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1.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 20(1): e681, ene.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156364

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El estudio y tratamiento del dolor ha sido una de las preocupaciones más importantes en los últimos 30 años en el ámbito médico mundial. Desde hace varias décadas a nivel internacional se realizan estudios sobre el efecto del tramadol y la lidocaína como analgésicos intraoperatorio, con el fin de obtener una adecuada analgesia durante el procedimiento quirúrgico y el periodo posoperatorio inmediato. Objetivo: Comparar el efecto analgésico del tramadol y la lidocaína durante el período transoperatorio en caninos programados para intervención quirúrgica. Método: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo, comparativo, con animales programados para tratamiento quirúrgico por presentar tumores periféricos. Se incluyeron 10 animales divididos en 2 grupos. El grupo control (G-C) que recibió lidocaína sin preservo (lidocaína SP) en infusión continua durante el procedimiento quirúrgico y el grupo 1 (G-1) que se le administró tramadol endovenoso previo al acto quirúrgico. Se evaluaron variables hemodinámicas y de oxigenación como indicadores indirectos de dolor transoperatorio. Resultados: La muestra fue homogénea para la edad y el sexo. El comportamiento de las variables hemodinámicas resultó más estable durante la infusión de lidocaína. La saturación periférica de oxígeno fue similar con ambos medicamentos, así como la temperatura. Conclusiones: La infusión intravenosa de lidocaína SP durante el periodo transoperatorio en caninos oncológico demostró una mejor efectividad analgésica en comparación con el tramadol aplicado preoperatoriamente, según los parámetros evaluados(AU)


Introduction: Study and treatment of pain has been one of the most important concerns in the last thirty years in the worldwide medical field. For several decades, international studies have been carried out on the effect of tramadol and lidocaine as intraoperative analgesics, in order to achieve adequate analgesia during surgical procedures and the immediate postoperative period. Objective: To compare the analgesic effect of tramadol and lidocaine during the intraoperative period in canines scheduled for surgical intervention. Method: A prospective, comparative study was carried out with animals scheduled for surgical treatment due to peripheral tumors. Ten animals were included, divided into two groups: the control group, which received lidocaine without preservation in continuous infusion during the surgical procedure, and group 1, which was administered intravenous tramadol prior to the surgical act. Hemodynamic and oxygenation variables were assessed as indirect indicators of intraoperative pain. Results: The sample was homogeneous for age and sex. The behavior of the hemodynamic variables was more stable during the lidocaine infusion. Peripheral oxygen saturation was similar in both drugs, as well as temperature. Conclusions: Intravenous infusion of lidocaine without preservation during the intraoperative period in oncological canines showed better analgesic effectiveness compared to tramadol applied preoperatively, according to the parameters assessed(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Tramadol/therapeutic use , Anesthesia and Analgesia/methods , Lidocaine/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Dog Diseases/drug therapy
3.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(2): 134-139, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-IDPCPROD, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137155

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Currently, transesophageal echodopplercardiography is frequently performed under sedation on an outpatient basis. Sedation is related with increase in incidents on airways. Bearing in mind this scenario, we developed a new double lumen oropharyngeal cannula aimed at keeping airway patency, in addition to reducing risks to patients during endoscopy procedures performed under sedation. The main objective of our study was to assess the incidence of oxygen desaturation in a series of cases of adult patients submitted to outpatient transesophageal echo exam, under sedation and using the oropharyngeal cannula. Method: 30 patients under sedation with intravenous midazolam and propofol were assessed. After loss of consciousness, the cannula was placed and patients were maintained on spontaneous breathing. Oxygen saturation, capnometry, heart rate and non-invasive arterial blood pressure, in addition to subjective data: airway patency, handling of cannula insertion and, comfort of examiner were analyzed. Results: The incidence of mild desaturation was 23.3%, and there was no severe desaturation in any of the cases. The insertion of the oropharyngeal cannula was considered easy for 29 patients (96.6%), and transesophageal echo probe handling was appropriate in 93.33% of exams performed. Conclusions: Transesophageal echo exams under sedation aided by the double-lumen oropharyngeal cannula presented a low incidence of desaturation in patients assessed, and allowed analysis of expired CO2 during the exams.


Resumo Introdução: Nos dias atuais, exames de ecocardiografia transesofágica (ETE) são realizados de forma frequente sob sedação em regime ambulatorial. A sedação está relacionada com aumento de intercorrências nas vias aéreas. Dentro desse contexto, desenvolvemos uma cânula orofaríngea de duplo-lúmen com finalidade de manutenção da via aérea pérvia, reduzindo riscos aos pacientes durante procedimentos endoscópicos sob sedação. O principal objetivo do nosso estudo foi avaliar a incidência de dessaturação em uma série de casos de pacientes adultos submetidos a ETE ambulatorial sob sedação com o uso da cânula orofaríngea. Métodos: Foram avaliados 30 pacientes sedados com midazolam e propofol intravenoso. A cânula foi inserida após perda da consciência e os pacientes foram mantidos com ventilação espontânea. Analisados saturação de oxigênio, capnometria, frequência cardíaca e pressão arterial não invasiva, além de dados subjetivos: patência das vias aéreas, manuseio e inserção da cânula e conforto ao examinador. Resultados: A incidência de dessaturação leve foi de 23.3% e não houve dessaturação grave em nenhum caso. A inserção da cânula orotraqueal foi considerada fácil em 29 pacientes (96,6%) e o manuseio da sonda de ETE foi adequada em 93,33% dos exames realizados. Conclusões: A realização dos exames de ETE sob sedação com auxílio da cânula orofaríngea de duplo lúmen apresentou baixa incidência de dessaturação nos pacientes avaliados, além de permitir análise do CO2 expirado durante a realização dos exames.


Subject(s)
Echocardiography , Cannula , Anesthesia and Analgesia , Conscious Sedation
4.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 47(3): 154-161, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1013884

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The laryngeal mask airway (LMA) is a device for airway management that is easy to insert, safe, and efficient. However, there are associated complications that can lead to important patient morbidity and mortality, as ventilator failure, can occur with reported incidence between 0.2% and 4.7%. Male gender, advanced age, obesity, short thyromental distance, and poor dentition are known related factors to LMA failure. Objective: Determine the incidence of ProSeal™ LMA ventilatory failure and identify clinical related conditions. Materials and methods: Observational analytic study a group of adult patients with ProSealTM laryngeal mask for airway management. Statistical analysis was performed using STATA 12.1 software. Bivariate analysis was done using Fisher's exact test or Chi2 as it corresponded with statistical significance defined as P value <0.05. Skewed logistic regression for multivariate analysis was performed for estimating adjusted odd ratios (ORs). Results: Incidence of ProSealTM LMA ventilatory failure was 5.2%. In the group of patients that presented failure, 69 were older than 75 years (OR=1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-1.09, P < 0.001), 6 (23.1%) thyromental distance less than 6 x0200A;cm (OR = 2.48, 95% CI 0.93-6.62, P = 0.069), 5 (19.2%), inadequate anesthetic depth and/or laryngospasm (OR=5.78, 95% CI 2.23-14.96, P< 0.001) and 9 (34.6%) vintraoperative use of neuromuscular blockers (NMB) (OR=2.35, 95% CI 1.06-5.21, P=0.035). Conclusion: In patients with LMA management, the age, intraoperative use of NMB and inadequate anesthetic depth and/ or laryngospasm are clinical related conditions for ProSealTMLMA ventilatory failure.


Resumen Introducción: La mascarilla laríngea de vía aérea (LMA) es un dispositivo para el manejo de la vía aérea fácil de insertar, seguro y eficiente. Sin embargo, hay complicaciones asociadas que pueden llevar a morbilidad y mortalidad del paciente, como la falla del respirador, con una incidencia reportada de entre el 0.2% y el 4.7%. El sexo masculino, la edad avanzada, la obesidad, la corta distancia tiromentoniana y la mala dentición son factores conocidos relacionados con el fracaso de la LMA. Objetivo: Determinar la incidencia de la insuficiencia respiratoria con ProSeal™ LMA e identificar las condiciones clínicas relacionadas. Materiales y métodos: Estudio analítico observacional de un grupo de pacientes adultos con uso de ProSeal™ Laryngeal Mask para el manejo de las vías respiratorias. El análisis estadístico se realizó utilizando el software STATA 12.1©. El análisis bivariado se realizó utilizando la prueba exacta de Fisher o Chi2, ya que correspondía a la significación estadística definida como valor de p < 0.05. Se realizó una regresión logística sesgada para el análisis multivariado, con el fin de estimar las proporciones impares ajustadas (OR). Resultados: La incidencia de fallo ventilatorio de ProSeal™ LMA fue del 5.2%. En el grupo de pacientes que presentaron fracaso, 69 eran mayores de 75 años (OR = 1.06; IC del 95%: 1.03 a 1.09; p < 0.001), 6 pacientes (23.1%) tenían distancia tiromentoniana inferior a 6 cm (OR = 2.48; IC del 95%: 0.93 a 6.62, p = 0.069), 5 (19.2%) presentaron profundidad inadecuada del anestésico y/o laringoespasmo (OR = 5.78; IC del 95%: 2.23 a 14.96; p < 0.001) y en 9 (34.6%) hubo uso intraoperatorio de NMB (OR = 2.35; IC del 95%: 1.06 a 5.21; p = 0.035). Conclusión: En pacientes con manejo de la LMA, la edad, el uso intraoperatorio de la NMB y la profundidad anestésica inadecuada y/o laringoespasmo son condiciones clínicas relacionadas con la insuficiencia respiratoria de la LMA ProSeal™.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Equipment and Supplies , Airway Management , Anesthesia and Analgesia , Respiration, Artificial , Anesthetics, Inhalation , Noninvasive Ventilation
5.
Acta méd. costarric ; 61(2): 68-72, abr.-jun. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001118

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: tradicionalmente, la sedación con propofol ha estado a cargo de especialistas en anestesiología; sin embargo, una extensa cantidad de información publicada ha demostrado que la sedación con propofol administrado por no anestesiólogos, es segura y eficaz. El estudio se realizó con el objetivo de evaluar la seguridad en la administración de propofol por gastroenterólogos, para la realización de procedimientos en endoscopia digestiva. Métodos: se hizo un estudio retrospectivo en el cual se revisaron los expedientes de 1135 pacientes sometidos a endoscopias digestivas diagnósticas y terapéuticas, en el período comprendido entre enero de 2016 y marzo de 2017. Los pacientes se organizaron por su: edad, género, clasificación de riesgo de la Sociedad Americana de Anestesiólogos, indicación para la endoscopia, y dosis utilizada de propofol. Se registraron los efectos adversos asociados al uso de Propofol, tales como: episodios de hipoxemia transitoria, complicaciones cardiopulmonares serias y muerte. Resultados: se incluyeron los datos de 1135 pacientes (56 % fueron mujeres) que se practicaron endoscopia digestiva bajo sedación con propofol administrado por gastroenterólogos, en un período de 14 meses. La dosis promedio utilizada de propofol fue de 154 +/- 66 mg. Según la clasificación de riesgo de la Sociedad Americana de Anestesiólogos, el 84 % de los pacientes corresponde a las clasificaciones I y II, un 14,8 % a pacientes con clasificación de riesgo III y un 1,1 %, riesgo IV. Los estudios efectuados fueron mayoritariamente gastroscopias (52,6 %) y según la indicación, el 79,6 % corresponde a estudios diagnósticos, seguido de un 12,1% para los sangrados digestivos altos de emergencia. En cuanto a las complicaciones documentadas, se identificaron 70 episodios de hipoxemia que corresponden a un 6,2 % de las sedaciones realizadas. (IC 95%, 4,7-7,6). Solamente un 3,7 % de los pacientes presentó un episodio de hipoxemia por debajo del 80 %. Todos los episodios de hipoxemia, excepto uno, resolvieron con maniobras simples, como la elevación del mentón. Durante el estudio no se presentaron complicaciones cardiopulmonares serias o muertes. Se identificaron, como factores de riesgo para la aparición de hipoxemia, una clasificación de riesgo de la Sociedad Americana de Anestesiólogos mayor a 3, y la realización del estudio endoscópico para dilatación esofágica o colocación de gastrostomía percutánea. Conclusiones: el uso de sedación con propofol administrado por no anestesiólogos en el estudio, no evidenció incremento en la aparición de complicaciones cardiopulmonares serias, ni en los episodios de hipoxemia.


Abstract Aim: Traditionally, sedation with propofol has been approved exclusively for use by anethesiologists, however, an extensive amount of published information has shown that sedation with propofol administered by non-anesthesiologists is safe and effective. The present study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the safety in the administration of propofol by gastroenterologists for the performance of procedures in digestive endoscopy. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in which the records of 1135 patients who underwent digestive and therapeutic digestive endoscopies were reviewed in the period between January 2016 and March 2017. The patients were classified by age, gender, risk classification of the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA), indication for endoscopy, and dose of propofol. The adverse effects associated with the use of propofol were recorded, such as episodes of transient hypoxemia, serious cardiopulmonary complications and death. Results: We included data from 1135 patients (56% were women) who underwent gastrointestinal endoscopy under sedation with propofol administered by gastroenterologist in a period of 14 months. The average dose used for propofol was 154 +/- 66 mg of propofol. According to the American Society of Anesthesiologists risk classification, 84% of the patients correspond to risk I and II, 14.8% to risk level III and 1.1% to risk level IV. The study carried out the most were gastroscopies (52.6%) and according to the indication, 79.6% corresponded to diagnostic studies, followed by 12.1% for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Regarding the documented complications,70 episodes of hypoxemia were identified, corresponding to 6.2% of the sedations performed. (95% CI, 4.7-7.6). Only 3.7% of patients had an episode of hypoxemia below 80%. All episodes of hypoxemia, except one, resolved with simple maneuvers such as chin elevation. There were no serious cardiopulmonary complications or deaths during the study. We identified as risk factors for the appearance of hypoxemia a risk classification of the American Society of Anesthesiologists greater than 3 and performance of the endoscopic study for esophageal dilation or percutaneous gastrostomy placement. Conclusions: The use of sedation with propofol administered by non-anesthesiologists in the present study did not show an increase in the appearance of serious cardiopulmonary complications, or in episodes of hypoxemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Anesthesia Recovery Period , Propofol/administration & dosage , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Anesthetics, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Costa Rica , Anesthesiologists , Anesthesia and Analgesia
6.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 18(1): e535, ene.-abr. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093095

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La anestesia y analgesia peridural continua, además de proporcionar un adecuado control del dolor posoperatorio, aportan beneficios como la disminución del riesgo de trombosis y de sangrado intraoperatorio. Objetivo: Describir el comportamiento y los resultados de la aplicación de la anestesia peridural continua mediante bomba de infusión elastomérica en pacientes intervenidas de mamoplastia de aumento. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, prospectivo, longitudinal en el Hospital Clínico Quirúrgico Hermanos Ameijeiras, entre febrero 2014 y febrero 2016. Resultados: 72,8 fueron las pacientes entre 20 y 29 años, 57,6 por ciento era ASA I y 78,3 por ciento normopeso. El 50 por ciento fueron operadas por hipoplasia mamaria. La frecuencia cardiaca, la tensión arterial sistólica y diastólica disminuyeron a los 5 min después de aplicarse la técnica. La media del dolor fue menor de 3 en todos los momentos evaluados. Las complicaciones inmediatas fueron escasas y leves. El 85,9 por ciento calificó la técnica como buena. Conclusiones: El comportamiento y los resultados de la aplicación de la anestesia peridural continua mediante bomba de infusión elastomérica en la mamoplastia de aumento fue estable y segura. Existieron diferencias significativas en el comportamiento de las variables hemodinámicas intraoperatorias y de la intensidad de dolor, la cual fue leve en todas sus mediciones. Las complicaciones mediatas fueron escasas y no complejas. Más de las tres cuartas partes de las pacientes evaluaron de acuerdo al grado de satisfacción de buena la efectividad de la técnica anestésica para este tipo de procedimiento quirúrgico(AU)


Introduction: Continuous epidural anesthesia and analgesia, in addition to providing adequate control of postoperative pain, provide benefits such as decreased risk of thrombosis and intraoperative bleeding. Objective: To describe the behavior and results of the application of continuous epidural anesthesia by means of an elastomeric infusion pump in patients undergoing augmentation mammoplasty. Methods: An observational, descriptive, prospective, longitudinal study was conducted at Hermanos Ameijeiras Clinical Surgical Hospital, between February 2014 and February 2016. Results: 72.8 percent were patients 20-29 years old, 57.6 percent were ASA I, and 78.3 percent had normal weight. 50 percent were operated for mammary hypoplasia. Heart rate, as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased 5 minutes after the technique was applied. The average pain was less than 3 in all the moments evaluated. The immediate complications were minimal and mild. 85.9 (AU) described the technique as good. Conclusions: The behavior and results of the application of continuous epidural anesthesia using an elastomeric infusion pump in the augmentation mammoplasty was stable and safe. There were significant differences in the behavior of intraoperative hemodynamic variables and pain intensity, which was slight in all its measurements. The mediate complications were scarce and not complex. More than three quarters of the patients evaluated, based on the degree of satisfaction, the effectiveness of the anesthetic technique as good for this type of surgical procedure(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Infusion Pumps/standards , Mammaplasty/methods , Anesthesia and Analgesia , Anesthesia, Epidural/standards , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies
7.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 47(1): 57-68, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-985435

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Spinal anesthesia (SA) and sciatic-femoral nerve block are the most widely used anesthesia techniques for knee arthroscopy; however, there is still some controversy with regard to which anesthetic procedure offers improved safety, better pain control, and higher patient satisfaction. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of exclusive SA with bupivacaine versus sciatic-femoral nerve block, regardless of the drug, during the postoperative period of patients having undergone knee arthroscopy, through a systematic review of the scientific literature. Methods: A search of Randomized Clinical Trials was conducted in a number of databases including Ovid, Cochrane, Embase, Lilacs, Open Grey, ClinicalTrials.gov, and academic Google. The snowball technique was also used to identify additional trials. The design of the search strategy included Boolean operators and considered studies in English, Spanish, and Portuguese, with no date restrictions. The information is presented in narrative form. Results: The search identified 478 studies, of which 3 met the eligibility criteria. The effectiveness was evaluated based on total anesthesia time and rescue analgesia. Safety was evaluated with heart rate monitoring and time to first micturition. Patient satisfaction was identified through surveys to measure the acceptance of the anesthetic technique. Conclusion: SA is effective as assessed based on the motor-sensory blockade effect and pain control, but its adverse events shall be taken into consideration when making a decision. The anesthetic techniques of the peripheral sciatic-femoral nerve block present less undesirable side effects than spinal analgesia and provide better postoperative pain control.


Resumen Introducción: La anestesia espinal y el bloqueo de nervios ciático-femoral son las técnicas de anestesia regional más utilizadas para la artroscopia de rodilla, sin embargo, existe controversia en relación a qué procedimiento anestésico ofrece mayor seguridad, mejor control del dolor y satisfacción del paciente. Objetivo: Evaluar la efectividad de la anestesia espinal exclusiva con bupivacaína vs el bloqueo de nervio ciático -femoral sin distinción de fármaco en el postoperatorio de pacientes intervenidos con artroscopia de rodilla, a través de una revisión sistemática de la literatura científica. Métodos: se realizó una búsqueda de Ensayos Clínicos Aleatorizados en las bases de datos Ovid, Cochrane, Embase, Lilacs, al igual que en Open Grey, ClinicalTrials.gov y Google académico, también se utilizó la técnica bola de nieve para encontrar estudios adicionales. El diseño de la estrategia de búsqueda incluyó operadores boleanos y consideró estudios en inglés, español y portugués, sin restricción de fecha. La información se presenta de forma narrativa. Resultados: la búsqueda identificó 478 estudios de los cuales tres cumplieron los criterios de elegibilidad. La efectividad fue valorada con el tiempo total de anestesia y analgesia de rescate. La seguridad fue evaluada con monitoreo de frecuencia cardiaca y tiempo de primera micción. La satisfacción del paciente se indagó a través de encuestas de aceptación de la técnica anestésica. Conclusiones: la anestesia espinal resulta efectiva valorada por el efecto de bloqueo motor-sensitivo y control del dolor, pero sus eventos adversos deben ser considerados en la selección. Las técnicas anestésicas de bloqueo periférico del nervio ciático-femoral presentan menos efectos indeseables que la analgesia espinal y ofrecen un mejor control del dolor postoperatorio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Arthroscopy , Sciatic Nerve , Bupivacaine , Anesthesia , Anesthesia and Analgesia , Anesthesia, Spinal , Knee , Pain, Postoperative , Postoperative Period , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Viburnum opulus , Information , Heart Rate , Analgesia , Anesthesia, Conduction , Anesthetics
8.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 78(2): 98-102, mar.-abr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003572

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivos: Quantificar a dor dos pacientes submetidos a cirurgia de facoemulsificação sob anestesia tópica e anestesia tópica mais dipirona e avaliar se há correlação da dor com o tempo operatório, a graduação da catarta e a Energia Ultrassônica Dissipada Acumulada. Métodos: Cento e quatro olhos de 52 pacientes foram submetidos a cirurgia de catarata por facoemulsificação. Um olho foi submetido a anestesia tópica associado à sedação. O outro olho foi submetido a anestesia anterior acrescida de 1g de dipirona venosa. 15 minutos e 24 horas após a cirurgia, uma Escala Visual de Dor era respondida. Registraram-se a graduação da catarata, tempo cirúrgico, energia ultrassônica. Resultados: Dor no grupo sem dipirona 15 minutos e 24 horas apresentou decréscimo com correlação estatística significativa (p=0,004). Não houve significância estatística na redução da dor no grupo submetido à infusão de dipirona. Pacientes com cataratas de maior graduação apresentaram dor maior no pós-operatório (p=0,046). Conclusão: Ausência de redução significativa da dor com a dipirona apresentou resultados semelhantes a outros estudos. Redução da dor 24 horas após a cirurgia no grupo sem o analgésico pode ser devido à subjetividade da dor. Pacientes com cataratas de grau mais avançados apresentam dor mais intensa.


Abstract Objectives: Evaluate the effect of intraoperative endovenous administration of dipyrone on postoperative pain in patients submitted to phacoemulsification by correlating pain scores with duration of surgery and the amount of cumulative dissipated energy (CDE) delivered to the eye. Methods: The sample consisted of 104 eyes from 52 patients submitted to phacoemulsification under topic anesthesia and sedation. In each patient, one eye was treated intraoperatively with 1g dipyrone. Information was collected on cataract grade/type, duration of surgery and CDE. Postoperative pain was scored on a visual analog scale at 15 min and 24 hours. Results: Between 15 min and 24 hours, pain decreased significantly (p=0.004) among patients not treated with dipyrone, but no change was observed in patients receiving dipyrone. Caratact severity was positively associated with postoperative pain (p=0.046). Conclusion: The absence of a measurable effect of dipyrone on pain scores matched the literature. The decrease in pain scores at 24 hours among patients not treated with dipyrone may be explained by the influence of subjective psychological factors on pain perception. Higher grades of cataract were associated with greater postoperative pain.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Pain Measurement , Dipyrone/administration & dosage , Phacoemulsification/methods , Anesthesia and Analgesia/methods , Postoperative Care , Administration, Topical , Lens Implantation, Intraocular , Pain Management/methods , Administration, Intravenous , Intraoperative Care , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage
9.
Rev. anesth.-réanim. med. urgence ; 11(1): 8-14, 2019. ilus
Article in French | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1269036

ABSTRACT

charge d'une intervention. L'objectif de l'étude était d'évaluer la qualité de la tenue des fiches d'anesthésie à partir des indicateurs pour l'améliora-tion de la qualité et de la sécurité des soins « tenue de dossier d'anesthésie » (IPAQSS / TDA) proposés par la Haute Autorité de Santé (HAS ; France). Matériels et Méthodes : Une étude rétrospective, descriptive des fiches d'anesthésie des patients allant bénéficier d'une intervention pro-grammée au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Joseph Ravoahangy Andrianavalona (Antananarivo, Madagascar) a été réalisée sur une période de deux ans (2016 - 2017). Celles des patients transférés en Réanimation Chirurgicale n'ont pas été incluses. Les critères portant sur l'identification du médecin anesthésiste, celle du patient, le traitement habituel de ce dernier, les caractéristiques des voies aériennes et leur technique d'abord, le type d'anesthésie prévue, la visite préanesthésique, les incidents per anesthésiques, l'autorisation de sortie de la salle de soins post interventionnelle ont été étudiés. Lorsque les critères proposés par l'IPAQSS / TDA de la HAS n'étaient pas applicables, ceux-ci n'ont pas été considérés. Les résultats sont exprimés en moyenne avec écartype et en fréquence. Résultats : Durant cette période 2504 fiches d'anesthésie ont été analysées. Le nombre de critères remplis par patient étaient de 6,9±1,3. Le taux de remplissage des critères pré anesthésiques était de 68,44%, per anesthésiques de 32,04% et post anesthésiques (en salle de soins post interventionnelle) de 5,67%. Le score individuel était de 0,69±0,13 ; le score global était de 68,82%. Con¬clusion : A des fins d'optimisation de la sécurité des patients et de la qualité des soins, l'évaluation de la tenue des dossiers doit être régulière. Cette évaluation


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers , Anesthesia and Analgesia , Madagascar , Office Visits , Preoperative Care
10.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 262-268, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762237

ABSTRACT

The knowledge about detailed morphology and relation of saphenous nerve is important to obtain successful saphenous nerve regional blocks to achieve pre- and post-operative anesthesia and analgesia, nerve entrapment treatments and to avoid damage of saphenous nerve during knee and ankle surgeries. The literature describing detailed morphology of saphenous nerve is very limited. We dissected 42 formalin fixed well embalmed cadaveric lower limbs to explore detailed anatomy, relation and mode of termination of saphenous nerve and measured the distances from the nearby palpable bony landmarks. The average distance of origin of saphenous nerve from inguinal crease was 7.89±1.42 cm, the distance from upper end of medial border of patella to saphenous nerve at that level was 8.11±0.85 cm, distance from tibial tuberosity was 7.53±0.98 cm and from midpoint of anterior border of medial malleolus was 0.45±0.14 cm. Saphenous nerve provided two infrapatellar branches at the level of mid to lower limit of patellar ligament in 90% cases. It was in close contact or adhered to great saphenous vein across the lower 2/3rd of leg lying either anterior, posterior or deep to the vein. The saphenous nerve terminated by bifurcating proximal to medial malleolus in majority of cases though no obvious bifurcation was observed in 9.52% cases. The detailed morphology, relations and the distances from palpable bony landmarks may be helpful for clinicians to achieve successful saphenous nerve block and to avoid saphenous nerve damage and related complications during orthopedic procedures.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia and Analgesia , Ankle , Cadaver , Deception , Formaldehyde , Knee , Leg , Lower Extremity , Nerve Block , Nerve Compression Syndromes , Orthopedic Procedures , Patella , Patellar Ligament , Saphenous Vein , Veins
11.
Rev. medica electron ; 40(3): 638-647, may.-jun. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-961246

ABSTRACT

Introducción: actualmente se usan más técnicas regionales para la anestesia en las cirugías y para analgesia de los dolores posoperatrios de miembros superiores. El empleo de adyuvantes junto con anestésicos locales para el bloqueo del plexo braquial vía axilar, proporciona anestesia-analgesia adecuada de la extremidad superior para cirugías de mano y antebrazo. Objetivo: evaluar la utilidad de mepivacaína-fentanilo en el bloqueo del plexo braquial vía axilar para la analgesia postoperatoria. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional, analítico, longitudinal y prospectivos en el Hospital Militar Docente "Dr. Mario Muñoz Monroy", en el período comprendido entre enero de 2014 a noviembre de 2016. La muestra fueron 40 pacientes consecutivos divididos en dos grupos homogéneos de 20 pacientes cada uno. Se evaluó la calidad y duración de la analgesia postoperatoria mediante escala análoga visual del dolor (EVA) en 2da, 4ta y 6ta h postoperatoria, se consideró analgesia satisfactoria cuando (EVA) ≤ 3, analgesia moderada de 4 a 6 y analgesia no satisfactoria ≥ 7. Para el análisis estadístico descriptivo se determinó la media y la desviación estándar, se utilizó el test de la T de Student. Resultados: en la 2da hora grupo I EVA ≤ 3: 20 pacientes (100 %) y Grupo II: 19 pacientes (95 %) p=0.5; 4ta hora GI EVA ≤ 3: 20 pacientes (10 %) y GII: 17 pacientes (85 %) p=1; 6ta hora GI EVA ≤ 3: 19 pacientes (95 %) y GII: 10 pacientes (50 %) p=1. Las complicaciones ocuparon 10 % en ambos grupos. Conclusiones: la aplicación de mepivacaína-fentanilo para la analgesia postoperatoria resultó ser útil, con calidad y duración de la analgesia postoperatoria y con escasas complicaciones (AU).


Introduction: currently, more regional techniques are used for anesthesia in surgeries and for analgesia in postoperative pains of upper limbs. The use of adjuvants together with local anesthetics for the brachial plexus blockade by axillary way provides the adequate anesthesia-analgesia of the high limb for hand and forearm surgery. Objective: to assess the utility of mepivacaine-fentanyl in the brachial plexus blockade by axillary way for postoperative anesthesia. Materials and methods: an observational, analytic, longitudinal and prospective study was carried out in the Teaching Military Hospital ¨Dr. Mario Munoz Monroy¨ in the period from January 2014 to November 2016. The sample were 40 consecutive patients divided into two homogenous groups of 20 patients each. The quality and duration of postoperative analgesia were assessed through the pain visual analogue scale (EVA in Spanish) in the 2nd, 4th and 6th postoperative hour; analgesia was considered satisfactory when EVA ≤3; moderated when from 4 to 6, and nonsatisfactory ≥7. The media and standard deviation were determined for the descriptive statistical analysis; the T Student test was used. Results: In the 2nd hour, Group I, EVA ≤ 3: 20 patients (100 %), and Group II: 19 patients (95 %) p=0.5; in the 4th hour, Group I, EVA ≤3: 20 patients (10 %) and Group II: 17 patients (85 %) p=1. Complications were 10 % in both groups. Conclusions: the application of mepivacaine-fentanyl for postoperative analgesia was useful, with quality and duration of postoperative analgesia and scarce complications (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Pain, Postoperative , Axilla , Fentanyl/administration & dosage , Brachial Plexus Block , Anesthesia and Analgesia/methods , Postoperative Care , Analytical Methods , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Cuba , Observational Study , Ambulatory Surgical Procedures , Forearm , Hand
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761279

ABSTRACT

Epidural anesthesia has significantly advanced in neuraxial anesthesia and analgesia. It is used for surgical anaesthesia and treatment of chronic pain. Hearing loss during or after epidural anesthesia is rare, and it is known to occur by the change of the intracranial pressure. Cerebrospinal fluid is connected with perilymph in the cochlear and vestibule that is important to hearing and balance. If the intracranial pressure is abruptly transferred to the inner ear, perilymph can be leak, that called perilymphatic fistula, dizziness, and hearing loss can occur suddenly. We report a 65-year-old woman who presented with acute onset dizziness and hearing loss during the epidural nerve block for back pain, wherein we speculated a possibility of perilymphatic fistula as the mechanism of hearing loss and dizziness. The mechanism of dizziness and hearing loss was suspected with perilymphatic fistula.


Subject(s)
Aged , Anesthesia and Analgesia , Anesthesia, Epidural , Back Pain , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Chronic Pain , Dizziness , Ear, Inner , Female , Fistula , Hearing , Hearing Loss , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural , Hearing Loss, Sudden , Humans , Intracranial Pressure , Nerve Block , Perilymph , Pneumocephalus , Vertigo
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714319

ABSTRACT

Regional anesthesia is generally recommended over general anesthesia for non-cardiac surgeries in patients with severe pulmonary hypertension (PH) caused by pulmonary disease. However, pre-, and intra-, postoperative management are critical for patients with severe PH even when regional anesthesia is performed. This is the first reported case of carbon dioxide retention and administration of the appropriate treatment during non-cardiac surgery performed under spinal/epidural anesthesia and analgesia in a patient diagnosed with chronic cor pulmonale accompanied by severe PH.


Subject(s)
Analgesics, Opioid , Anesthesia , Anesthesia and Analgesia , Anesthesia, Conduction , Anesthesia, General , Carbon Dioxide , Carbon , Critical Care , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Lung Diseases , Pulmonary Heart Disease
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714066

ABSTRACT

The widespread application of ultrasound in clinical anesthesiology has led to an increase in the number of practitioners performing peripheral nerve blocks of the trunk to produce analgesia and anesthesia for surgeries involving the thorax, abdomen, and lower extremities. The use of real-time ultrasound has allowed the peripheral nerves, planes, and plexuses of the trunk to be located more accurately and has improved the success rate of blocks. Compared to central neuraxial techniques, many types of truncal blocks are relatively easy to perform and have low side effect profiles. As a result, truncal blocks have been introduced to provide perioperative analgesia for surgeries involving the thorax and abdomen. The most frequently used truncal block techniques include the paravertebral block, intercostal block, pectoralis and serratus anterior block, rectus sheath block, transversus abdominis plane block, and ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric nerve blocks. Recently introduced techniques also include the quadratus lumborum and erector spinae plane blocks. To apply each block correctly and reduce the likelihood of related side effects and complications, the practitioner must have a thorough understanding of the anatomical region, optimal block positioning, and device selection and management.


Subject(s)
Abdomen , Analgesia , Anesthesia and Analgesia , Anesthesiology , Lower Extremity , Nerve Block , Peripheral Nerves , Thorax , Ultrasonography
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714057

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus block (US-ISB) has been reported to be effective postoperative analgesia for arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Although considered rare, various neurological complications have been reported. We retrospectively evaluated 668 patients for post operation neurological symptoms including hemidiaphragmatic paresis and post-operative neurologic symptoms after US-ISB. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of 668 patients undergoing shoulder surgery with single-shot US-ISB from January 2010 to May 2015. The general anesthesia prior to the US-guided ISB procedure was standardized by expert anesthesiologists. Neurological postoperative complications were evaluated at 48 hours, about 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and up to resolution after operation. RESULTS: Three patients (0.4%) developed hemidiaphragmatic paresis (HDP), which were likely US-ISB associated and improved within 1 day. Two patients developed sensory symptoms, also likely US-ISB associated; one was paresthesia at the tip of the thumb/index finger, which resolved within 2 weeks, and the other was hypoesthesia involving the posterior auricular nerve, which resolved within 6 months. Motor and sensory symptoms which were not likely associated with US-ISB were hypoesthesia and pain (n = 28, 4.6%) and motor weakness (n = 2, 0.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Incidence of HDP and neurological complications, respectively 0.4% and 0.3%, related to transient minor sensory symptoms occurred after US-ISB for arthroscopic shoulder surgery but the complications improved spontaneously. Therefore, we confirm that the US-ISB procedure with low volumes of local anesthetics is an acceptable technique with a low rate of HDP and neurological complications.


Subject(s)
Analgesia , Anesthesia and Analgesia , Anesthesia, General , Anesthetics, Local , Arthroscopy , Brachial Plexus Block , Fingers , Humans , Hypesthesia , Incidence , Neurologic Manifestations , Paresis , Paresthesia , Postoperative Complications , Retrospective Studies , Shoulder , Ultrasonography
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787078

ABSTRACT

Peripheral nerve blocks are commonly used for surgical anesthesia, postoperative analgesia, and to reduce opioid requirements. Although these blocks have traditionally been carried out using local anesthetics, single-injection techniques can be short-lived and limited by the relatively brief duration of action of currently available local anesthetics. Increasing the dose or concentration of local anesthetics may prolong the duration of analgesia, but may also increase the risk such as unwanted motor weakness or systemic toxicity of local anesthetics. Numerous adjuvant medications have been added to local anesthetics to prolong the durations of anesthesia and analgesia achieved by peripheral nerve blocks, and currently, a number of different adjuvants are used to improve quality of the block. This article will review the several nerve block adjuvants used in combination with local anesthetics to provide blockade of peripheral nerves in clinical practice, describing the rationale for their use in peripheral nerve blocks, and the evidence for their effectiveness.


Subject(s)
Analgesia , Anesthesia , Anesthesia and Analgesia , Anesthetics, Local , Nerve Block , Peripheral Nerves
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-174355

ABSTRACT

Peripheral nerve blocks are commonly used for surgical anesthesia, postoperative analgesia, and to reduce opioid requirements. Although these blocks have traditionally been carried out using local anesthetics, single-injection techniques can be short-lived and limited by the relatively brief duration of action of currently available local anesthetics. Increasing the dose or concentration of local anesthetics may prolong the duration of analgesia, but may also increase the risk such as unwanted motor weakness or systemic toxicity of local anesthetics. Numerous adjuvant medications have been added to local anesthetics to prolong the durations of anesthesia and analgesia achieved by peripheral nerve blocks, and currently, a number of different adjuvants are used to improve quality of the block. This article will review the several nerve block adjuvants used in combination with local anesthetics to provide blockade of peripheral nerves in clinical practice, describing the rationale for their use in peripheral nerve blocks, and the evidence for their effectiveness.


Subject(s)
Analgesia , Anesthesia , Anesthesia and Analgesia , Anesthetics, Local , Nerve Block , Peripheral Nerves
18.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2016. 62 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1178149

ABSTRACT

Com o advento das cirurgias artroscópicas, a abordagem da articulação do ombro passou a ser menos invasiva do que nos procedimentos convencionais. Apesar da redução da dor nos primeiros dias após o procedimento ser atribuída à técnica artroscópica, uma parcela significativa de pacientes relata dor de forte intensidade nas primeiras 24 a 48 horas de pósoperatório. A anestesia regional oferece alta qualidade de analgesia intra e pós-operatória. O bloqueio interescalênico é o padrão ouro para analgesia pós-operatória em cirurgias do ombro. O bloqueio seletivo dos nervos supraescapular e axilar surgiu como uma alternativa segura ao bloqueio interescalênico, mostrando alta eficácia. O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar a qualidade da analgesia oferecida por duas técnicas de anestesia regional ­ bloqueio interescalênico e o bloqueio seletivo dos nervos supra-escapular e axilar - para a analgesia pós-operatória em pacientes submetidos a cirurgia artroscópica de ombro para reparo de lesão do manguito rotador. Constituiu a amostra do estudo quarenta e sete pacientes com lesão do manguito rotador, tratados no Instituto Nacional de Traumatologia e Ortopedia Jamil Haddad. Foram utilizados como parâmetros de comparação, o tempo necessário para a realização dos dois tipos de bloqueios, a necessidade de opioides para analgesia suplementar no pós-operatório, a ocorrência de complicações sistêmicas, a intensidade da dor, e sua possível relação com a duração da cirurgia. Todos os pacientes foram avaliados após 2h e 12h no pós-operatório. Os resultados mostraram eficácia e segurança das duas técnicas, sendo o tempo para a realização dos bloqueios seletivos maior. O bloqueio interescalênico oferece melhor qualidade de analgesia nas primeiras horas de pós-operatório em relação à técnica seletiva e com 12 horas a analgesia proporcionada pelos dois bloqueios é equivalente. O desconforto resultante da paralisia motora é prevalente e mais prolongado no bloqueio interescalênico e a necessidade de analgesia suplementar com opioide é maior no bloqueio seletivo apenas nas primeiras horas do pós-operatório e com 12 horas a demanda foi semelhante nos dois grupos. Não houve relação entre duração da cirurgia e dor pósoperatória. O conjunto dos nossos resultados demonstrou que as duas técnicas de analgesia que foram avaliadas mostraram-se seguras em pacientes isentos de comorbidades pulmonares. A técnica interescalênica tem como vantagem oferecer analgesia de melhor qualidade na primeiras horas do pós-operatório e ser realizada através de um único procedimento. Por outro lado tem duração mais curta e pode se associar a alguns efeitos adversos como paresia hemidiafragmática e hiperalgesia pós-bloqueio. Os bloqueios seletivos tem duração mais prolongada e se associam a eventos que podem ocorrer nos bloqueios regionais em geral. Como principal desvantagem do bloqueio seletivo, ressaltamos a necessidade da realização de dois procedimentos independentes, não oferecer anestesia do ombro em sua totalidade e a necessidade do treinamento específico por não ser uma técnica utilizada na rotina dos especialistas. Diante das vantagens e desvantagens, consideramos que cabe ao anestesiologista em decisão conjunta com o cirurgião, a escolha da técnica mais indicada para cada tipo de paciente, considerando a presença de comorbidades, a gravidade da lesão, o tempo de evolução clínica e o tipo de procedimento cirúrgico que está sendo proposto


With the advent of arthroscopic surgery, the approach of the shoulder joint has become less invasive than conventional procedures. Despite the reduction in pain in the first days after the procedure be attributed to arthroscopy, a significant number of patients report severe pain in the first 24 to 48 hours postoperatively. Regional anesthesia offers high quality intraoperative and postoperative analgesia. The interscalene block is the gold standard for postoperative analgesia for shoulder surgeries. Selective blocking of suprascapular and axillary nerves emerged as a safe alternative to interscalene block, with high rates of efficacy. The aim of this study was to compare the quality of analgesia offered by two regional anesthesia techniques - interescalenic block and selective block of suprascapular and axillary nerves - for postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopic surgery to repair rotator cuff injury. The sample of the study comprised forty-seven patients with rotator cuff injury treated at the National Institute of Traumatology Jamil Haddad. It was used as comparison parameter, the time required to perform the two types of blocks, the amount of opioid needed as additional analgesia postoperatively, the occurrence of systemic complications, pain intensity, and its relation to surgery duration. All patients were evaluated after 2 h and 12 h postoperatively. The results showed efficacy and safety of the two techniques; however the time to perform the selective blocks was greater. The interscalene block provides better analgesia in the early hours after surgery compared to the selective technique and analgesia provided by the two blocks after 12 hours was equivalent. The discomfort resulting of motor paralysis was prevalent and longer in the interscalene block. The need for additional analgesia with opioids was higher in selective blocks only in the first hours of the postoperative period with similar demand in both groups after 12 hours. There was no relationship between duration of surgery and postoperative pain. Taken together, our results demonstrated that both analgesia techniques that were evaluated were safe for patients without pulmonary comorbidities. The interscalene technique has the advantage of offering better quality of analgesia in the first hours of the postoperative period and to be carried out through a single procedure. On the other hand it has a shorter duration and may be associated with some adverse effects such as hemidiaphragmatic paresis and post-block hyperalgesia. The selective block lasts longer and is associated with events that may occur in regional blocks in general. As a main disadvantage of the selective block, we emphasize the need to carry out two independent procedures, do not offer shoulder anesthesia in its integrity and the need for specific training considering that is not used routinely. Taking into account the advantages and disadvantages of both techniques, we believe that it is up to the anesthesiologist, in a joint decision with the surgeon, to decide the technique more appropriate for each type of patient considering the presence of comorbidities, severity of the injury, the duration of clinical symptoms and the type of surgical procedure that is being proposed


Subject(s)
Rotator Cuff Injuries , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Shoulder , Anesthesia and Analgesia/methods
19.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 34(1): 48-57, abr. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-749428

ABSTRACT

Las presentes recomendaciones han sido elaboradas en base a nuestra experiencia, con el propósito de entregar algunas pautas sobre analgesia, sedación y anestesia para cateterismos diagnósticos y/o terapéuticos en pacientes pediátricos con cardiopatías congénitas, de acuerdo a la clasificación de riesgo de los mismos. El propósito de ésta es contribuir a disminuir la incidencia de eventos adversos asociados a morbilidad y mortalidad.


Recommendations based con clinical experience with analgesia, sedation and anesthesia in diagnostic or therapeutic cardiac catheterization in pediatric patients with congenital heart disease are outlined. These recommendations, based on clinical experience at a single institution (Catholic University Hospital in Santiago, Chile) are intended to help reduce de incidence of adverse effects, morbidity and mortality in this patient population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Cardiac Catheterization/adverse effects , Heart Defects, Congenital/diagnosis , Heart Defects, Congenital/therapy , Anesthesia and Analgesia/adverse effects , Postoperative Care , Preoperative Care , Cardiac Catheterization/standards , Risk Factors , Risk Assessment , Intraoperative Care
20.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 106-111, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-43768

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess the pain intensity of patients administered midazolam and fentanyl citrate before undergoing transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a study in patients with different indications for prostate biopsy in whom 5 mg of midazolam and 50 microg of fentanyl citrate was administered intravenously 3 minutes before the procedure. After biopsy, pain was assessed by use of a visual analogue scale (VAS) in three stages: VAS 1, during probe introduction; VAS 2, during needle penetration into prostate tissue; and VAS 3, in the weeks following the exam. Pain intensity at these different times was tested with stratification by age, race, education, prostate volume, rebiopsy, and anxiety before biopsy. Pain was ranked according to the following scores: 0 (no pain), 1-3 (mild pain), 4-7 (moderate pain), and 8-10 (severe pain). Statistical analysis was performed by using Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon two-tailed tests with a significance of 5%. RESULTS: Pain intensity was not influenced by any risk factors. The mean VAS 1 score was 1.95+/-1.98, the mean VAS 2 score was 2.73+/-2.55, and the mean VAS 3 score was 0.3+/-0.9, showing greater pain at the time of needle penetration than in other situations (VAS 2>VAS 1>VAS 3, p=0.0013, p=0.0001, respectively). Seventy-five percent of patients reported a VAS pain scale of less than 3.1 or mild pain. CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous sedation and analgesia with midazolam and fentanyl citrate is a good method for reducing pain caused by prostate biopsy, even during probe insertion.


Subject(s)
Analgesia , Anesthesia and Analgesia , Anxiety , Biopsy , Biopsy, Needle , Continental Population Groups , Education , Fentanyl , Humans , Midazolam , Needles , Pain Measurement , Prostate , Risk Factors , Ultrasonography
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