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Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 36(2): 165-171, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251086


Abstract Introduction: Anemia and blood transfusion are risk factors for morbidity/mortality in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The objective of this study is to analyze the association of blood transfusion with morbidity/mortality in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) under CPB in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis using the State of São Paulo Registry of Cardiovascular Surgery from November 2013 to August 2014. Blood transfusion was only considered during surgery or within six hours after surgery. Anemia was defined as hematocrit ≤ 37.5%. Patients < 18 years old were excluded. The sample was divided in four groups - Group I (851, no anemia), Group II (200, anemia without blood transfusion), Group III (181, no anemia and transfusion), and Group IV (258, anemia and transfusion). Results: A total of 1,490 patients were included; 639 (42.9%) were anemic and 439 (29.5%) underwent blood transfusion. Group II showed lower composite morbidity (odds ratio [OR] −0.05; confidence interval [CI] −0.27-0.17; P=0.81) than Group III (OR 0.41; CI 0.23-0.59; P=0.018) or Group IV (OR 0.54; CI 0.31-0.77; P=0.016). Group III was at greater risk of mortality (OR 0.73; CI 0.43-1.03; P=0.02) than Group II, which was exposed only to anemia (OR −0.13; CI −0.55-0.29; P=0.75), or Group IV (OR 0.29; CI −0.13-0.71; P=0.539). Conclusion: Anemia in patients undergoing CABG with CPB is bad, but blood transfusion can be worse, increasing at least 50% the risk for mortality and/or morbidity.

Humans , Adolescent , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Anemia/etiology , Brazil , Coronary Artery Bypass , Retrospective Studies
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e085, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1285720


Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence, type and severity of anemia at the time of diagnosis of oral cancer, and its potential association with the degree of tumor cell differentiation. This case-control study used 366 medical records of patients treated at two referral centers for oral cancer diagnosis, specifically: cases (n=70) with a histopathological diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) of the oral cavity, and controls (n=296) with benign oral lesions. Sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical variables of both groups, as well as complete blood count values, were analyzed by descriptive statistics and crude/adjusted logistic regression. Anemia was detected in 15.7% of the cases and 11.8% of the controls. The presence of anemia had an OR=1.64 (odds ratio) (95%CI 0.54-5.00) for OSCC, with no significantly statistical association. Normocytic anemia was the most prevalent form of anemia when oral cancer was diagnosed (91.4% of the controls and 72.7% of the cases), and moderate to severely low hemoglobin levels were associated with OSCC diagnosis (OR 6.49; 95%CI 1.18-35.24), albeit data on hematological examinations were missing.

Humans , Mouth Neoplasms/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/epidemiology , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Anemia/etiology , Anemia/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880332


BACKGROUND@#Tuberculosis is a major public health problem caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, occurring predominantly in population with low socioeconomic status. It is the second most common cause of death from infectious diseases. Tuberculosis becomes a double burden among anemic patients. Anemia increases an individual's susceptibility to infectious diseases including tuberculosis by reducing the immunity level. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether anemia is a risk factor for tuberculosis.@*METHOD@#Relevant published articles were searched in electronic databases like PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library using the following MeSH terms: risk factor, predictors, tuberculosis, TB, Anaemia, Anemia, hemoglobin, Hgb, and Hb. Articles written in the English, observational studies conducted on the incidence/prevalence of tuberculosis among anemic patients, or papers examined anemia as risk factors for tuberculosis were included. From those studies meeting eligibility criteria, the first author's name, publication year, study area, sample size and age of participants, study design, and effect measure of anemia for tuberculosis were extracted. The data were entered using Microsoft Excel and exported to Stata version 11 for analysis. The random-effects model was applied to estimate the pooled OR and HR, and 95% CI. The sources of heterogeneity were tested by Cochrane I-squared statistics. The publication bias was assessed using Egger's test statistics.@*RESULTS@#A total of 17 articles with a 215,294 study participants were included in the analysis. The odd of tuberculosis among anemic patients was 3.56 (95% CI 2.53-5.01) times higher than non-anemic patients. The cohort studies showed that the HR of tuberculosis was 2.01 (95% CI 1.70-2.37) times higher among anemic patients than non-anemic patients. The hazard of tuberculosis also increased with anemia severity (HR 1.37 (95% CI 0.92-2.05), 2.08 (95% CI 1.14-3.79), and 2.66 (95% CI 1.71-4.13) for mild, moderate, and severe anemia, respectively).@*CONCLUSION@#According to the current systematic review and meta-analysis, we can conclude that anemia was a risk factor for tuberculosis. Therefore, anemia screening, early diagnose, and treatment should be provoked in the community to reduce the burden of tuberculosis.

Anemia/etiology , Humans , Risk Factors , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
Femina ; 48(10): 637-640, 20201031. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127706


A anemia no puerpério é bastante prevalente, estando principalmente relacionada à ocorrência de anemia não corrigida durante a gestação e às hemorragias agudas durante o parto. Essas situações aumentam significativamente a probabilidade de anemia grave no período pós-parto, gerando manifestações orgânicas e psicológicas que trazem prejuízo ao binômio materno-fetal. A forma grave da doença é caracterizada laboratorialmente por hemoglobina < 7 g/dL e suas manifestações clínicas variam na dependência de diversos fatores. O objetivo do tratamento é corrigir a hipóxia tecidual, revertendo as alterações adaptativas relacionadas à carência de oxigênio. Enquanto o tratamento agressivo de perdas volêmicas agudas diminui a morbimortalidade por esses eventos, políticas restritivas de transfusão sanguínea em pacientes hemodinamicamente estáveis mostram-se benéficas. Se não houver indicação de transfusão, a reposição de ferro atuará na correção das principais etiologias, pelas vias endovenosa ou oral, na dependência de disponibilidade, custo e tolerância individual aos medicamentos disponíveis.(AU)

Anemia is quite prevalent in puerperium; in this population, the disease is mainly related to the occurrence of uncorrected anemia during pregnancy and to acute bleeding during childbirth. These situations significantly increase the likelihood of severe anemia in the postpartum period, generating organic and psychological manifestations that cause damage to the maternal-fetal binomial. The severe form of anemia is characterized by hemoglobin < 7 g/dL and its clinical manifestations vary depending on several factors. The goal of treatment is to correct tissue hypoxia, reversing adaptive changes related to oxygen deficiency. While the aggressive treatment of acute blood losses decreases the morbidity and mortality of these events, restrictive blood transfusion policies in hemodynamically stable patients are beneficial. If there is no indication for transfusion, iron replacement will act to correct the main etiologies, through the intravenous or oral routes, depending on availability, cost and individual tolerance to the available drugs.(AU)

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Blood Transfusion , Postpartum Period , Anemia/etiology , Anemia/drug therapy , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/physiopathology , Postpartum Hemorrhage/physiopathology , Monitoring, Physiologic
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(3): 105-116, sept. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1129064


Este trabajo tiene como objetivo revisar las contribuciones de la biotecnología, en relación con el tratamiento, diagnóstico y la monitorización de la enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) y sus comorbilidades más frecuentes, especialmente la anemia. En relación con los tratamientos, enfocamos el desarrollo de productos biofarmacéuticos como los agentes estimulantes de la eritropoyesis (ESA), que fueron los primeros biofármacos utilizados para el tratamiento de la anemia asociada a la ERC; analizamos sus características y utilización actual después de varios años de experiencia clínica, así como también otras alternativas en desarrollo. Revisamos distintos tipos de bioterapias, la utilización de las células estromales mesenquimales de médula ósea (MSC) y tratamientos alternativos con modificaciones dietarias, que se basan en la asociación entre la microbiota intestinal de los pacientes renales crónicos y sus condiciones fisiopatológicas. Finalmente, en relación con el diagnóstico y monitorización, nos referimos al estudio y validación de biomarcadores diagnósticos, predictivos y terapéuticos que han permitido optimizar los resultados clínicos en este tipo de pacientes. (AU)

The aim of this work is to review the contributions of biotechnology, in relation to the treatment, diagnosis and monitoring of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its most frequent comorbidities, especially anemia. Regarding the treatment, we focus on the development of biopharmaceutical products such as erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESA), which were the first biopharmaceuticals used to treat anemia associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We analyzed their characteristics and their current use after several years of clinical experience, as well as other alternatives in development. We also review different types of biotherapies, the use of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) and alternative treatments with dietary modifications, which are based on the association between the intestinal microbiota of chronic kidney patients and their pathophysiological conditions. Finally, in relation to diagnosis and monitoring, we refer to the study and validation of diagnostic, predictive and therapeutic biomarkers that have made clinical results possible to be optimized in this type of patient. (AU)

Humans , Biological Therapy/trends , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Quality of Life , Biotechnology , Biomarkers , Erythropoietin/deficiency , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/trends , Erythropoiesis/drug effects , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diet therapy , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/rehabilitation , Prebiotics/classification , Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Hematinics/administration & dosage , Hematinics/pharmacology , Hematinics/pharmacokinetics , Anemia/diagnosis , Anemia/etiology , Anemia/drug therapy
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 85(2): 155-161, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115511


OBJETIVO: Remarcar la importancia de hacer un adecuado diagnóstico diferencial de la anemia y trombocitopenia en la gestante, ya que en ocasiones enmascaran cuadros tan graves como la leucemia. Presentar un caso de leucemia mieloide aguda con una preeclampsia sobreañadida y describir el proceso diagnóstico y terapéutico llevado a cabo. CASO CLÍNICO: Secundigesta, 25 años, gestante de 37 semanas, con antecedentes de preeclampsia, derivada desde atención primaria por alteración analítica y malestar general. A su llegada a urgencias el cuadro clínico es compatible con un Síndrome de HELLP. Tras el estudio del mismo se llega a la certeza de que se trata de una preeclampsia asociada a una leucemia mieloide aguda que ha simulado los parámetros analíticos de un Síndrome de HELLP. CONCLUSIONES: Es importante el adecuado estudio etiológico de la anemia y trombocitopenia en la gestación. La leucemia exige al clínico un abordaje precoz y multidisciplinar tanto diagnóstico como terapéutico.

OBJECTIVE: To emphasize on the importance of performing a precise differential diagnosis of anaemia and thrombocytopenia during pregnancy, as they can be due to important diseases as leukemia. A case of acute myeloid leukemia associated with preeclampsia is reported, describing the complexity of the diagnostic and therapeutic process. CLINICAL CASE: 25-year-old woman, gravida 2, para 1 (preeclampsia), at 36 weeks of gestation was referred to the emergency department by her primary care physician due to severe disturbance on the blood tests and general discomfort. Initially, a HELLP syndrome was suspected. However, after going in depth in the case, the final diagnosis was preeclampsia associated to acute myeloid leukemia, simulating blood parameters in HELLP syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: It is essential to study deeply and carry out a complete differential diagnosis process of anaemia and thrombocytopenia during pregnancy. Leukemia requires an early multidisciplinary management both for diagnosis and treatment.

Humans , Female , Adult , Pre-Eclampsia/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/complications , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/diagnosis , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , HELLP Syndrome/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Anemia/etiology
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 12: 378-384, jan.-dez. 2020. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1052935


Objetivo: Comparar características sociodemográficas, comportamentais, condições de saúde e parâmetros laboratoriais entre idosos anêmicos e não anêmicos. Métodos: Estudo epidemiológico transversal realizado com 257 idosos. Para realizar as comparações utilizou-se o teste t para amostras independentes e o teste não paramétrico U de Mann-Whitney. Resultados: Encontrou-se maior proporção de anemia em idosos com idade acima de 80 anos (p=0,026), e maior proporção de dependência para atividades básicas (p=0,018) e instrumentais (p=0,010) da vida diária em idosos com anemia. Identificou-se diferença na distribuição da dosagem dos parâmetros laboratoriais, sendo as concentrações médias de ureia e creatinina maiores nos idosos anêmicos, e esses tiveram menores concentrações de glicemia, albumina, ALT/TGP, cálcio sérico e T3 total. Conclusão: A anemia não está relacionada exclusivamente ao processo de envelhecimento, mas sim resultado de múltiplos fatores como as condições sociodemográficas, de saúde, alimentares e de vida dos idosos

Objective: To compare sociodemographic, behavioral characteristics, health conditions and laboratory parameters among anemic and non - anemic elderly. Methods: Cross-sectional epidemiological study with 257 elderly subjects. To perform comparisons, the t-test for independent samples and the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test were used. Results: There was a higher proportion of anemia in the elderly over 80 years (p = 0.026), and a higher proportion of dependence on basic activities (p = 0.018) and instrumental (p = 0.010) daily activities in elderly patients with anemia. Differences were observed in the distribution of laboratory parameters, with mean values of urea and creatinine being higher in anemic elderly, with lower concentrations of glycemia, albumin, ALT / TGP, serum calcium and total T3. Conclusion: Anemia is not exclusively related to the aging process, but is a result of multiple factors such as sociodemographic, health, food and life conditions of the elderly

Objetivo: Comparar características sociodemográficas, comportamentales, condiciones de salud y parámetros de laboratorio entre ancianos anémicos y no anémicos. Metodo: Estudio epidemiológico transversal realizado con 257 ancianos. Para realizar las comparaciones se utilizó la prueba t para muestras independientes y la prueba no paramétrica U de Mann-Whitney. Resultados: Se encontró mayor proporción de anemia en ancianos con edad superior a 80 años (p = 0,026), y mayor proporción de dependencia para actividades básicas (p = 0,018) e instrumentales (p = 0,010) de la vida diaria en ancianos con anemia. Se identificó diferencia en la distribución de la dosificación de los parámetros de laboratorio, siendo las concentraciones medias de urea y creatinina mayores en los ancianos anêmicos. Conclusión: La anemia no está relacionada exclusivamente con el proceso de envejecimiento, sino el resultado de múltiples factores como las condiciones sociodemográficas, de salud, alimentos y de vida de los ancianos

Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aged/statistics & numerical data , Anemia/diagnosis , Anemia/etiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Health of the Elderly , Cross-Sectional Studies , Elderly Nutrition
J. bras. nefrol ; 41(4): 472-480, Out.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056605


Abstract Introduction: Anemic patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be divided into anemic patients without or with functional iron deficiency (FID). The increase in the number of cases of hemosiderosis in patients on hemodialysis (HD) attributed to excessive intravenous iron replacement has called for the investigation of the factors involved in the genesis of FID. Objectives: This study aimed to describe the prevalence of FID in patients with CKD on HD, characterize the included individuals in terms of clinical and workup parameters, and assess their nutritional, oxidative stress, and inflammation statuses. This cross-sectional study assembled a convenience sample of 183 patients with CKD on HD treated in Southern Brazil. Patients meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were divided into two groups, one with anemic subjects with FID and one with anemic patients without FID. Participants answered a questionnaire probing into socio-epidemiological factors, underwent anthropometric measurements, and were tested for markers of anemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, and nutrition. Statistical analysis: The date sets were treated on software package GraphPad InStat version 3.1. Variables were tested with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov, chi-square, Student's t, and Mann-Whitney tests. Statistical significance was attributed to differences with a p < 0.05. Results: Markers of inflammation were not statistically different between the two groups. Markers of anemia and nutrition were significantly lower in patients with FID. Patients with FID were prescribed higher doses of parenteral iron (p < 0,05). Discussion: FID was associated with lower nutritional marker levels, but not to increased levels of markers of inflammation or oxidative stress, as reported in the literature. Additional studies on the subject are needed.

Resumo Introdução: A anemia na DRC pode ser dividida em anemia sem deficiência funcional de ferro e com deficiência funcional de ferro (ADFF). Diante do aumento dos casos de hemossiderose em pacientes em hemodiálise, atribuídos à reposição excessiva de ferro endovenoso, maiores conhecimentos sobre os fatores envolvidos na gênese da ADFF são importantes. Objetivos: documentar a prevalência de ADFF em renais crônicos em hemodiálise. Caracterizar clínica e laboratorialmente os portadores de ADFF em HD e avaliar o estado nutricional, estresse oxidativo e inflamatório. Estudo transversal, amostra de conveniência, envolvendo 183 renais crônicos em hemodiálise no sul do Brasil. Após aplicação dos critérios de exclusão, os pacientes foram separados em dois grupos: portadores de anemia com e sem deficiência funcional de ferro. Foram submetidos a questionário socioepidemiológico, à análise antropométrica e análise laboratorial dos marcadores de anemia, estresse oxidativo, inflamatórios e nutricionais. Análise estatística: programa GraphPad InStat versão 3.1. Foram aplicados os testes: Kolmogorov-Smirnov, qui-quadrado, t de Student e Mann-Whitney. Nível de significância adotado de 5%. Resultados: não houve diferença significativa nos marcadores inflamatórios entre os dois grupos. Houve diferença significativa nos marcadores de anemia e nutrição, significativamente menores nos pacientes com ADFF. Pacientes com ADFF receberam doses mais elevadas de ferro parenteral (p < 0,05). Discussão: ADFF esteve associada a menores valores de marcadores nutricionais, mas não esteve associada a marcadores inflamatórios ou de estresse oxidativo aumentados, como relatado na literatura. Estudos adicionais sobre o tema são necessários.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Biomarkers/metabolism , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Inflammation/metabolism , Anemia/etiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Nutrition Assessment , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/epidemiology , Administration, Intravenous , Hemosiderosis/epidemiology , Anemia/epidemiology , Iron/administration & dosage , Iron/adverse effects , Nitric Oxide/metabolism
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 84(5): 340-345, oct. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058159


RESUMEN INTRODUCCIÓN: La anemia fetal es una importante causa de morbilidad y mortalidad perinatal. En la actualidad la principal herramienta terapéutica es la transfusión fetal intrauterina, permitiendo una mejoría en el pronóstico y sobrevida en fetos con anemia severa. El objetivo de este estudio fue reportar los resultados obtenidos en el Centro de Referencia Perinatal Oriente (CERPO). MÉTODO: Se realizó un análisis descriptivo retrospectivo de los casos de anemia fetal que requirieron transfusión intrauterina en CERPO entre los años 2003-2019. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 17 embarazos, con un total de 27 procedimientos. La sobrevida perinatal fue de 82%, con un 18% de mortalidad perinatal. Se reporta una tasa de mortalidad de 3,7% asociado al procedimiento. CONCLUSIÓN: Los resultados observados son similares a lo publicado, con una tasa de complicaciones similar a lo reportado en la literatura internacional y nacional.

SUMMARY INTRODUCTION: Fetal anemia is an important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. At present, the main therapeutic tool is intrauterine fetal transfusion, allowing an improvement in the prognosis and survival in fetuses with severe anemia. The objective of this study was to report the results obtained in Centro de Referencia Perinatal Oriente (CERPO). METHOD: A retrospective descriptive analysis of the cases of fetal anemia that required intrauterine transfusion in CERPO between 2003-2019. RESULTS: There were 17 pregnancies included, with a total of 27 procedures. Perinatal survival was 82%, with 18% perinatal mortality; a mortality rate of 3.7% is reported per procedure. CONCLUSION: The observed results agree with previous reports.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Blood Transfusion, Intrauterine/methods , Fetal Diseases/therapy , Anemia/therapy , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies , Gestational Age , Fetal Death , Anemia/etiology
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(9): 3257-3264, set. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019655


Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar a associação entre a anemia e algumas atividades de vida diária associadas à alimentação e o relato de dificuldade de mastigação e deglutição. Estudo transversal, que analisou 1.256 indivíduos de 60 anos ou mais, que fizeram parte da terceira coleta do Estudo SABE (Saúde, Bem-estar e Envelhecimento). Considerou-se anêmicos homens com hemoglobina sanguínea ≤ 13g/dL e mulheres com valores ≤ 12g/dL. Houve prevalência de anemia maior nos indivíduos que relataram redução no consumo alimentar devido a queixas de mastigação e deglutição, naqueles com dificuldade de mastigação e nos que relataram dificuldade em alimentar-se devido queixas de mastigação e deglutição. A prevalência também foi maior nos indivíduos com dificuldade de alimentar-se sozinho e de fazer compras de alimentos. Nas análises, a presença de uma queixa de mastigação e deglutição foi associada à chance de anemia quase 2 vezes maior que aqueles indivíduos sem queixas, e a presença de 2 ou 3 queixas de mastigação e deglutição foi associada à chance de 2,7. Os idosos com dificuldades de deglutição e mastigação apresentaram maior prevalência de anemia, mesmo após ajuste de outros fatores associados, com efeito dose-resposta, evidenciando a importância de um trabalho multidisciplinar com o idoso.

Abstract Aim: To evaluate the association between anemia and some activities of daily living associated with feeding and the difficulty in chewing and swallowing. Methods: Cross-sectional study, which examined 1256 individuals, aged 60 or older who were part of the third collection of the SABE Study (Health, Well-Being and Aging). We classified as anemic men with blood haemoglobin ≤ 13 g/dL and women with values ≤ 12 g/dL. Results: Prevalence of anemia was higher in individuals who reported reduction in food consumption due to chewing and swallowing complaints, in individuals with difficulty to chew and in individuals who reported difficulty to feed themselves due to chewing and swallowing complaints. Anemia was also more prevalent in those with difficulty to feed themselves and to shop for food. In the analyses, the presence of chewing and swallowing complaints was associated with a chance of anemia almost 2 times greater than for individuals without complaints, and the presence of 2 or 3 chewing and swallowing complaints was associated with a 2.7 chance of anemia. Conclusion: The presence of difficulties in chewing and swallowing were associated with higher prevalence of anemia, even after adjustment for other factors, with a dose-response effect, indicating the importance of a multidisciplinary work with older adults.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Activities of Daily Living , Deglutition , Anemia/epidemiology , Mastication , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Regression Analysis , Risk Factors , Eating , Anemia/etiology , Anemia/blood , Middle Aged
Rev. cuba. endocrinol ; 30(2): e197, mayo.-ago. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126436


RESUMEN El síndrome de Van Wyk-Grumbach se caracteriza por hipotiroidismo primario de larga duración asociado a pubertad precoz. Se presenta una paciente de 7 años, mestiza, que acude por sangrado vaginal, acompañado de hiperpigmentación de las areolas sin galactorrea, abdomen globuloso, mixedema, hirsutismo, baja talla, astenia y retraso escolar. La química sanguínea mostró anemia, hipercolesterolemia y hipertransaminasemia; los estudios de imágenes constataron derrame pericárdico, retraso marcado de la edad ósea, incremento de las dimensiones de la silla turca y gran quiste del ovario con aparente criterio quirúrgico. Los estudios hormonales confirmaron la sospecha de hipotiroidismo primario asociado a hiperprolactinemia. El tratamiento sustitutivo con levotiroxina sódica revirtió los signos y síntomas de pubertad precoz, lo que evitó la cirugía del quiste de ovario; la recuperación en el ambiente escolar y social fue indiscutible. Reconocer esta entidad evita tratamientos absolutamente contraindicados, como la extirpación de los quistes o el tratamiento quirúrgico de la hiperplasia hipofisaria(AU)

ABSTRACT Van Wyk-Grumbach syndrome is characterized by long-lasting primary hypothyroidism associated with precocious puberty. A case of a 7-year-old female mestizo patient is reported. She came to consultation for vaginal bleeding, accompanied by hyperpigmentation of the areolas without galactorrhea, globular abdomen, myxedema, hirsutism, short stature, asthenia and school delay. Blood chemistry showed anemia, hypercholesterolemia and hypertransaminasemia. Imaging studies showed pericardial effusion, marked delay in bone age, increased dimensions of Turkish chair and large ovarian cyst with apparent surgical criteria. Hormonal studies confirmed the suspicion of primary hypothyroidism associated with hyperprolactinemia. Substitute treatment with levothyroxine sodium reversed the signs and symptoms of precocious puberty, which prevented ovarian cyst surgery; the recovery in the school and social environment was certain. Recognizing this entity avoids absolutely contraindicated treatments, such as the removal of cysts or the surgical treatment of pituitary hyperplasia(AU)

Humans , Female , Child , Puberty, Precocious , Thyroxine/therapeutic use , Hypercholesterolemia/etiology , Hypothyroidism/diagnosis , Anemia/etiology
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 36(3): 275-285, jul.-set. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-977071


RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a prevalência e os fatores associados à anemia em lactentes assistidos por Unidades de Saúde de Vitória da Conquista, Bahia. Métodos: Estudo transversal com uma amostra representativa de 366 crianças de 6 a 23 meses. Realizou-se aplicação de questionário ao cuidador, avaliação antropométrica e dosagem de hemoglobina das crianças. As associações foram identificadas por meio da regressão de Poisson com variâncias robustas com seleção hierárquica das variáveis independentes. Resultados: A prevalência de anemia foi de 26,8%, e os fatores associados foram: renda familiar igual ou inferior a um salário mínimo (RP: 1,50; IC95% 1,03-2,18), número de moradores no domicílio superior a cinco (RP: 1,50; IC95% 1,07-2,11), utilização de água não filtrada (RP: 1,68; IC95% 1,11 -2,56), número de filhos maior que três (RP: 1,64; IC95% 1,01-2,68), consumo de carne e/ou vísceras menor que uma vez por semana (RP: 1,78; IC95% 1,24-2,58) e idade de 6 a 11 meses (RP: 1,75; IC95% 1,20-2,55). Conclusões: A anemia nos lactentes avaliados é um moderado problema de saúde pública, a qual está associada a fatores socioeconômicos, demográficos e dietéticos. Dessa forma, medidas são necessárias para sua prevenção.

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of anemia and the associated factors in infants assisted in health units of Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Northeast Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional study with a representative sample of 366 children aged 6 to 23 months. A questionnaire was applied to the caregiver, and the children's anthropometric measurements and hemoglobin levels were collected. The associations were identified by Poisson regression with robust variances based on a hierarchical analysis model. Results: The prevalence of anemia was 26.8%, and the associated factors were: family income equal to or lower than one minimum wage (PR: 1.50; 95%CI 1.03-2.18), number of household members higher than five (PR: 1.50; 95%CI 1.07-2.11), use of unfiltered water (PR: 1.68; 95%CI 1.11-2.56), number of offspring higher than three (PR: 1.64; 95%CI 1.01-2.68), consumption of meat and/or viscera less than once/week (PR: 1.78; 95%CI 1.24-2.58) and age 6-11 months (PR: 1.75; 95%CI 1.20-2.55). Conclusions: Anemia in the infants assessed is a moderate public health problem, which is associated with socioeconomic, demographic, and dietary factors; thus, measures are necessary for its prevention.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Anemia/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Anemia/etiology
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 89(2): 86-98, abr. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-950127


Resumen: Introducción: la anemia ferropénica, las alteraciones nutricionales y las parasitosis intestinales, principalmente giardiasis y helmintiasis transmitidas por el suelo (HTS) son problemas prevalentes en Uruguay, que determinan consecuencias en la salud individual y colectiva. Objetivo: determinar prevalencia de anemia, alteraciones nutricionales y enteroparasitosis en niños de 6-48 meses, de una población vulnerable de Montevideo, establecer posibles sinergismos y analizar presencia de factores de riesgo. Material y métodos: estudio descriptivo, transversal. Población: niños de 6-48 meses pertenecientes a un programa de apoyo a hogares vulnerables de Montevideo. Estudiantes y docentes de Medicina y Nutrición capacitados concurrieron a los domicilios y mediante encuestas recolectaron variables demográficas, ambientales, epidemiológicas, clínicas y hábitos, entre octubre/2014 a mayo/2015. Realizaron medidas antropométricas, hemoglobina capilar y coproparasitario. Análisis de datos: EPIinfo2000 complementada con SPSS19. Análisis estadístico: uni o multivariados. Asociaciones entre dos variables: test de Z o chi². Asociaciones entre más de dos variables: regresiones múltiples. Protocolo aprobado por el Comité de Ética de la Facultad de Medicina. Resultados: N: 136 niños. Prevalencia de anemia: 33%, bajo peso: 3,7%, retraso de talla: 18% y sobrepeso/obesidad: 4,5%. Albergaban parásitos patógenos: 60% de los estudiados; giardiasis: 46% y HTS: 23%, poliparasitados: 13%. Condiciones que presentaron asociación con HTS: zona inundable, alternativas de saneamiento no mejorado y eliminación de residuos a cielo abierto. Asociaciones significativas encontradas: entre HTS y anemia; y entre HTS y déficit de talla (grupo de 1-2 años). Conclusiones: los resultados son preocupantes dada la alta prevalencia de anemia, alteraciones nutricionales y parasitosis en esta población. Urge la planificación y ejecución de medidas con participación multidisciplinaria, interinstitucional y comunitaria.

Summary: Introduction: iron deficiency anemia, nutritional alterations and intestinal parasitic diseases, mainly giardiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (HTS) are prevalent problems in Uruguay, which determine consequences for individual and collective health. Objective: to determine the prevalence of anemia, nutritional alterations and enteroparasitosis in children of 6-48 months of a vulnerable population of Montevideo, to establish possible synergisms and to analyze the presence of risk factors. Material and methods: descriptive, cross-sectional study. Population: children aged 6-48 months belonging to a program to support vulnerable homes in Montevideo. Students and teachers of Medicine and Nutrition trained, attended the homes and through surveys, collected demographic, environmental, epidemiological, clinical and habits variables, between October / 2014-May / 2015. They performed anthropometric measures, capillary hemoglobin and coproparasitary. Data analysis: EPIinfo2000 complemented with SPSS19. Statistical analysis: uni or multivariate. Associations between 2 variables: test of Z or chi². Associations between more than 2 variables: multiple regressions. Protocol approved by the Ethics Committee of the School of Medicine. Results: N: 136 children. Prevalence of anemia: 33%, low weight: 3.7%, size retardation: 18% and overweight / obesity: 4.5%. They harbored pathogenic parasites: 60% of those studied; Giardiasis: 46% and HTS: 23%, polyparasites: 13%. Conditions that presented association with HTS: flood zone, alternatives of sanitation not improved and elimination of open pit. Significant associations found: between HTS and anemia; and between HTS and height deficit (group of 1-2 years). Conclusions: the results are worrying given the high prevalence of anemia, nutritional alterations and parasites in this population. The planning and implementation of measures with multidisciplinary, inter-institutional and community participation is urgently needed.

Resumo: Introdução: a anemia ferropênica, as alterações nutricionais e as parasitoses intestinais, principalmente giardíase e helmintíase transmitida pelo solo (HTS) são problemas prevalentes no Uruguai e têm consequências para a saúde individual e coletiva. Objetivo: determinar a prevalência de anemia, alterações nutricionais e enteroparasitoses em crianças de 6 a 48 meses numa população vulnerável em Montevidéu, estabelecer possíveis sinergias e analisar a presença de fatores de risco. Material e métodos: estudo descritivo, transversal. População: crianças de 6 a 48 meses pertencentes a um programa de apoio a famílias vulneráveis em Montevidéu. Alunos e professores de Medicina e Nutrição foram treinados, frequentaram as residências e por meio de pesquisas coletaram variáveis demográficas, ambientais, epidemiológicas, clínicas e de hábito, entre outubro de 2014 e maio de 2015. Realizaram medidas antropométricas, hemoglobina capilar e coproparasitológico. Análise de dados: EPIinfo2000 complementado com SPSS19. Análise estatística: uni ou multivariada. Associações entre duas variáveis: teste de Z ou chi². Associações entre mais de duas variáveis: regressões múltiplas. Protocolo aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética da Faculdade de Medicina. Resultados: N: 136 crianças. Prevalência de anemia: 33%, baixo peso: 3,7%, atraso na altura: 18% sobrepeso / obesidade: 4,5%. Parásitos patogênicos: 60%; Giardíase: 46% e HTS: 23%, poliparasitizados: 13%. Condições que apresentaram associação com HTS: zonas de inundação, alternativas precárias de saneamento e disposição de resíduos a céu aberto. Associações significativas encontradas: entre HTS e anemia; e entre HTS e déficit de altura (grupo de 1-2 anos). Conclusões: os resultados são preocupantes, dada a alta prevalência de anemia, alterações nutricionais e parasitoses nessa população. É fundamental o planejamento e execução de medidas tais como participação multidisciplinar, interinstitucional e comunitária.

Humans , Male , Growth Disorders/etiology , Anemia/complications , Anemia/etiology , Anemia/epidemiology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/complications , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Nutrition Disorders , Uruguay/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Geographical Localization of Risk , Vulnerable Populations
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(7): e7288, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889124


Anemia is an inevitable complication of hemodialysis, and the primary cause is erythropoietin deficiency. After diagnosis, treatment begins with an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA). However, some patients remain anemic even after receiving this medication. This study aimed to investigate the factors associated with resistance to recombinant human erythropoietin therapy with epoetin alfa (αEPO). We performed a prospective, longitudinal study of hemodialysis patients receiving treatment with αEPO at our reference hospital from July 2015 to June 2016. Clinical data was collected, and the response to αEPO treatment was evaluated using the erythropoietin resistance index (ERI). The ERI was defined as the weekly weight-adjusted αEPO dose (U/kg per week)/hemoglobin level (g/dL). A longitudinal linear regression model was fitted with random effects to verify the relationships between clinical and laboratory data and ERI. We enrolled 99 patients (average age, 45.7 (±17.6) years; male, 51.5%; 86.8% with hypertension). The ERI showed a significant positive association with serum ferritin and C-reactive protein, percentage interdialytic weight gain, and continuous usage of angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) hypertension medication. The ERI was negatively associated with serum iron and albumin, age, urea reduction ratio, and body mass index. Our findings indicate that resistance to αEPO was related to a low serum iron reserve, an inflammatory state, poor nutritional status, and continuous usage of ARBs.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Anemia/drug therapy , Anemia/etiology , Drug Resistance/drug effects , Epoetin Alfa/therapeutic use , Hematinics/therapeutic use , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Body Mass Index , Erythropoiesis/drug effects , Erythropoietin/deficiency , Hemoglobins/analysis , Iron/blood , Linear Models , Longitudinal Studies , Prospective Studies , Reference Values , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
In. Díaz, Lilian. Consultas frecuentes en hematología ambulatoria. Montevideo, Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Medicina. Cátedra de Hematología, 2017. p.127-133.
Monography in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1362310
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 66(4): 309-318, dic. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-838458


En niños mexicanos la obesidad, talla baja y anemia son problemas que coexisten principalmente en poblaciones rurales que comparten el mismo territorio geográfico, esto les otorga riesgos diferenciados. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la asociación y magnitud del riesgo de indicadores de síndrome metabólico en niños escolares. Se realizó un estudio transversal analítico en una muestra probabilística de 746 escolares (5-13 años) del estado de Hidalgo, México; en quienes se determinó la seguridad alimentaria, el puntaje Z de IMC, T-E y la adiposidad central; se midió la presión arterial y se cuantificó hemoglobina para diagnosticar anemia. Se cuantificó en suero glucosa, triglicéridos, colesterol total, colesterol HDL e insulina; y se calculó el índice HOMA. La prevalencia de síndrome metabólico en los niños sanos fue de 3.4 %, en talla baja de 6.4 %, en sobrepeso de 15.7 % y en obesidad de 38.4 %. En el grupo de niños con anemia se registraron los OR de insulina (0.39, IC=0.18-0.87) y HOMA (0.21, IC=0.05-0.87) más bajos y en niños con obesidad (5.42, IC=3.07-9.54 y 4.12, IC=2.05-8.29) los más altos. Se concluye que en la anemia existe un menor riesgo metabólico y que el sobrepeso y la obesidad se asocian con dislipidemias y alteración en la secreción de insulina(AU)

Components of the metabolic syndrome in Mexican school children stunted, normal weight and overweight. Obesity, stunting and anemia are problems that coexist among Mexican children in rural populations that share the same geographical territory; this grants them differentiated risks. The objective of this research was to determine the magnitude of risk and the association of metabolic syndrome indicators among school children. A transversal analytic study was performed for a probabilistic sample of 746 school children from the State of Hidalgo, Mexico, for whom alimentary security, the Z score of BMI, HA and central adiposity were determined; blood pressure was measured and hemoglobin was quantified in order to detect anemia. It was quantified in serum: glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and insulin; HOMA index was calculated. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in children of normal weight and height was of 3.4 %, 6.4 % in short stature, 15.7 % in over weight and 38.4 % in obesity. In the group of children with anemia, the lowest OR insulin were recorded (0.39, IC=0.18- 0.87) and HOMA (0.21, IC=0.05-0.87); as for children with obesity these scores were the highest (5.42, IC=3.07-9.54 and 4.12, IC=2.05-8.29). It is concluded that there is a lower metabolic risk in anemia and that overweight and obesity are associated with dyslipidemia and impaired insulin secretion(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Weight by Height , Nutritional Status , Metabolic Syndrome , Overweight/etiology , Anemia/etiology , Obesity/etiology , Social Conditions , Anthropometry , Public Health , Metabolic Diseases
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 66(3): 159-164, Sept. 2016.
Article in English | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-838441


Nutritional iron deficiency anemia is considered the main public health problem of poor less-developed and developing countries. The World Health Organization has estimated that 1.5-2.0 billion persons are anemic. It has been said that close to 1 million deaths are linked to iron deficiency anemia. The groups most vulnerable to this form of anemia are said to be small children and women of reproductive age. Our goal is to show that iron fortification in the water, will control anemia. The method used was a literature review. Methods have been identified to control anemia, but the fortification of water is a more efficient, low cost, reaches the entire population, prevents and treats deficiency anemia. We concluded that the iron fortification of drinking water at home is a simple, effective, and low-priced approach for the prevention of iron deficiency anemia prevalent in poor and developing countries(AU)

A anemia por deficiência nutricional de ferro é considerada o principal problema de saúde pública dos países menos-desenvolvidos e em desenvolvimento. A Organização Mundial de Saúde estimou que 1,5-2,0 milhões de pessoas são anêmicas. Aproximadamente 1 milhão de mortes estão ligadas a anemia por deficiência de ferro. Os grupos mais vulneráveis a anemia são crianças e mulheres em idade reprodutiva. Nosso objetivo é mostrar que fortificação de ferro na água, irá controlar anemia. O método utilizado foi revisão da literatura. Diversos métodos têm sido identificados para controle da anemia, mas a fortificação da água é uma forma mais eficiente e de baixo custo, atingindo toda a população, previnindo e tratando a anemia por deficiência. Concluímos que a fortificação de ferro na água potável em casa é uma abordagem simples, eficaz e de baixo custo para a prevenção da anemia ferropriva prevalente nos países pobres e em desenvolvimento(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , /complications , Water/analysis , Anemia/etiology , Iron/administration & dosage , Risk Groups , Child , Sexual Development , Developing Countries
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol ; 81(3): 234-242, jun. 2016. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-788915


INTRODUCCIÓN: Entre 15-20% de los embarazos gemelares monocoriales biamnióticos se complican con el síndrome de transfusión feto/fetal el cual se asocia con mortalidad superior a 90% y morbilidad significativa en el 50% del gemelo sobreviviente. La técnica láser que coagula la superficie de la placa coriónica entre los principales canales a lo largo del ecuador (técnica de Solomon), se ha sugerido para disminuir la recurrencia, prevenir complicaciones secundarias sin incrementar resultados adversos. Métodos: REVISIÓN de la literatura existente en las bases de datos MEDLINE, EBSCO, OVID, PROQUEST, COCHRANE, Lilacs, SciELO, desde el año 2000 al 2015. Se incluyeron los artículos de revisión e investigaciones originales que compararon la técnica estándar de fotocoagulación secuencial con láser y la técnica de Solomon, el resultado primario fue la reducción de la incidencia Secuencia Anemia Policitemia, recurrencia del síndrome de transfusión feto/fetal, mortalidad perinatal y morbilidad neonatal severa. RESULTADOS: Se encontraron 200 artículos, se seleccionaron seis: 1 ensayo clínico y su análisis secundario, 2 estudios de cohorte retrospectivos, 1 revisión sistemática y un estudio que compara los resultados del neurodesarrollo. Los estudios sugieren una mejoría en la sobrevida de algunos de los fetos con la técnica Solomon, menor recurrencia del síndrome de transfusión feto/fetal y Secuencia Anemia Policitemia, sin la presencia de eventos adversos. CONCLUSIÓN: La técnica de Solomon mejora la sobrevida de algunos gemelos, sin embargo no puede concluirse que haya mejoría en la mortalidad pues los estudios no tienen el suficiente poder para determinarlo.

INTRODUCTION: Between 15 to 20% of monochorionic diamniotic twin pregnancies are complicated by the twin-twin transfusion syndrome. It has a mortality greater than 90% and a significant morbidity, 50% in the surviving twin. The Solomon technique (laser photocoagulation of the main vascular channels of the chorio-nic plate surface along the entire vascular equator) has been suggested to reduce the recurrence, and pre-vent secondary complications without increasing adverse results. METHODS: Systematic review of electronic searches of the literature from 2000 to 2015 (MEDLINE, EBSCO, OVID, PROQUEST, COCHRANE, Lilacs, and SciELO). We included review articles and original investigations comparing the standard photocoagulation technique with laser ablation against the Solomon technique. The primary results were reduction of Anemia Polycythemia Sequence incidence, twin-twin transfusion syndrome recurrence, perinatal mortality and severe neonatal morbidity. RESULTS: Of 200 articles, we selected six: one clinical essay and its secondary analysis, two retrospective cohort studies, one systematic review and a study comparing neurodeve-lopmental outcomes. The studies suggested a survival improvement in some fetuses using the Solomon technique, less twin-twin transfusion syndrome recurrence and Anemia Polycythemia Sequence without the presence of adverse effects. CONCLUSION: Solomon technique improves the survival of some twins, although we cannot conclude there is mortality improvement, because the studies do not have enough power to determine that.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Laser Coagulation/methods , Fetofetal Transfusion/surgery , Polycythemia/etiology , Syndrome , Twins , Pregnancy Outcome , Treatment Outcome , Fetofetal Transfusion/complications , Fetoscopy , Anemia/etiology , Light Coagulation
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 21(2): 517-530, Fev. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-773537


Resumo O presente estudo investigou os fatores associados à anemia e deficiência de micronutrientes em análise transversal conduzida com 150 crianças de 11 a 14 meses atendidas em unidades básicas de saúde em Rio Branco, Acre. Amostras de sangue venoso foram obtidas para avaliar a ocorrência de anemia, deficiência de ferro (DF) e de vitaminas A (DVA) e B12 (DVB12). Modelos múltiplos de regressão de Poisson foram utilizados para identificar fatores associados à anemia. Anemia, DF, DVA e DVB12 foram observadas em 23%, 76%, 18% e 20% das crianças, respectivamente. Os fatores associados à anemia foram: não ser filho único, residir em domicílio sem acesso a TV a cabo ou internet, déficit de estatura para idade (E/I), introdução tardia da alimentação complementar superior a 240 dias, DVA, DVB12, e evidência de infecção vigente (proteína C reativa plasmática > 5 mg/L). Houve menor ocorrência de anemia entre crianças com peso ao nascer > 3.500g. Do total de crianças, 82% apresentaram pelo menos uma das deficiências de micronutrientes (DF, DVA, DVB12). Ações com ênfase em práticas alimentares saudáveis oportunas, melhor manejo de morbidades e suplementação com outros micronutrientes devem ser priorizadas no aprimoramento do serviço de puericultura da atenção básica à saúde deste município.

Abstract The present study investigated the factors associated with anemia and micronutrient deficiencies in a cross-sectional analysis conducted with 150 children aged 11 to 14 months attending at basic health centers in Rio Branco, Acre. Venous blood samples were obtained to assess the occurrence of anemia and deficiencies of iron (ID), vitamin A (VAD), and B12 (VB12D). Multiple Poisson regression models were used to identify factors associated with anemia. Anemia, ID, VAD and B12D were observed in 23%, 76%, 18% and 20% of children, respectively. The factors associated with anemia were: do not be only child, living in households without access to cable TV or internet, stunting, late introduction of the complementary feeding (more than 240 days), VAD, VB12D, and current evidence of infection (plasma CRP > 5 mg/L). There was a lower prevalence of anemia among children with birth weight > 3,500 g. Overall, 82% of the study children had at least one of the micronutrient deficiencies (ID, VAD and VB12D). Actions with emphasis on timely and healthy feeding practices, better management of morbidities and supplementation with other micronutrients should be focused on the improvement of child care services at primary health care in this county.

Humans , Infant , Anemia/epidemiology , Micronutrients , Anemia/etiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Nutritional Status , Prevalence , Primary Health Care