Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 357
Filter
1.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(9): e00122520, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1339552

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se avaliar a evolução da prevalência de anemia em crianças quilombolas de Alagoas, Brasil. Trata-se de uma análise descritiva comparando resultados de dois inquéritos domiciliares (2008; n = 950 e 2018; n = 426), envolvendo amostra das crianças de 6 a 59 meses. A anemia foi diagnosticada com hemoglobina < 110g/L (HemoCue). As prevalências entre os dois inquéritos foram descritas percentualmente e pela razão de prevalência (RP) e intervalo de 95% de confiança (IC95%), calculados por regressão de Poisson. As prevalências de anemia em 2008 e 2018 foram, respectivamente, 53% (IC95%: 49,8-56,1) e 38% (IC95%: 33,4-42,6), configurando um declínio de 28,3% (RP = 0,72; IC95%: 0,63-0,82). Crianças de 6 a 24 meses foram mais acometidas do que aquelas de 25 a 59 meses, tanto em 2008 (72% vs. 44%) como em 2018 (54,8% vs. 28,3%). Houve redução de prevalência em ambas as faixas etárias (23,9% e 35,7%, respectivamente). Essa redução mais pronunciada nas crianças mais velhas fez que as mais jovens passassem a ter quase o dobro da prevalência vista nas de maior idade (RP = 1,94; IC95%: 1,53-2,46). Conclui-se que houve declínio expressivo da prevalência de anemia durante o período avaliado, persistindo, porém, como relevante problema de saúde pública, sobretudo entre as crianças de 6 a 24 meses. As crianças avaliadas sobrevivem em grande vulnerabilidade social, evidenciando-se que, para promover a saúde dessa população, não são suficientes ações no âmbito da saúde pública. Gestores e profissionais de saúde devem estar atentos aos dados aqui apresentados, visando à implementação de medidas para enfrentamento das iniquidades sociais e de saúde que contribuem para maior vulnerabilidade desse grupo étnico-racial.


The study aimed to assess trends in the prevalence of anemia in children from quilombos (maroon communities) in Alagoas State, Brazil. This was a descriptive study comparing the results of two household surveys (2008; n = 950 and 2018; n = 426), involving a sample of children from 6 to 59 months of age. Anemia was diagnosed as hemoglobin < 110g/L (HemoCue). Prevalence rates between the two surveys were described by percentage and by prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI), calculated by Poisson regression. Prevalence rates for anemia in 2008 and 2018 were 53% (95%CI: 49.8-56.1) and 38% (95%CI: 33.4-42.6), respectively, or a decrease of 28.3% (RP = 0.72; 95%CI: 0.63-0.82). Children 6 to 24 months of age had higher anemia rates than those 25 to 59 months of age, both in 2008 (72% vs. 44%) and in 2018 (54.8% vs. 28.3%). There was a reduction in prevalence in both age brackets (23.9% and 35.7%, respectively). This sharper decline in older children meant that younger children had nearly double the prevalence rate compared to older children (PR = 1.94; 95%CI: 1.53-2.46). In conclusion, there was a major decline in prevalence of anemia during the period studied, but anemia persisted as a relevant public health problem, especially in children 6 to 24 months of age. The children in the sample are exposed to harsh social vulnerabilities, evidencing that health promotion for this population requires more than actions in the public health sphere itself. Healthcare workers and administrators should be alert to the data presented here, aimed at implementation of measures to confront the social and health iniquities that contribute to greater vulnerability in this ethnic-racial group.


El objetivo fue evaluar la evolución de la prevalencia de anemia en niños quilombolas de Alagoas, Brasil. Se trata de un análisis descriptivo, comparando resultados de dos encuestas domiciliarias (2008; n = 950 y 2018; n = 426), implicando en la muestra a niños de 6 a 59 meses. La anemia se diagnosticó con hemoglobina < 110g/L (HemoCue). Las prevalencias entre los dos cuestionarios fueron descritas porcentualmente y por la razón de prevalencia (RP) e intervalo de 95% de confianza (IC95%), calculados por regresión de Poisson. Las prevalencias de anemia en 2008 y 2018 fueron, respectivamente, 53% (IC95%: 49,8-56,1) y 38% (IC95%: 33,4-42,6), configurando un declive de un 28,3% (RP = 0,72; IC95%: 0,63-0,82). Los niños de 6 a 24 meses estuvieron más afectados que aquellos de 25 a 59 meses, tanto en 2008 (72% vs. 44%), como en 2018 (54,8% vs. 28,3%). Hubo una reducción de prevalencia en ambas franjas etarias (23,9% y 35,7%, respectivamente). Esta reducción más pronunciada en niños mayores provocó que los más jóvenes pasasen a tener casi el doble de la prevalencia, vista en aquellos de mayor edad (RP = 1,94; IC95%: 1,53-2,46). Se concluye que hubo un declive expresivo de la prevalencia de anemia durante el período evaluado, persistiendo, no obstante, como un relevante problema de salud pública, sobre todo entre los niños de 6 a 24 meses. Los niños evaluados sobreviven bajo una gran vulnerabilidad social, evidenciándose que para la promoción de la salud de esa población no son suficientes acciones en el ámbito de la salud pública. Gestores y profesionales de salud deben estar atentos a los datos aquí presentados, con el fin de implementar medidas para enfrentar las inequidades sociales y de salud que contribuyen a una mayor vulnerabilidad de ese grupo étnico-racial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Anemia/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Hemoglobins , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies
2.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e085, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1285720

ABSTRACT

Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence, type and severity of anemia at the time of diagnosis of oral cancer, and its potential association with the degree of tumor cell differentiation. This case-control study used 366 medical records of patients treated at two referral centers for oral cancer diagnosis, specifically: cases (n=70) with a histopathological diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) of the oral cavity, and controls (n=296) with benign oral lesions. Sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical variables of both groups, as well as complete blood count values, were analyzed by descriptive statistics and crude/adjusted logistic regression. Anemia was detected in 15.7% of the cases and 11.8% of the controls. The presence of anemia had an OR=1.64 (odds ratio) (95%CI 0.54-5.00) for OSCC, with no significantly statistical association. Normocytic anemia was the most prevalent form of anemia when oral cancer was diagnosed (91.4% of the controls and 72.7% of the cases), and moderate to severely low hemoglobin levels were associated with OSCC diagnosis (OR 6.49; 95%CI 1.18-35.24), albeit data on hematological examinations were missing.


Subject(s)
Humans , Mouth Neoplasms/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/epidemiology , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Anemia/etiology , Anemia/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies
3.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(3): 423-429, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126140

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the prevalence of anaemia and its social determinants among Brazilian children from rural settlements of the land reform colonization projects of Teresina city, in Northeast, Brazil. This is a population-based cross-sectional study involving 131 children younger than 5 years. Anaemia was diagnosed by haemoglobin measurements using an automated haematology analyser. The prevalence of anaemia was 29%. Multiple Poisson regression showed that anemia prevalence decreased by 39% for each year of the child's age (aPR= 0.61; 95% CI= 0.50 - 0.74), 14% for each year of maternal education (aPR= 0.86; 95% CI= 0.79 - 0.94) and 6% for each year of maternal age (aPR= 0.94; 95% CI= 0.89 - 1.00). In addition, children living in clay or in unfinished masonry houses had a higher prevalence of anemia than those living in finished masonry houses (aPR= 2.73; 95% CI= 1.50 - 4.97). Anaemia is a moderate public health problem in rural land reform settlements in Teresina and is probably a health issue in other land reform colonization projects in Brazil and worldwide. Strategies that promote the economic and social development of this population need to be implemented, as well as strengthening the implementation of the National Iron Supplementation Program (Programa Nacional de Suplementação de Ferro).


Este estudio evaluó la prevalencia de la anemia y sus determinantes sociales en niños brasileños de los asentamientos rurales de los proyectos de colonización de la reforma agraria de la ciudad de Teresina, nordeste de Brasil. Este es un estudio transversal basado en la población de 131 niños menores de 5 años. La anemia fue diagnosticada mediante mediciones de hemoglobina usando un analizador de hematología automatizado. La prevalencia de anemia fue del 29%. En un modelo múltiple, la prevalencia de anemia disminuyó 39% por cada año de edad infantil (aPR = 0.61; IC 95% = 0.50 - 0.74), 14% por cada año de educación materna (aPR = 0.86; IC 95% = 0.79 - 0.94) y 6% por cada año de edad materna (aPR = 0,94; IC del 95% = 0,89 a 1,00). Además, los niños residentes en casas de de adobe o mampostería sin terminar presentaron una mayor prevalencia que los que viven en casas de mampostería terminada (aPR = 2.73; IC 95% = 1.50 - 4.97). La anemia es un problema de salud pública moderado en los asentamientos de reforma agraria en Teresina y es probablemente un problema de salud en otros proyectos de colonización de la reforma agraria en Brasil y en todo el mundo. Se deben implementar estrategias que promuevan el desarrollo económico y social de esta población, así como fortalecer la implementación del Programa Nacional de Suplementación de Hierro (Programa Nacional de Suplementação de Ferro).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Social Determinants of Health , Anemia/epidemiology , Rural Population , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies
4.
Femina ; 48(5): 295-300, 20200531. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099673

ABSTRACT

Este trabalho avaliou a prevalência de anemia puerperal por meio das dosagens de hemoglobina (Hb) e hematócrito (Ht) numa maternidade pública terciária do estado do Piauí e os fatores de risco associados à presença de anemia. No total, 198 puérperas internadas na maternidade foram submetidas a entrevista e análise do prontuário e do cartão pré-natal. Foram feitas coletas de amostra de sangue venoso periférico antes do parto, 24 horas após o parto vaginal e 48 horas após o parto cesariano. A prevalência de anemia pós-parto encontrada na maternidade estudada foi de 27,27%. A presença de anemia pré-parto e gemelaridade e o ganho de peso foram os fatores de risco significativamente associados à anemia pós-parto.(AU)


This study evaluated the prevalence of puerperal anemia using hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Ht) measurements in a public tertiary maternity hospital in the state of Piauí and the risk factors associated with the presence of anemia. In total, 198 puerperal women admitted to the maternity hospital were interviewed, analyzed the medical record and the prenatal card. A peripheral venous blood sample was collected before delivery, 24 hours after vaginal delivery and 48 hours after cesarean delivery. The prevalence of postpartum anemia found in the maternity studied was 27.27%. The presence of pre-delivery anemia, twinning and weight gain were the risk factors significantly associated with postpartum anemia.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Postpartum Period/blood , Anemia/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Hemoglobins/analysis , Prevalence , Hematocrit
5.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(1): 55-60, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1091898

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE It has been observed that celiac disease (CD) is not restricted to a single type characterized by diarrhea but also has atypical, asymptomatic (silent), and latent forms. The prevalence of this autoimmune disease, which affects approximately 1% of the world, is estimated to be around 3%, including atypical and asymptomatic cases. In our study, we aimed to evaluate adult celiac patients. METHODS Between December 2008-2015, patients diagnosed with CD over the age of 18 years old were included in the study. Patients' symptoms at admission, frequency and type of anemia, transaminase levels, and celiac antibody positivity, and autoimmune diseases diagnosed at follow up were evaluated retrospectively. RESULTS Of 195 patients, 151 (77.4%) were female. The mean age of the patients was 35.73 ± 12.19 years (range, 18-71 years). A hundred patients (51.3%) had gastrointestinal symptoms. At the time of admission, 118 patients (60.5%) had anemia, and 52 (26.7%) had hypertransaminasemia. During the mean follow-up period of 58 months (36-120 months), 84 (43.1%) of the patients presented at least one autoimmune disease, and this rate was 96.6% in individuals diagnosed above the age of 50 years. CONCLUSION In adult CD, resistant anemia, dyspepsia, and hypertransaminasemia are very common findings at the time of diagnosis, and the association with other autoimmune diseases, especially Hashimoto's thyroiditis, is high.


RESUMO OBJETIVOS Observou-se que a doença celíaca (DC) não se restringe a um único tipo caracterizado por diarreia, mas também tem formas atípicas, assintomáticas (silenciosas) e latentes. Estima-se que a prevalência desta doença autoimune, que afeta aproximadamente 1% da população do mundo, seja em torno de 3%, incluindo casos atípicos e assintomáticos. Em nosso estudo, objetivou-se avaliar pacientes celíacos adultos. MÉTODOS Entre dezembro de 2008 e 2015, pacientes diagnosticados como DC com idade acima de 18 anos foram incluídos no estudo. Os sintomas dos pacientes na admissão, frequência e tipo de anemia, níveis de transaminases e positividade de anticorpos celíacos e doenças autoimunes diagnosticadas no seguimento foram avaliados retrospectivamente. RESULTADOS Dos 195 pacientes, 151 (77,4%) eram do sexo feminino. A média de idade dos pacientes foi de 35,73±12,19 anos (variação de 18 a 71 anos). Cem pacientes (51,3%) foram encaminhados com sintomas gastrointestinais. No momento da internação, 118 pacientes (60,5%) apresentavam anemia e 52 (26,7%) apresentavam hipertransaminemia. Durante o período médio de acompanhamento de 58 meses (36-120 meses), 84 (43,1%) pacientes estavam acompanhados por pelo menos uma doença autoimune, e essa taxa foi de 96,6% em indivíduos diagnosticados acima dos 50 anos de idade. CONCLUSÃO No adulto DC, anemia resistente, dispepsia e hipertransaminasemia são achados muito comuns no momento do diagnóstico e a associação com outras doenças autoimunes, especialmente tireoidite de Hashimoto, é alta.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , Celiac Disease/epidemiology , Anemia/epidemiology , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , Thyroid Diseases/complications , Thyroid Diseases/epidemiology , Turkey/epidemiology , Celiac Disease/complications , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Age Distribution , Statistics, Nonparametric , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Transaminases/blood , Anemia/complications , Middle Aged
6.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(1): e00243418, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055608

ABSTRACT

Neste trabalho foi analisada a associação entre insegurança alimentar e níveis de hemoglobina e retinol em crianças de 6 a 59 meses de idade. Trata-se de um estudo seccional, realizado em 2014, com amostra representativa da população de crianças nessa faixa etária, atendidas em unidades básicas de saúde do Município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Para a análise dos níveis de insegurança alimentar foi utilizada a Escala Brasileira de Insegurança Alimentar e, para a determinação de hemoglobina e de retinol sérico, foi realizada a punção venosa. A associação entre as variáveis foi avaliada por intermédio de modelos de regressão quantílica. Do total de crianças estudadas, 40,3% apresentavam insegurança alimentar e as prevalências de anemia e de deficiência de vitamina A foram 13,7% e 13%, respectivamente. Os resultados do estudo revelaram associação inversa, estatisticamente significativa, entre insegurança alimentar leve e níveis de retinol. Para os demais níveis de insegurança alimentar (moderada e grave), os resultados também sugerem a presença de associação inversa para hemoglobina e, quanto aos níveis de retinol, as estimativas pontuais parecem menores em crianças com insegurança alimentar grave, entretanto, estas estimativas não foram estatisticamente significativas. Esses resultados sugerem que a insegurança alimentar pode estar associada com carências de micronutrientes em crianças menores de 5 anos.


This study analyzed the association between food insecurity and hemoglobin and retinol levels in children 6 to 59 months of age. This was a cross-sectional study in 2014 with a representative sample of children in this age bracket treated at basic health units in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Analysis of food insecurity levels used the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale, and venipuncture was performed for measurement of serum hemoglobin and retinol levels. The association between variables used quantile regression models. Of all the children in the sample, 40.3% presented food insecurity, and the prevalence rates for anemia and vitamin A deficiency were 13.7% and 13%, respectively. The study's results revealed a statistically significant inverse association between mild food insecurity and retinol levels. For the other levels of food insecurity (moderate and severe), the results also suggest an inverse association for hemoglobin, and for retinol levels the point estimates appear smaller in children with severe food insecurity, but these estimates were not statistically significant. These results suggest that food insecurity may be associated with micronutrient deficiencies in children under 5 years.


En este estudio se analizó la asociación entre la inseguridad alimentaria y los niveles de hemoglobina y retinol en niños de 6 a 59 meses de edad. Se trata de un estudio seccional, realizado en 2014, con una muestra representativa de la población de niños en esta franja etaria, atendida en unidades básicas de salud del Municipio de Río de Janeiro, Brasil. Para el análisis de los niveles de inseguridad alimentaria se utilizó la Escala Brasileña de Inseguridad Alimentaria y, para la determinación de hemoglobina y de retinol sérico, se realizó una punción venosa. La asociación entre las variables se evaluó a través de modelos de regresión cuantílica. Del total de niños estudiados, un 40,3% presentaban inseguridad alimentaria y las prevalencias de anemia y de deficiencia de vitamina A fueron 13,7% y 13%, respectivamente. Los resultados del estudio revelaron una asociación inversa, estadísticamente significativa, entre inseguridad alimentaria leve y niveles de retinol. Para los demás niveles de inseguridad alimentaria (moderada y grave), los resultados también sugieren la presencia de una asociación inversa para la hemoglobina, y, en cuanto a los niveles de retinol, las estimaciones puntuales parecen menores en niños con inseguridad alimentaria grave, sin embargo, estas estimaciones no fueron estadísticamente significativas. Estos resultados sugieren que la inseguridad alimentaria puede estar asociada con carencias de micronutrientes en niños menores de 5 años.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Vitamin A/blood , Hemoglobins/analysis , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Anemia/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Anemia/blood
7.
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057211

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate serum biochemical parameters' evolution, especially venous blood gas (VBG), in anorexia nervosa (AN), correlating with clinical parameters. Methods: Retrospective study including out-patient AN adolescents, between January 2014 and May 2017. Three evaluations were compared: t1) first consultation; t2) consultation with the lowest body mass index (BMI) z-score and t3) with the highest BMI z-score. Results: A total of 24 adolescents (87.5% females) were included, mean age of presentation of 14.9±1.7 years, onset of symptoms 6.4±3.2 months before the first visit. In t1, BMI z-score of -1.91±1.11 kg/m2 and ideal weight % of 84.3±9.2. Amenorrhea was present in 88%. In t2 the analytical alterations were: altered VBG in 100%, altered ferritin (72% elevated), altered thyroid function (53% with thyroxine decrease), dyslipidemia (31% elevation of high density lipoprotein, 25% hypercholesterolemia), elevation of urea (25%), elevation of alanine aminotransferase (14%), hypoglycemia (14%), anemia (9%). Respiratory acidosis was present in 91% in t1, 100% in t2 and 94% in t3. There was a significant decrease between t2 and t3 in mean pCO2 (57.2 versus 53.6 mmHg; p=0.009) and mean HCO3 (30.0 versus 28.8 mEq/L; p=0.023). Conclusions: Respiratory acidosis and increased ferritin were common in this group. Respiratory acidosis was the most frequent abnormality with significant pCO2 and HCO3 variation in the recovery phase. VBG should be considered in AN evaluation, once it seems to be important in assessing the severity of the disease and its subsequent follow-up.


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a evolução laboratorial, particularmente da gasometria venosa, na anorexia nervosa (AN), correlacionando os achados com parâmetros clínicos. Métodos: Estudo retrospetivo com adolescentes com AN seguidos em ambulatório, entre janeiro de 2014 e maio de 2017. Foram comparadas três avaliações: (t1) primeira consulta; (t2) consulta com escore Z de índice de massa corpórea (IMC) mais baixo; e (t3) consulta com escore Z de IMC mais elevado. Resultados: Incluídos 24 adolescentes, 87,5% do sexo feminino, idade média de apresentação de 14,9±1,7 anos, início dos sintomas 6,4±3,2 meses antes da primeira consulta. Em t1, escore Z de IMC de -1,91±1,11 kg/m2 e % de peso ideal de 84,3±9,2. Tinham amenorreia 88%. Em t2 as alterações laboratoriais encontradas foram: gasometria venosa alterada em 100%, ferritina alterada (72% elevada), função tiroideia alterada (53% com diminuição da tiroxina), dislipidemia (31% com elevação de lipoproteína de alta densidade, 25% com hipercolesterolemia), elevação da ureia (25%), elevação da alanina aminotransferase (14%), hipoglicemia (14%) e anemia (9%). A acidose respiratória esteve presente em 91% em t1, 100% em t2 e 94% em t3. Verificou-se diminuição significativa entre t2 e t3 da pressão parcial de CO2 (pCO2) média (57,2 versus 53,6 mmHg; p=0,009) e HCO3 médio (30,0 versus 28,8 mEq/L; p=0,023). Conclusões: A acidose respiratória e o aumento da ferritina foram comuns nesse grupo. Acidose respiratória foi a alteração mais frequente, com variação significativa de pCO2 e HCO3 na fase de recuperação. A gasometria venosa deve ser considerada na avaliação laboratorial na AN, pois parece ser importante na avaliação da gravidade e monitorização da doença.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Outpatients/statistics & numerical data , Blood Gas Analysis/methods , Anorexia Nervosa/physiopathology , Anorexia Nervosa/blood , Thyroid Function Tests/methods , Urea/blood , Acidosis, Respiratory/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Anorexia Nervosa/diagnosis , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Dyslipidemias/blood , Ferritins/blood , Amenorrhea/diagnosis , Amenorrhea/epidemiology , Hypoglycemia/epidemiology , Anemia/epidemiology
8.
Medwave ; 20(7): e8004, 2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1122452

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Identificar si existe una relación estadística entre el diagnóstico de anemia en niños y vivir a distintas altitudes geográficas de la Región Arequipa, Perú. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo. La población estuvo constituida por 106 499 niños y niñas menores de cinco años que viven en la Región Arequipa a distintas altitudes geográficas, de los cuales presentaron anemia 32 454 que corresponde al 30,5%, atendidos por el Ministerio de Salud de Arequipa. Se tomaron datos sociodemográficos relacionados con edad, provincia, beneficiario del programa de Sistema Integral de Salud (SIS), de visitas domiciliarias, de Control de Crecimiento y Desarrollo (CRED); además de datos vinculados a la anemia como frecuencia, hemoglobina y severidad. RESULTADOS: Los resultados fueron categorizados según la altitud geográfica de procedencia de los niños y niñas de 0 a 59 meses de edad y los niveles de hemoglobina según la altitud geográfica. De la muestra estudiada, la frecuencia de anemia a diferentes altitudes geográficas de Arequipa en niños menores de cinco años para el período de 2017 a 2019 fue de 18,7% entre 0 y 999 metros sobre el nivel del mar; 29,6% entre 1000 y 1999 metros; 31,6% entre 2000 y 2999 metros; 42,9% entre 3000 y 3999 metros, y 54,4% entre 4000 y 4999 metros sobre el nivel del mar. Hubo mayor prevalencia de anemia cuando se utilizó el factor de corrección por altitud geográfica. CONCLUSIONES: Se observó una relación estadística significativa (p < 0,05) entre la hemoglobina corregida según parámetros de la Organización Mundial de la Salud y la altitud en la que viven los niños con anemia, es decir, a mayor altitud geográfica mayor anemia en niños. Los programas de suplementación deben tener correspondencia con las visitas domiciliarias y la evaluación del crecimiento y desarrollo de los niños.


OBJECTIVE: To identify the characteristics of anemia in children living at different geographical altitude in the Arequipa Region of Peru. METHODS: We did a descriptive and retrospective study. The population consisted of 106 499 children under five years of age living in the Arequipa Region at different geographical altitude and receiving care by the Ministry of Health of Arequipa. Of these, 32 454 had anemia (30.5%). Socio-demographic data related to age, province, and beneficiary of the Comprehensive Health System program, home visits, and growth and development were obtained, in addition to data regarding anemia such as frequency, hemoglobin, and severity. RESULTS: The results were categorized by the geographical altitude of origin of children under 0 to 59 months of age and hemoglobin levels according to geographical altitude. Of the sample studied, the frequency of anemia at different geographical altitudes of Arequipa in children under five for the 2017 to 2019 period was: 18.7% at 0 to 999 meters above sea level; 29.6% at 1000 to 1999 meters; 31.6% at 2000 to 2999 meters; 42.9% at 3000 to 3999 meters; and 54.4% at 4000 to 4999 meters. There was a higher prevalence of anemia when the geographic altitude correction factor was used. CONCLUSIONS: A significant statistical relationship (p < 0.05) was observed between the corrected hemoglobin according to the World Health Organization parameters and the altitude at which children with anemia live: the higher the geographical altitude, the greater the anemia in children. Supplementation programs should be included during home visits and at the time of evaluation of children's growth and development.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Hemoglobins/analysis , Altitude , Anemia/epidemiology , Peru/epidemiology , Severity of Illness Index , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies
9.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 675-681, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878091

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Several recent genome-wide association studies suggested insomnia and anemia may share some common genetic components. We thus examined whether adults with anemia had higher odds of having insomnia relative to those without anemia in a cross-sectional study and a meta-analysis.@*METHODS@#Included in this cross-sectional study were 12,614 Chinese adults who participated in an ongoing cohort, the Kailuan Study. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin levels below 12.0 g/dL in women and 13.0 g/dL in men. Insomnia was assessed using the Chinese version of the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS). A total AIS score ≥6 was considered insomnia. The association between anemia and insomnia was assessed using a logistic regression model, adjusting for potential confounders such as age, sex, chronic disease status, and plasma C-reactive protein concentrations. A meta-analysis was conducted using the fixed effects model to pool results from our study and three previously published cross-sectional studies on this topic in adult populations.@*RESULTS@#Individuals with anemia had greater odds of having insomnia (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.32; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.70) compared with individuals without anemia. A significant association persisted after we excluded individuals with chronic inflammation, as suggested by C-reactive protein levels >1 mg/L (adjusted OR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.22-2.32). The meta-analysis results, including 22,134 participants, also identified a positive association between anemia and insomnia (pooled OR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.22-1.57).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The presence of anemia was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of having insomnia in adults. Due to the nature of the cross-sectional study design, results should be interpreted with caution.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anemia/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Male , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology
10.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 89(4): 339-347, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149092

ABSTRACT

Abstract Heart failure (HF) is a syndrome characterized basically by a circulatory deficit to cover the metabolic and energetic demands of the body. This condition has a broad spectrum in its clinical presentation, affects the quality of life significantly, impacts the family/social environment, and generates a great demand for health services. The purpose of this research is to report the situational diagnose of patients with HF in Mexico. We evaluated 292 patients, 70.2% were men. Average age was 56.7 +- 14.3 years. Ischemic heart disease is the main etiology (98 patients, 33.9%) followed by hypertensive (22.6%) and idiopathic (23.3%) heart disease. The associated clinical background was obesity (31.1%), systemic hypertension (36.7%), myocardial infarction (26.4%), and dyslipidemia (15.1%). The most common symptom was stress dyspnea (41.4%) and jugular vein engorgement at physical examination (32.5%). Anemia was observed in 1% of patients. The average left ventricular ejection fraction was 29.2 +- 10.6%. Sinus rhythm was the most frequently detected in 84.9%. 19.9% of patients had an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator or cardiac resynchronization therapy. 13.7% of patients with QRS > 130 ms. In our population, the meta-analysis global group in chronic heart failure risk score calculated was 16.8 +- 5.7 and for EMPHASIS 3.3 +- 1.5. We observed that age at presentation in HF in this analysis is at least 10 years younger than in other reports. The grade of obesity takes relevance in our group. The association of anemia and HF in Mexico is rare.


Resumen La insuficiencia cardiaca es un síndrome caracterizado fundamentalmente por un déficit circulatorio para cubrir las demandas metabólicas y energéticas del organismo. Esta entidad tiene un amplio espectro en su presentación clínica, afecta de manera significativa la calidad de vida, impacta en el entorno familiar/social y genera una gran demanda de los servicios de salud. El propósito de esta investigación es reportar el diagnóstico situacional de pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca (IC) en México. Evaluamos 292 enfermos, 70.2% eran hombres. Con edad promedio 56.7 +- 14.3 años. La principal etiología es la cardiopatía isquémica (33.9%), seguida de la hipertensiva (22.6%) e idiopática (23.3%). Los antecedentes clínicos asociados fueron: obesidad (31.1%), hipertensión arterial sistémica (36.7%), infarto al miocardio (26.4%) y dislipidemia (15.1%). El síntoma con mayor presentación fue la disnea de esfuerzos (41.4%) y a la exploración física la ingurgitación yugular (32.5%). Se observó anemia en 1% de los enfermos. La fracción de expulsión del ventrículo izquierdo (FEVI) promedio fue de 29.2 + 10.6%. El ritmo sinusal fue el más frecuentemente detectado en 84.9%. El 19.9% de los pacientes tenían instalado un desfibrilador automático implantable (DAI) o tratamiento de resincronización cardiaca (TRC). El 13.7% de los enfermos con QRS mayor de 130 ms. El riesgo (MAGGIC) calculado en nuestro grupo poblacional fue de 16.8 +- 5.7 y para EMPHASIS 3.3 +- 1.5. Observamos que la edad de presentación de la IC en el presente análisis es menor por 10 años en comparación con otros reportes. El grado de obesidad toma relevancia en nuestro grupo. La asociación de anemia e IC en México es poco frecuente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Quality of Life , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Stroke Volume , Defibrillators, Implantable/statistics & numerical data , Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Heart Failure/therapy , Anemia/epidemiology , Mexico/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology
11.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(6): 841-851, nov.-dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252172

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Estimar la prevalencia y distribución de anemia en mujeres mexicanas y su asociación con factores sociodemográficos y la diversidad de la dieta. Material y métodos: Se incluyeron mujeres en edad fértil de la encuesta probabilística Ensanut 100k, que representa a los hogares con menos capacidades económicas. Se estimó la prevalencia de anemia mediante concentración de hemoglobina, con información sociodemográfica, de salud, inseguridad alimentaria y diversidad de la dieta. Resultados: El 34.3% de las mujeres presentó anemia; los factores protectores para anemia fueron pertenecer al tercil 3 de condición de bienestar (OR=0.26, IC95% 0.16-0.61), alta diversidad de la dieta en áreas rurales (OR=0.57, IC95%0.36-0.92), así como vivir en un hogar con seguridad alimentaria. Conclusiones: Es necesario implementar acciones de detección y atención temprana de la anemia en las mujeres de edad fértil, así como identificar las causas subyacentes y fortalecer y reformular estrategias para prevenirla.


Abstract: Objective: To estimate the prevalence and distribution of anemia in Mexican women and their association with sociodemographic factors and diet diversity. Materials and methods: We analyzed information of women in childbearing age. The Ensanut 100k is a probabilistic survey that over-represents households with less economic capacity. Anemia was estimated using hemoglobin concentration. We collected sociodemographic and health information, food insecurity, and dietary diversity. Results: 34.3% of the women presented anemia, belong to tertile 3 of welfare status is a protective factor for anemia (OR= 0.26, 95%CI 0.16-0.61), and living in a household with food security, as well as high diversity of the diet in rural women (OR= 0.57, 95%CI 0.36-0.92). Conclusions: It is necessary to implement actions of detection and early attention of the anemia in women in childbearing age, identification of its underlying causes, strengthening and reformulation of strategies to prevent it.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Poverty , Anemia/epidemiology , Nutrition Surveys , Prevalence , Population Density , Mexico/epidemiology
12.
Salud pública Méx ; 61(6): 821-832, nov.-dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252170

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Objetivo: Analizar la asociación entre el consumo de suplementos o leche Liconsa y anemia, deficiencias de zinc (DZ) y hierro (DH) y morbilidad en niños mexicanos residentes de localidades menores a 100 000 habitantes. Material y métodos: Se analizó información de 1 516 niños de 1 a 4 años de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición en localidades con menos de 100 000 habitantes realizada en el año 2018. Se definió Anemia si [Hb]<11 g/dL, DZ: [Zn]<65 µg/dL y DH: [ferritina]<12 µg/L. El consumo de suplementos y de leche Liconsa se obtuvo del cuestionario de Frecuencia de Consumo de Alimentos y morbilidad por autorreporte de la madre. Se emplearon modelos de regresión logística múltiple para el análisis de las asociaciones, ajustados por confusores. Resultados: El consumo medio y alto de leche Liconsa se asoció con menor momio de DH (RM=0.02 [IC95% 0.002,0.24] y RM=0.07 [IC95% 0.01,0.52]) y anemia (RM=0.13 [IC95% 0.04,0.37] y RM=0.17 [IC95% 0.03,0.87]). Un alto consumo de leche Liconsa (RM=0.09, [IC95% 0.01,0.44]) y de Vitaniño (RM=0.05 [IC95% 0.005, 0.46]) se asoció con menor momio de diarrea. Conclusiones: Es necesario considerar la continuidad del consumo de suplementos nutricionales para mejorar la salud y el estado de micronutrimentos en población infantil mexicana vulnerable.


Abstract: Objective: To analyze the association between supplements and Liconsa milk intake, with anemia, zinc (ZD) and iron (ID) deficiencies, and morbidity in Mexican children resident of less than 100 000 habitants' localities. Materials and methods: A subsample of 1 516 children aged 1-4 participants of Ensanut 100k was analyzed, carried out in 2018. Anemia was considered if [Hb]<11 g/dL, ZD if [Zn]<65 µg/dL and ID if [ferritin]<12 µg/L. Supplements and Liconsa milk consumption were obtained from a semi-quantitative food frequency; morbidity by self-report of the mother. Multiple logistic regression models were used adjusted by confounders. Results: Medium and high consumption of Liconsa milk was associated to lower odds of ID (OR=0.02, [95%CI 0.002,0.24] and OR=0.07, [95%CI 0.01,0.52]) and anemia (OR=0.13, [95%CI 0.04,0.37] and OR=0.17, [95%CI 0.03,0.87]). A high intake of Liconsa milk (OR=0.09, [95%CI 0.01,0.44]) and Vitaniño (OR=0.05 [95%CI 0.005, 0.46]) were both associated to lower diarrhea risk. Conclusions: To assure the continuity of the consumption of nutritional supplements is necessary for improving the health and the micronutrients status in vulnerable Mexican children.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Food, Fortified , Morbidity , Dietary Supplements , Deficiency Diseases/epidemiology , Milk , Anemia/epidemiology , Zinc/deficiency , Nutrition Surveys , Cross-Sectional Studies , Population Density , Mexico/epidemiology
13.
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(4): 472-480, Out.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056605

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Anemic patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be divided into anemic patients without or with functional iron deficiency (FID). The increase in the number of cases of hemosiderosis in patients on hemodialysis (HD) attributed to excessive intravenous iron replacement has called for the investigation of the factors involved in the genesis of FID. Objectives: This study aimed to describe the prevalence of FID in patients with CKD on HD, characterize the included individuals in terms of clinical and workup parameters, and assess their nutritional, oxidative stress, and inflammation statuses. This cross-sectional study assembled a convenience sample of 183 patients with CKD on HD treated in Southern Brazil. Patients meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were divided into two groups, one with anemic subjects with FID and one with anemic patients without FID. Participants answered a questionnaire probing into socio-epidemiological factors, underwent anthropometric measurements, and were tested for markers of anemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, and nutrition. Statistical analysis: The date sets were treated on software package GraphPad InStat version 3.1. Variables were tested with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov, chi-square, Student's t, and Mann-Whitney tests. Statistical significance was attributed to differences with a p < 0.05. Results: Markers of inflammation were not statistically different between the two groups. Markers of anemia and nutrition were significantly lower in patients with FID. Patients with FID were prescribed higher doses of parenteral iron (p < 0,05). Discussion: FID was associated with lower nutritional marker levels, but not to increased levels of markers of inflammation or oxidative stress, as reported in the literature. Additional studies on the subject are needed.


Resumo Introdução: A anemia na DRC pode ser dividida em anemia sem deficiência funcional de ferro e com deficiência funcional de ferro (ADFF). Diante do aumento dos casos de hemossiderose em pacientes em hemodiálise, atribuídos à reposição excessiva de ferro endovenoso, maiores conhecimentos sobre os fatores envolvidos na gênese da ADFF são importantes. Objetivos: documentar a prevalência de ADFF em renais crônicos em hemodiálise. Caracterizar clínica e laboratorialmente os portadores de ADFF em HD e avaliar o estado nutricional, estresse oxidativo e inflamatório. Estudo transversal, amostra de conveniência, envolvendo 183 renais crônicos em hemodiálise no sul do Brasil. Após aplicação dos critérios de exclusão, os pacientes foram separados em dois grupos: portadores de anemia com e sem deficiência funcional de ferro. Foram submetidos a questionário socioepidemiológico, à análise antropométrica e análise laboratorial dos marcadores de anemia, estresse oxidativo, inflamatórios e nutricionais. Análise estatística: programa GraphPad InStat versão 3.1. Foram aplicados os testes: Kolmogorov-Smirnov, qui-quadrado, t de Student e Mann-Whitney. Nível de significância adotado de 5%. Resultados: não houve diferença significativa nos marcadores inflamatórios entre os dois grupos. Houve diferença significativa nos marcadores de anemia e nutrição, significativamente menores nos pacientes com ADFF. Pacientes com ADFF receberam doses mais elevadas de ferro parenteral (p < 0,05). Discussão: ADFF esteve associada a menores valores de marcadores nutricionais, mas não esteve associada a marcadores inflamatórios ou de estresse oxidativo aumentados, como relatado na literatura. Estudos adicionais sobre o tema são necessários.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Biomarkers/metabolism , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Inflammation/metabolism , Anemia/etiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Nutrition Assessment , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/epidemiology , Administration, Intravenous , Hemosiderosis/epidemiology , Anemia/epidemiology , Iron/administration & dosage , Iron/adverse effects , Nitric Oxide/metabolism
14.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 46(6): 718-726, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058134

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to assess the change in the prevalence of anemia among under-five children attending public health services in Peru between 2012 and 2016, according to their place of residence, and to identify spatial clusters of districts with a high prevalence of anemia. An analytical cross-sectional study was carried out, based on data from the Nutritional State Information System from 2012 and 2016. We calculated the spatial autocorrelation of anemia prevalence at the district level using a global and local Moran's I index. The prevalence of anemia was 34.4% (2012) and 40.3% (2016). In 2012 and 2016, 41.7% and 46.5% of districts, respectively, had a prevalence of anemia considered a severe public health problem acording WHO criteria. Positive spatial autocorrelation was found between the prevalence of anemia and the districts for both years (2012 Moran's I: 0.22; 2016: 0.31, both p <0.001). Of the total number of districts, 8.3% (2012) and 12.6% (2016) presented a high prevalence of anemia and were also surrounded by districts with high prevalence. Anemia is a public health problem among children under five in Peru attending public health services and we identified areas with a higher concentration of anemia prevalence. Spatial patterns of anemia should be considered in the development and implementation of health interventions.


El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la prevalencia de anemia en menores de cinco anos atendidos en servidos de salud públicos en Perú entre 2012-2016 e identificar conglomerados espaciales de distritos de alta prevalencia de anemia. Se realizó un estudio analítico de corte transversal, basado en los datos del Sistema de Información dei Estado Nutricional del Perú 2012 y 2016. La autocorrelación espacial de la prevalencia de anemia a nivel distrital se calculó utilizando el índice I de Moran global y local. Se encontro una prevalencia de anemia del 34.4% (2012) y 40.3% (2016), con41.7% (2012) y 46.5% (2016) de distritos con prevalencias de anemia consideradas como grave problema de salud pública según clasificación OMS. Se encontró una autocorrelación espacial positiva entre la prevalencia de anemia y los distritos (Moran's I 2012: 0.22; 2016: 0.31, ambos p <0.001), donde 8.3% (2012) y 12.6% (2016) de distritos con alta prevalencia se encontraban rodeados por distritos con alta prevalencia. La anemia es un problema de salud pública en menores de cinco años en el Perú atendidos en servicios de salud públicos. Existen áreas con mayor concentración de prevalencia de anemia. Los patrones espaciales de anemia deben considerarse en el desarrollo y la implementación de intervenciones de salud.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Geographic Information Systems , Public Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Anemia/epidemiology , Peru/epidemiology , Residence Characteristics , Public Health , Nutritional Status , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Databases as Topic , Spatial Analysis
15.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(9): 3257-3264, set. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019655

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar a associação entre a anemia e algumas atividades de vida diária associadas à alimentação e o relato de dificuldade de mastigação e deglutição. Estudo transversal, que analisou 1.256 indivíduos de 60 anos ou mais, que fizeram parte da terceira coleta do Estudo SABE (Saúde, Bem-estar e Envelhecimento). Considerou-se anêmicos homens com hemoglobina sanguínea ≤ 13g/dL e mulheres com valores ≤ 12g/dL. Houve prevalência de anemia maior nos indivíduos que relataram redução no consumo alimentar devido a queixas de mastigação e deglutição, naqueles com dificuldade de mastigação e nos que relataram dificuldade em alimentar-se devido queixas de mastigação e deglutição. A prevalência também foi maior nos indivíduos com dificuldade de alimentar-se sozinho e de fazer compras de alimentos. Nas análises, a presença de uma queixa de mastigação e deglutição foi associada à chance de anemia quase 2 vezes maior que aqueles indivíduos sem queixas, e a presença de 2 ou 3 queixas de mastigação e deglutição foi associada à chance de 2,7. Os idosos com dificuldades de deglutição e mastigação apresentaram maior prevalência de anemia, mesmo após ajuste de outros fatores associados, com efeito dose-resposta, evidenciando a importância de um trabalho multidisciplinar com o idoso.


Abstract Aim: To evaluate the association between anemia and some activities of daily living associated with feeding and the difficulty in chewing and swallowing. Methods: Cross-sectional study, which examined 1256 individuals, aged 60 or older who were part of the third collection of the SABE Study (Health, Well-Being and Aging). We classified as anemic men with blood haemoglobin ≤ 13 g/dL and women with values ≤ 12 g/dL. Results: Prevalence of anemia was higher in individuals who reported reduction in food consumption due to chewing and swallowing complaints, in individuals with difficulty to chew and in individuals who reported difficulty to feed themselves due to chewing and swallowing complaints. Anemia was also more prevalent in those with difficulty to feed themselves and to shop for food. In the analyses, the presence of chewing and swallowing complaints was associated with a chance of anemia almost 2 times greater than for individuals without complaints, and the presence of 2 or 3 chewing and swallowing complaints was associated with a 2.7 chance of anemia. Conclusion: The presence of difficulties in chewing and swallowing were associated with higher prevalence of anemia, even after adjustment for other factors, with a dose-response effect, indicating the importance of a multidisciplinary work with older adults.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Activities of Daily Living , Deglutition , Anemia/epidemiology , Mastication , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Regression Analysis , Risk Factors , Eating , Anemia/etiology , Anemia/blood , Middle Aged
16.
Medicina (Ribeiräo Preto) ; 52(3)jul.-set. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1025768

ABSTRACT

Anemia é a redução da massa de hemoglobina e, portanto, da massa eritrocitária. Sua consequência é a hipóxia tecidual. A anemia é a manifestação de uma doença de base que muitas vezes está oculta. Ela afeta mais de um bilhão de pessoas em todo o mundo. A anemia pode ser classificada de várias formas, mas, na prática clínica, a mais usada é de acordo com o volume corpuscular médio das hemácias. Os dois tipos mais prevalentes de anemia são a ferropriva e a decorrente da doença inflamatória. A anemia ferropriva decorre do esgotamento das reservas de ferro, na maioria das vezes, por perda crônica de sangue, por exemplo, por fluxo menstrual aumentado e sangramento por trato gastrointestinal. A anemia da doença inflamatória decorre do bloqueio do ferro no sistema reticuloendotelial, da redução da eritropoese e da menor sobrevida das hemácias. A ferritina está diminuída na anemia ferropriva e aumentada na anemia da doença inflamatória. Outros tipos mais comuns de anemia são a anemia da gestação, a secundária à insuficiência renal e a do idoso. O tratamento da anemia depende de sua causa, como a reposição de ferro ou de eritropoetina, entre outros. A transfusão de hemácias pode ser necessária nas situações mais graves, independentemente do tipo da anemia, ou em caráter periódico e perene, como na talassemia maior. Nesse artigo de revisão, discute-se a prevalência da anemia, sua classificação, fisiopatologia, os tipos mais comuns e o tratamento.Palavras-chave: Anemia; Deficiência de Ferro; Transfusão.(AU)


ABSTRACTAnemia is the reduction of hemoglobin mass and, consequently, of erythrocyte mass. Its result is tissue hypoxia. Anemia is the manifestation of an underlying illness, frequently not apparent. It affects more than one billion people around the world. Anemia can be classified based on several characteristics, however, in daily practice, the most used is the one based on the mean corpuscular volume of erythrocytes as microcytic, normocytic and macrocytic. The most prevalent types of anemia are iron deficient anemia and anemia secondary to inflammation. The iron deficiency anemia appears when the iron store is exhausted, most frequently due to chronic bleeding, for instance, augmented menorrhea and gastrointestinal bleeding. The anemia of inflammation is secondary to iron sequestration in macrophages, decreased erythropoiesis, and lower erythrocyte survival. Ferritin is decreased in the iron deficient anemia and increased in the anemia of inflammation. Other common types of anemia are those secondary to pregnancy, chronic renal failure, and ageing. Treatment of anemia depends on its type, such as iron supplementation or erythropoietin, among others. Red blood cell transfusion can be performed in more severe conditions, independently of the type of anemia, and must be adopted in diseases such as thalassemia major. This article reviews the prevalence of anemia, its classification, pathophysiology, and discusses the commonest types and treatment according to the type of anemia (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Transfusion , Anemia/classification , Anemia/physiopathology , Anemia/therapy , Anemia/epidemiology
17.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 155(1): 30-38, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286456

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La prevalencia de complicaciones crónicas y comorbilidades en pacientes con diabetes tipo 2 (DT2) se han incrementado en el mundo. Objetivo: Comparar la prevalencia de complicaciones y comorbilidades crónicas en pacientes con DT2 en 36 unidades de medicina familiar de cinco delegaciones del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS). Métodos: Conforme los códigos de la Décima Revisión de la Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades se identificaron las complicaciones (hipoglucemia, pie diabético, enfermedad renal, retinopatía, enfermedad cardiaca isquémica, enfermedad cerebrovascular y falla cardiaca) y comorbilidades (enfermedad hepática, cáncer, anemia) de DT2. Se compararon por delegación, edad, sexo y tiempo de evolución. Resultados: Las complicaciones y comorbilidades fueron más comunes en personas ≥ 62 años. De 297 100 pacientes, 34.9 % presentó cualquier complicación; microvasculares en el norte industrial (32 %), macrovasculares en el este rural (12.3 %) y comorbilidades (5 %) en el sur de la Ciudad de México; estas complicaciones predominaron en los hombres (cualquier complicación 30.2 %). La falla cardiaca y las comorbilidades fueron más comunes en mujeres (5.6 y 4.9 %). Conclusiones: Las complicaciones y comorbilidades de DT2 mostraron diferencias geográficas y de sexo y fueron mayores con la edad y el tiempo de evolución. Urge reforzar estrategias para la prevención de las complicaciones y comorbilidades en los pacientes con DT2.


Abstract Introduction: The prevalence of chronic complications and comorbidities in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) has increased worldwide. Objective: To compare the prevalence of complications and chronic comorbidities in patients with T2D at 36 family medicine units of five chapters of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS). Method: Complications (hypoglycemia, diabetic foot, kidney disease, retinopathy, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and heart failure) and comorbidities (liver disease, cancer and anemia) were identified according to codes of the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision. Comparisons were made by chapter, age, gender and evolution time. Results: Complications and comorbidities were more common in subjects aged ≥ 62 years. Out of 297 100 patients, 34.9 % had any complication; microvascular complications (32 %) prevailed in the industrial North, whereas macrovascular complications (12.3 %) did in the rural East, and comorbidities (5 %) in southern Mexico City. Complications predominated in men (any complication, 30.2 %). Heart failure and comorbidities were more common in women (5.6 % and 4.9 %, respectively). Conclusions: T2D complications and comorbidities showed geographic and gender differences, and were greater with older age and longer evolution time. It is urgent for strategies for the prevention of complications and comorbidities to be reinforced in patients with T2D.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Comorbidity , Sex Factors , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Diabetes Complications/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Anemia/epidemiology , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Mexico/epidemiology , Neoplasms/epidemiology
18.
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1257636

ABSTRACT

Background: Anaemia in pregnancy is associated with adverse obstetric outcomes. When detected early in pregnancy, it can be treated; however, information on its prevalence and associated factors is limited in rural Ghana.Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and maternal factors associated with anaemia in pregnancy at first antenatal care (ANC) visits.Setting: The study was conducted in the Navrongo War Memorial Hospital, a secondary referral facility in the Kassena-Nankana district in rural northern Ghana.Methods: A retrospective analysis of antenatal clinic records of pregnant women collected from January to December 2014. All pregnant women initiating antenatal clinic, who had initial haemoglobin (Hb) levels measured, were included in the study. Logistic regression analyses were carried out to determine factors associated with anaemia at the initiation of ANC.Results: We analysed data from 506 women with median Hb of 11.1 g/dL (IQR 7.31­13.8). The median gestational age at booking was 14 weeks (5­36 weeks). The prevalence of anaemia was 42.7%, with 95% confidence interval (CI) [38.4­47.1], and was high among teenage mothers (52% [34.9­67.8]), mothers who booked in the third trimester (55% [33.6­74.7]) and grand multiparous women (58% [30.7­81.6]). Factors associated with anaemia included grand multiparity (odds ratio [OR] = 1.94 with 95% CI [1.58­2.46]), booking during the third trimester (OR = 2.06 [1.78­2.21]) and mother who were underweight compared to those with normal weight (OR = 3.17 [1.19­8.32]).Conclusion: Burden of anaemia in pregnancy is still high in rural northern Ghana. We advocate further strengthening of the primary health care system to improve early access to ANC deliver


Subject(s)
Anemia/diagnosis , Anemia/epidemiology , Anemia/therapy , Pregnant Women , Rural Population
19.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 22(supl.2): E190008.SUPL.2, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042233

ABSTRACT

RESUMO: Objetivo: Verificar a prevalência de anemia em adultos e idosos brasileiros. Métodos: Foram utilizados dados provenientes de exames laboratoriais da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde. Trata-se de um estudo transversal no qual foram incluídos 8.060 indivíduos com idades acima de 18 anos de todos os estados brasileiros. Foram estudados os seguintes indicadores obtidos por meio de eritrograma: dosagem de hemoglobina, volume corpuscular médio (VCM), hemoglobina corpuscular média (HCM) e red cell distribution width (RDW). Utilizaram-se as recomendações da Organização Mundial da Saúde, que consideram anemia o nível de hemoglobina menor que 13,0 g/dL para homens e menor que 12,0 g/dL para mulheres. As informações sociodemográficas foram obtidas por meio de entrevista. Resultados: A prevalência de anemia entre adultos e idosos brasileiros foi de 9,9%. Maiores prevalências de anemia e casos mais graves foram encontrados entre mulheres, idosos, pessoas de baixa escolaridade e de cor de pele preta e residentes das regiões Norte e Nordeste. Anemia normocítica e normocrômica foi o tipo mais comum (56,0%). Conclusão: A prevalência de anemia está de acordo com a literatura. Destaca-se que maiores prevalências foram observadas nas populações mais desfavorecidas e entre os idosos. Considerando o crescimento da população acima de 60 anos no país, intervenções para tratar e prevenir a anemia em adultos e idosos se fazem necessárias na rede de serviços de saúde.


ABSTRACT: Objective: To verify the prevalence of anemia in Brazilian adults and elderly. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study consisted of 8,060 subjects aged over 18 years old in all Brazilian states. We used data from laboratory tests of the Brazilian National Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde - PNS). The following indicators obtained by erythrogram were used: hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and red cell distribution width (RDW). Reference values of the World Health Organization (WHO) were used to determine anemia, which considers hemoglobin levels below 13.0 g/dL for men and less than 12.0 g/dL for women. Sociodemographic information was obtained by interview. Results: The prevalence of anemia among Brazilian adults and elderly was 9.9%. Higher prevalence of anemia and more severe cases were found among women, elderly, people with low schooling, black skin color and residents of the North and Northeast regions. Normocytic normochromic anemia was the most common type of anemia (56.0%). Conclusion: The anemia prevalence found in the study was in agreement with the literature. It must be stressed that higher anemia prevalence was found in disadvantaged and older population. Considering the increase of the population over 60 years of age, interventions to prevent and treat anemia among adults and elderly is imperative in the health service network.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Health Surveys/methods , Anemia/epidemiology , Reference Values , Socioeconomic Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil/epidemiology , Hemoglobins/analysis , Sex Factors , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Erythrocyte Indices , Middle Aged
20.
Buenos Aires; s.n; 2019. 48 p. tab, graf.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, InstitutionalDB, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1284049

ABSTRACT

La evaluación del crecimiento mediante antropometría es una actividad que se desarrolla de manera sistemática en los controles de salud a niños, niñas, adolescentes y embarazadas. Su utilización está ampliamente aceptada por ser un método simple, válido y no invasivo para monitorear el estado nutricional. Implica la toma de medidas corporales (como el peso, la talla, la circunferencia de cintura), la construcción de índices que establecen relaciones entre esas medidas, la edad y el sexo de la persona y, por último, la comparación con tablas de referencia. Esta comparación permite establecer si el crecimiento es adecuado o presenta algún parámetro alterado, que requerirá una evaluación clínica y la consideración de diferentes cursos de acción. Se propone, entonces, esta Guía como una herramienta para el trabajo cotidiano de los equipos de salud del primer nivel de atención, tanto para las acciones de prevención en salud como para el diagnóstico y seguimiento de personas con problemas nutricionales. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Weight by Height , Nutrition Programs , Food and Nutritional Surveillance , Nutrition Assessment , Anthropometry/instrumentation , Anthropometry/methods , Growth , Anemia/epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL