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Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(3): 305-315, May-June 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439603


Abstract Background and objectives: Anesthesiologists and hospitals are increasingly confronted with costs associated with the complications of Peripheral Nerve Blocks (PNB) procedures. The objective of our study was to identify the incidence of the main adverse events associated with regional anesthesia, particularly during anesthetic PNB, and to evaluate the associated healthcare and social costs. Methods: According to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we conducted a systematic search on EMBASE and PubMed with the following search strategy: (‟regional anesthesia" OR ‟nerve block") AND (‟complications" OR ‟nerve lesion" OR ‟nerve damage" OR ‟nerve injury"). Studies on patients undergoing a regional anesthesia procedure other than spinal or epidural were included. Targeted data of the selected studies were extracted and further analyzed. Results: Literature search revealed 487 articles, 21 of which met the criteria to be included in our analysis. Ten of them were included in the qualitative and 11 articles in the quantitative synthesis. The analysis of costs included data from four studies and 2,034 claims over 51,242 cases. The median claim consisted in 39,524 dollars in the United States and 22,750 pounds in the United Kingdom. The analysis of incidence included data from seven studies involving 424,169 patients with an overall estimated incidence of 137/10,000. Conclusion: Despite limitations, we proposed a simple model of cost calculation. We found that, despite the relatively low incidence of adverse events following PNB, their associated costs were relevant and should be carefully considered by healthcare managers and decision makers.

Humans , Anesthesia, Conduction/adverse effects , Nerve Block/adverse effects , Nerve Block/methods , United States , Financial Stress
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(3): 316-339, May-June 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439605


Abstract Background and objectives: In this systematic review, we carried out an assessment of perioperative costs of local or regional anesthesia versus general anesthesia in the ambulatory setting. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted to find relevant data on costs and cost-effectiveness analyses of anesthesia regimens in outpatients, regardless of the medical procedure they underwent. The hypothesis was that local or regional anesthesia has a lower economic impact on hospital costs in the outpatient setting. The primary outcome was the average total cost of anesthesia calculated on perioperative costs (drugs, staff, resources used). Results: One-thousand-six-hundred-ninety-eight records were retrieved, and 28 articles including 27,581 patients were selected after reviewing the articles. Data on the average total costs of anesthesia and other secondary outcomes (anesthesia time, recovery time, time to home readiness, hospital stay time, complications) were retrieved. Taken together, these findings indicated that local or regional anesthesia is associated with lower average total hospital costs than general anesthesia when performed in the ambulatory setting. Reductions in operating room time and postanesthesia recovery time and a lower hospital stay time may account for this result. Conclusions: Despite the limitations of this systematic review, mainly the heterogeneity of the studies and the lack of cost-effectiveness analysis, the economic impact of the anesthesia regimes on healthcare costs appears to be relevant and should be further evaluated.

Humans , Outpatients , Anesthesia, Conduction , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Anesthesia, General , Length of Stay
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(3): 344-346, May-June 2023. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1439620


Abstract Pierre Robin Sequence (PRS) is a congenital condition characterized by micrognathia, glossoptosis, and cleft palate that presents with airway obstruction and developmental delay with or without other congenital anomalies. These patients' anesthesia management is challenging because of difficult ventilation and intubation. Regional anesthesia methods should be considered for these patients on a case-by-case basis. This report presents primary use of regional anesthesia for circumcision of a 9-year-old boy with PRS.

Humans , Male , Child , Pierre Robin Syndrome/surgery , Pierre Robin Syndrome/complications , Cleft Palate/surgery , Cleft Palate/complications , Airway Obstruction/surgery , Pudendal Nerve , Anesthesia, Conduction/adverse effects , Nerve Block/adverse effects
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(5): 689-694, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1520346


Abstract In an attempt to improvise the analgesia in patients with femoral fractures, we aimed at depositing local anesthetic deep to anterior psoas fascia (APf) under ultrasound (US) guidance to block lumbar plexus elements which emerge lateral, anterior, and medial to the psoas major muscle. We termed this as circumpsoas block (CPB). Clinical and computed tomography contrast studies revealed that a continuous CPB infusion with a catheter provided a reliable block of the lumbar plexus elements. No adverse were events noted. We conclude that US guided CPB is a reliable technique for managing postoperative pain after surgery of femur fractures.

Pain, Postoperative , Femur , Hip Fractures , Lumbosacral Plexus , Ultrasonography , Acute Pain , Anesthesia, Conduction
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 72(5): 605-613, Sept.-Oct. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1420592


Abstract Background Regional anesthesia has been increasingly used. Despite its low number of complications, they are associated with relevant morbidity. This study aims to evaluate the incidence of complications after neuraxial block and peripheral nerve block. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted, and data related to patients submitted to neuraxial block and peripheral nerve block at a tertiary university hospital from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2017 were analyzed. Results From 10,838 patients referred to Acute Pain Unit, 1093(10.1%) had side effects or complications: 1039 (11.4%) submitted to neuraxial block and 54 (5.2%) to peripheral nerve block. The most common side effects after neuraxial block were sensory (48.5%) or motor deficits (11.8%), nausea or vomiting (17.5%) and pruritus (8.0%); The most common complications: 3 (0.03%) subcutaneous cell tissue hematoma, 3 (0.03%) epidural abscesses and 1 (0.01%) arachnoiditis. 204 of these patients presented sensory or motor deficits at hospital discharge and needed follow-up. Permanent peripheral nerve injury after neuraxial block had an incidence of 7.7:10,000 (0.08%). The most common side effects after peripheral nerve block were sensory deficits (52%) and 21 patients maintained follow-up due to symptoms persistence after hospital discharge. Conclusion Although we found similar incidences of side effects or even lower than those described, major complications after neuraxial block had a higher incidence, particularly epidural abscesses. Despite this, other serious complications, such as spinal hematoma and permanent peripheral nerve injury, are still rare.

Humans , Acute Pain/etiology , Peripheral Nerve Injuries/etiology , Anesthesia, Conduction/adverse effects , Anesthesia, Epidural/adverse effects , Tertiary Healthcare , Retrospective Studies , Abscess/complications , Hematoma/etiology , Hospitals
Int. j. morphol ; 40(1): 62-67, feb. 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385586


SUMMARY: The femoral nerve (FN) is used for nerve block in many surgeries and provides effective postoperative analgesics in the pediatric population. However, although there are sufficient anatomical maps and signs for femoral nerve blockades in adults, there is not enough information for the pediatric group. Therefore, in our study, we tried to determine an effective area for safe block blocking with the help of bone structures in order to perform effective blockade in younger age groups. The study was conducted on 60 lower limbs. The exit point of the FN was identified. The measurements were examined in two regards, namely the level of the FN and the relationship of the FN with the surrounding structures. For the right and left sides, all the parameters showed increases with age. A significant relationship was found between all the parameters of the fetal cadavers (p<0.01). It was determined that there was a strong correlation between all parameters related to FN and surrounding bone structures (p<0.01). Sex was not found to be significantly related to the other parameters (p<0.05 Among all the fetal cadavers, high-level division was observed in six limbs (10 %), mid-level division in 33 limbs (55 %), and lower-level division in 21 limbs (35 %). Gestational age-based regression equations from my study showed that the site of the blockage could be effectively performed with the aid of palpable bone structures from the outside without the need for technical assistance.

RESUMEN: El nervio femoral (NF) se utiliza para el bloqueo nervioso en muchas cirugías y proporciona analgesia posoperatoria eficaz en la población pediátrica. Sin embargo, aunque existen suficientes mapas anatómicos y signos de bloqueo del NF en los individuos adultos, no hay suficiente información para el grupo pediátrico. Se intentó determinar una área exacta para el bloqueo del NF junto con estructuras óseas para realizar un bloqueo efectivo. El estudio se realizó en 60 miembros inferiores. Se identificó el punto de salida del NF. Las mediciones se realizaron en dos puntos, nivel del NF y la relación de éste con las estructuras circundantes. Para los lados derecho e izquierdo, todos los parámetros mostraron incrementos con la edad. Se encontró una relación significativa entre todos los parámetros de los cadáveres fetales (p<0,01). Se determinó que existía una fuerte correlación entre todos los parámetros relacionados con el NF y las estructuras óseas circundantes (p <0,01). No se encontró que el sexo se relacionara significativamente con los otros parámetros (p<0,05 Entre todos los cadáveres fetales se observó un alto nivel de división en seis miembros (10 %), una división de nivel medio en 33 miembros (55 %) y división de nivel inferior en 21 miembros (35 %). Las ecuaciones de regresión basadas en la edad gestacional del estudio mostraron que el sitio de bloqueo se podría realizar eficazmente con la ayuda de estructuras óseas palpables desde el exterior sin necesidad de asistencia técnica.

Humans , Male , Female , Femoral Nerve/anatomy & histology , Anatomic Landmarks , Anesthesia, Conduction , Cadaver , Age Factors , Microdissection , Fetus , Anatomic Variation , Nerve Block
São Paulo med. j ; 139(6): 576-578, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352298


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: There are several anesthetic techniques for surgical treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Results from this surgery using the "wide awake local anesthesia no tourniquet" (WALANT) technique have been described. However, there is no conclusive evidence regarding the effectiveness of the WALANT technique, compared with the usual techniques. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of the WALANT technique, compared with intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA; Bier's block), for surgical treatment of CTS. DESIGN AND SETTING: Randomized clinical trial, conducted at Hospital Alvorada Moema and the Discipline of Hand Surgery, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo (SP), Brazil. METHODS: Seventy-eight patients were included. The primary outcome was measurement of perioperative pain through a visual analogue scale (VAS). The secondary outcomes were the Boston Questionnaire score, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) score, need for use of analgesics, operating room times, remission of paresthesia, failures and complications. RESULTS: The WALANT technique (n = 40) proved to be superior to IVRA (n = 38), especially for controlling intraoperative pain (0.11 versus 3.7 cm; P < 0.001) and postoperative pain (0.6 versus 3.9 cm; P < 0.001). Patients spent more time in the operating room in the IVRA group (59.5 versus 46 minutes; P < 0.01) and needed to use more analgesics (10.8 versus 5.7 dipyrone tablets; P = 0.02). Five IVRA procedures failed (5 versus 0; P = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: The WALANT technique is more effective than IVRA for CTS surgery.

Humans , Carpal Tunnel Syndrome/surgery , Anesthesia, Conduction , Brazil , Anesthesia, Intravenous , Anesthesia, Local , Anesthetics, Local
urol. colomb. (Bogotá. En línea) ; 30(4): 265-270, 15/12/2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1369041


Objetivo La biopsia de próstata es una ayuda esencial en el diagnóstico de cáncer, siendo el método más utilizado la biopsia transrectal guiada por ultrasonido (TRUS), con una tasa diagnóstica entre el 37% y el 45%, aunque no exenta de complicaciones como infecciones, dolor o sangrado. El enfoque alternativo y seguro a las biopsias TRUS se encuentra en la biopsia transperineal (BTP), realizada comúnmente bajo anestesia regional o general. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la efectividad de la BTP bajo anestesia local y guía ultrasonográfica transrectal, con el impacto sobre la sensibilidad del estudio y la tasa de readmisión hospitalaria por infección. Métodos Estudio de cohorte retrospectiva en el que se evaluaron 83 pacientes sometidos a BTP con anestesia local y guía ultrasonográfica transrectal de enero de 2017 a agosto de 2018 en una ciudad intermedia de Colombia. La muestea incluyó todos los hombres mayores de 18 años con datos de historia clínica disponibles para su análisis, así como los reportes histopatológicos de las biopsias. Se excluyeron casos de rebiopsia o con datos insuficientes. El análisis de datos nominales se realizó mediante la prueba de chi cuadrado, y el de los datos numéricos, con las prubas t de Student o de Mann-Whitney. Resultados Un total de 83 pacientes, con media de edad de 65 ± 7.9 años fueron sometidos al análisis del estudio histopatológico. Se excluyeron nueve pacientes que no tenían información disponible en el registro clínico sistematizado, ni en historia clínica de formato físico. Se encontró una proporción de positividad y diagnóstico de cáncer de prostata en el 39.7% (33) de los pacientes, distribuidos así: grado de grupo 1 (69.7%; 23); grado de grupo 2 )15.2%; 5); grados de grupos 3 y 4 (3% cada uno de ellos; 2); y grado de grupo 5 (9%; 3). En total, 60% (50) fueron negativos para malignidad y, de estos el 54% (27) tuvo hiperplasia. El antibiótico profiláctico indicado en el 96.7% (80) de los casos fue una cefalosporina de primera generación, administrada en el 15% (12) por vía parenteral preoperatoria. En esta serie de casos, no se documentaron ingresos hospitalarios asociados a infección después del procedimiento. Conclusiones La biopsia de próstata por vía transperineal es una técnica con rendimiento diagnostico similar al del abordaje transrectal: es segura, rápida, de fácil acceso, con bajo costo y, sobre todo, con un riesgo insignificante de infección y sepsis. Sus beneficios son altamente representativos en un sistema de salud como el de nuestro país, y la BTP facilita el acceso de la población vulnerable del área rural y de ciudades intermedias, en las que no se dispone de un urólogo experto.

Objective Prostate biopsy is an essencial aid in cancer diagnosis, and the the most widely-used method is known as transrectal ultrasound-guided (TRUS) biopsy, with a diagnostic rate ranging from 37% to 45%; however, it is not free of complications such as infections, pain, or bleeding. The alternative and safe approach lies in the transpineal biopsy (TPB), commonly performed under regional or general anesthesia. The objetive of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of TPBunder local anesthesia and transrectal ultrasound guidance, with the impact of the sensitiviy of the study and the rate of hospital readmission due to infection. Methods Retrospective cohort study in which 83 patients underwent TPB with local anesthesia and transrectal ultrasound guidance from january 2017 and august 2018 in an intermediate city in Colombia. The sample included all male subjects older than 18 years of age with medical history data available for analysis, as well as the histopathological reports of the biopsies. Cases of rebiopsy or with insufficient data were excluded. The analysis of the nominal data was performed using the chi-squared test, and that of the numerical data, with the Student t or the Mann-Whitney test. Results A total of 83 patientswith an average age was of 65 ± + 7.9 years, had their histopathological studies analyzed. We excluded nine patients who did not have information available in the systematized clinical registry nor in the medical history in physical format. Positivity and a diagnosis of prostate cancer was found in 39.7% (33) of the patients, who were distributed like this: grade group 1 (69.7%; 23); grade group 2 (15.2%; 5); grade groups 3 and 4 (each with 3%; 2); and grade group 5 (9%; 3). In total, 60% (50) were negative for malignancy, and, of these, 54% (27) had glandulostromal hyperplasia. The indicated prophylactic antibiotic in 96.7% (80) of the cases was a first generation cephalosporin and, in 15% (12) of the cases it was administered through a preoperative parenteral route. Hospital admissions after the procedure associated with infection were not documented in the present series of cases. Conclusions Transperineal prostate biopsy is a technique with diagnostic performance similar to that of the transrectal approach: it is safe, fast, easy to access, has a low cost and, above all, presents a minimum risk of infection and sepsis. Its benefits are highly representative in a health system like that of our country, and TPB facilitates the access of the vulnerable population of the rural area and of intermediate cities in which there is no availability of an expert urologist.

Humans , Male , Prostate , Prostatic Neoplasms , Biopsy , Anesthesia, Local , Patient Readmission , Ultrasonics , Cephalosporins , Sepsis , Vulnerable Populations , Insemination, Artificial, Heterologous , Anesthesia, Conduction , Anti-Bacterial Agents
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(4): e401, Oct.-Dec. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1341244


Abstract The illegal use of liquid silicone products or biopolymers in gluteal augmentation procedures is giving rise to multiple complications, with a significant negative health impact, both in the short and long-term. The migration of polymers to the sacral and lumbar region represents a major limitation to conducting neuraxial anesthesia procedures. This silicon migration is unpredictable through the superficial tissue as is widely described in the literature. Caudal, spinal and epidural anesthesia may cross the silicone in the fascia and contaminate the neural axis with substances that are highly capable of causing inflammation, edema and tissue necrosis. In order to improve the safety of neuraxial anesthetic procedures and avoid the potential risk of dissemination and contamination of the neural axis, this complication must be ruled out, or be considered an emerging contraindication for these anesthetic procedures.

Resumen La aplicación ilegal de productos como silicona líquida o biopolímeros en procedimientos de aumento de glúteos está generando múltiples complicaciones con gran impacto negativo para la salud tanto a corto como a largo plazo. La migración de polímeros a la región sacra y lumbar representa una importante limitación para la realización de procedimientos de anestesia neuroaxial. Esta migración de silicona es impredecible a través del tejido superficial, la cual está ampliamente descrita en la literatura. Los procedimientos anestésicos caudal, espinal y epidural podrían atravesar los silicomas en la fascia del tejido y contaminar el neuroeje con sustancias con alta capacidad de generar inflamación, edema y necrosis de tejidos. Con el fin de aumentar la seguridad de los procedimientos anestésicos neuroaxiales y evitar el riesgo potencial de dispersión y contaminación del neuroeje, es necesario descartar esta complicación o considerar una contraindicación emergente en estos procedimientos anestésicos.

Humans , Male , Female , Patient Safety , Anesthesia, Conduction , Silicones , Biopolymers , Contraindications, Drug , Anesthesia
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(4): e500, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1341245


Abstract Introduction Hip fracture pain is frequently acute and disabling and increases perioperative complications in the patient; hence it requires a multimodal analgesia approach. This case series describes the continuous erector spinae plane block at the lumbar level for hip fracture analgesia. Methods A search was conducted of patients with hip fracture referred to the pain service of Hospital Universitario San Vicente Fundación (HUSVF) from August 2019 to March 2020, who had undergone continuous erector spinae plane block as part of their analgesic regimen. Results A total of 6 patients, 4 females and 2 males with an average age of 75 years were identified. A reduction in pain intensity from acute to mild or absent was observed in every case, up to 24 hours after the initial injection. 66 % experienced a relapse of severe pain after 24 hours and 2 patients the catheter functionality failed after 24 hours. One patient underwent dermatome pinprick assessment. Conclusions The continuous erector spinae plane block with a single injection provided analgesic efficacy similar to other single injection peripheral blocks, although continuous analgesia for more than 24 hours was not achieved. Some variations in the block technique described may improve the analgesic effectiveness in patients with hip fracture pain.

Resumen Introducción El dolor de la fractura de cadera suele ser fuerte e incapacitante y aumenta las complicaciones perioperatorias en el paciente, lo que hace indispensable el enfoque de analgesia multimodal. En esta serie de casos se describe la experiencia del bloqueo continuo del plano erector de la espina a nivel lumbar para analgesia en fractura de cadera. Métodos Se realizó una búsqueda de los pacientes con fractura de cadera remitidos al servicio de dolor del Hospital Universitario San Vicente fundación (HUSVF) desde agosto de 2019 hasta marzo de 2020, a quienes se les realizó bloqueo continuo del plano erector de la espina como parte de su esquema analgésico. Resultados Se encontraron 6 pacientes, 4 mujeres y 2 hombres, con una edad promedio de 75 años. Se observó reducción de la intensidad del dolor de fuerte a leve o ausente en todos los casos hasta las 24 horas posteriores a la inyección inicial. El 66 % tuvo recaída del dolor fuerte posterior a las 24 horas y en 2 pacientes no se logró funcionalidad del catéter por más de 24 horas. En un paciente se hizo evaluación dermatómica por pinprick (prueba de pinchazo). Conclusiones El bloqueo continuo del plano erector de la espina con inyección única ofreció eficacia analgésica similar a otros bloqueos periféricos en inyección única, aunque no se logró analgesia continua con el catéter por más de 24 horas. Ciertas variaciones en la técnica del bloqueo descrita podrían mejorar la efectividad analgésica en pacientes con dolor por fractura de cadera.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Pain , Hip Fractures , Spine , Analgesia , Anesthesia, Conduction
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(3): e300, July-Sept. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1280179


Abstract Post-dural puncture headache is a frequent complication in neuraxial approaches. It may result in disability, healthcare dissatisfaction and potentially serious complications. The traditional initial management includes general and analgesia measures with poor evidence. The treatment approach best supported by the literature is the epidural blood patch for which rates of up 70% improvement have been reported. Regional techniques have been recently described that may be helpful because they are less invasive than the epidural blood patch, under certain clinical circumstances. This article suggests an algorithm that uses such techniques for the management of this complication.

Resumen La cefalea pospunción dural es una complicación frecuente del abordaje del neuroeje. Puede producir incapacidad, insatisfacción con la atención en salud y complicaciones potencialmente graves. Tradicionalmente su manejo inicial incluye medidas generales y de analgesia las cuales tienen baja evidencia. La medida para su tratamiento, con mejor soporte en la literatura, es la realización de parche hemático, el cual informa tazas de mejoría hasta del 70 %. Recientemente se han descrito técnicas regionales, que pueden resultar útiles por ser menos invasivas que el parche hemático, en ciertos contextos clínicos. En este artículo se propone un algoritmo que permite incorporar dichas técnicas al manejo de esta complicación.

Humans , Male , Female , Therapeutics , Blood Patch, Epidural , Post-Dural Puncture Headache , Headache , Analgesia , Nerve Block , Delivery of Health Care , Anesthesia, Conduction
Rev. chil. anest ; 50(3): 511-514, 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1525730


Mastocytosis consists of a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by an abnormal increase of mast cell in one or more organs or tissues. The degranulation of mast cells with subsequent clinical symptoms can be triggered by psychological, chemical or traumatic agents. The main challenge of these patients is to avoid these triggers in order to prevent an anaphylactic shock. We report a case of a patient diagnosed with cutaneous mastocytoses who underwent urgent appendicectomy. Their perioperative management involves a multidisciniplinary approach. We report the anaesthetic management in this disease.

Las mastocitosis son un grupo heterogéneo de enfermedades que se caracterizan por la proliferación de mastocitos y su posterior acumulación. La degranulación de los mastocitos puede desencadenarse por diferentes agentes como la cirugía, el estrés o los fármacos histaminoliberadores. El principal reto que plantea a un anestesiólogo un paciente con mastocitosis es la posibilidad de que se desencadene una reacción anafiláctica. Se describe el manejo anestésico de un paciente con mastocitosis cutánea. El desconocimiento de esta entidad puede suponer un aumento de la morbimortalidad de estos pacientes.

Humans , Female , Child , Mastocytosis, Cutaneous/surgery , Anaphylaxis/prevention & control , Anesthesia, Conduction/methods , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021275, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249035


Introduction Cervical erector spinae plane block (ESPB) provides postoperative pain relief when administered at the level of first thoracic costotransverse junction (CTJ) for surgeries on the proximal shoulder and cervical spine. We propose to describe the spread of 20 ml radiocontrast - dye solution administered at this level from caudad to cephalad direction in a fresh frozen cadaveric model through imaging and cross-sections. Methods An observational study with four thoracic to cervical ESP blocks at the level of first thoracic CTJ level on two fresh cadavers (total 4 specimens) was conducted using 20 ml of radiocontrast- methylene blue combination (10 ml through the needle and 10 ml through the catheter). Both cadavers were subjected to computed tomography (CT) scan. An anatomist and radiologist, respectively, analyzed cross-sections of cadavers and CT contrasted images. Results The spread was assessed in axial, sagittal, and coronal at the levels of C4, C5, C6, C7and T1. The medial limit was articular processes in both cadavers. The lateral limits were the outer border of the middle scalene muscle in cadaver 1 and posterior to the sternocleidomastoid muscle in cadaver 2. Contrast spread was visualized on the superior and anterior aspect of anterior scalene muscle in cadaver 2. An epidural spread was observed at the level of C5-6 and C6-7 in axial and coronal planes in cadaver 1. Conclusions The cervical ESPB administered at the first thoracic CTJ with injections directed cephalad has a consistent action on the dorsal spinal nerves of thoracic and cervical area, and spreads in the paravertebral space dorsal to the ventral cervical roots.

Humans , Anesthesia, Conduction/methods , Nerve Block , Cadaver , Ultrasonography , Dissection
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2403-2411, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921149


BACKGROUND@#Whether regional anesthesia may help to prevent disease recurrence in cancer patients is still controversial. The stage of cancer at the time of diagnosis is a key factor that defines prognosis and is one of the most important sources of heterogeneity for the treatment effect. We sought to update existing systematic reviews and clarify the effect of regional anesthesia on cancer recurrence in late-stage cancer patients.@*METHODS@#Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched from inception to September 2020 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies that assessed the effect of regional anesthesia on cancer recurrence and overall survival (OS) compared with general anesthesia. Late-stage cancer patients were primarily assessed according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer Cancer Staging Manual (eighth edition), and the combined hazard ratio (HR) from random-effects models was used to evaluate the effect of regional anesthesia.@*RESULTS@#A total of three RCTs and 34 cohort studies (including 64,691 patients) were identified through the literature search for inclusion in the analysis. The risk of bias was low in the RCTs and was moderate in the observational studies. The pooled HR for recurrence-free survival (RFS) or OS did not favor regional anesthesia when data from RCTs in patients with late-stage cancer were combined (RFS, HR = 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.58-2.18, P = 0.729, I2 = 76%; OS, HR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.63-1.18, P = 0.345, I2 = 48%). Findings from observational studies showed that regional anesthesia may help to prevent disease recurrence (HR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.78-0.96, P = 0.008, I2 = 71%) and improve OS (HR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.79-0.98, P = 0.022, I2 = 79%).@*CONCLUSIONS@#RCTs reveal that OS and RFS were similar between regional and general anesthesia in late-stage cancers. The selection of anesthetic methods should still be based on clinical evaluation, and changes to current practice need more support from large, well-powered, and well-designed studies.

Humans , Anesthesia, Conduction , Neoplasms , Recurrence
Southern Philippines Medical Center Journal of Health Care Services ; (2): 1-6, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987250


Background@#Serratus anterior plane block (SPB) is a relatively new regional anesthetic technique that provides long-lasting anesthesia, extended postoperative analgesia, and demonstrates less consumption of opioid analgesic compared to local infiltration anesthesia (LIA). @*Objective@#To compare the outcomes of SPB and LIA as anesthetic techniques among patients undergoing chest tube thoracostomy (CTT) insertion. @*Design@#Cohort study. @*Setting@#Department of Surgery, Southern Philippines Medical Center, from October 2017 to May 2019. @*Participants@#110 male and female patients aged >18 years old undergoing CTT given either SPB or LIA. @*Main outcome measures@#Mean VAS during the procedure, at PACU, and 4, 8, 12, 16, 18, and 24 hours postoperatively. @*Main results@#Of the 110 patients undergoing CTT in this study, 55 (50%) where under SPB, and the remaining 50% where under LIA. Compared to those under LIA, patients under the SPB group had significantly lower mean VAS during the procedure (4.02 ± 1.43 vs 2.76 ± 1.35; p<0.0001), and at post-anesthesia care unit (4.25 ± 1.87 vs 3.15 ± 1.56; p=0.0010). The mean level of physician's satisfaction on the procedure was significantly higher in the SPB group than in the LIA group (3.56 ± 0.50 vs 2.96 ± 0.33; p<0.0001). The mean dose of fentanyl as supplemental anesthetic agent was significantly higher in the LIA group than those in the SPB group (1.38 ± 0.59 vs 0.95 ± 0.29; p<0.0001). Similarly, the mean dose of nalbuphine, as rescue opioid dose, was significantly higher in the LIA group than in the SPB group (2.16 ± 0.57 vs 1.53 ± 0.57; p<0.0001). @*Conclusion@#Patients under SPB who underwent CTT had less pain during the procedure and at the PACU, and used lower doses of the supplemental anesthetic agent (fentanyl) during the procedure, and of the rescue opioid analgesic (nalbuphine), postoperatively.

Anesthesia, Conduction
Int. braz. j. urol ; 46(6): 1010-1018, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134262


ABSTRACT Purpose To compare the effect of general anesthesia (GA) and regional anesthesia (RA) on f-URS outcomes and surgeon comfort. Material and Methods The study was conducted between June 2017 to January 2018 and data collection was applied in a prospective, randomized fashion. 120 patients participated in the study and were divided into RA group (n=56) and GA group (n=64). Demographic, operative and post-operative parameters of patients were analysed. The end point of this study was the effect of two anesthesia regimens on the comfort of the surgeon, and the comparability of feasibility and safety against perioperative complications. Results The study including 120 randomized patients, 14 patients were excluded from the study and completed with 106 patients (45 in RA group and 61 in GA group). No difference was detected between the two groups in terms of preoperative data. During the monitorization of operative vital signs, 3 patients in RA group experienced bradycardia, and this finding was significant when compared with GA group (p=0.041). Additionally, 2 patients in RA group experienced mucosal tears and 1 patient experienced hemorrhage during the operation, but no complications were observed in the GA group (p=0.041). Postoperative surgeon comfort evaluation revealed statistically significant results in favor of GA group (p=0.001). Conclusions Both GA and RA are equally effective and safe anesthesia methods for f-URS procedures. However, RA group showed significantly increased likelihood of bradycardia and mucosal injury during surgery, and significantly decreased surgeon comfort during surgery.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Lithotripsy, Laser/adverse effects , Anesthesia, Conduction , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Anesthesia, General , Middle Aged
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 19(2): e589, mayo.-ago. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126361


Introducción: El cáncer de labio es el tumor más frecuente de la cavidad oral que afecta, sobre todo, el labio inferior. La braquiterapia es un tratamiento único eficaz en estadios tempranos y como terapia adyuvante a la cirugía en estadios avanzados. Esta técnica es un proceso doloroso por lo que para su realización se han empleado sedaciones profundas, infiltraciones intramusculares de anestésico local y técnicas de anestesia regional, entre otras. Objetivo: Presentar una técnica anestésica diferente y poco descrita como alternativa para disminuir el dolor de la intervención. Presentación del caso: Paciente con carcinoma de labio programado para braquiterapia. Se realiza bloqueo del nervio mentoniano de manera bilateral para el tratamiento en labio inferior. Conclusiones: Este tipo de bloqueo, por su sencillez y eficacia, es una alternativa útil a la sedación profunda para la realización de braquiterapia en el labio inferior(AU)

Introduction: Lip cancer is the most frequent tumor of the oral cavity that affects, above all, the lower lip. Brachytherapy is a unique treatment which is effective in early stages and, as adjuvant therapy to surgery, it is also effective in advanced stages. This technique is a painful process, a reason why deep sedation, intramuscular infiltrations of local anesthetic, and regional anesthesia techniques, among others, have been used. Objective: To present a different and scarcely described anesthetic technique as an alternative to reduce the pain of this intervention. Case presentation: Patient with lip carcinoma scheduled for brachytherapy. Bilateral mental nerve block is performed in the lower lip. Conclusions: This type of block, due to its simplicity and effectiveness, is a useful alternative to deep sedation for brachytherapy in the lower lip(AU)

Humans , Male , Aged , Lip Neoplasms/surgery , Anesthesia, Conduction/methods , Nerve Block/methods , Brachytherapy/methods