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1.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 55(3): 51-57, 20221115.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1401476

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La anestesia total intravenosa (TIVA) con perfusión controlada por objetivo (TCI) es una técnica de anestesia general que usa una combinación de fármacos administrados exclusivamente por vía intravenosa sin usar fármacos por vía inhalatoria. Objetivos: Determinar los resultados del uso de TIVA TCI en los pacientes sometidos a trasplante renal, donantes y receptores, entre noviembre de 2014 y julio de 2018, en el Hospital de Clínicas. Pacientes y métodos: Estudio observacional, analítico transversal, con muestreo no probabilístico a criterio. La serie se agrupó en donantes y receptores. Los datos se expresan en medias y proporciones, se analizó el Odds Rattio y el R2. Se consideró una p< 0,05 como significativa. Resultados: se incluyeron a 198 intervenciones anestésicas, 131 (66,2%) fueron receptores. El rango de edad fue de entre 5 y 66 años (35,8±13 años) y 114 (57%) fueron masculinos. En el post operatorio inmediato, el tiempo en despertar, la PAS, PAD, PAM, frecuencia cardiaca y saturación de oxígeno no tuvieron diferencias significativas, en la comparación de los grupos (donante y receptor). Se observó cefalea en 3 (1,5%) del grupo de donantes y ninguna en los receptores. La diuresis fue tardía en 18 (9,1%) pacientes (p= 0,084 R2=29). Conclusión: La TIVA TCI demostró ser una técnica muy efectiva en el trasplante renal, con pronta recuperación y despertar inmediato tras la extubación, con lucidez absoluta en todos los pacientes.


Introduction: Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with goal-controlled perfusion (TCI) is a general anesthesia technique that uses a combination of drugs administered exclusively intravenously without using inhalational drugs. Objectives: To determine the results of the use of TIVA TCI in kidney transplant patients, donors and recipients, between November 2014 and July 2018, at the Hospital de Clínicas. Patients and methods: Observational, cross-sectional analytical study, with non-probabilistic sampling at the discretion. The series was grouped into donors and recipients. The data is expressed in means and proportions, the Odds Rattio and the R2 were analyzed. A p<0.05 was considered significant. Results: 198 anesthetic interventions were included, 131 (66.2%) were recipients. The age range was between 5 and 66 years (35.8±13 years) and 114 (57%) were male. In the immediate postoperative period, time to awakening, SBP, DBP, MAP, heart rate and oxygen saturation did not show significant differences when comparing the groups (donor and recipient). Headache was observed in 3 (1.5%) of the donor group and none in the recipients. Diuresis was late in 18 (9.1%) patients (p= 0.084 R2=29). Conclusion: TIVA TCI proved to be a very effective technique in kidney transplantation, with prompt recovery and immediate awakening after extubation, with absolute clarity in all patients.


Subject(s)
Kidney Transplantation , Perfusion , Anesthesia , Anesthesia, Intravenous
2.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 55(3): 71-75, 20221115.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1401555

ABSTRACT

En la anestesia para las cesáreas, la anestesia raquídea con bupivacaína hiperbárica constituye la elección habitual en nuestro medio. Existen dos formas de bupivacaína disponibles, la isobárica (BI) y la hiperbárica (BH). La utilización de la BI es poco frecuente por lo que es relevante conocer la experiencia en su utilización para las anestesias de las cirugías obstétricas. El objetivo del estudio fue caracterizar la utilización de BI en las anestesias raquídeas para cesáreas. Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, de corte transversal en 23 pacientes que recibieron anestesia espinal con BI. La edad promedio fue de 28  5 años, la dosis promedio de BI utilizada de 9,4 mg. La latencia promedio fue 90 segundos y el tiempo para la instauración una anestesia adecuada fue en promedio 4,9 minutos. En el 82,6% el nivel anestésico alcanzó el dermatoma T4. En el 21,7% fue necesario administrar efedrina para aumentar la presión arterial. En el 52,1% se presentaron efectos adversos menores. A las 24 horas, el dolor fue nulo en 56,5% y leve en 43,5% de los casos. En conclusión, se encontró que las pacientes alcanzaron un nivel sensitivo adecuado en poco tiempo, con una dosis promedio de BI de 9 mg. Pocos pacientes requirieron la administración de un vasopresor para aumentar la presión arterial. Los efectos adversos fueron menores en casi la mitad de los pacientes. En el post operatorio la mayoría de las pacientes no presentaron dolor


In anesthesia for caesarean sections, spinal anesthesia with hyperbaric bupivacaine is the usual choice in our setting. There are two forms of bupivacaine available, isobaric (BI) and hyperbaric (BH). The use of BI is infrequent, so it is relevant to know the experience in its use for anesthesia in obstetric surgeries. The objective of the study was to characterize the use of BI in spinal anesthesia for cesarean sections. An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out in 23 patients who received spinal anesthesia with BI. The average age was 28  5 years, the average dose of BI used was 9.4 mg. The average latency was 90 seconds and the time for establishment of adequate anesthesia was on average 4.9 minutes. In 82.6% of the cases, the anesthetic level reached dermatome T4. In 21.7% it was necessary to administer ephedrine to increase blood pressure. Minor adverse effects occurred in 52.1%. At 24 hours, the pain was null in 56.5% and mild in 43.5% of cases. In conclusion, it was found that the patients reached an adequate sensory level in a short time, with an average dose of BI of 9 mg. Few patients required administration of a vasopressor to increase blood pressure. Adverse effects were minor in almost half of the patients. In the postoperative period, most of the patients did not present pain


Subject(s)
Cesarean Section , Bupivacaine , Anesthesia , Anesthesia, Spinal
3.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 55(3): 126-132, 20221115.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1401567

ABSTRACT

Las craneotomías en pacientes conscientes (CPC) plantea desafíos para los anestesiólogos, como la necesidad de mantener al paciente sedado, consciente, tranquilo, cómodo, neurológicamente íntegro y colaborador, sin compromiso respiratorio o hemodinámico y provisto de una excelente analgesia, al tiempo de permitir su cooperación durante las pruebas neurológicas. Se presenta la serie de 6 primeros casos en nuestro medio, a través de los cuales se tiene por objetivo describir el manejo anestésico de craneotomías en pacientes conscientes. Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y de corte transverso, marco temporal retrospectivo en pacientes sometidos a CPC en el Hospital de Clínicas. El manejo anestésico discriminado por fases fue de la siguiente manera. Fase 1 (dormido: 6 pacientes): Inducción con Propofol, Lidocaína, Atracurio y Remifentanilo. Colocación de máscaras laríngeas. Bloqueo regional de escalpe. Mantenimiento con Remifentanilo. Fase 2 con sedación consciente (despierto: 6 pacientes): retiro de máscara laríngea y perfusión de dosis baja de propofol y remifentanilo para mantener un Ramsay 2. Fase 3 (despierto: 4 pacientes): se aumentó la dosis de propofol y remifentanilo para obtener un Ramsay 3. Fase 3 (dormido: 2 pacientes): se realizó inducción anestésica con mismas dosis de la fase 1 e intubación orotraqueal. Mantenimiento con propofol y remifentanilo. En conclusión, la anestesia permitió un despertar intraoperatorio rápido y adecuado para la fase consciente, la administración de dosis bajas de remifentanilo y propofol durante esta segunda fase proporcionaron a los pacientes un buen estado de confort para su colaboración con los test cognitivos y motores


Craniotomies in conscious patients (CCP) pose challenges for anesthesiologists, such as the need to keep the patient sedated, conscious, calm, comfortable, neurologically sound and cooperative, without respiratory or hemodynamic compromise and provided with excellent analgesia, while allowing their cooperation during neurological tests. The series of 6 first cases in our environment is presented, through which the objective is to describe the anesthetic management of craniotomies in conscious patients. An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out, retrospective time frame in patients undergoing CCP at the Hospital de Clínicas. The anesthetic management discriminated by phases was as follows. Phase 1 (asleep: 6 patients): Induction with Propofol, Lidocaine, Atracurium and Remifentanil. Placement of laryngeal masks. Scalp regional lock. Remifentanil maintenance. Phase 2 with conscious sedation (awake: 6 patients): removal of the laryngeal mask and infusion of low-dose propofol and remifentanil to maintain Ramsay 2. Phase 3 (awake: 4 patients): the dose of propofol and remifentanil was increased to obtain a Ramsay 3. Phase 3 (asleep: 2 patients): anesthetic induction was performed with the same doses as phase 1 and orotracheal intubation. Maintenance with propofol and remifentanil. In conclusion, anesthesia allowed rapid and adequate intraoperative awakening for the conscious phase, the administration of low doses of remifentanil and propofol during this second phase provided the patient with a good state of comfort for collaboration with cognitive and motor tests


Subject(s)
Craniotomy , Anesthesia
4.
MedUNAB ; 25(2): 217-226, 2022/08/01.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395965

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La anestesia regional es una técnica importante, innovadora y popular para el manejo anestésico y analgésico. En el bloqueo supraclavicular del plexo braquial existe incidencia 50-60% de parálisis diafragmática. La presentación clínica es variable de acuerdo con factores externos e internos del paciente. Existen múltiples técnicas radiológicas en el diagnóstico, siendo de gran utilidad la ecografía por su fácil acceso. El objetivo es determinar la incidencia de parálisis diafragmática secundaria a bloqueo supraclavicular del plexo braquial guiado por ecografía en una institución de cuarto nivel. Metodología. Estudio analítico, longitudinal, prospectivo; se seleccionaron 110 pacientes. Criterios de inclusión: pacientes mayores de 18 años sometidos a cirugía de miembro superior con bloqueo supraclavicular de plexo braquial. Criterios exclusión: pacientes ASA (American Society of anesthesiologist) 4 y 5, gestantes, IMC >35 kg/m2, pacientes con antecedentes neuromusculares, enfermedad pulmonar restrictiva u obstructiva, parálisis nervio frénico o disfunción diafragmática. Se realizó un análisis mediante test estadísticos, describiendo los diferentes grados de parálisis diafragmática. Resultados. En los pacientes que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión, la incidencia de parálisis diafragmática fue de 65% (37% parálisis total y 28% parcial), el 1.81% presentó síntomas respiratorios sin cambios hemodinámicos. Discusión. El bloqueo del plexo braquial por vía supraclavicular es una técnica relacionada con parálisis diafragmática, la ecografía ha permitido reducir la incidencia de esta complicación, es un método útil en el diagnóstico postoperatorio. Conclusiones. La parálisis diafragmática post bloqueo plexo braquial supraclavicular es una complicación observada principalmente en pacientes con previo compromiso pulmonar, por lo cual es de importancia la vigilancia estricta.


Introduction. Regional anesthesia is an important, innovative, and popular technique for anesthetic and painkiller management. In supraclavicular brachial plexus blockade, there is a 50-60% rate of diaphragmatic paralysis. Clinical presentation is variable according to the patient's internal and external factors. There are multiple radiological techniques in diagnosis, with ultrasounds being very useful due to their easy access. The objective is to determine the incidence of diaphragmatic paralysis secondary to supraclavicular brachial plexus blockade guided by ultrasound in a fourth level institution. Methodology. Prospective, longitudinal, analytical study. 110 patients were selected. Inclusion criteria: patients over 18 years of age subject to upper limb surgery with supraclavicular brachial plexus blockade. Exclusion criteria: ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) 4 and 5 patients, pregnant women BMI >35 kg/m2 patients with neuromuscular background, restrictive or obstructive pulmonary disease, phrenic nerve paralysis, or diaphragmatic dysfunction. An analysis was carried out via statistical tests, describing the different degrees of diaphragmatic paralysis. Results. In patients who met the inclusion criteria, the incidence of diaphragmatic paralysis was 65% (37% with total and 28% with partial paralysis), 1.81% showed respiratory symptoms without hemodynamic changes. Discussion. Supraclavicular brachial plexus blockade is a technique related to diaphragmatic paralysis. Ultrasound has allowed for the incidence of this complication to be reduced. It is a useful method in post-operative diagnosis. Conclusions. Diaphragmatic paralysis after supraclavicular brachial plexus blockade is a complication mainly observed in patients with previous pulmonary problems. Therefore, it must be strictly monitored.


Introdução. A anestesia regional é uma técnica importante, inovadora e popular para o manejo anestésico e analgésico. No bloqueio supraclavicular do plexo braquial há uma incidência de 50-60% de paralisia diafragmática. A apresentação clínica é variável de acordo com fatores externos e internos do paciente. Existem múltiplas técnicas radiológicas no diagnóstico, sendo a ultrassonografia muito útil devido ao seu fácil acesso. O objetivo é determinar a incidência de paralisia diafragmática secundária ao bloqueio supraclavicular do plexo braquial guiado por ultrassom em uma instituição de quarto nível. Metodologia. Estudo analítico, longitudinal, prospectivo; 110 pacientes foram selecionados. Critérios de inclusão: pacientes maiores de 18 anos submetidos à cirurgia de membro superior com bloqueio supraclavicular do plexo braquial. Critérios de exclusão: pacientes ASA (American Anesthesiology Society) 4 e 5, gestantes, IMC>35 kg/m2 pacientes com história neuromuscular, doença pulmonar restritiva ou obstrutiva, paralisia do nervo frênico ou disfunção diafragmática. Foi realizada uma análise por meio de testes estatísticos, descrevendo os diferentes graus de paralisia diafragmática. Resultados. Nos pacientes que atenderam aos critérios de inclusão, a incidência de paralisia diafragmática foi de 65% (37% paralisia total e 28% parcial), 1.81% apresentavam sintomas respiratórios sem alterações hemodinâmicas. Discussão. O bloqueio do plexo braquial supraclavicular é uma técnica relacionada à paralisia diafragmática, a ultrassonografia tem reduzido a incidência dessa complicação e é um método útil no diagnóstico pós-operatório. Conclusões. A paralisia diafragmática após bloqueio do plexo braquial supraclavicular é uma complicação observada principalmente em pacientes com envolvimento pulmonar prévio, pelo que é importante vigilância rigorosa.


Subject(s)
Diaphragm , Brachial Plexus , Incidence , Ultrasonography , Anesthesia
6.
Semina cienc. biol. saude ; 43(1): 167-176, jan./jun. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1354480

ABSTRACT

Animais presentes em zoológicos frequentemente necessitam de captura e anestesia para a realização de procedimentos clínicos e cirúrgicos. A anestesia total intravenosa apresenta vantagens como redução do estresse cirúrgico e menor depressão cardiovascular e respiratória. Entretanto, ainda são escassas as pesquisas dedicadas dentro deste contexto. Nesse sentido, o objetivo deste relato foi avaliar o protocolo anestésico empregado, visando um procedimento seguro e passível de reversão para a espécie silvestre selecionada. Acompanhou-se a anestesia de um leão (Panthera leo), macho, adulto, proveniente do Zoológico Municipal de Curitiba, submetido a procedimento endodôntico. A medicação pré-anestésica constituiu-se de dexmedetomidina (6 µg/kg), metadona (0,2 mg/kg), midazolam (0,1 mg/kg) e tiletamina-zolazepam (1,2 mg/kg). A indução foi realizada com propofol (1,5 mg/kg) e o animal foi intubado. Visando promover analgesia local, foi realizado bloqueio infraorbitário esquerdo com 5 mL de lidocaína a 2%. A manutenção foi realizada por meio do fornecimento de propofol (0,02-0,1 mg/kg/h), dexmedetomidina (0,5 µg/kg/h) e remifentanil (5 µg/kg/h). O paciente apresentou sedação profunda e foi mantido em plano anestésico cirúrgico; todos os parâmetros fisiológicos monitorados permaneceram estáveis durante todo o procedimento. Após 55 minutos de anestesia o paciente apresentava sustentação espontânea da cabeça, quando foi novamente transportado ao zoológico para soltura no recinto. A ambulação foi considerada normal pelos observadores no zoológico seis horas após a anestesia. Pôde-se concluir que o protocolo realizado se mostrou tanto eficaz quanto seguro para a referida espécie encaminhada ao procedimento em questão.


Zoo animals often require capture and anesthesia in order to undergo clinical and surgical procedures. Total intravenous anesthesia has advantages such as reduced surgical stress and less cardiovascular and respiratory depression. However, specific research on this matter is still scarce. Therefore, the present report aims to evaluate the anesthetic protocol employed, seeking a safe and reversible procedure for the selected wild species. A male adult lion (Panthera leo), from the Zoológico Municipal de Curitiba, was subjected to an endodontic anesthesia, under close monitoring. The pre-anesthetic medication consisted of dexmedetomidine (6 µg/kg), methadone (0.2 mg/kg), midazolam (0.1 mg/kg) and tiletamine-zolazepam (12 mg/kg). Induction was performed with propofol (1 mg/kg) and the animal was intubated. In order to promote local analgesia, a left infraorbital block was implemented with 5 mL of 2% lidocaine. Maintenance was undertaken by supplying propofol (0.02-0.1 mg/kg/min), dexmedetomidine (0.5 µg/kg/h) and remifentanil (5 µg/kg/h). The patient exhibited deep sedation and followed the surgical anesthetic plan; all the monitored physiological parameters remained stable throughout the procedure. After 55 minutes of anesthesia the patient showed spontaneous head support, when it was transported back to the zoo. The ambulation was considered normal by the zoo observers 6 hours after the anesthesia. It was concluded that the protocol was both effective and safe for the referred species undergone the procedure reported.


Subject(s)
Animals , Preanesthetic Medication , Tiletamine , Zolazepam , Propofol , Dexmedetomidine , Analgesia , Anesthesia , Anesthesia, Intravenous , Anesthetics , Animals, Zoo
7.
Rev. SOBECC (Online) ; 27: 1-7, 01-01-2022.
Article in Portuguese, French | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1372995

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Descrever a construção e a implantação dos protocolos PEWS e NEWS na recuperação anestésica com recurso da automação robó-tica. Método: Relato de experiência sobre a construção e a implantação de protocolos de deterioração clínica na recuperação anestésica em um hospital filantrópico de grande porte localizado no município de São Paulo. O processo de trabalho envolveu a determinação dos protocolos, a construção das regras operacionais para o sistema, o desenvolvimento do sistema eletrônico e a implantação com treinamento da equipe assistencial. Resultados: Foi implantado o processo de deterioração clínica com os protocolos PEWS e NEWS de forma automatizada e sinalizado o acionamento por meio de um iconograma no painel da sala de recuperação pós-anestésica. Conclusão: A implantação dos protocolos foi concluída com sucesso; o uso da automação robótica pode simplificar os fluxos de trabalho e o tempo de coleta de sinais vitais para fornecer uma pontuação do escore. Protocolos de deterioração clínica auxiliam na tomada de decisão das enfermeiras da recuperação anestésica, desde que aplicados em conjunto com o julgamento clínico.


Objective: To describe the development and implementation of the PEWS and NEWS protocols in post-anesthesia recovery using robotic automation. Method: Experience report on the development and implementation of clinical deterioration protocols in post-anesthesia recovery in a large philanthropic hospital located in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The work involved the determination of protocols, construction of operational rules for the system, development of the electronic system and implementation with training of the assistance team. Results: Prediction of clinical deterio-ration was implemented with the PEWS and NEWS protocols in an automated way, and activation was signaled through an iconogram in the panel of the post-anesthesia care unit. Conclusion: The implementation of the protocols was successfully completed; the use of robotic automation can simplify workflows and reduce the time to collect vital signs to provide a score. Clinical deterioration protocols help nurses' decision-making in anesthesia reco-very, as long as they are applied in conjunction with clinical judgment.


Objetivo: Describir la construcción e implementación de los protocolos PEWS y NEWS en recuperación anestésica utilizando automatiza-ción robótica. Método: Relato de experiencia sobre la construcción e implementación de protocolos de deterioro clínico en la recuperación anestésica en un gran hospital filantrópico de la ciudad de São Paulo. El proceso de trabajo implicó la determinación de protocolos, construcción de reglas de fun-cionamiento del sistema, desarrollo en sistema electrónico e implementación con capacitación del equipo de asistencia. Resultados: Signos de deterioro clínico utilizando los puntajes PEWS y NEWS, lo construimos de forma automatizada e identificamos mediante un signo compuesto por una iconogra-fía en el panel multiprofesional de la unidad, de forma visible para cualquier miembro del equipo. Conclusión: La implementación de los protocolos se completó con éxito, el uso de la automatización robótica puede simplificar los flujos de trabajo y el tiempo de recopilación de signos vitales para pro-porcionar una puntuación. Los protocolos de deterioro clínico auxilian la toma de decisiones del enfermero en la recuperación anestésica, siempre que sean aplicados en conjunto con el juicio clínico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Recovery Room , Anesthesia , Nurses , Powders , Automation , Robotics
8.
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 58: e18807, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364413

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to investigate possible changes in the spatial memory of rats and the expression or activity of EGR-1, c-Fos, PKA, and PKC after propofol anesthesia. Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats aged 20 months and 36 Sprague-Dawley rats aged three months were each randomly divided into three groups: the control group, the Morris Water Maze (MWM) group, and the propofol group. In the propofol groups of both young and aged rats, the rats were anesthetized by propofol for two or four hours and then performed the MWM test two days or two weeks after anesthesia to assess cognitive function. EGR-1, c-Fos, PKA, and PKC expressions in the rat hippocampus were determined via immunohistochemistry. For the older rats, the escape latency in the P4h/2d group was significantly prolonged (P < 0.05), and the learning curve was right-shifted in the P4h/2w group (P < 0.05). The expression levels of EGR-1, c-Fos, PKA, and PKC in the MWM groups were significantly higher than those in the control groups (P < 0.05). In the P4h/2d group of aged rats, the expression levels of both PKA and PKC were decreased compared with those of the MWM groups. The decreased expression of both protein kinases may be responsible for the observed impairment after propofol anesthesia


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Propofol/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley/classification , Morris Water Maze Test , Anesthesia/adverse effects , Cognition/classification , Cognitive Dysfunction/pathology , Spatial Memory , Hippocampus
9.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 56: e20210465, 2022. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1356729

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: To assess the actions performed by the operating room nurse during anesthesia and their behavior for patient safety regarding the reporting on adverse events, and to analyze their knowledge about anesthetic practices. Method: This is a cross-sectional study carried out using an electronic questionnaire consisting of socio-demographic, professional practice, knowledge in anesthesia, patient safety, and professional practice questions, conducted from January to March 2019 with operating room nurses. Results: One hundred nurses participated, 89 (89%) being women, with a mean age of 41.09 years (SD = 9.36), time of undergraduate completion of 14.33 years (SD = 8.34). The average attendance was 4.69 operating rooms (SD = 2.07) per nurse, with an emphasis on action before induction (49; 49%). Professionals reported performance of simultaneous activities (72; 72%) and insufficient number of employees (57; 57%) as difficulties of their daily practice. Among the participants, 77 (77%) correctly cited the periods of general anesthesia and 80.4% always reported the occurrence of an adverse event. Conclusion: Nurses identified their role in anesthesia, with limitations for assistance from multiple activities and lack of professionals.


RESUMEN Objetivos: Evaluar las acciones realizadas por los enfermeros en el quirófano durante la anestesia y sus conductas para la seguridad del paciente en la notificación de eventos adversos, analizando sus conocimientos sobre prácticas anestésicas. Método: Estudio transversal realizado con un cuestionario electrónico compuesto por preguntas sociodemográficas, práctica profesional, conocimientos en anestesia, seguridad del paciente y cuestiones de ejercicio profesional, realizado de enero a marzo de 2019 con enfermeros de quirófano. Resultados: Participaron 100 enfermeros, 89 (89%) mujeres, con una edad media de 41,09 años (DE = 9,36), tiempo de formación de 14,33 años (DE = 8,34). La asistencia media fue de 4.69 quirófanos (DE = 2.07) por enfermero, con énfasis en la actuación antes de la inducción (49; 49%). Los profesionales informaron como limitación de su práctica diaria la ejecución de actividades simultáneas (72; 72%) y la insuficiencia de empleados (57; 57%). Entre los participantes, 77 (77%) citaron correctamente los períodos de anestesia general y el 80,4% siempre reportaron la ocurrencia de un evento adverso. Conclusión: Los enfermeros identificaron su papel en la anestesia, con limitaciones en la atención por múltiples actividades y falta de profesionales.


RESUMO Objetivos: Avaliar as ações executadas pelo enfermeiro de centro cirúrgico durante a anestesia e suas condutas para segurança do paciente quanto à notificação de eventos adversos, analisar o seu conhecimento sobre as práticas anestésicas. Método: Estudo transversal realizado com questionário eletrônico composto por perguntas sócio-demográficas, prática profissional, conhecimento em anestesia, segurança do paciente e questões de exercício profissional, conduzido de janeiro a março de 2019 com enfermeiros de centro cirúrgico. Resultados: Participaram 100 enfermeiros, sendo 89 (89%) do sexo feminino, com média de idade de 41,09 anos (DP = 9,36), tempo de formação de 14,33 anos (DP = 8,34). A média de atendimento foi de 4,69 salas operatórias (DP = 2,07) por enfermeiro, com destaque para a atuação antes da indução (49; 49%). Os profissionais relataram como limitação de sua prática diária a execução de atividades simultâneas (72; 72%) e funcionários insuficientes (57; 57%). Entre os participantes, 77 (77%) citaram corretamente os períodos da anestesia geral e 80,4% sempre notificavam a ocorrência de um evento adverso. Conclusão: Os enfermeiros identificaram seu papel na anestesia, com limitações para assistência devido a múltiplas atividades e carência de profissionais.


Subject(s)
Perioperative Nursing , Nurse's Role , Anesthesia , Operating Room Nursing , Patient Safety , Professional Practice Gaps
10.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1392484

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Conocer los métodos utilizados para el tratamiento inicial del primer episodio de luxación glenohumeral anteroinferior aguda y comparar las conductas entre los diferentes niveles de especialización. Nuestra hipótesis es que los métodos utilizados en la Argentina presentan una gran variabilidad. materiales y métodos: Se realizó una encuesta mediante formularios de Google, que se difundió a través del Comité de Morbimortalidad de la Asociación Argentina de Ortopedia y Traumatología y la Asociación Argentina de Cirugía de Hombro y Codo. El cuestionario consta de 13 preguntas con respuesta de opción múltiple que incluyen: grado de especialización, ámbito laboral, maniobras utilizadas, empleo de anestesia, complicaciones, posición y tiempo de inmovilización. Resultados: Se obtuvieron 429 respuestas completas. El 52,2% utiliza la maniobra de Kocher como primera elección, seguida del método hipocrático (15,9%). El 72% no utiliza anestesia inicialmente para la reducción; se halló una diferencia esta-dísticamente significativa entre el uso de anestesia y los diferentes niveles de especialización (p = 0,046). De los 120 médicos que sí la emplean, el 85,8% recurre a la anestesia general o la sedación. El 74,8% inmoviliza al paciente en aducción y rotación interna. El 13,8% de los participantes refiere haber tenido alguna complicación relacionada con la reducción. Conclusiones: Existe una gran variabilidad en los métodos utilizados para la reducción de un primer episodio de luxación glenohumeral anteroinferior en los servicios de emergencia de la Argentina. Consideramos oportuno replantear el uso de la anestesia, y proponer la anestesia intra-articular como primera opción. Nivel de Evidencia: IIC


Objective: To know the methods used for the initial treatment of the first episode of acute anterior inferior glenohumeral dislocation and to compare the behaviors of physicians between the different levels of specialization. Our hypothesis was that there is great variability in the methods used in Argentina. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted using the Google forms platform. It was disseminated through the morbidity and mortality committee of the AAOT and the Argentinian Association of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery. The questionnaire consisted of 13 questions with multiple choice answers that included the degree of specialization, work environment, maneuvers, anesthesia, complications, position, and immobilization time. Results: 429 complete answers were obtained. 52.2% use the Kocher maneuver as their first choice, followed by the Hippocratic method (15.9%). 72% do not use anesthesia to perform the reduction, there is a statistically significant difference between the use of anesthesia and the different levels of specialization (p = 0.046). 85.8% of the 120 surgeons who use anesthesia for the reduction, use general anesthesia or sedation. 74.8% immobilize the patient in adduction and internal rotation. 13.8% reported having complications related to the reduction. Conclusions: There is a great variability regarding the methods used to reduce a first episode of LGHAI in the emergency services in Argentina. We believe it is important to reconsider the use of anesthesia, proposing intra-articular anesthesia as the first option, if needed. Level of Evidence: IIC


Subject(s)
Argentina , Shoulder Dislocation , Shoulder Joint , Open Fracture Reduction , Anesthesia
12.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 417-428, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929099

ABSTRACT

Dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) play an important role in cognition, emergence from anesthesia, reward, and aversion, and their projection to the cortex is a crucial part of the "bottom-up" ascending activating system. The prelimbic cortex (PrL) is one of the important projection regions of the VTA. However, the roles of dopaminergic neurons in the VTA and the VTADA-PrL pathway under sevoflurane anesthesia in rats remain unclear. In this study, we found that intraperitoneal injection and local microinjection of a dopamine D1 receptor agonist (Chloro-APB) into the PrL had an emergence-promoting effect on sevoflurane anesthesia in rats, while injection of a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist (SCH23390) deepened anesthesia. The results of chemogenetics combined with microinjection and optogenetics showed that activating the VTADA-PrL pathway prolonged the induction time and shortened the emergence time of anesthesia. These results demonstrate that the dopaminergic system in the VTA has an emergence-promoting effect and that the bottom-up VTADA-PrL pathway facilitates emergence from sevoflurane anesthesia.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Animals , Dopaminergic Neurons/metabolism , Rats , Receptors, Dopamine D1/metabolism , Sevoflurane/pharmacology , Ventral Tegmental Area/metabolism
13.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 703-719, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939835

ABSTRACT

A growing number of studies have identified sex differences in response to general anesthesia; however, the underlying neural mechanisms are unclear. The medial preoptic area (MPA), an important sexually dimorphic structure and a critical hub for regulating consciousness transition, is enriched with estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), particularly in neuronal clusters that participate in regulating sleep. We found that male mice were more sensitive to sevoflurane. Pharmacological inhibition of ERα in the MPA abolished the sex differences in sevoflurane anesthesia, in particular by extending the induction time and facilitating emergence in males but not in females. Suppression of ERα in vitro inhibited GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons of the MPA in males but not in females. Furthermore, ERα knockdown in GABAergic neurons of the male MPA was sufficient to eliminate sex differences during sevoflurane anesthesia. Collectively, MPA ERα positively regulates the activity of MPA GABAergic neurons in males but not in females, which contributes to the sex difference of mice in sevoflurane anesthesia.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Animals , Estrogen Receptor alpha/metabolism , Female , Male , Mice , Preoptic Area , Sevoflurane/pharmacology , Sex Characteristics
14.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 504-508, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935627

ABSTRACT

Prostate biopsy is the gold standard for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. In order to successfully and effectively complete the biopsy, clinicians should not only select the correct puncture method, but also pay attention to the pain control of patients undergoing puncture. It is necessary to select a reasonable anesthetic method for biopsy. The pain during biopsy comes from the skin, muscle and other structures in the puncture approach, and also comes from the prostate capsule. Therefore, the anesthesia emphasis of transperineal and transrectal biopsy approaches will also be different. The use of appropriate anesthesia is of great significance to improve the patient's cooperation and ensure the success rate of biopsy. With the continuous maturity of the technology and concept of prostate biopsy, a single anesthesia method has been unable to meet the actual anesthetic needs of biopsy, and the use of multi-site and multi-phase combined anesthesia for different sources of pain has become the mainstream anesthetic option.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Anesthesia, Local , Biopsy , Humans , Image-Guided Biopsy/methods , Male , Pain/pathology , Prostate/pathology , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927448

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#Post-anaesthesia care unit (PACU) delirium is a potentially preventable condition that results in a significant long-term effect. In a multicentre prospective cohort study, we investigate the incidence and risk factors of postoperative delirium in elderly patients undergoing major non-cardiac surgery.@*METHODS@#Patients were consented and recruited from 4 major hospitals in Singapore. Research ethics approval was obtained. Patients older than 65 years undergoing non-cardiac surgery >2 hours were recruited. Baseline perioperative data were collected. Preoperative baseline cognition was obtained. Patients were assessed in the post-anaesthesia care unit for delirium 30-60 minutes after arrival using the Nursing Delirium Screening Scale (Nu-DESC).@*RESULTS@#Ninety-eight patients completed the study. Eleven patients (11.2%) had postoperative delirium. Patients who had PACU delirium were older (74.6±3.2 versus 70.6±4.4 years, P=0.005). Univariate analysis showed those who had PACU delirium are more likely to be ASA 3 (63.6% vs 31.0%, P=0.019), had estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of >60mL/min/1.73m2 (36.4% vs 10.6%, P=0.013), higher HbA1C value (7.8±1.2 vs 6.6±0.9, P=0.011), raised random blood glucose (10.0±5.0mmol/L vs 6.5±2.4mmol/L, P=0.0066), and moderate-severe depression (18.2% vs 1.1%, P=0.033). They are more likely to stay longer in hospital (median 8 days [range 4-18] vs 4 days [range 2-8], P=0.049). Raised random blood glucose is independently associated with increased PACU delirium on multivariate analysis.


Subject(s)
Aged , Anesthesia , Anesthesia Recovery Period , Delirium/etiology , Humans , Incidence , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
16.
Rev. int. sci. méd. (Abidj.) ; 24(2): 115-121, 2022.
Article in French | AIM | ID: biblio-1396967

ABSTRACT

Contexte et objectif : La chirurgie cardiaque est née au XXème siècle. Actuellement elle se pratique à tous les âges, des nouveau-nés aux octogénaires avec la réalisation de milliers d'opérations dans le monde. Les premiers cas de chirurgie du cœur sous circulation extra corporelle (CEC) au Burkina ont eu lieu en 2021 au CHU de Tengandogo. L'objectif de ce travail était d'évaluer la prise en charge de ces patients dans le service d'anesthésie et de réanimation. Méthodes : Nous avons réalisé une étude rétrospective descriptive et analytique sur une année incluant tous les malades ayant bénéfi cié d'une chirurgie à cœur ouvert au CHU de Tengandogo en 2021. Résultats : Au cours de cette année, 22 malades ont pu bénéfi cier d'une chirurgie du cœur sous CEC. L'âge moyen des patients était de 15,8 ans +/- 7 ans avec des extrêmes de 5 et 30 ans.Les pathologies concernées étaient les cardiopathies congénitales dans 15 cas (68,2%) et les valvulopathies dans 7 cas (31,8%). La circulation extra corporelle a duré en moyenne 89,95 minutes +/- 28,73. Le clampage aortique a duré 55 minutes +/- 20. L'évolution a été favorable chez 21 patients (96,5%) mais défavorable chez un patient portant la mortalité à 4,5%. Conclusion : Les résultats obtenus au cours de cette première année sont encourageants et ouvrent une perspective de développement de cette activité chirurgicale dans notre pays.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thoracic Surgery , Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation , Critical Care , Anesthesia
18.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(4): e401, Oct.-Dec. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1341244

ABSTRACT

Abstract The illegal use of liquid silicone products or biopolymers in gluteal augmentation procedures is giving rise to multiple complications, with a significant negative health impact, both in the short and long-term. The migration of polymers to the sacral and lumbar region represents a major limitation to conducting neuraxial anesthesia procedures. This silicon migration is unpredictable through the superficial tissue as is widely described in the literature. Caudal, spinal and epidural anesthesia may cross the silicone in the fascia and contaminate the neural axis with substances that are highly capable of causing inflammation, edema and tissue necrosis. In order to improve the safety of neuraxial anesthetic procedures and avoid the potential risk of dissemination and contamination of the neural axis, this complication must be ruled out, or be considered an emerging contraindication for these anesthetic procedures.


Resumen La aplicación ilegal de productos como silicona líquida o biopolímeros en procedimientos de aumento de glúteos está generando múltiples complicaciones con gran impacto negativo para la salud tanto a corto como a largo plazo. La migración de polímeros a la región sacra y lumbar representa una importante limitación para la realización de procedimientos de anestesia neuroaxial. Esta migración de silicona es impredecible a través del tejido superficial, la cual está ampliamente descrita en la literatura. Los procedimientos anestésicos caudal, espinal y epidural podrían atravesar los silicomas en la fascia del tejido y contaminar el neuroeje con sustancias con alta capacidad de generar inflamación, edema y necrosis de tejidos. Con el fin de aumentar la seguridad de los procedimientos anestésicos neuroaxiales y evitar el riesgo potencial de dispersión y contaminación del neuroeje, es necesario descartar esta complicación o considerar una contraindicación emergente en estos procedimientos anestésicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Patient Safety , Anesthesia, Conduction , Silicones , Biopolymers , Contraindications, Drug , Anesthesia
19.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(4): e202, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1341238

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Information regarding the clinical behavior and the anesthetic and perioperative management in pregnant patients with SARS-CoV-2 is starting to appear in the literature in the form of case reports or case series. However, strong evidence and recommendations are still limited. Objective To describe the clinical characteristics, the results of anesthetic and perioperative management, and complications in seroprevalent pregnant women for SARS-CoV-2 infection, delivered by cesarean section. Methodology Observational study in which 107 clinical records of pregnant women who were seroprevalent for SARS-CoV-2 infection were reviewed and analyzed between April and June, 2020. Demographic, clinical and serological data were collected, as well as data on the anesthetic technique and intraoperative and postoperative complications. Results Of the 107 pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection, 99 (92.52%) were asymptomatic and 8 (7.48%) had mild symptoms. The most frequent reasons for cesarean section were cephalo-pelvic disproportion in 20 (18.68%), previous cesarean section in 20 (18.68%) and non-reassuring fetal status in 14 (13.08%). Anesthesia technique was neuraxial in all cases, with spinal used in 100 (93.5%), combined spinal-epidural in 4 (3.7%) and epidural catheter in 3 (2.8%) patients. No deaths had occurred until the third postoperative day of follow-up. Conclusions The majority of pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection are asymptomatic. In this work, spinal, combined spinal-epidural and epidural neuroxial anesthesia techniques were shown to be effective and safe for these patients and their newborn babies.


Resumen Introducción La información del comportamiento clínico, manejo anestésico y perioperatorio en gestantes con SARS-CoV-2 empieza a aparecer en la literatura mediante reportes de casos o serie de casos. Aún son limitadas la evidencia contundente y las recomendaciones. Objetivo Describir las características clínicas, resultados del manejo anestésico, perioperatorio y complicaciones en gestantes seroprevalentes para infección por SARS-CoV-2, cuyo parto fue por cesárea. Metodología Estudio observacional en el cual se revisaron y analizaron 107 historias clínicas de gestantes seroprevalentes para infección por SARS-CoV-2, de abril a junio del 2020. Se recolectaron datos demográficos, clínicos, serología, técnica anestésica y complicaciones intra y postoperatorias. Resultados De las 107 gestantes con infección por SARS-CoV-2, 99 (92,52 %) fueron asintomáticas y 8 (7,48 %) presentaron síntomas leves. Los motivos más frecuentes de cesárea fueron: desproporción céfalo-pélvica 20 (18,68 %), cesárea previa 20 (18,68 %) y estado fetal no tranquilizador 14 (13,08 %). La técnica anestésica fue neuro axial en su totalidad, espinal en 100 (93,5 %), combinada espinal-epidural en 4 (3,7 %) y epidural con catéter en 3 (2,8 %) pacientes. No se registraron muertes hasta el tercer día postoperatorio de seguimiento. Conclusiones Las gestantes con infección por SARS-CoV-2 presentan -en su mayoría- infecciones asintomáticas. En este trabajo, la anestesia neuro axial: espinal, combinada espinal-epidural y epidural, se presentan como técnicas efectivas y seguras para estas pacientes y sus recién nacidos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Cesarean Section , SARS-CoV-2 , Anesthesia , Peru , COVID-19 , Anesthesia, Epidural
20.
Iatreia ; 34(4): 375-382, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1350838

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: el SARS-CoV-2 es un nuevo coronavirus descrito por primera vez en China y con alta capacidad de propagación. Su presentación clínica más frecuente son los síntomas respiratorios, aunque se han descrito otros como los gastrointestinales. La transmisión ocurre por gotas, aerosoles, vía fecal oral, conjuntiva, fómites y por contacto directo con fluidos corporales del paciente. En este sentido, los procedimientos realizados en las salas de endoscopia deben considerarse de alto riesgo. Objetivo: describir y analizar las medidas de prevención frente al SARS-CoV-2 para la práctica endoscópica-anestésica u otros procedimientos que requieran sedación, con el fin de disminuir la exposición y así minimizar el contagio del personal de salud. Resultados: la respuesta global se ha enfocado en la utilización de elementos de protección personal para tratar de disminuir el riesgo al que se encuentra expuesto el personal de salud. Sin embargo, debido a la prontitud de la emergencia, no se han podido generar evidencias de alta calidad que permitan dar recomendaciones definitivas. Reflexión: el personal de salud debe tomar todas las medidas de protección que puedan ser consideradas como efectivas, además deconstruir protocolos y fomentar la adherencia a los mismos.


SUMMARY Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 is a new coronavirus described for the first time in China, with high capacity of propagation. Its most frequent clinical presentation is respiratory symptoms; however, others have been described as gastrointestinal. Transmission occurs by droplets, aerosols, oral fecal route, conjunctiva, fomites and by direct contact with body fluids of the patient. In this sense, the procedures performed in endoscopy rooms should be considered high risk. Objective: To describe and analyze preventive measures against SARS-CoV-2 for endoscopic-anesthesia practice or other procedures that require sedation, in order to reduce exposure and thus minimize contagion of health personnel. Results: The global response has focused on the use of personal protective equipment to try to reduce the risk to which health care personnel are exposed, but due to the urgency of the emergency, it has not been possible to generate high quality evidence to give definitive recommendations. Reflection: Health personnel should take all protective measures that can be considered effective, and also deconstruct protocols and encourage adherence to them.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronavirus , Personal Protection , Endoscopy , Conscious Sedation , Anesthesia
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