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Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 58: e20230232, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1535169


ABSTRACT Objective: The main objective of this study was to compare stress and anxiety levels in children undergoing surgical procedures with or without parental presence at induction of anesthesia by measuring salivary cortisol levels and applying the mYPAS. Method: Quasi-randomized trial with children aged 5-12 year, with ASA physical status I, II, or III, undergoing elective surgery. According to parents' willingness, the pair were defined as accompanied or unaccompanied group. Chi-square, Fisher's exact tests, Student's t test, Mann-Whitney, Hodges-Lehman and Spearman's tests were used for statistical analyzes. Results: We included 46 children; 63% were preschool children mostly accompanied by their mothers (80%). The median mYPAS score was 37.5 (quartile range, 23.4-51.6) in unaccompanied children, and 55.0 (quartile range, 27.9-65.0) in accompanied children, with an estimated median difference of +11.8 (95% CI of 0 to 23.4; p = 0.044). There were no significant differences in the mean salivary cortisol levels. Conclusion: The level of anxiety was higher in accompanied children. There were no differences in salivary cortisol levels between both groups. Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials (ReBEC):RBR-9wj4qvy.

RESUMO Objetivo: O principal objetivo deste estudo foi comparar os níveis de estresse e ansiedade em crianças submetidas a procedimentos cirúrgicos com ou sem presença dos pais na indução da anestesia, medindo os níveis de cortisol salivar e aplicando o mYPAS. Método: Ensaio quaserandomizado com crianças de 5 a 12 anos, com estado físico ASA I, II ou III, submetidas a cirurgia eletiva. De acordo com a disposição dos pais, o par foi definido como grupo acompanhado ou não acompanhado. Foram utilizados testes de qui-quadrado, exato de Fisher, t de Student, Mann-Whitney, Hodges-Lehman e Spearman para as análises estatísticas. Resultados: Foram incluídas 46 crianças; 63% delas em idade préescolar, principalmente acompanhadas por suas mães (80%). A pontuação mYPAS mediana foi de 37,5 (intervalo interquartil, 23,4-51,6) em crianças não acompanhadas e de 55,0 (intervalo interquartil, 27,9-65,0) em crianças acompanhadas, com uma diferença mediana estimada de +11,8 (IC de 95% de 0 a 23,4; p = 0,044). Não houve diferenças significativas nos níveis médios de cortisol salivar. Conclusão: O nível de ansiedade foi maior em crianças acompanhadas. Não houve diferenças nos níveis de cortisol salivar entre os dois grupos. Registro Brasileiro de Ensaios Clínicos (ReBEC):RBR-9wj4qvy.

RESUMEN Objetivo: El objetivo principal de este estudio fue comparar los niveles de estrés y ansiedad en niños sometidos a procedimientos quirúrgicos con o sin presencia de los padres en la inducción de la anestesia mediante la medición de los niveles de cortisol salival y la aplicación del mYPAS. Método: Ensayo cuasi-aleatorio con niños de 5 a 12 años, con estado físico ASA I, II o III, sometidos a cirugía electiva. Según la disposición de los padres, se definieron como grupo acompañado o no acompañado. Se utilizaron pruebas de chi-cuadrado, exacta de Fisher, t de Student, Mann-Whitney, Hodges-Lehman y Spearman para los análisis estadísticos. Resultados: Se incluyeron 46 niños; el 63% eran niños en edad preescolar, en su mayoría acompañados por sus madres (80%). La puntuación mYPAS mediana fue de 37,5 (rango intercuartílico, 23,4-51,6) en niños no acompañados y de 55,0 (rango intercuartílico, 27,9-65,0) en niños acompañados, con una diferencia mediana estimada de +11,8 (IC del 95% de 0 a 23,4; p = 0,044). No hubo diferencias significativas en los niveles medios de cortisol salival. Conclusión: El nivel de ansiedad fue mayor en los niños acompañados. No hubo diferencias en los niveles de cortisol salival entre ambos grupos. Registro Brasileño de Ensayos Clínicos (ReBEC):RBR-9wj4qvy.

Humans , Child , Stress, Psychological , Child , Anesthesia , Anxiety , Parent-Child Relations , Hydrocortisone
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 15(3): [176-181], sept. 2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1510620


Introducción: es bien sabido que el neumoperitoneo en cirugía laparoscópica afecta tanto al sistema cardiovascular como al sistema respiratorio, pero no se entiende por completo el grado en el que debemos modificar los parámetros ventilatorios para mini-mizar las complicaciones debido a la insuflación del neumoperitoneo. Estos cambios in-cluyen disminución de la distensibilidad y mayores presiones inspiratorias pico.

Abstract Background: it is well known that pneumoperitoneum in laparoscopic surgery affects both cardiovascular and respiratory system, but it is not fully understood yet the degree in which we have to make changes in the ventilatory settings to minimize the complica-tions due to insufflation of peritoneum, changes including impaired compliance and hig-her peak inspiratory.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Pneumoperitoneum/surgery , Pulmonary Atelectasis/complications , Pulmonary Ventilation , Maximal Respiratory Pressures , Anesthesia
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 15(2): [128-133], jun2023.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437565


Introducción: la mayoría de los pacientes que se someten a cirugía torácica pueden ser clasificados en el grupo de alto riesgo para hipoxia, especialmente cuando se decide por una ventilación unipulmonar, debido al desequilibrio V/Q; por lo tanto, se han desa-rrollado nuevas estrategias ventilatorias y maniobras de rescate para hipoxia. Curso clínico: presentamos una paciente de 85 años de edad sin comorbilidades programada para toracotomía abierta y manejada con ventilación unipulmonar. Durante el mane-jo anestésico, se presenta hipoxia secundaria a desequilibrio V/Q y choque hipovolémi-co hemorrágico, con respuesta positiva a las maniobras de rescate para hipoxia. Con-clusión: es importante prevenir en la medida de lo posible la hipoxia en la ventilación unipulmonar, siguiendo las nuevas estrategias ventilatorias. Sin embargo, cuando se presenta una crisis, no debemos retrasar las maniobras de rescate de forma moderna. (AU)

Introduction: most of the patients undergoing thoracic surgery fit in the high risk group for hypoxia, especially when deciding to use one-lung ventilation due to the V/Q mis-match; therefore, new ventilation strategies and hypoxia rescue manoeuvres have been developed. Clinical course: we present an 85-year old female with no major co-morbidities scheduled for open thoracotomy and managed with one-lung ventilation. During the course of the anaesthetic management, hypoxia presents secondary to V/Q mismatch and haemorrhagic hypovolemic shock, with a positive response to hypoxia rescue manoeuvres. Conclusion: it is important to prevent as much as we can the hy-poxia in a one-lung ventilation following the new ventilation strategies. Although when facing a crisis, proper hypoxia management with a modern approach should not be de-layed. (AU)

Humans , Female , Aged, 80 and over , Abscess/surgery , One-Lung Ventilation/instrumentation , Mediastinitis/pathology , Hypoxia/surgery , Thoracotomy , Oxygenation , Anesthesia
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(3): 258-266, May-June 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439614


Abstract Background: Service quality in anesthesiology has been frequently measured by morbidity and mortality. This measure increasingly considers patient satisfaction, which is the result of care from the client's perspective. Therefore, anesthesiologists must be able to build relationships with patients, provide understandable information and involve them in decisions about their anesthesia. This study aimed to evaluate the peri-anesthetic care provided by the anesthesia service in an ambulatory surgery unit using the Heidelberg Peri-anaesthetic Questionnaire. Methods: This cross-sectional study used the Heidelberg Peri-anaesthetic Questionnaire to evaluate 1211 patients undergoing ambulatory surgery. We selected questions that showed a greater degree of dissatisfaction and correlated them with patient characterization data (age, sex, education, and ASA physical status), anesthesia data (type, time, and prior experience), and surgical specialty. Results: Questions in which patients tended to show dissatisfaction involved fear of anesthesia and surgery, feeling cold, the urgent need to urinate, pain at the surgical site, and the team's level of concern and speed of response in relieving the patient's pain. Conclusion: The Heidelberg Peri-anaesthetic Questionnaire proved to be a useful tool in identifying points of dissatisfaction, mainly fear of anesthesia and surgery, feeling cold, the urgent need to urinate, pain at the surgical site, and the team's level of concern and speed of response in relieving the patient's pain in the population studied. These were correlated with patient, anesthesia, and surgical variables. This allows the establishment of priorities at the different points of care, with the ultimate goal of improving patient satisfaction regarding anesthesia care.

Humans , Anesthesia , Anesthesiology , Anesthetics , Pain , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Patient Satisfaction
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(3): 351-353, May-June 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439623


Abstract Stenting for lower tracheal stenosis is a tricky situation and for the safe conduct of anesthesia, it is imperative to maintain spontaneous respiration. Airway topicalization is routinely recommended for anticipated difficult airway. We report a case of upper airway obstruction following lidocaine nebulization in a patient to be taken for tracheal stenting for lower tracheal stenosis. We would like to highlight that close monitoring of the patient is advisable during airway topicalization to detect any airway obstruction at the earliest and how fiberoptic intubation can play a pivotal role to secure the airway in an emergency scenario.

Humans , Tracheal Stenosis/surgery , Airway Obstruction/etiology , Anesthesia , Airway Management , Intubation, Intratracheal , Lidocaine
Odovtos (En linea) ; 25(1)abr. 2023.
Article in English | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1422191


The aim of this study was to observed the anesthetic efficacy of the alveolar nerve block on nine patients that CBCT diagnosed unilateral retromolar canal on a double-blind, split-mouth approach. The assessments of patient response to thermal (pulp vitality test) and pressure (compression of soft tissue) stimuli were carried out before and 5 minutes after the inferior alveolar nerve block procedure, using both visual analog scale (VAS) and Mc Gill pain questionnaires (McG). The mean percentage of patient response decreased after alveolar nerve block, according to both VAS and McG, and was statistically similar among hemi mandibles with and without retromolar canal (Wilcoxon>0.05); however, those without retromolar canal presented greater reduction in patient response in 6 out of 9 cases. Therefore, the retromolar canal is not a determinant factor of inferior alveolar nerve block failure.

El objetivo de este estudio fue observar la eficacia anestésica del bloqueo del nervio alveolar en nueve pacientes que CBCT diagnosticó canal retromolar unilateral en un abordaje de boca dividida doble ciego. Las evaluaciones de la respuesta del paciente a los estímulos térmicos (prueba de vitalidad pulpar) y de presión (compresión de los tejidos blandos) se realizaron antes y 5 minutos después del procedimiento de bloqueo del nervio alveolar inferior, utilizando tanto la escala analógica visual (VAS) como los cuestionarios de dolor de Mc Gill ( McG). El porcentaje medio de respuesta de los pacientes disminuyó tras el bloqueo del nervio alveolar, según EVA y McG, y fue estadísticamente similar entre hemimandíbulas con y sin canal retromolar (Wilcoxon>0,05); sin embargo, aquellos sin canal retromolar presentaron mayor reducción en la respuesta del paciente en 6 de 9 casos. Por lo tanto, el canal retromolar no es un factor determinante del fracaso del bloqueo del nervio alveolar inferior.

Humans , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Mandibular Canal/drug effects , Anesthesia , Brazil
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 6(1): 61-69, ene. 30, 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | BISSAL, LILACS | ID: biblio-1413696


La ecografía es una herramienta segura, portátil, económica y de fácil acceso. Los médicos anestesiólogos pueden beneficiarse con esta herramienta diagnóstica rápida y precisa en su práctica habitual. Existen múltiples áreas potenciales donde la ecografía desempeña un papel importante, para la orientación de intervenciones a ciegas e invasivas, el diagnóstico de condiciones críticas y la evaluación de posibles variaciones anatómicas que pueden conducir a la modificación del plan anestésico. Esta revisión narrativa describe las principales aplicaciones de la ecografía en anestesia, las técnicas ecoguiadas y las tendencias actuales del manejo anestésico perioperatorio del paciente quirúrgico. Se realizó una búsqueda en las bases de datos PubMed y Cochrane, se incluyeron artículos originales, estudios aleatorizados y de revisión, en español y en inglés, publicados entre 2017-2021. El uso de ecografía ha entrado en el campo de la medicina del dolor, anestesia regional y del intervencionismo analgésico durante la última década, e incluso es el estándar de la práctica, por tanto, la capacitación y un adecuado aprendizaje en la ecografía deben ser parte del plan de estudios de cualquier programa de anestesiología

Ultrasound is a safe, portable, inexpensive, and easily accessible tool. Anesthesiologists can benefit from this fast and accurate diagnostic tool in their routine practice. There are multiple potential areas where ultrasound plays an important role in the guidance of blind and invasive interventions, diagnosis of critical conditions, and assessment of possible anatomical variations that may lead to modification of the anesthetic plan. This narrative review describes the main applications of ultrasound in anesthesia, ultrasound-guided techniques, and current trends in the perioperative anesthetic management of the surgical patient. A search was conducted in PubMed and Cochrane databases. Original articles, randomized and review studies in Spanish and English published between 2017-2021 were included. The use of ultrasound has entered the field of pain medicine, regional anesthesia, and interventional analgesia during the last decade and is even the standard of practice. Therefore, training and adequate learning in ultrasound should be part of the curriculum of any anesthesiology program

Ultrasonography , Anesthesia , Pain , Patients , Anesthetics
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(1): 46-53, Jan.-Feb. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420655


Abstract Background Compound A is generated by sevoflurane when it reacts with carbon dioxide absorbers with strong bases at minimal fresh gas flow (FGF) and is nephrotoxic in animals. No conclusive data has shown increased risk in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate if minimal FGF promotes an increase in the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) when compared to high FGF in patients undergoing on-pump cardiac surgery under sevoflurane anesthesia. Methods Two hundred and four adult patients scheduled for on-pump cardiac surgery under sevoflurane anesthesia were randomly allocated to two groups differentiated by FGF: minimal FGF (0.5 L.min−1) or high FGF (2.0 L.min−1). Baseline creatinine measured before surgery was compared daily to values assayed on the first five postoperative days, and 24-hour urinary output was monitored, according to the KDIGO (Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes) guideline to define postoperative cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI). Creatinine measurements were also obtained 20 and 120 days after hospital discharge. Results Postoperative AKI occurred in 55 patients, 26 patients (29.5%) in the minimal FGF group and 29 patients (31.5%) in the high FGF group (p= 0.774). Twenty days after discharge, 11 patients (6.1%) still had CSA-AKI and 120 days after discharge only 2 patients (1.6%) still had CSA-AKI. Conclusions When compared to high FGF, minimal FGF sevoflurane anesthesia during on-pump cardiac surgery is not associated with increased risk of postoperative AKI in this population at high risk for renal injury.

Humans , Adult , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Anesthesia/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/chemically induced , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Creatinine , Sevoflurane/adverse effects
Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e21248, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1429972


Abstract Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is one of the main causes of acute kidney injury. The pathological mechanisms underlying renal I/R injury are complex and remain uncertain. The protective effects of antioxidant properties of geraniol against renal ischemia reperfusion (I/R) damage were investigated in our study. 28 Wistar albino male rats were randomly selected and 4 groups of n = 7 were created. A right kidney nephrectomy surgery was conducted to all groups under anesthesia. 2 ml SF was given to Groups I and II, 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/ kg geraniol were administered intraperitoneally an hour before ischemia to Groups III and IV, respectively. Except for Group I, 45 minutes of ischemia and 4 hours of reperfusion were applied to the groups. At the end of the experiment, parameters related to oxidative stress and inflammation were determined by comparing kidney function, antioxidant enzyme activities and histological changes. Following comparison of BUN and CRE values with CAT and SOD values in tissue samples of Group I and Group II, an increase in Group II was observed and as a result I/R damage formation occurred. Values of geraniol-treated Group III and Group IV approximated to that of Group I, and that the 50 mg/kg geraniol dose proved more effective than 100 mg/kg geraniol.

Animals , Male , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Antioxidants/adverse effects , Free Radicals , Anesthesia/classification , Kidney/abnormalities
Chinese Journal of Medical Instrumentation ; (6): 43-46, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971301


OBJECTIVE@#To use the low-cost anesthesia monitor for realizing anesthesia depth monitoring, effectively assist anesthesiologists in diagnosis and reduce the cost of anesthesia operation.@*METHODS@#Propose a monitoring method of anesthesia depth based on artificial intelligence. The monitoring method is designed based on convolutional neural network (CNN) and long and short-term memory (LSTM) network. The input data of the model include electrocardiogram (ECG) and pulse wave photoplethysmography (PPG) recorded in the anesthesia monitor, as well as heart rate variability (HRV) calculated from ECG, The output of the model is in three states of anesthesia induction, anesthesia maintenance and anesthesia awakening.@*RESULTS@#The accuracy of anesthesia depth monitoring model under transfer learning is 94.1%, which is better than all comparison methods.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The accuracy of this study meets the needs of perioperative anesthesia depth monitoring and the study reduces the operation cost.

Artificial Intelligence , Neural Networks, Computer , Heart Rate , Electrocardiography , Photoplethysmography/methods , Anesthesia
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 119-134, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971187


BACKGROUND@#The incidence and mortality of lung cancer have always been at the forefront of malignant tumors. With the development of lung cancer detection techniques, more peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPLs) have been detected. The diagnostic accuracy of procedures for PPLs keeps controversial. This study aims to systematically evaluate the diagnostic value and the safety of electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy (ENB) in the diagnosis of PPLs.@*METHODS@#The relevant literatures in the diagnostic yield of PPLs by ENB were systematically retrieved from Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Embase, PubMed, Cochrane Library and Web of Science. The software of Stata 16.0, RevMan 5.4 and Meta-disc 1.4 were used to conduct the meta-analysis.@*RESULTS@#A total of 54 literatures with 55 studies were included in our meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio and diagnostic odds ratio of ENB in the diagnosis of PPLs were 0.77 (95%CI: 0.73-0.81), 0.97 (95%CI: 0.93-0.99), 24.27 (95%CI: 10.21-57.67), 0.23 (95%CI: 0.19-0.28) and 104.19 (95%CI: 41.85-259.37), respectively. The area under curve (AUC) was 0.90 (95%CI: 0.87-0.92). Meta-regression and subgroup analyses indicated that the potential heterogeneity resulted from study type, additional localization techniques, sample size, lesion size and type of sedation. The use of additional localization techniques and general anesthesia have improved the diagnostic efficiency of ENB in PPLs. The incidence of adverse reactions and complications associated with ENB was very low.@*CONCLUSIONS@#ENB provides well diagnostic accuracy and safety.

Humans , Bronchoscopy , Lung Neoplasms , Anesthesia , China , Electromagnetic Phenomena
The Philippine Children&rsquo ; s Medical Center Journal;(2): 47-61, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980684


BACKGROUND@#Emergence delirium is a state of mental confusion and agitation after wakening from anesthesia that may result in traumatic injuries to the child. Limited drugs have been studied or used to prevent this occurrence.@*OBJECTIVE@#To determine the efficacy and safety of intravenous lidocaine in controlling emergence agitation (EA) in children undergoing surgeries done under general anesthesia compared to placebo or other intravenous anesthetics.@*METHODOLOGY@#This study is a meta-analysis, where published articles were obtained using PubMed, Cochrane Library, Clinical Trials, and Google Scholar up to August 2022. The primary outcome measure includes incidence of emergence delirium while secondary outcomes are postoperative pain and adverse effects comparing lidocaine and other intravenous drugs. The latter includes nausea and vomiting, untoward airway events and local anesthetic toxicity (LAST). Review Manager 5.4 was used for statistical analysis.@*RESULTS@#There were a total of 6 articles included for quantitative and qualitative analysis. The overall incidence of emergence agitation (RR=1.03, 95% CI [0.50, 2.13], P=0.94) and adverse events were higher in the Lidocaine group, although the differences were not significant. Subgroup analysis by comparator showed significant increased risk of developing EA with Lidocaine compared to other intravenous drugs (RR=2.06, 95% CI [1.32, 2.32], P=0.002). The risk for developing postoperative pain is decreased with Lidocaine compared to placebo and other drugs.@*CONCLUSION@#Intravenous lidocaine given to children undergoing general anesthesia with sevoflurane increased their risk for emergence delirium, compared to both placebo and other intravenous anesthetics.

Lidocaine , Emergence Delirium , Child , Pediatrics , Anesthesia , Anesthesia, General
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 64-70, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970448


End-stage patients experience unbearable pain because of refractory symptoms.Palliative sedation is a form of palliative care which relieves patients' agony by lowering their consciousness.Standard palliative sedation can help patients die with dignity.It is distinct from euthanasia and does not alter the survival of patients.Sufficient palliative care is the premise of palliative sedation.Repeated and detailed clinical evaluation,as well as multidisciplinary involvement,is necessary for the standardized implementation of palliative sedation.Here,we proposed the standard process and specifications of palliative sedation in Peking Union Medical College Hospital.Furthermore,we reported a case of palliative sedation for an advanced cancer patient with refractory delirium and living pain to demonstrate its application in clinical practice.

Humans , Anesthesia , Pain , Hospitals , Palliative Care , Universities
West China Journal of Stomatology ; (6): 365-368, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981136


Bipolar disorder is a major mental illness that is difficult to treat and has a high degree of recurrence. This article reports general anesthesia for oral surgery in a patient with bipolar disorder complicated with hypothyroidism. It also discusses the rational application of antipsychotic drugs and anesthetics with reference to the literature to improve the understanding of the disease and help patients with mental disorders complete the surgical treatment quietly and smoothly.

Humans , Bipolar Disorder/drug therapy , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Hypothyroidism/drug therapy , Oral Surgical Procedures , Anesthesia
Acta cir. bras ; 38: e385723, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1519884


Purpose: This study evaluated the DNA damage caused by repeated doses of xylazine-ketamine and medetomidine-ketamine anesthesia in the liver and kidneys. Methods: In this study, 60 rats were used. The rats were divided into group 1 (xylazine-ketamine), and group 2 (medetomidine-ketamine), and these anesthetic combinations were administered to the rats at repeated doses with 30-min intervals. The effects of these anesthetic agents on the tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene for DNA damage were investigated. Results: According to the gene expression results, it was observed that a single dose of xylazine-ketamine was 2.9-fold expressed, while first and second repeat doses did not show significant changes in expression levels. However, in the case of the third repetition, it was observed to be 3.8-fold overexpressed. In the case of medetomidine-ketamine administration, it was observed that a single-dose application resulted in a 1.04-fold expression, while the first and the third repeat doses showed a significant down expression. The samples from the second repeat dose administration group were found to have insignificant levels of expression. Conclusions: This study can contribute to understanding the safe anesthetic combination in research and operations in which xylazine-ketamine and medetomidine-ketamine combinations are used.

Animals , Rats , Xylazine/administration & dosage , DNA , Gene Expression Profiling , Anesthesia , Ketamine/administration & dosage
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(5): 641-664, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520344


Abstract Background: Dexmedetomidine (DEX) is an α2-adrenergic receptor agonist used for its sedative, analgesic, and anxiolytic effects. Non-Operating Room Anesthesia (NORA) is a modality of anesthesia that can be done under general anesthesia or procedural sedation or/and analgesia. In this particular setting, a level-2 sedation, such as the one provided by DEX, is beneficial. We aimed to study the effects and safety of DEX in the different NORA settings in the adult population. Methods: A systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was conducted. Interventions using DEX only or DEX associated with other sedative agents, in adults (18 years old or more), were included. Procedures outside the NORA setting and/or without a control group without DEX were excluded. MEDLINE,, Scopus, LILACS, and SciELO were searched. The primary outcome was time until full recovery. Secondary outcomes included hemodynamic and respiratory complications and other adverse events, among others. Results: A total of 97 studies were included with a total of 6,706 participants. The meta-analysis demonstrated that DEX had a higher time until full recovery (95% CI = [0.34, 3.13] minutes, a higher incidence of hypotension (OR = 1.95 [1.25, 3.05], p = 0.003, I2 = 39%) and bradycardia (OR = 3.60 [2.29, 5.67], p < 0.00001, I2 = 0%), and a lower incidence of desaturation (OR = 0.40 [0.25, 0.66], p = 0.0003, I2 = 60%). Conclusion: DEX in NORA procedures in adults was associated with a lower incidence of amnesia and respiratory effects but had a long time to recovery and more hemodynamic complications..

Conscious Sedation , Dexmedetomidine , Anesthesia , Patient Safety , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Anesthesiology
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(5): 584-588, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520349


Abstract Background: Correct endotracheal intubation results in better ventilation, prevents hypoxia and its possible damages, such as brain injury, and minimizes attempts for re-intubation. Up to now, several formulas have been published to estimate nasotracheal intubation tube length. This study aims to compare the accuracy of different suggested formulas to find the one that better estimates the tube insertion distance. Methods: This cross-sectional retrospective study was carried out in 102 (51 female, 51 male) children who underwent cardiac surgery under general anesthesia. Inclusion criteria were correct nasotracheal intubation according to the postintubation chest X-ray (CXR). The estimated tracheal tube length was calculated by four different formulas. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to find the correlations between the estimated length of each formula and the correct nasotracheal tube length. Also, linear regression was used to obtain a formula to estimate nasotracheal tube length by weight, height, and age. Results: The formula L=3*tube size+2 had the best correlation with tube length (r =0.81, Confidence Interval: 0.732-0.878, p-value < 0.001). Among demographic variables, height had the highest correlation coefficient with the tube length (r = 0.83, Confidence Interval: 0.788-0.802, p-value < 0.001). Therefore, considering the height as an independent variable and tube length as a dependent variable, using linear regression, the following formula was achieved for determining tube length: nasotracheal tube length =0.1*Height+7. Conclusions: The formula L=3*tube size+2 and the new suggested formula in this study can be used to estimate nasotracheal tube length in children under 4 years old. However, these formulas are only guides and require confirmation by auscultation and CXR.

Child, Preschool , Child , Intubation, Intratracheal , Anesthesia , Pediatrics
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(5): 539-547, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520353


Abstract Background: Clinical airway screening tests intend to predict difficult airways, but none have a high predictive value. Recent systematic reviews correlate ultrasound with difficult laryngoscopy. This study aimed primarily to correlate ultrasound measurements of anatomical upper airway structures in the sniffing position with difficult direct laryngoscopy. The secondary aim was to observe gender-based differences. Methods: This prospective, cross-sectional, single-center observational study included 209 patients requiring general anesthesia for elective surgery. Preoperatively, we performed six clinical airway assessments and three ultrasound measurements, which were the Distance from Skin to the Hyoid Bone (DSHB), to the Epiglottis (DSE), and to the anterior commissure of the vocal cords (DSAC) in a sniffing position. Benumof's criteria for the "best view at the first attempt" for direct laryngoscopy assessed the difficulty of laryngoscopy. Results: The distance from skin to the epiglottis was the best predictor of direct difficult laryngoscopy (defined as Cormack-Lehane grade > 2b) with a minimum thickness cut-off at 2.70 ± 0.19 cm (sensitivity 91.3%; specificity 96.9%). The skin to the hyoid bone distance cut-off was 1.41 ± 0.30 cm with moderate correlation (sensitivity 80.4%; specificity 60.1%). No correlation was found for the distance to the anterior commissure of the vocal cords. In women compared to men, the skin to the epiglottis distance was more sensitive (92.3% vs. 90.9%) and specific (98.8% vs. 95.2%). Conclusions: DSE in the sniffing position is the most reliable parameter for preoperative airway ultrasound assessment in the Caucasian population, with higher sensitivity and specificity in women, and might be considered as an independent predictor for direct difficult laryngoscopy.

Airway Management , Intubation , Anesthesia , Ultrasonography , Laryngoscopy