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1.
Autops. Case Rep ; 11: e2021275, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249035

ABSTRACT

Introduction Cervical erector spinae plane block (ESPB) provides postoperative pain relief when administered at the level of first thoracic costotransverse junction (CTJ) for surgeries on the proximal shoulder and cervical spine. We propose to describe the spread of 20 ml radiocontrast - dye solution administered at this level from caudad to cephalad direction in a fresh frozen cadaveric model through imaging and cross-sections. Methods An observational study with four thoracic to cervical ESP blocks at the level of first thoracic CTJ level on two fresh cadavers (total 4 specimens) was conducted using 20 ml of radiocontrast- methylene blue combination (10 ml through the needle and 10 ml through the catheter). Both cadavers were subjected to computed tomography (CT) scan. An anatomist and radiologist, respectively, analyzed cross-sections of cadavers and CT contrasted images. Results The spread was assessed in axial, sagittal, and coronal at the levels of C4, C5, C6, C7and T1. The medial limit was articular processes in both cadavers. The lateral limits were the outer border of the middle scalene muscle in cadaver 1 and posterior to the sternocleidomastoid muscle in cadaver 2. Contrast spread was visualized on the superior and anterior aspect of anterior scalene muscle in cadaver 2. An epidural spread was observed at the level of C5-6 and C6-7 in axial and coronal planes in cadaver 1. Conclusions The cervical ESPB administered at the first thoracic CTJ with injections directed cephalad has a consistent action on the dorsal spinal nerves of thoracic and cervical area, and spreads in the paravertebral space dorsal to the ventral cervical roots.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anesthesia, Conduction/methods , Nerve Block , Cadaver , Ultrasonography , Dissection
2.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 19(2): e589, mayo.-ago. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126361

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El cáncer de labio es el tumor más frecuente de la cavidad oral que afecta, sobre todo, el labio inferior. La braquiterapia es un tratamiento único eficaz en estadios tempranos y como terapia adyuvante a la cirugía en estadios avanzados. Esta técnica es un proceso doloroso por lo que para su realización se han empleado sedaciones profundas, infiltraciones intramusculares de anestésico local y técnicas de anestesia regional, entre otras. Objetivo: Presentar una técnica anestésica diferente y poco descrita como alternativa para disminuir el dolor de la intervención. Presentación del caso: Paciente con carcinoma de labio programado para braquiterapia. Se realiza bloqueo del nervio mentoniano de manera bilateral para el tratamiento en labio inferior. Conclusiones: Este tipo de bloqueo, por su sencillez y eficacia, es una alternativa útil a la sedación profunda para la realización de braquiterapia en el labio inferior(AU)


Introduction: Lip cancer is the most frequent tumor of the oral cavity that affects, above all, the lower lip. Brachytherapy is a unique treatment which is effective in early stages and, as adjuvant therapy to surgery, it is also effective in advanced stages. This technique is a painful process, a reason why deep sedation, intramuscular infiltrations of local anesthetic, and regional anesthesia techniques, among others, have been used. Objective: To present a different and scarcely described anesthetic technique as an alternative to reduce the pain of this intervention. Case presentation: Patient with lip carcinoma scheduled for brachytherapy. Bilateral mental nerve block is performed in the lower lip. Conclusions: This type of block, due to its simplicity and effectiveness, is a useful alternative to deep sedation for brachytherapy in the lower lip(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Lip Neoplasms/surgery , Anesthesia, Conduction/methods , Nerve Block/methods , Brachytherapy/methods
3.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(4): 398-418, July-Aug. 2020. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137194

ABSTRACT

Abstract The purpose of the Brazilian Society of Anesthesiology (SBA)'s Regional Anesthesia Safety Recommendations Update is to provide new guidelines based on the current relevant clinical aspects related to safety in regional anesthesia and analgesia. The goal of the present article is to provide a broad overview of the current knowledge regarding pre-procedure asepsis and antisepsis, risk factors, diagnosis and treatment of infectious complications resulting from anesthetic techniques. It also aims to shed light on the use of reprocessed materials in regional anesthesia practice to establish the effects of aseptic handling of vials and ampoules, and to show cost-effectiveness in the preparation of solutions to be administered continuously in regional blockades. Electronic databases were searched between January 2011 (final date of the literature search for the past SBA recommendations for safety in regional anesthesia) and September 2019. A total of 712 publications were found, 201 of which were included for further analysis, and 82 new publications were added into the review. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system was used to assess the quality of each study and to classify the strength of evidence. The present review was prepared by members of the SBA Technical Standards Committee.


Resumo O propósito desta atualização das Recomendações da Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia (SBA) para Segurança em Anestesia Regional foi apresentar novas diretrizes com base na relevância e atualidade clínica nos aspectos de segurança relacionados a analgesia e anestesia regional. Este artigo visa prover uma visão ampla sobre o conhecimento atual no tocante a assepsia e antissepsia pré-procedimento, fatores de risco, diagnóstico e tratamento das complicações infecciosas decorrentes das técnicas anestésicas. Também visa esclarecer sobre o uso de materiais reprocessados na prática da anestesia regional, estabelecer as implicações no manejo asséptico de frascos e ampolas e elucidar sobre a relação custo-efetividade no preparo de soluções a serem administradas continuamente em bloqueios regionais. As bases de dados eletrônicas foram pesquisadas entre Janeiro de 2011 (final da pesquisa de literatura das diretrizes anteriores da SBA sobre segurança em anestesia regional) e Setembro de 2019. Um total de 712 artigos foram encontrados, dos quais 201 foram incluídos para análise posterior e 82 novos estudos foram acrescentados nesta revisão. O sistema de Avaliação, Desenvolvimento e Avaliação da Classificação das Recomendações (GRADE) foi utilizado para avaliar a qualidade do estudo individual e classificar a força da evidência. Esta revisão foi elaborada por membros da Comissão de Normas Técnicas da SBA.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infections/etiology , Anesthesia, Conduction/adverse effects , Nerve Block/adverse effects , Brazil , Risk Factors , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Anesthesia, Conduction/methods , Nerve Block/methods
4.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(4): 364-387, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137197

ABSTRACT

Abstract The development of protocols to prevent perioperative Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) and the introduction of increasingly potent antithrombotic drugs have resulted in concerns of increased risk of neuraxial bleeding. Since the Brazilian Society of Anesthesiology 2014 guideline, new oral anticoagulant drugs were approved by international regulating agencies, and by ANVISA. Societies and organizations that try to approach concerns through guidelines have presented conflicting perioperative management recommendations. As a response to these issues and to the need for a more rational approach, managements were updated in the present narrative review, and guideline statements made. They were projected to encourage safe and quality patient care, but cannot assure specific results. Like any clinical guide recommendation, they are subject to review as knowledge grows, on specific complications, for example. The objective was to assess safety aspects of regional analgesia and anesthesia in patients using antithrombotic drugs, such as: possible technique-associated complications; spinal hematoma-associated risk factors, prevention strategies, diagnosis and treatment; safe interval for discontinuing and reinitiating medication after regional blockade.


Resumo Os padrões evolutivos para a prevenção do tromboembolismo venoso perioperatório e a introdução de medicações antitrombóticas cada vez mais potentes resultaram em preocupações com o aumento do risco de sangramento neuroaxial. Após o consenso da Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia em 2014, novos medicamentos anticoagulantes orais foram aprovados pelas instituições reguladoras internacionais, assim como pela ANVISA. As sociedades que buscam abordar o manejo perioperatório desses fármacos apresentam recomendações conflitantes. Em resposta a essas questões e à necessidade de uma abordagem mais racional, as condutas foram atualizadas nesta revisão narrativa e feitas declarações de consenso. Elas foram projetadas para encorajar a assistência ao paciente de forma segura e de qualidade, mas não podem garantir um resultado específico. Tal como acontece com qualquer recomendação de orientação clínica, estas estão sujeitas a revisão com o conhecimento de avanços específicos de complicações. O objetivo foi avaliar aspectos da segurança em anestesia e analgesia regional em pacientes em uso de medicações antitrombóticas, tais como: possíveis complicações decorrentes da técnica; fatores de risco associados ao hematoma espinhal, estratégias de prevenção, diagnóstico e tratamento; intervalo seguro para suspensão e reinício da medicação após o bloqueio regional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Anesthesia, Conduction/methods , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Brazil , Risk Factors , Perioperative Care/methods , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
5.
Medwave ; 20(6): e7950, 31-07-2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119716

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este artículo es revisar las características del SARS-CoV-2, los aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos de COVID-19 y las implicaciones que tienen para los anestesiólogos al realizar procedimientos generadores de aerosoles. Se realizó una búsqueda en las bases de datos PubMed, Scopus, SciELO y Web of Science hasta el 9 de abril de 2020, utilizando las palabras: "COVID-19 or COVID19 or SARS-CoV-2 and anesthesiology or anesthesia". Se incluyeron 48 artículos con información sobre el manejo del paciente en el perioperatorio o en la unidad de cuidados intensivos ante la sospecha o confirmación de infección por SARS-CoV-2. En general, se recomienda el aplazamiento de las cirugías electivas por no más de seis a ocho semanas, de acuerdo a las condiciones clínicas de los pacientes. En el caso de cirugías de urgencia o emergencia, se revisan tópicos del sistema de protección personal así como las estrategias recomendadas para la realización de los procedimientos.


The purpose of this article is to review the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2, the clinical-epidemiological aspects of COVID-19, and the implications anesthesiologists when performing aerosol-generating procedures. A search of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, SciELO, and Web of Science databases was performed until April 9, 2020, using the words: "COVID-19 or COVID19 or SARS-CoV-2 and anesthesiology or anesthesia". Forty-eight articles with information on the management of the patient in the perioperative period or the intensive care unit when suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were included. In general, the postponement of elective surgeries for no more than 6 to 8 weeks, depending on the clinical condition of the patients is recommended. In the case of urgent or emergency surgeries, we review the use of personal protection gear, as well as the recommended strategies for carrying out the procedure.


Subject(s)
Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Anesthesiology/standards , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiration, Artificial/standards , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods , Elective Surgical Procedures , Aerosols , Pandemics , Symptom Assessment/methods , Personal Protective Equipment , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Intubation, Intratracheal/standards , Anesthesia, Conduction/methods , Anesthesia, Epidural/methods , Anesthesia, General/methods , Anesthesia, Spinal/methods , Anesthesiology/organization & administration , Nerve Block/methods
6.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(2): 159-164, Mar.-Apr. 2020. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137165

ABSTRACT

Abstract Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, many questions have come up regarding safe anesthesia management of patients with the disease. Regional anesthesia, whether peripheral nerve or neuraxial, is a safe alternative for managing patients with COVID-19, by choosing modalities that mitigate pulmonary function involvement. Adopting regional anesthesia mitigates adverse effects in the post-operative period and provides safety to patients and teams, as long as there is compliance with individual protection and interpersonal transmission care measures. Respecting contra-indications and judicial use of safety techniques and norms are essential. The present manuscript aims to review the evidence available on regional anesthesia for patients with COVID-19 and offer practical recommendations for safe and efficient performance.


Resumo Desde o início da pandemia de COVID-19, muitas questões surgiram referentes à segurança do manejo anestésico de pacientes acometidos pela doença. A anestesia regional, seja esta periférica ou neuroaxial, é alternativa segura no manejo do paciente COVID-19, desde que o emprego de modalidades que minimizam o comprometimento da função pulmonar seja escolhido. A adoção dessa técnica anestésica minimiza os efeitos adversos no pós-operatório e oferece segurança para o paciente e equipe, desde que sejam respeitados os cuidados com proteção individual e de contágio interpessoal. Respeito às contraindicações e emprego criterioso das técnicas e normas de segurança são fundamentais. Este manuscrito tem por objetivo revisar as evidências disponíveis sobre anestesia regional em pacientes com COVID-19 e oferecer recomendações práticas para sua realização segura e eficiente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Anesthesia, Conduction/methods , Anesthesia, Local/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Postoperative Period , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Anesthesia, Conduction/adverse effects , Anesthesia, Local/adverse effects
7.
Rev. chil. anest ; 49(1): 65-78, 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1510337

ABSTRACT

Truncal blocks have recently been positioned as an alternative to neuraxial analgesia. The injection of local anesthetics in interfascial planes was initially guided by anatomical landmarks, to later evolve towards a more selective administration when guided by ultrasound. Successful execution of truncal blocks requires detailed knowledge of the chest and abdominal walls anatomy. The same logic allows us to understand its potential benefits concerning perioperative analgesia, as well as its limitations and therapeutic margins. Secondary to a growing interest in less invasive techniques and analgesic techniques with a more favorable risk-benefit profile, the available evidence in this field is in continuous development. Thus, in the present review, the technical aspects of these blocks will be evaluated, emphasizing the sonoanatomy, and assessing the best evidence to support the use of each technique.


Los bloqueos de tronco se han posicionado recientemente como una alternativa frente a la analgesia neuroaxial. La inyección de anestésicos locales en planos interfasciales inicialmente fue guiado por referencias anatómicas, para posteriormente evolucionar hacia una administración más selectiva al ser guiada por el ultrasonido. La ejecución exitosa de los bloqueos de tronco requiere un conocimiento detallado de la anatomía de las paredes del tórax y abdomen. Esta misma lógica nos permite entender sus potenciales beneficios en relación con la analgesia perioperatoria, como también sus limitaciones y margen terapéutico. La evidencia disponible está en continuo desarrollo, dado el creciente interés que concitan técnicas menos invasivas y con un perfil de riesgo-beneficio potencialmente más favorable. En la presente revisión se evaluarán los aspectos técnicos de cada bloqueo, poniendo énfasis en la sonoanatomía, y evaluando la mejor evidencia que sustente el uso de cada técnica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Thorax/innervation , Abdominal Wall/innervation , Anesthesia, Local/methods , Nerve Block/methods , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonics , Abdominal Wall/diagnostic imaging , Fascia , Anesthesia, Conduction/methods
8.
Rev. chil. anest ; 49(4): 514-520, 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1511710

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES:Transmuscular quadratus lumborum block (TQLB) is a novel regional anaesthesia technique that has proven to be effective for postoperative pain reduction in different abdominal surgical procedures. The present study evaluated its efficacy on pain intensity and analgesic consumption in children undergoing low abdominal surgery. METHODS: The study included forty patients, aged 1 to 6 years, scheduled for low abdominal surgery (hernia repair or orchiopexy) under general anaesthesia. They were enrolled in two groups: TQLB block plus systemic analgesia (group 1; n = 20) wound infiltration done by the surgeon plus systemic analgesia (Group 2; n = 20). All blocks were performed by the same anesthesiologist under general anaesthesia before surgery. Both groups received the same systemic analgesia protocol. Analgesic consumption (ibuprofen) within the first 24 postoperative hours, pain intensity scores (FLACC scale) at 60 minutes, 2, 6 and 24 hours after surgery, time in which the first analgesia was required, satisfaction levels of the parents (0-10), adverse events related to systemic analgesia and time to hospital discharge were evaluated and registered. RESULTS: We found differences between both groups in ibuprofen consumption (80 mg 185 mg; p < 0.05) and pain scores (FLACC) within the first 24 postoperative hours at each interval (p < 0.05 for every point in time analyzed). Time in which the first analgesia was required was longer for the TQLB group (18 10 hours; p < 0.05). Satisfaction levels of the parents were also higher in the first group (p < 0.05). Adverse events related to medication and time to hospital discharge showed similar results. Further investigation comparing the TQLB with different approaches of QLB or conventional TAP block could be interesting and is required in a near future.


INTRODUCCIÓN: El bloqueo del cuadrado lumbar transmuscular (TQL) es una técnica de anestesia regional ecoguiada que demostró ser efectiva en cirugía abdominal abierta y laparoscópica como parte de un esquema multimodal de analgesia postoperatoria. La presente investigación evaluó su eficacia en cirugía de hernia inguinal y testículo no descendido en población pediátrica (de 1-6 años de edad). MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: El estudio fue diseñado como un ensayo clínico controlado, aleatorizado en 2 ramas: grupo protocolo bloqueo TQL (Grupo 1; n = 20) grupo protocolo infiltración local por cirujano (Grupo 2; n = 20), simple ciego que incluyó a 40 pacientes pediátricos sometidos a una cirugía de hernia inguinal u orquidopexia unilateral. Todos los bloqueos fueron realizados bajo anestesia general antes del inicio de procedimiento quirúrgico. Ambos grupos recibieron el mismo esquema de analgesia endovenosa y oral postoperatoria. Consumo de analgésicos durante las primeras 24 horas (mg de ibuprofeno), intensidad de dolor con escala FLACC a tiempo 1, 2, 6 y 24 horas postoperatorias, tiempo transcurrido a la primera administración de ibuprofeno, escala de satisfacción parental (0-10) e incidencia de náuseas y vómitos fueron evaluados y registrados. Se consideró como significativa una p < 0,05. RESULTADOS: El consumo promedio de ibuprofeno en las primeras 24 horas fue de 80 mg para el grupo bloqueo TQL y de 185 mg para el segundo grupo, diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p < 0,05). El tiempo transcurrido a la primera administración de ibuprofeno fue mayor en el grupo TQL (18 10 horas), p < 0,05. Las escalas de dolor por FLACC a los 60 y 120 minutos y a las 6 y 24 horas. postcirugía fueron menores comparadas con el grupo de infiltración local por el cirujano (p < 0,05 en cada punto de análisis). Las escalas de satisfacción parental mostraron puntajes más elevados para el grupo que recibió el bloqueo TQL (p < 0,05). No se hallaron diferencias significativas en la incidencia de episodios de náuseas y/o vómitos en las primeras 24 horas. postoperatorias (p > 0,2). No se reportaron complicaciones asociadas al bloqueo. CONCLUSIONES: Este estudio muestra que el bloqueo TQL aporta beneficios adicionales respecto al plan de analgesia estándar empleado en cirugía de hernia inguinal unilateral u orquidopexia, disminuyendo el requerimiento de analgésicos y la intensidad de dolor en las primeras 24 horas postoperatorias, así como también incrementando la satisfacción de los cuidadores respecto al estado postoperatorio del niño. Sería interesante llevar a cabo nuevas investigaciones comparando esta técnica con otros abordajes del bloqueo de cuadrado lumbar y con el cuestionado bloqueo TAP convencional.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods , Ultrasonography/methods , Anesthesia, Conduction/methods , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Nerve Block/methods , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Postoperative Period , Time Factors , Pain Measurement , Single-Blind Method , Ibuprofen/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Patient Satisfaction , Abdominal Muscles/drug effects , Orchiopexy , Hernia, Inguinal
9.
Rev. chil. anest ; 49(1): 141-145, 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1510352

ABSTRACT

Ultrasound regional blockade emerged that blocks the branches of the femoral nerve, obturator and accessory obturator that innervate the anterior hip capsule, the PENG block (group of pericapsular nerves), which by its Recent description does not have enough evidence in medical practice. To verify the analgesic effect of the PENG block in patients with hip fracture and its analgesic permanence during the first 10 hours after the block in patients admitted with a diagnosis of hip fracture, at the General Interzonal Hospital of Acute "Dr Oscar E Alende "From Mar del Plata, Argentina, in the months of May to November 2019. A prospective descriptive observational study was carried out with a total of 53 patients, hospitalized patients with a diagnosis of hip fracture, with standardized intravenous analgesic scheme and who have not yet undergone hip surgery. Pain was evaluated with the EVA scale (visual analog scale) prior to the blockage, and then at 30 min and 10 hours after the blockade, 15 ml of 1% lidocaine and 15 ml of bupivacaine at 0 were used. 25%, convex or linear ultrasound probe according to patient weight and 100 mm needle. In order to reproduce and evaluate the pain, the patients had a 30º flexion of the hip. Prior to the blockade, 66% of the patients had severe pain and 34% moderate pain, none presented mild pain or absence, both at thirty minutes and ten hours after the blockade, no patient presented severe pain and all patients presented analgesia with a decrease in more than three points on the VAS scale, in some cases reaching a decrease of 10 points on that scale. The PENG block is a regional anesthesia technique that provides very good analgesia to patients with hip fractures, therefore, it is an excellent saving strategy for systemic analgesics. Knowing the analgesia provided by the blockade at 30 min and at 10 h, it could be performed both in the preoperative period for the transfer and mobilization of the patient, as well as in the postoperative period, which could save the use of opioids and decrease hospital stay.


INTRODUCCIÓN La fractura de cadera es una emergencia ortopédica común en ancianos asociada a gran morbimortalidad, una adecuada analgesia regional perioperatoria determina un ahorro en el uso de analgésicos sistémicos. Recientemente, en el año 2018, surgió un nuevo bloqueo regional ecoguiado muy prometedor que bloquea las ramas del nervio femoral, obturador y obturador accesorio que inervan la capsula anterior de la cadera, el bloqueo PENG (grupo de nervios pericapsulares), el cual por su reciente descripción no cuenta con la suficiente evidencia en la práctica médica. OBJETIVOS: Comprobar el efecto analgésico del bloqueo PENG en pacientes con fractura de cadera y su permanencia analgésica durante las 10 primeras horas posteriores al bloqueo en los pacientes internados con diagnóstico de fractura de cadera, en el Hospital Interzonal General de Agudos "Dr. Oscar E Alende" de Mar del Plata, Argentina, en los meses de mayo a noviembre del 2019. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo prospectivo con un total de 53 pacientes, se incluyeron pacientes internados con diagnóstico de fractura de cadera, con esquema analgésico endovenoso estandarizado y que aún no hayan sido sometido a cirugía de cadera. Se evaluó el dolor con la escala EVA (escala análoga visual) previo al bloqueo, y luego a los 30 min y a las 10 Hs de haber realizado el bloqueo, para este se utilizaron 15 ml lidocaína 1% y 15 ml de bupivacaína al 0,25%, sonda ecográfica convexa o lineal según el peso del paciente y aguja 100 mm. Para reproducir y evaluar el dolor se les realizo a los pacientes una flexión de 30º de la cadera. RESULTADOS: Previo al bloqueo el 66% de los pacientes tuvieron dolor severo y 34% dolor moderado, ninguno presentaba dolor leve o ausencia del mismo, tanto a los treinta minutos como a las diez horas posteriores al bloqueo ningún paciente presento dolor severo y todos los pacientes presentaron analgesia con una disminución en más de tres puntos en la escala de EVA, llegando en algunos casos a una disminución de 10 puntos de dicha escala. CONCLUSIONES: El bloqueo PENG es una técnica de anestesia regional que brinda muy buena analgesia a los pacientes con fractura de cadera, por consiguiente, es una excelente estrategia ahorradora de analgésicos sistémicos. Conociendo la analgesia que brinda el bloqueo a los 30 min y a las 10 h de realizado, se podría realizar dicho bloqueo tanto en el preoperatorio para el traslado y movilización del paciente, como en el post-operatorio, lo que podría ahorrar el uso de opioides y disminuir la estancia hospitalaria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Hip Fractures/diagnostic imaging , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Pain Measurement , Preoperative Care , Prospective Studies , Ultrasonography, Interventional , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Femoral Nerve/drug effects , Femoral Nerve/diagnostic imaging , Anesthesia, Conduction/methods , Anesthetics, Local/pharmacology , Obturator Nerve/drug effects , Obturator Nerve/diagnostic imaging
12.
Rev chil anest ; 48(1): 52-56, 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1451534

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Describe the demographic characteristics of patients undergoing awake craniotomy, which are the anesthetic techniques and most commonly used drugs, as well as to identify the type and frequency of anesthetic and surgical complications. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Perioperative awake craniotomy records were reviewed in the operating room. All cases of patients with gliomas in which the need for cortical mapping was determined between november 2015 and august 2018 were included. Of a total of 27 operated patients, data were collected for 18 surgeries. RESULTS: Two thirds of the patients were men and one third were women. The average age was 42 years. 39% of the patients presented overweight, being obese by 28%. The most used anesthetic technique was asleep-awake-asleep in 56% of the cases, the rest was under conscious sedation. In all cases, remifentanil and propofol were used, in addition to the scalp block. Intraoperative complications are described in two patients and new-onset neurological deficit in seven patients. There was no conversion to general anesthesia in any case. CONCLUSIONS: Awake craniotomy remains the gold standard for the surgical management of brain tumors in eloquent areas. It is a challenge that requires clear communication with the patient and between the team. We share the experience of our center, with favorable results for patients.


OBJETIVOS: Describir las características demográficas de los pacientes sometidos a craneotomía vigil, cuáles son las técnicas anestésicas y fármacos más utilizados, además de identificar el tipo y frecuencia de complicaciones anestésicas y quirúrgicas. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se revisaron los registros perioperatorios de craneotomía vigil en pabellón. Fueron incluidos todos los casos de pacientes con gliomas en que se determinó la necesidad de mapeo cortical entre noviembre de 2015 y agosto de 2018. De un total de 27 pacientes operados se recolectaron datos para 18 cirugías. RESULTADOS: Dos tercios de los pacientes fueron hombres y un tercio mujeres. El promedio de edad fue de 42 años. Un 39% de los pacientes presentaron exceso de peso, siendo obesos en un 28%. La técnica anestésica más usada fue dormido-despierto-dormido en 56% de los casos, el resto fue bajo sedación consciente. En todos los casos se usó remifentanilo y propofol, además, del bloqueo pericráneo. Se describen complicaciones intraoperatorias en dos pacientes y déficit neurológico de nueva aparición en siete pacientes. No hubo conversión a anestesia general en ningún caso. CONCLUSIONES: La craneotomía vigil permanece como el estándar de oro del manejo quirúrgico de los tumores cerebrales en áreas elocuentes. Es un desafío que requiere de comunicación clara con el paciente y entre el equipo. Compartimos la experiencia de nuestro centro, con resultados favorables a los pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Brain Neoplasms/surgery , Conscious Sedation/methods , Craniotomy/methods , Glioma/surgery , Anesthesia, Conduction/methods , Wakefulness , Intraoperative Complications
13.
Rev. chil. anest ; 48(2): 159-162, 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1451722

ABSTRACT

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a disorder caused by a genetic alteration that causes a multisystem clinic. It can be due mainly to three genetic mechanisms; a paternal deletion of the 15q11-13 region, a maternal uniparental disomy, or an imprinting defect. The paternal deletion is observed in 70% of the patients, the disomy in 25% and the imprinting defect in only 5% of those affected by this syndrome. 1) It is the most common syndromic cause of obesity with an estimated prevalence in the population of 1: 50,000; 2) The clinic is very variable, which is why clinical criteria have been created that, supported by the genetic study, confirm the diagnosis; 3) They have difficulty feeding during lactation, which leads to hyperphagia in childhood that leads to obesity. In the adult stage, in addition to obesity, respiratory pathology, sleep disturbances and psychological disorders stand out; 4) Objective: the aim of the present review was to compile the cases recorded in the scientific literature of patients anesthetized with PWS and the anesthetic options used in said patients.


El síndrome de Prader-Willi (SPW) es un trastorno causado por una alteración genética que provoca una clínica multisistémica. Puede ser debido principalmente a tres mecanismos genéticos; una deleción paterna de la región 15q11-13, una disomía uniparental materna o un defecto de impronta. La deleción paterna se observa en el 70% de los pacientes, la disomía en el 25% y el defecto de impronta en tan solo el 5% de los afectados por este síndrome. 1) Constituye la causa sindrómica más frecuente de obesidad con una prevalencia estimada en la población de 1:50.000; 2) La clínica es muy variable por lo que se han creado unos criterios clínicos que apoyados por el estudio genético confirman el diagnóstico; 3) Presentan dificultad para la alimentación durante la lactancia, que da paso a una hiperfagia en la infancia que deriva en obesidad. En la etapa adulta, además de la obesidad destacan la patología respiratoria, alteraciones del sueño y trastornos psicológicos; 4) Objetivo: el objetivo de la presente revisión fue recopilar los casos registrados en la literatura científica de pacientes anestesiados con SPW y las opciones anestésicas utilizadas en dichos pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Prader-Willi Syndrome/complications , Anesthesia, Conduction/methods , Respiratory Aspiration/prevention & control
14.
Rev. chil. anest ; 48(3): 254-257, 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1452014

ABSTRACT

The anesthesiologist is the specialist who most often faces allergic reactions due to the number of drugs and substances that are exposed to the patient during the course of an intervention. Although they are rare, they have a mortality rate between 3% and 10%. We present a clinical case of a 42-year-old woman with a history of anaphylactic reaction grade 2 that is coordinated for a Werthein-Meigs surgery, for which it is decided to test her with skin tests. The results were positive for morphine, fentanil, remifentanil and atracurium, which directly affected the perioperative management.


El anestesiólogo es el especialista que con mayor frecuencia se enfrenta a reacciones alérgicas por el número de fármacos y sustancias a las que se expone al paciente en el transcurso de una intervención. Si bien son poco frecuentes presentan una mortalidad entre 3 a 10%. Presentamos un caso clínico de una mujer de 42 años con un antecedente de reaccion anafiláctica grado 2 que se coordina para una cirugía de Werthein- Meigs, por lo cual se decide testearla con pruebas cutáneas. Los rsultados fueron positivos para morfina, fentani, remifentanil y atracurio, lo cual incidió directamente en el manejo perioperatorio.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Preoperative Care , Anaphylaxis/diagnosis , Anaphylaxis/prevention & control , Anesthesia, Conduction/methods , Skin Tests , Opiate Alkaloids/adverse effects , Anaphylaxis/chemically induced , Anesthetics, Local , Muscle Relaxants, Central/adverse effects
15.
Rev. chil. anest ; 48(4): 298-307, 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1452193

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The introduction of ultrasound to regional anesthesia has redefined our understanding on this field; moreover, through ultrasound, regional anesthesia techniques have developed rapidly in response to more specific and complex needs. In this context, some changes and new concepts have raised around interscalene block. OBJECTIVE: To revise recent advances as regards our knowledge of interscalene block since the ultrasound was introduced to regional anesthesia; as well as to evaluate different strategies to avoid hemidiaphragmatic paralysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A search was carried out in medical data bases (PubMed and Cochrane) and anesthesiology journals (Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, Anesthesiology Journal, British Journal of Anesthesiology, among others). Search terms were as follows: interscalene block, hemidiaphragmatic paralysis, shoulders surgery, ultrasound guided interscalene block. DISCUSSION: New concepts around interscalene block are quoted (traffic lighter sign-long thoracic and dorsal scapular nerve), as well as a short review about the respiratory compromise that follows this regional anesthesia technique and some strategies to avoid it. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of ultrasound to regional anesthesia has redefined our understanding towards this field. It is mandatory for the regional anesthesiologist to comprehend these new concepts in order to provide a safe and effective regional anesthesia.


INTRODUCCIÓN: La introducción del ultrasonido a la anestesia regional ha redefinido nuestro entendimiento hacia estas prácticas, las cuales han crecido en complejidad y cantidad en respuesta a necesidades cada vez más técnicas y específicas. En este contexto es que han surgido múltiples variaciones y nuevos conceptos en torno al abordaje clásico a nivel interescalénico del plexo braquial. OBJETIVO: Revisar los recientes avances en el entendimiento del bloqueo interescalénico desde la llegada del ecógrafo así como evaluar las diferentes estrategias para evitar la parálisis hemidiafragmática asociado a este abordaje. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se ha realizado una búsqueda bibliográfica vinculada a bloqueo interescalénico en bases de datos médicas (Cochrane, PubMed) y revistas especializadas (Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, Anesthesiology Journal, British Journal of Anesthesiology, entre otras). Las palabras claves que se han utilizado son: bloqueo interescalénico, parálisis hemidiafragmática, cirugía de hombro, bloqueo interescalénico ecoguiado. DISCUSIÓN: Se describen nuevos conceptos en torno al abordaje interescalénico del plexo braquial (signo del semáforo-identificación sistemática de los nervios dorsal de la escápula y torácico largo) como así también una pequeña reseña del compromiso respiratorio que caracteriza la realización de este bloqueo y estrategias para evitarlo. CONCLUSIÓN: La llegada del ultrasonido a la anestesia regional ha redefinido nuestro entendimiento hacia este campo de la anestesia. Resulta necesario conocer estos nuevos conceptos en torno al bloqueo interescalénico para hacer de esta técnica una práctica segura y efectiva para nuestros pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brachial Plexus , Ultrasonography, Interventional , Anesthesia, Conduction/methods , Nerve Block/methods , Shoulder Joint/innervation
16.
Rev chil anest ; 48(5): 480-484, 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1509996

ABSTRACT

Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome is a rare disease that includes the triad of malformation of vascular capillaries, varicose veins and/or venous malformation and hypertrophy of soft or bony tissues. Its presence during pregnancy poses an anesthetic challenge due to the high obstetric risk due to thromboembolic and/or hemorrhagic phenomena. We present the case of a pregnant woman with the diagnosis of Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome announced for elective cesarean section. Our objective is to expose the anesthetic management carried out and to propose a strategic guide for anesthesiologists.


El síndrome de Klippel-Trenaunay es una rara enfermedad que comprende la tríada de malformación de capilares vasculares, venas varicosas y/o malformación venosa e hipertrofia de tejidos blandos u óseos. Su presencia durante la gestación supone un reto anestésico por el alto riesgo obstétrico debido a fenómenos tromboembólicos y/o hemorrágicos. Presentamos el caso de una embarazada con el diagnóstico de síndrome de Klippel-Trenaunay anunciada para cesárea electiva. Nuestro objetivo es exponer el manejo anestésico realizado y proponer una guía estratégica para los anestesiólogo


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular , Cesarean Section/methods , Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber Syndrome/complications , Anesthesia, Obstetrical/methods , Anesthesia, Conduction/methods
17.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 5(4): 160-163, dic. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254230

ABSTRACT

Before the advent of anaesthesia in surgical practice, surgeons battled with patient's maximal co-operation during surgical procedures, management of pain intra-operatively and post-operatively. Anaesthesia has greatly aided in overcoming these challenges, but a sizable proportion of reduction in these challenges but approximately 30-80% of patients complain of moderate to severe pain post-operatively indicating that post-operative pain remains a problem. Controlled epidural anaesthesia and controlled peripheral nerve block which are types of regional anaesthesia provide superior pain relief during and after surgery, making regional anaesthesia of particular relevance in orthopaedic surgery. More so, general anaesthesia has some adverse effects on the outcome of operation and the patient. These adverse effects are rare but may be disastrous and life-threatening necessitating close supervision during and after general anaesthesia. Hence, the preference should be towards regional anaesthesia with regards to the choice of anaesthesia in orthopaedic surgery. This review aims to highlight some concepts and techniques on regional anaesthesia in orthopaedic surgery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Orthopedic Procedures/methods , Anesthesia, Conduction/methods , Pain, Postoperative , Pain, Procedural
18.
Int. j. med. surg. sci. (Print) ; 5(4): 164-170, dic. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1254237

ABSTRACT

The relevance of regional anaesthesia in orthopaedic surgery cannot be overemphasized because it has aided reduction in intra-operative and post-operative pain which has always been a challenge in surgical practice. It also reduces the risk of haemorrhage and infection. Though there are complications associated with regional anaesthesia, these complications are rare and can be anticipated; thus prompt intervention measures can be instituted. The outcome of every surgical procedure takes into consideration the risks and benefit of the method, and hence, since the benefits of regional anaesthesia in orthopaedic surgery outweighs the risks, it is highly recommended. Regional anaesthesia is of great importance in orthopaedic surgery because it offers continuous but controlled analgesia. It induces hypotension which leads to a reduction in blood loss during operation. It allows early recovery and ambulation of patients, thus reducing the risks associated with prolonged bed stay, which may, in turn, affect the overall outcome of surgery. This review aims to highlight the advantages and challenges of regional anaesthesia in orthopaedic surgery


Subject(s)
Humans , Orthopedic Procedures/methods , Anesthesia, Conduction/adverse effects , Anesthesia, Conduction/methods
19.
Dolor ; 28(70): 30-34, dic. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117989

ABSTRACT

La anestesia regional pediátrica, ya sea los bloqueos neuroaxiales como periféricos, constituye actualmente un pilar fundamental en el manejo analgésico multimodal orientado a los periodos intra y postoperatorio; facilitando una recuperación postquirúrgica óptima y un alta precoz en niños. La inyección única de anestésicos locales en el bloqueo regional posee una duración limitada. Para conocer las técnicas y fármacos coadyuvantes de los anestésicos locales disponibles, destinados a prolongar la duración del bloqueo en inyección única, hemos efectuado una revisión del uso de fármacos coadyuvantes de los anestésicos locales utilizados, describiendo los mecanismos de acción, la evidencia clínica de sus beneficios; como también, la incidencia de complicaciones y los riesgos asociados a su uso.


Pediatric regional anesthesia, whether neuro axial or peripheral nerve blocks, is currently a base in multimodal analgesic management aimed at the intra and postoperative periods; enabling optimal postoperative recovery and early discharge in children. Single injection of local anesthetics in regional blockade has a limited duration. In order to know the techniques and adjuvant drugs of the available local anesthetics, designed to prolong the duration of block in single injection, we have reviewed the use of adjuvants, describing the mechanisms of action, the clinical evidence of their benefits; as well as, the incidence of complications and the risks associated with its use.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Pain Management/methods , Adjuvants, Anesthesia/administration & dosage , Anesthesia, Conduction/methods
20.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 17(1): 1-6, ene.-abr. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-991019

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El bloqueo de rama izquierda del haz de His dependiente de la frecuencia cardíaca no es una entidad común en la práctica clínica del anestesiólogo, sino que se presenta como consecuencia de enfermedades cardiacas o no que ocurren por lentitud de la frecuencia ventricular sobre todo, con enfermedad de las arterias coronarias planteadas solo como diagnóstico después de haberlas descartado. Objetivo: Describir el manejo clínico-anestésico de una paciente que presentó bloqueo de rama izquierda del haz de His para cirugía torácica electiva por tumor de mediastino. Desarrollo: Se presenta un caso clínico de una paciente con bloqueo de rama izquierda dependiente de la frecuencia cardiaca que se anunció para cirugía del tórax, sin historia previa de coronariopatía. La cirugía trascurrió sin complicaciones y con buenos resultados. Conclusiones: el bloque de rama izquierda dependiente de la frecuencia cardiaca es una entidad rara y un diagnóstico excluyente de otras entidades cardiovasculares o no como la isquemia miocárdica. Un adecuado manejo intraoperatorio del paciente proporciona excelentes resultados sin traducción clínica ni complicaciones(AU)


Introduction: Rate-dependent left bundle branch block is not a rare entity for the clinical practice in anesthesiology, but appears as a consequence of heart diseases or not always due to slowness in atrial frequency above all, with coronary artery diseases diagnosed only after their being ruled out. Objective: To describe the clinical-anesthetic management of a patient who presented left bundle branch block for elective thoracic surgery due to mediastinal tumor. Findings: We present a clinical case of a female patient with rate-dependent left bundle branch block who was announced for thoracic surgery, without a previous history of coronary artery disease. The surgery proceeded without complications and with positive outcome. Conclusions: Rate-dependent left-branch block is a rare entity and a diagnosis ruling out other cardiovascular entities or not, such as myocardial ischemia. An adequate intraoperative management of the patient provides excellent outcome without clinical translation or complications(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Heart Rate/drug effects , Anesthesia, Conduction/methods , Bundle-Branch Block/surgery
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