnóstico e discutir sobre a evidência científica existente de reposição de ferro.


Abstract Iron deficiency (ID) is an important comorbidity in heart failure with reduced ejection (HFrEF) and is highly prevalent in both anemic and non-anemic patients. In HFrEF, iron deficiency should be investigated by measurements of transferrin saturation and ferritin. There are two types of ID: absolute deficiency, with depletion of iron stores; and functional ID, where iron supply is not sufficient despite normal stores. ID is associated with worse functional class and higher risk of death in patients with HFrEF, and scientific evidence has indicated improvement of symptoms and quality of life of these patients with treatment with parenteral iron in the form of ferric carboxymaltose. Iron plays vital roles such as oxygen transportation (hemoglobin) and storage (myoblogin), and is crucial for adequate functioning of mitochondria, which are composed of iron-based proteins and the place of energy generation by oxidative metabolism at the electron transport chain. An insufficient generation and abnormal uptake of iron by skeletal and cardiac muscle cells contribute to the pathophysiology of HF. The present review aims to increase the knowledge of the pathophysiology of ID in HFrEF, and to address available tools for its diagnosis and current scientific evidence on iron replacement therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Iron Deficiency , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/complications , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/diagnosis , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/therapy , Heart Failure/complications , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/therapy , Quality of Life , Stroke Volume , Ferritins
2.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 38(2): e00001321, 2022. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360284

ABSTRACT

Resumo: A anemia por deficiência de ferro afeta, mundialmente, diferentes populações e, no Brasil, é uma das principais carências nutricionais na infância. Diferentes estratégias são propostas por organismos internacionais e pelo Ministério da Saúde para sua prevenção. O objetivo do estudo foi analisar as ideias em disputa, presentes em documentos oficiais e narrativas dos profissionais da saúde e educação acerca do uso da suplementação e/ou fortificação nutricional como medida de prevenção da anemia no âmbito escolar. Baseou-se na análise de documentos governamentais e entrevistas semiestruturadas com profissionais atuantes em municípios que implementaram a estratégia de fortificação da alimentação escolar (NutriSUS) no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. As ideias disseminadas nos documentos governamentais ressaltam a eficiência da suplementação e da fortificação caseira para prevenção de anemia, com base em pesquisas científicas e se adequa aos objetivos das políticas públicas neles formalizados. As ideias presentes nas narrativas dos profissionais são, por vezes, críticas à necessidade desse tipo de intervenção e, por outras, favoráveis, indicando as controvérsias presentes no próprio processo de operacionalização local das políticas federais. Observaram-se tensões em torno dos conceitos de promoção, prevenção e tratamento por meio do NutriSUS, da dosagem e da forma de administração. As críticas à suplementação ressaltam as práticas alimentares saudáveis como estratégia preferencial. A medicalização em detrimento de ações de promoção da saúde pode tencionar a perspectiva pedagógica no contexto escolar e produzir ideias contraditórias sobre as melhores estratégias de promoção de alimentação saudável.


Abstract: Iron deficiency anemia affects different populations worldwide, and in Brazil it is one of the principal childhood nutritional deficiencies. Different strategies have been proposed by international agencies and the Brazilian Ministry of Health for its prevention. The study aimed to analyze the ideas in dispute, expressed in official documents and narratives by health and education workers concerning the use of nutritional supplementation and/or fortification as a measure in schools to prevent anemia. The study was based on government documents and semi-structured interviews with workers in municipalities that implemented the school food fortification strategy (NutriSUS) in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The ideas expressed in the government documents highlight the efficiency of home supplementation and fortification for prevention of anemia, based on scientific studies and adjusted to the objectives of the public policies set out in them. Some ideas in the workers' narratives are critical of the need for this type of intervention, others they favor them, indicating controversies in the process of local operationalization of federal policies. Tensions were observed in the concepts of promotion, prevention, and treatment through NutriSUS, dosage, and form of administration. Criticisms of supplementation highlight healthy eating practices as the best strategy. Medicalization rather than health promotion measures can strain the pedagogical perspective in schools and produce contradictory ideas on the best strategies for the promotion of healthy eating.


Resumen: La anemia por deficiencia de hierro afecta mundialmente a diferentes poblaciones y, en Brasil, es una de las principales carencias nutricionales durante la infancia. Se proponen diferentes estrategias por parte de organismos internacionales y el Ministerio de Salud para su prevención. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar las ideas en disputa, presentes en documentos oficiales y narraciones de los profesionales de salud y educación, acerca del uso de los suplementos y/o enriquecimientos nutricionales, como medida de prevención de la anemia en el ámbito escolar. Se basó en el análisis de documentos gubernamentales y entrevistas semiestructuradas con profesionales que actuaban en municipios que implementaron la estrategia de fortificación de la alimentación escolar (NutriSUS) en el estado de Río de Janeiro. Las ideas difundidas en los documentos gubernamentales resaltan la eficiencia de la suplementación y del enriquecimiento alimenticio casero para la prevención de anemia, basadas investigaciones científicas, y se adecua a los objetivos de las políticas públicas en ellos formalizados. Las ideas presentes en las narraciones de los profesionales son, a veces, críticas con la necesidad de este tipo de intervención y, otras veces, favorables, indicando las controversias presentes en el propio proceso de operacionalización local de las políticas federales. Se observaron tensiones en torno a los conceptos de promoción, prevención y tratamiento mediante NutriSUS, así como sobre la dosificación y la forma de administración. Las críticas a los suplementos resaltan las prácticas alimentarias saludables como estrategia preferente. La medicalización en detrimento de acciones de promoción de la salud puede tensionar la perspectiva pedagógica en el contexto escolar y producir ideas contradictorias sobre las mejores estrategias de promoción de alimentación saludable.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/prevention & control , Anemia/prevention & control , Brazil , Micronutrients , Dietary Supplements , Dissent and Disputes
3.
Cuad. Hosp. Clín ; 62(2): 10-14, dic. 2021. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1358028

ABSTRACT

La anemia es la disminución de la concentración de la hemoglobina por debajo de los límites inferiores considerados como normales de acuerdo a la edad, sexo y el contexto de la altitud. La prevalencia de Anemia en menores de 5 años en Bolivia, departamento La Paz es de 60,3%, constituyéndose en la principal barrera para lograr el desarrollo social y económico. La presente investigación contribuye al cumplimiento de uno de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible para la trasformación de nuestro mundo, que es Poner fin al hambre, lograr la seguridad alimentaria y la mejora de la nutrición. OBJETIVO: determinar valores de hemoglobina en niños y niñas de 2 a 5 años, que viven a una altura de 3073 m.s.n.m. que consumieron Chispitas nutricionales en marzo 2018. METODOLOGÍA: fue un estudio cuantitativo, descriptivo de tipo trasversal, con una muestra de 43 entre niños y niñas que cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. MÉTODO: se utilizó el sistema portátil Fotómetro B Hemoglobin HemoCue, para procesar las muestras de sangre capilar y medir los niveles de concentración de hemoglobina. Para determinar el punto de corte de los niveles de hemoglobina a una altura de 3073 m.s.n.m. y se utilizó el factor de corrección para la altura de 1.9 g/dL Se considera 11.5 a 9.5 g/dL anemia leve; 9.5 a 7,5 g/dL anemia moderada y menor a 7,5 g/dL anemia severa. RESULTADOS: en niños y niñas menores de 5 años que viven a una altura de 3073 m.s.n.m. la prevalencia de anemia ferropénica es de 74%, los niveles de hemoglobina se incrementan según la edad (p < 0.05) y no se asocia al consumo de chispitas nutricionales con un (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONES: los niveles de hemoglobina se incrementan según la edad y no así con el consumo de chispitas nutricionales. También se evidencia el promedio de hemoglobina no ajustada en ambos sexos, con una leve similitud entre los mismos, femenino 12,43 g/dL y masculino 12,46 g/dL; valores muy por debajo de umbrales óptimos para definir anemia a gran altitud.


The anemy is the decrease of hemoglobine under the normal limits considered healthy acording to the age, gender and the sea level context. The prevalence of the anemia in children under 5 years in La Paz department in Bolivia is 60,3%, so, it is one of the main impediments to achieve the social and economic development. This research contributes to achieve one of the world's substantiable development objectives, which is to end hunger, to achieve the food security and improve nutrition. OBJECTIVE: to determine the values of hemoglobin in infants 2-5 years old who got nutritional supplements chispitas, and lived in a height of 3073 meters above sea level, March 2018. METODOLOGY: it was a quantitative descriptive cross sectional research, a sample of 43 infants who had all the requirements to the research. METHOD: it was used the photometric system B Hemoglobin HemoCue to process and to determine the hemoglobin levels of the capillary blood samples. At a height of 3073 meters above sea level, the cut-off point of hemoglobin with a cross-correlation figure of 1.9 is the following: from 11.5 to 9.5mg/dL mild anemia, from 9.5 to 7,5 mg/dL moderate anemia and less of 7,5mg/dL severe anemia. RESULTS: in infants under 5 year olds who lived at 3073 meters over sea level, the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia is 74%, the hemoglobin levels increases according to the age (p< 0,05) and not to the use of the nutritional supplements Chispitas (p > 0,05). CONCLUSIONS: the hemoglobin levels increase according to age and not to the use of nutritional supplements Chispitas. The average hemoglobin in both sexes is also evidenced, slightly similar between them, female 12.43 g/dL and male 12.46 g/dL; values below normal limits considered healthy in order to define anemia at high altitude.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency , Minors , Anemia
4.
Rev. Rede cuid. saúde ; 15(2): [74-83], dez. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1349495

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Anemia ferropriva é caracterizada como a diminuição na concentração de hemoglobina, ocorrendo como consequência uma redução da reserva de ferro no organismo. Esta anemia por deficiência de ferro é a mais comum das deficiências nutricionais do mundo. Objetivo: Analisar a incidência de Anemia Ferropriva em gestantes atendidas nas Unidades de Saúde do município de Solonópole-Ceará em 2020. Matérias e Métodos: O tipo de estudo empregado nesta pesquisa foi o de corte transversal, retrospectivo e documental. A investigação foi realizada nas Unidades de Saúde do serviço público da cidade de Solonópole-Ce. Foram selecionadas as Unidades que prestam serviço de pré-natal no referido município. Resultados e Discussão: Foram avaliadas um total de 278 gestantes e a percentagem de anêmicas e não anêmicas. No nosso estudo a percentagem foi de 75 (26,98%) de gestantes anêmicas contra 203(73,02%) de gestantes não anêmicas. Conclusão: A modificação do hábito alimentar com a introdução de dietas ricas em ferro, o monitoramento da anemia por meio de exames laboratoriais e uma suplementação medicamentosa de ferro, são importância para evitar possíveis efeitos colaterais na gestação.


Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia is characterized as a decrease in hemoglobin concentration, resulting in a reduction in the body's iron reserve. This iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world. Objective: To analyze the incidence of Iron Deficiency Anemia in pregnant women attended at Health Units in the city of Solonópole-Ceará in 2020. Materials and Methods: The type of study used in this research was cross-sectional, retrospective and documentary. The investigation was carried out in the Health Units of the public service in the city of Solonópole-Ce. Units that provide prenatal care in that city were selected. Results and Discussion: A total of 278 pregnant women and the percentage of anemic and non-anemic were evaluated. In our study, the percentage was 75 (26.98%) of anemic pregnant women against 203 (73.02%) of non-anemic pregnant women. Conclusion: Changing eating habits with the introduction of iron-rich diets, monitoring anemia through laboratory tests and drug supplementation with iron are important to avoid possible side effects during pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Incidence , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency , Pregnant Women
5.
Rev. APS ; 24(1): 168-175, 2021-10-18.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1359399

ABSTRACT

As crianças encontram-se mais vulneráveis quanto à deficiência de micronutrientes, sendo um público prioritário para a destinação de políticas de prevenção de carências nutricionais. Assim, este relato de experiência descreve a implantação da Estratégia de Fortificação da Alimentação Infantil com Micronutrientes em pó (NutriSUS), que visa principalmente combater a anemia ferropriva, dentre outras deficiências nutricionais, enfatizando o cotidiano nas creches participantes da estratégia no decorrer da implantação, bem como, o objetivo do relato. Participaram das descrições sete creches pertencentes ao Programa Saúde na Escola (PSE), que foram contempladas com o NutriSUS. O período de duração da implantação foi de, aproximadamente, um ano. Ressalta-se a importância desse relato no que tange ao fornecimento de subsídio para a promoção dessa estratégia e, também, da parceria entre as Secretarias de Saúde e Educação, contribuindo para o fortalecimento de ações de desenvolvimento integral das crianças.


Children are more vulnerable to micronutrient deficiency, and they are a priority audience for the allocation of policies to prevent nutritional deficiencies. Thus, this experience report describes the implementation of the Strategy for the Fortification of Infant Nutrition with micronutrients powder (Nutrisus), which mainly aims to combat iron deficiency anemia, among other nutritional deficiencies, emphasizing the daily routine in the daycare centers participating in the strategy during the implementation, as well as the objective of the report. Seven daycare centers belonging to the School Health Program (PSE) participated in the descriptions and were included in the Nutrisus program. The study lasted approximately one year, the period in which the implantation took place. We highlight the importance of this report regarding the provision of subsidies to promote this strategy and, also, the partnership between health and education departments, contributing to the strengthening of actions for the development of children as a whole.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Iron-Deficiency , Micronutrients , Education
6.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 60(3): e1054, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347396

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El síndrome de Plummer-Vinson es una entidad rara caracterizada por la tríada anemia ferropénica, disfagia y membrana esofágica. Descrito en la segunda década del siglo pasado, en la actualidad la mayoría de los datos que se obtienen provienen de presentaciones de casos o pequeñas series de estudios prospectivos. Objetivo: Hacer la revisión de la bibliografía disponible a propósito de un caso portador de síndrome de Plummer-Vinson. Caso clínico: Paciente femenina de 35 años de edad con anemia desde la adolescencia remitida por presentar disfagia de 8 años de evolución. Se realizaron complementarios de laboratorio donde se constata anemia ferropénica y estudio contrastado del tracto digestivo superior que reveló imagen sugestiva de membrana en esófago cervical. Conclusiones: A pesar de su baja frecuencia en la actualidad debemos mantenernos alertas ante la aparición de síntomas sugestivos del síndrome de Plummer-Vinson fundamentalmente en mujeres con cuadros de anemia(AU)


Introduction: Plummer-Vinson syndrome is a rare entity characterized by the triad of iron deficiency anemia, dysphagia and esophageal membrane. Described in the second decade of the last century, today most of the data obtained comes from case presentations or small series of prospective studies. Objective: To review the available bibliography regarding a case with Plummer-Vinson syndrome. Clinical case: 35-year-old female patient with anemia since adolescence, referred to surgery clinic for presenting dysphagia of 8 years of evolution. Additional laboratory tests were carried out where iron deficiency anemia was found. A contrasted study of the upper digestive tract revealed a suggestive image of a membrane in the cervical esophagus. Conclusions: Despite its low frequency we must be alert to the appearance of symptoms suggestive of Plummer-Vinson syndrome, mainly in women with anemia. Its association with esophageal cancer indicates this(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Plummer-Vinson Syndrome/diagnosis , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/etiology , Ferrous Compounds/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Folic Acid/therapeutic use
7.
An. Facultad Med. (Univ. Repúb. Urug., En línea) ; 8(1): e301, jun. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1248718

ABSTRACT

Cada vez más los pacientes diagnosticados con anemia son referidos al gastroenterólogo para su evaluación. La necesidad de realizar un adecuado planteo clínico y una correcta interpretación de las pruebas de diagnóstico ha motivado la revisión de este tema. Varios trastornos gastroenterológicos, con frecuencia, conducen a anemia como resultado de pérdidas sanguíneas, inflamación, malabsorción o a consecuencia de las terapias farmacológicas. En algunas patologías como la cirrosis, EII o neoplasias las causas son a menudo multifactoriales. Esta revisión, pretende proporcionar un enfoque útil para la práctica clínica. Para ello se ha revisado la información actualizada acerca de la patogénesis, diagnóstico y tratamiento de la anemia vinculada a patologías digestivas y se han confeccionados cuadros y algoritmos para facilitar su comprensión.


More and more patients diagnosed with anemia are referred to the gastroenterologist for evaluation. The need to carry out an adequate clinical approach and a correct interpretation of diagnostic tests has motivated this review. Several digestive diseases frequently lead to anemia because of blood loss, inflammation, malabsorption, or drug therapies. In some of them such as cirrhosis, IBD or neoplasms, the etiology is multifactorial. This review is intended to provide a useful approach to clinical practice. To this aim, updated information on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of anemia related to digestive diseases has been reviewed, and tables and algorithms have been built to favor its understanding.


Cada vez mais pacientes diagnosticados com anemia são encaminhados ao gastroenterologista para avaliação. A necessidade de realizar uma abordagem clínica adequada e uma interpretação correta dos testes de diagnóstico motivou a revisão deste tema. Vários distúrbios gastroenterológicos freqüentemente levam à anemia como resultado de perda de sangue, inflamação, má absorção ou pelas próprias terapias farmacológicas. Em algumas patologias como cirrose, DII ou neoplasias, as causas costumam ser multifatoriais. Esta revisão visa fornecer uma abordagem útil à prática clínica. Para esse fim, foram revisadas informações atualizadas sobre a patogênese, o diagnóstico e o tratamento da anemia associada à patologia digestiva e foram elaboradas tabelas e algoritmos para facilitar seu entendimento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/etiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/complications , Anemia, Megaloblastic/etiology , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/diagnosis , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/therapy , Anemia, Megaloblastic/diagnosis , Anemia, Megaloblastic/therapy
8.
Cuad. Hosp. Clín ; 62(1): 111-118, jun. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284364

ABSTRACT

La importancia de la investigación científica referida a la definición de la anemia por deficiencia de hierro en altitud, se relaciona con los hallazgos de los estudios realizados y que permiten avanzar al conocimiento científico, en poblaciones vulnerables, siendo que están dirigidos a mejorar la salud pública e influir en políticas de salud. Se presenta el análisis y reflexión de una innovadora modalidad para nuestro medio de altitud, basada en la suplementación con hierro y folatos para definir anemia en la población estudiada, situación que difiere de investigaciones previas sobre el tema en nuestro contexto de altitud. Estos estudios han tenido un escrutinio intenso de parte de los revisores que han valorado las publicaciones sobre anemia ferropénica a gran altitud. La claridad de los diseños de ensayos clínicos formales y controlados aleatorizados, pertinentes en tiempo y necesarios por su importancia fueron realizados, en regiones de altitud de Bolivia. La falta de reconocimiento por terceros de este nivel de evidencia logrado, equivaldría a sustituirlos por estudios de ensayos no formales y no controlados, es decir seguir aplicando diseños de tipo observacional, con contrastación teórica y lógica que solo incrementan el estado de incertidumbre sobre el tema en Bolivia. El sumario presentado de la historia sobre la anemia ferropénica en regiones de altitud en Bolivia nos permite reflexiones importantes, a saber: 1. Es importante resaltar, como claro ejemplo, que la observación simple puede llevar a la incertidumbre y lo costoso de sus consecuencias futuras por la persistencia de la anemia ferropénica en poblaciones de altitud, más aún si se mantiene el posible manejo de prueba y error en resultados difundidos. 2. Se demuestra la necesidad de los controles en la investigación científica, y finalmente 3. Los ensayos clínicos controlados aleatorizados son la mejor fuente de evidencia confiable.


The importance of scientific research related to the definition of iron deficiency anemia at altitude is related to the findings of the studies carried out and that allow advancing scientific knowledge, in vulnerable populations, being that they are aimed at improving public health and influence health policies. The analysis and reflection of an innovative modality for our altitude environment is presented, based on supplementation with iron and folates to define anemia in the studied population, a situation that differs from previous research on the subject in our altitude context. These studies have received intense scrutiny from reviewers who have evaluated the publications on high altitude iron deficiency anemia. The clarity of the designs of formal and randomized controlled clinical trials, pertinent in time and necessary due to their importance, were carried out in highland regions of Bolivia. The lack of recognition by third parties of this level of evidence achieved, would be equivalent to replacing them with studies of non-formal and uncontrolled trials, that is, to continue applying observational designs, with theoretical and logical contrast that only increase the state of uncertainty on the subject in Bolivia. The summary presented of the history of iron deficiency anemia in high-altitude regions of Bolivia allows us important reflections, namely: 1. It is important to highlight, as a clear example, that simple observation can lead to uncertainty and the cost of its future consequences due to the persistence of iron deficiency anemia in high altitude populations, even more so if the possible trial and error management is maintained in disseminated results. 2. The need for controls in scientific research is demonstrated, and finally 3. Randomized controlled clinical trials are the best source of reliable evidence.


Subject(s)
Iron Deficiency , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency , Altitude , Anemia
9.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(1): 48-54, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248980

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The treatment of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) consists of the induction and maintenance remission of the disease. Iron status indicators would be useful for the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia, whereas the inflammation indicators would be for the diagnosis of chronic disease anemia. OBJECTIVE: To assess body iron status indicators and inflammation indicators during the treatment of IBD, consisted of conventional or infliximab therapy in children and adolescents. METHODS: A case-control study of a sample of 116 individuals, of which 81 patients with IBD, 18 of them receiving conventional therapy, 20 infliximab therapy, and 43 who were in remission of the disease, and 35 healthy (control group) children and adolescents. Iron status and inflammation indicators were investigated at baseline, and 2 and 6 months of both therapies - conventional and infliximab. RESULTS: The mean age was 12.1±4.3 years. At baseline, both groups - conventional therapy and infliximab - presented significant differences in most markers studied compared to the control group. After 2 months of conventional therapy, hemoglobin and serum iron levels were lower than those of the control group; and red cells distribution width (RDW), total iron-binding capacity, transferrin receptor/ferritin ratio, and interleukin-6 were higher than the control group. After 2 months of infliximab treatment, hemoglobin and serum iron levels were lower than those of the control group; and RDW, soluble transferrin receptor, soluble transferrin receptor/ferritin ratio, and interleukin-6 were higher than the control group. After 6 months of conventional therapy, hemoglobin and serum iron levels were lower than those of the control group, and RDW and interleukin-6 were higher than those of the control group. After 6 months of infliximab treatment, the hemoglobin and serum iron levels were lower than the control group, and RDW, soluble transferrin receptor, soluble transferrin receptor/ferritin ratio, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and platelets were higher than the control group. Regarding patients under treatment for at least one year (remission group), all markers studied, except transferrin, were similar to the control group. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, there were some contradictions among the different body iron status indicators and inflammation indicators at two and 6 months of treatment with conventional and infliximab therapy, however after one year of treatment, as shown by the remission group, all indicators studied, except transferrin, were similar to healthy children and adolescents.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: O tratamento de pacientes com doença inflamatória intestinal (DII) consiste na indução e manutenção da remissão da doença. Os indicadores do estado corporal do ferro seriam úteis para o diagnóstico da anemia por deficiência de ferro, enquanto os indicadores de inflamação para o diagnóstico da anemia da doença crônica. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os indicadores do estado corporal do ferro e os indicadores de inflamação durante o tratamento da doença inflamatória intestinal, com terapia convencional ou infliximabe em crianças e adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Estudo de caso-controle de uma amostra de 116 indivíduos, sendo 81 pacientes com DII, dos quais 18 com terapia convencional, 20 infliximabe e 43 em remissão da doença, e 35 crianças e adolescentes saudáveis (grupo controle). Os indicadores do estado do ferro e os indicadores de inflamação foram avaliados no início, 2 e 6 meses de dois tipos de tratamento - terapia convencional e terapia com infliximabe. RESULTADOS: A média de idade foi de 12,1±4,3 anos. No início do tratamento, ambos os grupos - terapia convencional e infliximabe - apresentaram diferenças significantes com relação à maioria dos marcadores estudados comparados ao grupo controle. Após 2 meses de terapia convencional, os níveis de hemoglobina e ferro sérico foram inferiores em comparação ao grupo controle; e amplitude de distribuição dos eritrócitos (RDW), capacidade total de ligação do ferro, razão entre o receptor de transferrina solúvel e ferritina e interleucina-6 foram superiores aos do grupo controle. Após 2 meses de tratamento com infliximabe os níveis de hemoglobina e ferro sérico foram inferiores em comparação ao grupo controle, e RDW, receptor de transferrina solúvel e interleucina-6 foram superiores aos do grupo controle. Após 6 meses de terapia convencional, os níveis de hemoglobina e ferro sérico foram inferiores aos do grupo controle, e RDW e interleucina-6 superiores aos do grupo controle. Após 6 meses de tratamento com infliximabe, os níveis de hemoglobina e ferro sérico foram inferiores comparados ao grupo controle, e RDW, receptor de transferrina solúvel, razão receptor de transferrina solúvel e ferritina, taxa de sedimentação de eritrócitos e plaquetas foram superiores ao do grupo controle. Quanto aos pacientes que estavam em tratamento há mais de um ano (grupo remissão), todos os marcadores, exceto a transferrina, foram similares ao grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: Houve contradições entre os diferentes indicadores do estado corporal do ferro e dos indicadores de inflamação aos 2 e 6 meses de tratamento com terapia convencional e infliximabe, no entanto após um ano de tratamento, conforme observado pelo grupo em remissão, todos os indicadores estudados, exceto a transferrina, foram semelhantes aos das crianças e adolescentes saudáveis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/diagnosis , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/drug therapy , Case-Control Studies , Ferritins , Inflammation , Iron
10.
Repert. med. cir ; 30(2): 118-124, 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1362668

ABSTRACT

La donación de sangre es un procedimiento muy común en medicina, por eso tiene relevancia el estudio de las complicaciones frecuentes en los donantes y en especial las asociadas con la ferropenia. El procedimiento reporta beneficios tanto por la utilidad futura del producto como por los efectos favorables para la salud del donante; sin embargo, se han descrito complicaciones recurrentes derivadas tanto de la extracción de sangre total como de sus componentes por separado. En este artículo de revisión se encuentra la información relacionada con los factores de riesgo asociados con esta práctica y las principales complicaciones que pueden aparecer como es la depleción de hierro, con el fin de ilustrar al lector sobre los factores predisponentes en donantes iniciales y habituales. Se concluye que las reacciones más frecuentes son las vasovagales y algunas otras que pueden conllevar a síntomas indeseados, pero es la disminución de los niveles de hierro una de las complicaciones más alarmantes. Hay evidencia de factores como sexo, edad, nivel socioeconómico, dieta y tipo de sangre que favorecen la probabilidad de desarrollar complicaciones por deficiencia de hierro en los donantes.


Blood donation is a very common medical procedure, thus, it is important to review the most frequent complications indonors, especially blood-donation-induced iron deficiency. The procedure is beneficial both for the future usefulness of blood and blood products as well as the favorable health effects for the donors; however, recurrent complications derived from the collection of whole blood and blood components separately, have been described. This review article contains information related to the risk factors associated with this practice and the main complications that may appear, such as iron depletion, in order to enlighten the reader on the predisposing factors among first-time and repeat donors. It was concluded that vasovagal reactions are the most frequent reactions as well as other reactions that can lead to unwanted symptoms, but the decrease in iron levels is one of the most alarming complications. Sex, age, socioeconomic level, diet and blood type have been evidenced as factors that favor the probability of developing complications due to iron deficiency in donors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Blood Specimen Collection , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency , Blood Donors , Plateletpheresis , Syncope, Vasovagal
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880158

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe and compare the therapeutic effects of hydroxypropyl chitosan ferrous ion complex solution and ferrous sulfate solution in iron deficiency anemia rats and their effects on gastric mucosa.@*METHODS@#Seven rats were randomly selected from thirty five SPF grade SD rats as control group, and were fed with normal diet, distilled water (E). The rest of SD rats were fed with low iron feed and distilled water plus continuous tail vein bloodletting to establish the iron deficiency anemia model. After the model was established successfully, the rats were randomly divided into four groups: blank control group (A), iron deficiency anemia control group (B), ferrous sulfate group (C), hydroxypropyl chitosan ferrous ion complex (HPCTS-Fe@*RESULTS@#After modeling, except the normal control group, the hair color of the rats in the four groups showed dark yellow and the belly of the toes became white gradually. HGB, HCT, Ret%, MCV, MCH, MCHC and SF decreased significantly (P < 0.05). After treatment, the rats with dark yellow hair in group C and D were improved, and the toe abdomen turned pink gradually. RBC, HGB, HCT, Ret%, MCV, MCH, MCHC and SF in rats in group C and D increased, which were higher than those in group B (P < 0.05). The HGB of the rats in group D was higher than that of group C in day 28th during treatment and the Ret% was higher than that in group C at day 10th (P<0.05).After treatment, the liver and spleen of the rats in group C and D were lighter than those in group B (P<0.05).The gastric mucosa in group A, B, D and E was not damaged obviously, while it was slightly irritated and damaged in group C.@*CONCLUSION@#Hydroxypropyl chitosan ferrous complex solution can improve the hemoglobin level of SD rats with iron deficiency anemia, which is stronger than ferrous sulfate solution and shows no damage to gastric mucosa.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/drug therapy , Animals , Chitosan , Ferrous Compounds , Hemoglobins , Iron , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880056

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To detect serum hepcidin and erythroferrone levels in child-bearing women with iron deficiency anemia (IDA), and to investigate the association between them and iron status parameters.@*METHODS@#The study consisted of 65 child-bearing women (35 with iron deficiency anemia and 30 age-matched healthy women). The levels of serum iron were detected by using automated chemistry analyzer, the contents of serum ferritin were detected by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, and the levels of serum erythroferrone and hepcidin were detected by specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. The quantitative variables between two groups were compared and analyzed by SPSS22.0 software. Spearman correlation was used to detect correlation between the parameters.@*RESULTS@#The levels of Hb, serum iron, ferritin and transferrin saturation were significantly decreased in IDA patients as compared with in control group (P0.05). In IDA patients, serum hepcidin concentrations were positively correlated with hemoglobin concentration, serum iron, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation (r=0.448, r=0.496, r=0.754, r=0.491). But, serum erythroferrone concentrations showed no correlation with hemoglobin concentration, serum iron, serum ferritin, transferrin saturation and hepcidin (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Serum hepcidin levels were significantly decreased in child-bearing women with IDA, but the serum erythroferrone levels were not obviously different between two groups, suggesting that serum erythroferrone may be not involved in the regulation of iron metabolism in child-bearing women with mild and moderate IDA.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Iron-Deficiency , Child , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Ferritins , Hepcidins , Humans , Iron/metabolism
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880054

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the distribution of Ret-He and RBC in thalassemia and the value of combining HbA2 in the detection of thalassemia among patients with microcytic or hypochromic.@*METHODS@#145 patients with microcytic or hypochromic outpatient or hospitalization in our hospital from May 2018 to December 2019 were selected and were divided into the thalassemia group(68 cases) and the non-thalassemia group (77 cases), and at the same time, the patients were divided into four groups of the non-anemia, mild anemia, moderate anemia and severe anemia group according to the degree of anemia. The Ret-He, RBC, RDW-CV and HbA2 in patients were detected, and the distribution of these parameters were compared, and the joint detection of Ret-He, RBC and HbA2 about its sensitivity, specific and other indicators of auxiliary diagnosis of thalassemia were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Among patients with microcytic or hypochromic, according to the anemia grade Ret-He gradually decreased from the non-anemia group to the severe anemia group (P<0.05); while RDW-CV was increased gradually from the mild anemia group to the severe anemia group (P<0.05); both RBC and Ret-He were increased in the thalassemia group as compared with the non- thalassemia group (P<0.05); while RDW-CV was decreased in the thalassemia group as compared with the non-thalassemia group (P<0.05); meanwhile Ret-He in the α-thalassemia group was higher than that in the β-thalassemia group. ROC curve analysis showed that combined with HbA2, the specificity was 93.51%, the sensitivity was 66.18%, the positive predictive value was 90% and the negative predictive value was 75.189% when Ret-He was truncated with 19.25 pg and RBC was truncated with 4.95×10@*CONCLUSION@#Among patients with microcytic or hypochromic, the distribution of RBC, Ret-He and RDW-CV was different in the thalassemia group and the non-thalassemia group, and was also affected by the degree of anemia. Combined Ret-He and RBC could improve the diagnostic specificity for thalassemia, which were screened by HbA2 in patients with microcytic or hypochromic.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Iron-Deficiency , Erythrocyte Indices , Humans , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret , ROC Curve , alpha-Thalassemia , beta-Thalassemia/diagnosis
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922607

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a syndrome that excludes secondary causes such as intracranial space-occupying lesion, hydrocephalus, cerebrovascular disease, and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. If not be treated promptly and effectively, IIH can cause severe, permanent vision disability and intractable, disabling headache. This study aims to explore the clinical and image features for IIH, to help clinicians to understand this disease, increase the diagnose rate, and improve the outcomes of patients.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively analyzed 15 cases of IIH that were admitted to Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, during January 2015 to September 2020. The diagnosis of IIH was based on the updated modified Dandy criteria. We analyzed clinical data of patients and did statistical analysis, including age, gender, height, weight, medical history, physical examination, auxiliary examination, treatment and outcome.@*RESULTS@#There were 10 females and 5 males. Female patients were 22 to 42 years old with median age of 39.5. Male patients were 27 to 52 years old with the median age of 44.0. The BMI was 24.14-34.17 (28.71±2.97) kg/m@*CONCLUSIONS@#IIH primarily affects women of childbearing age who are overweight. The major hazard of IIH is the severe and permanent visual loss. Typical image signs have high specificity in IIH diagnosis. Prompt diagnosis and effective treatment are significantly important to improve the outcomes of patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency , Female , Humans , Intracranial Hypertension , Male , Middle Aged , Pseudotumor Cerebri/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt , Young Adult
15.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2832-2837, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921190

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDS@#Previous surveys have found that children with iron deficiency (ID) were likely to suffer from early childhood caries (ECC). We aimed to assess the scientific evidence about whether ID is intrinsically related to ECC.@*METHODS@#The medical subject headings (MeSH) terms and free words were searched on PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and the Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals from March 2020 to September 2020. Two researchers independently screened the articles. Data extraction and cross-checking were performed for the studies that met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis was performed using the Cochrane Collaboration's Review Manager 5.3 software.@*RESULTS@#After excluding duplication and irrelevant literature, 12 case-control studies were included in the study. The meta-analysis demonstrated that children with ECC were more likely to have ID (odds ratio [OR] = 2.63, 95% confidence interval [CI]: [1.85, 3.73], P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant association found between the level of serum ferritin and ECC (weighted mean difference (WMD) = -5.80, 95% CI: [-11.97, 0.37], P = 0.07). Children with ECC were more likely to have iron-deficiency anemia (OR = 2.74, 95% CI: [2.41,3.11], P < 0.001). The hemoglobin (HGB) levels in the ECC group were significantly lower compared with that in the ECC-free group (WMD = -9.96, 95% CI: [-15.45, -4.46], P = 0.0004). The mean corpuscular volume (MCV) levels in the ECC group were significantly lower compared with that in the ECC-free group (WMD = -3.72, 95% CI: [-6.65, -0.79], P = 0.01).@*CONCLUSIONS@#ID was more prevalent in children with ECC, and the markers of iron status in the ECC group, such as serum ferritin, HGB, and MCV, were relatively lower than the ECC-free group.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Dental Caries Susceptibility , Erythrocyte Indices , Humans
16.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(6): 411-417, dic 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1146074

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La anemia por deficiencia de hierro en hemodiálisis es frecuente. Para su detección se utiliza la ferritina sérica y la saturación de transferrina (ST). El equivalente de hemoglobina reticulocitaria (RET-He) es un análisis que no se modifica en estados inflamatorios y refleja directamente el hierro disponible en médula ósea.Objetivo. Explorar la capacidad diagnóstica de deficiencia absoluta de hierro del RET-He y evaluar su correlación con marcadores tradicionales de ferropenia.Población y métodos. Estudio retrospectivo que comparó RET-He con ferritina y ST en niños en hemodiálisis atendidos en el Hospital Garrahan entre julio de 2016 y julio de 2019. Resultados. En 164 observaciones realizadas en 40 niños, se encontró correlación positiva débil entre hemoglobina y RET-He (r 0,35, p < 0,001), positiva significativa entre ST y RET-He (r 0,52, p < 0,001), negativa baja entre hemoglobina y ferritina (r -0,19, p 0,02) y ausencia de correlación entre hemoglobina y ST (r 0,05, p 0,5). El 50 % presentaba anemia; la ferropénica fue por marcadores tradicionales en el 13 % y por RET-He en el 44 %. El RET-He mostró sensibilidad del 90,9 % (IC 95: 57,1-99,5 %), especificidad del 74,5 % (IC 95: 66,7-81 %), valor predictivo negativo del 99,1 % (IC 95: 94,5-99,9 %) y positivo del 20,4 % (IC 95: 10,7-34,7 %) para detectar anemia ferropénica con valor de corte de 29 picogramos.Conclusiones. Pese a su capacidad limitada, el RET-He como biomarcador de deficiencia de hierro aumenta la detección de anemia ferropénica en niños en hemodiálisis


Introduction. Iron-deficiency anemia is common in hemodialysis patients. Serum ferritin and transferrin saturation (TS) are used for its detection. The reticulocyte hemoglobin equivalent (RET-He) is a marker that is not altered by inflammatory conditions and directly reflects iron availability in the bone marrow.Objective. To explore the diagnostic capability of RET-He to detect absolute iron deficiency and assess its correlation with traditional markers of iron deficiency.Population and methods. Retrospective study comparing RET-He with ferritin and TS in children on hemodialysis seen at Hospital Garrahan between July 2016 and July 2019.Results. In 164 observations carried out in 40 children, a weak positive correlation was found between hemoglobin and RET-He (r = 0.35, p < 0.001), a significant positive correlation between TS and RET-He (r = 0.52, p < 0.001), a low negative correlation between hemoglobin and ferritin (r = -0.19, p = 0.02), and a lack of correlation between hemoglobin and TS (r = 0.05, p = 0.5). Anemia was observed in 50 %; iron-deficiency anemia was detected by traditional markers in 13 % and by RET-He in 44 %. RET-He showed a sensitivity of 90.9 % (95 % CI: 57.1-99.5 %), a specificity of 74.5 % (95 % CI: 66.7-81 %), a negative predictive value of 99.1 % (95 % CI: 94.5-99.9 %), and a positive predictive value of 20.4 % (95 % CI: 10.7-34.7 %) to detect iron-deficiency anemia with a cut-off value of 29 pg.Conclusions. Despite its limited capability, the use of RET-He as a biomarker of iron deficiency increases the detection of iron-deficiency anemia in children on hemodialysis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Iron Deficiency , Renal Dialysis , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/diagnosis , Reticulocytes/chemistry , Hemoglobins/analysis , Retrospective Studies , Ferritins/blood
17.
Femina ; 48(10): 637-640, 20201031. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127706

ABSTRACT

A anemia no puerpério é bastante prevalente, estando principalmente relacionada à ocorrência de anemia não corrigida durante a gestação e às hemorragias agudas durante o parto. Essas situações aumentam significativamente a probabilidade de anemia grave no período pós-parto, gerando manifestações orgânicas e psicológicas que trazem prejuízo ao binômio materno-fetal. A forma grave da doença é caracterizada laboratorialmente por hemoglobina < 7 g/dL e suas manifestações clínicas variam na dependência de diversos fatores. O objetivo do tratamento é corrigir a hipóxia tecidual, revertendo as alterações adaptativas relacionadas à carência de oxigênio. Enquanto o tratamento agressivo de perdas volêmicas agudas diminui a morbimortalidade por esses eventos, políticas restritivas de transfusão sanguínea em pacientes hemodinamicamente estáveis mostram-se benéficas. Se não houver indicação de transfusão, a reposição de ferro atuará na correção das principais etiologias, pelas vias endovenosa ou oral, na dependência de disponibilidade, custo e tolerância individual aos medicamentos disponíveis.(AU)


Anemia is quite prevalent in puerperium; in this population, the disease is mainly related to the occurrence of uncorrected anemia during pregnancy and to acute bleeding during childbirth. These situations significantly increase the likelihood of severe anemia in the postpartum period, generating organic and psychological manifestations that cause damage to the maternal-fetal binomial. The severe form of anemia is characterized by hemoglobin < 7 g/dL and its clinical manifestations vary depending on several factors. The goal of treatment is to correct tissue hypoxia, reversing adaptive changes related to oxygen deficiency. While the aggressive treatment of acute blood losses decreases the morbidity and mortality of these events, restrictive blood transfusion policies in hemodynamically stable patients are beneficial. If there is no indication for transfusion, iron replacement will act to correct the main etiologies, through the intravenous or oral routes, depending on availability, cost and individual tolerance to the available drugs.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Blood Transfusion , Postpartum Period , Anemia/etiology , Anemia/drug therapy , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/physiopathology , Postpartum Hemorrhage/physiopathology , Monitoring, Physiologic
18.
Rev. cuba. enferm ; 36(3): e3442, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280274

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La anemia infantil es un problema de salud pública que afecta el desarrollo fisiológico e intelectual del niño. Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto de la ingesta de galletas fortificadas con sangre bovina en los niveles de hemoglobina de niños anémicos. Métodos: Estudio cuasi experimental, con grupo experimental y control, en la zona rural del distrito de San Andrés de Tupicocha de Huarochiri de Lima, Perú, desde agosto hasta diciembre de 2018. La población fue de 46 niños de 3 a 5 años de edad, de la que participaron 32 (consentimiento de los padres), de ellos 15 niños tuvieron hemoglobina < 11 g/dl, quienes conformaron el grupo experimental; mientras que 17 niños con hemoglobina > 11 g/dl, conformaron el grupo control. Se utilizó la prueba estadística T de Student (p < 0,05). Resultados: En el grupo experimental, después de 12 semanas de ingesta de galletas fortificadas con sangre bovina, se observó un incremento de hemoglobina en sangre de 10,4 g/dl a 11,6 g/dl (p < 0,001); mientras que el grupo control, también registró un incremento de 11,7 g/dl a 12,1 g/dl (p = 0,007). Al comparar el incremento de hemoglobina de ambos grupos, se observa que en el grupo control la hemoglobina solo ascendió en 0,5 g/dl, mientras que en el grupo experimental ascendió en 1,2 g/dl, siendo así el incremento mayor en el grupo experimental que consumió las galletas fortificadas (p = 0,003). Conclusión: La ingesta de galletas fortificadas con sangre bovina incrementó los niveles de hemoglobina en niños de una zona rural, reduciendo así los casos de anemia infantil(UA)


Introduction: Childhood anemia is a public health concern that affects the physiological and intellectual development of the child. Objective: To evaluate the effect of ingesting cookies fortified with bovine blood on the hemoglobin levels of anemic children. Methods: Quasiexperimental study carried out with experimental and control groups, in the rural area of San Andrés de Tupicocha de Huarochiri district of Lima, Peru, from August to December 2018. The study population consisted of 46 children aged 3-5 years, of which 32 participated under parental consent and 15 had hemoglobin lower than 11 g/dL. These made up the experimental group. On the other hand, 17 children had hemoglobin higher than 11 g/dL. These made up the control group. The Student's t-test was used (P< 0.05). Results: In the experimental group, 12 weeks after ingestion of cookies fortified with bovine blood, an increase in hemoglobin in the blood was observed, from 10.4 g/dL to 11.6 g/dL (P< 0.001); while the control group also registered an increase, from 11.7 g/dL to 12.1 g/dL (P=0.007). When comparing the increase in hemoglobin between both groups, it is observed that, in the control group, hemoglobin only rose by 0.5 g/dL, while, in the experimental group, it rose by 1.2 g/dL. Thus, the highest increase appeared in the experimental group that consumed the fortified cookies (P = 0.003). Conclusion: The ingestion of cookies fortified with bovine blood increased hemoglobin levels in children in a rural area, thus reducing the cases of childhood anemia(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Hemoglobins/adverse effects , Cattle/blood , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/therapy , Cookies , Parental Consent , Eating
19.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(3): 272-277, July-Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131673

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Data regarding the prevalence of anemia in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients are scarce in Brazil. Anemia and iron deficiency anemia have been known to cause significant functional impairment, lower quality of life, and higher morbidity and mortality and may be correlated with an impact on the cost of treatment. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and risk factors for anemia and iron deficiency anemia in patients with IBD in a tertiary IBD unit in Southeast Brazil. METHODS: We conducted an Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective analysis of an adult IBD cohort (IBD Unit, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Brazil) consisting of 579 patients between January 2014 and July 2018. Clinicoepidemiological data, hemoglobin measurements and serum ferritin were extracted from electronic medical records. Anemia prevalence was calculated among ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) phenotypes. Risk factors for anemia were also calculated. RESULTS: A total of 529 (91%) patients had complete blood counts available in their medical records. Only 35.5% of IBD patients were fully screened for anemia. The prevalence of anemia in IBD patients was 24.6% (29.1% in CD and 19.1% in UC, P=0.008). The anemia was moderate to severe in 16.9% (19.8% in CD and 11.4% in UC, P=0.34). The prevalence of iron deficiency was 52.3% (53.6% in CD and 51.2% in UC, P=0.95). Anemia of chronic disease was present in 14.1% of IBD patients. A total of 53.8% of patients with anemia were in clinical remission. CD was associated with an increased prevalence of anemia (P=0.008; OR=1.76; CI 95% =1.16-2.66) compared to UC. The penetrant disease phenotype in CD was associated with a lower risk of anemia (P<0.0001; OR=0.25; CI 95% =0.14-0.43). Active disease compared to the disease in clinical remission was associated with an increased risk of anemia (P=0.0003; OR=2.61; CI 95% =1.56-4.36) in CD. The presence of anemia was less frequent in patients with CD who underwent surgical bowel resection compared to those who did not undergo surgery (P<0.0001; OR=0.24; CI 95% =0.14-0.40). No differences in anemia prevalence were observed regarding CD localization, age at diagnosis, UC extension or biological therapy (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: Despite the low levels of full screening, anemia and iron deficiency anemia were common manifestations of IBD. CD was associated with an increased risk of anemia, especially with active disease. In addition, patients with CD who underwent surgical bowel resection and penetrant disease phenotype in CD were associated with lower risk of anemia.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Dados referentes à prevalência de anemia em pacientes com doença inflamatória intestinal (DII) são escassos no Brasil. Sabe-se que anemia e a anemia ferropriva causam comprometimento funcional significativo, menor qualidade de vida e maior morbimortalidade e podem estar correlacionadas com um impacto no custo do tratamento. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi estimar a prevalência e os fatores de risco de anemia e de anemia ferropriva em pacientes com DII em um centro de referência de DII no Sudeste do Brasil. MÉTODOS: Realizamos uma análise retrospectiva dos pacientes com DII adultos, aprovada pelo Comitê de Ética Institucional do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo, Brasil, constituída por 579 pacientes no período de janeiro de 2014 a julho de 2018. Dados clínico-epidemiológicos, níveis de hemoglobina e de ferritina sérica foram obtidos dos prontuários eletrônicos. A prevalência de anemia foi calculada entre os fenótipos de retocolite ulcerativa (RCU) e doença de Crohn (DC). Fatores de risco para anemia também foram calculados. RESULTADOS: Um total de 529 (91%) pacientes tinha disponível o exame de hemograma completo em seus prontuários médicos. Apenas 35,5% dos pacientes com DII tinha o rastreamento completo para anemia. A prevalência de anemia nos pacientes com DII foi de 24,6% (29,1% na DC e 19,1% na RCU, P=0,008). A anemia foi moderada a grave em 16,9% (19,8% na DC e 11,4% na RCU, P=0,34). A prevalência de deficiência de ferro foi de 52,3% (53,6% na DC e 51,2% na RCU, P=0,95). Anemia de doença crônica estava presente em 14,1% dos pacientes com DII. Um total de 53,8% dos pacientes com anemia estavam em remissão clínica. A DC esteve associada a um aumento da prevalência de anemia (P=0,008; OR=1,76; IC 95% =1,16-2,66) em comparação à RCU. O fenótipo da doença penetrante na DC foi associado a um menor risco de anemia (P<0,0001; OR=0,25; IC 95% =0,14-0,43). A doença ativa comparada à doença em remissão clínica foi associada a um risco aumentado de anemia (P=0,0003; OR=2,61; IC 95% =1,56-4,36) na DC. A presença de anemia foi menos frequente nos pacientes com DC submetidos à ressecção intestinal em comparação aos que não foram submetidos à cirurgia (P<0,0001; OR=0,24; IC 95% =0,14-0,40). Não foram observadas diferenças na prevalência de anemia em relação à localização da DC, idade ao diagnóstico, extensão da RCU ou terapia biológica (P>0,05). CONCLUSÃO: Apesar do baixo rastreamento completo, tanto a anemia como a anemia ferropriva foram manifestações comuns da DII. A DC foi associada a um risco aumentado de anemia, especialmente com doença ativa. Além disto, pacientes com DC submetidos a ressecção intestinal e/ou com fenótipo penetrante tiveram menor risco de anemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/etiology , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/epidemiology , Quality of Life , Referral and Consultation , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
20.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(9): 1277-1282, Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136356

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY INTRODUCTION: Microcytic anemias are very common in clinical practice, with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and thalassemia minor (TT) being the most prevalent. Diagnostic confirmation of these clinical entities requires tests involving iron metabolism profile, hemoglobin electrophoresis, and molecular analysis. In this context, several discriminant indices have been proposed to simplify the differential diagnosis between IDA and TM. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to demonstrate the clinical relevance of the use of discriminant indices in individuals with microcytic anemia to simplify the differential diagnosis between iron deficiency anemia and minor thalassemia. METHODS: A bibliographic and cross-sectional search was performed in the PubMed, SciELO and LILACS databases, using the following descriptors: iron deficiency anemia, thalassemia minor, and differential diagnosis. RESULTS: More than 40 mathematical indices based on erythrocyte parameters have been proposed in the hematological literature in individuals with microcytosis. Green & King indexes (IGK), Ehsani index, and erythrocyte count (RBC) had excellent performances, especially when their efficacy was observed in adults and children. CONCLUSIONS: Confirmatory tests for differential diagnosis between IDA and TM require time-consuming and costly methods. Despite the excellent performances of IGK, Ehsani index, and RBC, none of them presented sufficient sensitivity and specificity to establish a diagnosis. However, they can provide a powerful additional tool for diagnostic simplification between IDA and TM.


RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO: Anemias microcíticas são muito comuns na prática clínica, sendo a anemia ferropriva (AF) e a talassemia menor (TM) as mais prevalentes. A confirmação diagnóstica dessas entidades clínicas requer testes que envolvem o perfil do metabolismo do ferro, eletroforese de hemoglobinas e análises moleculares. Nesse contexto, vários índices discriminantes têm sido propostos para simplificação do diagnóstico diferencial entre AF e TM. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste artigo foi demonstrar a relevância clínica da utilização de índices discriminantes em indivíduos com anemia microcítica, para simplificação do diagnóstico diferencial entre anemia ferropriva e talassemia menor. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica e transversal nas bases de dados PubMed, SciELO e Lilacs, utilizando-se os seguintes descritores: anemia ferropriva, talassemia menor e diagnóstico diferencial. RESULTADOS: Mais de 40 índices matemáticos baseados em parâmetros eritrocitários foram propostos na literatura hematológica em indivíduos com microcitose. Os índices de Green & King (IGK), o índice de Ehsani e a contagem de eritrócitos (RBC) obtiveram excelentes desempenhos, especialmente quando sua eficácia foi observada em adultos e crianças. CONCLUSÕES: Testes confirmatórios para o diagnóstico diferencial entre AF e TM demandam métodos que consomem bastante tempo e alto custo. Apesar dos excelentes desempenhos do IGK, do índice de Ehsani e do RBC, nenhum deles possui sensibilidade e especificidade suficientes para firmar diagnóstico. No entanto, podem fornecer uma poderosa ferramenta adicional para simplificação diagnóstica entre AF e TM.


Subject(s)
Humans , beta-Thalassemia/diagnosis , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diagnosis, Differential , Erythrocyte Indices
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