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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880839

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the effect of general anesthesia on postoperative melatonin secretion in 4-to 6-year-old children with snoring.@*METHODS@#Twenty children with snoring aged 4-6 years of either gender (ASA grade Ⅰ and Ⅱ) were selected for adenoidectomy.Before, during and 3 days after the operation, salivary melatonin levels of the children were measured at 11 selected time points (T1-T11).The illumination intensity and body temperature of the children were recorded at each time point of measurement.The sleep time of the children in 3 days after the operation was recorded, and postoperative pain scores (FLACC) and Riker and Rehabilitation Quality Rating Scale-15(QoR-15) scores were assessed.Sleep Apnea Life Quality Evaluation Questionnaire (OSA-18) was used to evaluate postoperative recovery of the children at 28 days after the operation.The incidence of major adverse events of the children during hospitalization was recorded.@*RESULTS@#No significant difference was found in baseline salivary melatonin level among the 20 children before the operation.Salivary melatonin level at 7 am after the operation (T8) was significantly lowered as compared with that before the surgery (T4)(@*CONCLUSIONS@#In preschool children with snoring, general anesthesia affects but does not inhibit melatonin secretion on the first night after surgery, and minor surgeries under general anesthesia in the morning do not cause significant changes in melatonin secretion to cause disturbance of the circadian rhythm in these children.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Bodily Secretions , Child , Child, Preschool , Circadian Rhythm , Humans , Melatonin , Snoring
2.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(6): 573-582, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155780

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The present study investigated the association between Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction (POCD) and increased serum S100B level after Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy (RALRP). Methods: The study included 82 consecutive patients who underwent RALRP. Serum S100B levels were determined preoperatively, after anesthesia induction, and at 30 minutes and 24 hours postoperatively. Cognitive function was assessed using neuropsychological testing preoperatively, and at 7 days and 3 months postoperatively. Results: Twenty four patients (29%) exhibited POCD 7 days after surgery, and 9 (11%) at 3 months after surgery. Serum S100B levels were significantly increased at postoperative 30 minutes and 24 hours in patients displaying POCD at postoperative 7 days (p = 0.0001 for both) and 3 months (p = 0.001 for both) compared to patients without POCD. Duration of anesthesia was also significantly longer in patients with POCD at 7 days and 3 months after surgery compared with patients without POCD (p = 0.012, p = 0.001, respectively), as was duration of Trendelenburg (p = 0.025, p = 0.002, respectively). Composite Z score in tests performed on day 7 were significantly correlated with duration of Trendelenburg and duration of anesthesia (p = 0.0001 for both). Conclusions: S100B increases after RALRP and this increase is associated with POCD development. Duration of Trendelenburg position and anesthesia contribute to the development of POCD. Trial Registry Number: Clinicaltrials.gov (N° NCT03018522).


Resumo Introdução: O presente estudo investigou a associação entre Disfunção Cognitiva Pós-Operatória (DCPO) e aumento do nível sérico de S100B após Prostatectomia Radical Laparoscópica Assistida por Robô (PRLAR). Métodos: O estudo incluiu 82 pacientes consecutivos submetidos à PRLAR. Os níveis séricos de S100B foram determinados: no pré-operatório, após indução anestésica, e aos 30 minutos e 24 horas do pós-operatório. A função cognitiva foi avaliada com testes neuropsicológicos no pré-operatório, no 7° dia pós-operatório (7 DPO) e aos 3 meses após a cirurgia (3 MPO). Resultados: Observamos 24 pacientes (29%) com DCPO no 7 DPO e 9 pacientes com DCPO (11%) após 3 meses da cirurgia. Quando comparados com os pacientes sem DCPO, os níveis séricos de S100B estavam significantemente aumentados aos 30 minutos e às 24 horas do pós-operatório nos pacientes que apresentaram DCPO no 7 DPO (p= 0,0001 para os dois momentos) e 3 meses após a cirurgia (p= 0,001 para os dois momentos) A duração anestésica também foi significantemente maior em pacientes com DCPO no 7 DPO e 3 MPO em comparação com pacientes sem DCPO (p= 0,012, p= 0,001, respectivamente), assim como a duração da posição de Trendelenburg (p= 0,025, p= 0,002, respectivamente). O escore Z composto nos testes realizados no 7 DPO foi significantemente correlacionado com a duração da posição de Trendelenburg e a duração da anestesia (p= 0,0001 para ambos). Conclusão: S100B aumenta após PRLAR e o aumento está associado ao desenvolvimento de DCPO. A duração anestésica e o tempo decorrido em posição de Trendelenburg contribuem para o desenvolvimento de DCPO. Número de registro do estudo: Clinicaltrials.gov (n° NCT03018522)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Postoperative Complications/blood , Prostatectomy/adverse effects , Cognitive Dysfunction/blood , S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit/blood , Robotic Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Prostatectomy/methods , Time Factors , Biomarkers/blood , Case-Control Studies , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Head-Down Tilt/adverse effects , Area Under Curve , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Operative Time , Robotic Surgical Procedures/methods , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Anesthesia, General/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Neuropsychological Tests
3.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(5): 508-519, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143968

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) is a common complication of general anesthesia. Several kinds of antiemetics, including 5-Hydroxytryptamine3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, and Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonists have been used to treat PONV. Objectives: To compare the antiemetic effect of NK-1 receptor antagonists, including fosaprepitant. Data sources: Online databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus, The Cochrane Library databases) were used. Study eligibility criteria, participants, and interventions: Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) performed in patients over 18 years with ASA-PS of I‒III, aimed to assess the efficacy of antiemetics including NK-1 receptor antagonists and 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, and compared the incidence of PONV were included. Study appraisal and synthesis methods: All statistical assessments were conducted by a random effect approach, and odds ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals were calculated. Results: Aprepitant 40 mg and 80 mg significantly reduced the incidence of vomiting 0‒24 hours postoperatively (Odds Ratio [OR = 0.40]; 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI 0.30‒0.54]; p < 0.001, and OR = 0.32; 95% CI 0.19‒0.56; p < 0.001). Fosaprepitant could also reduce the incidence of vomiting significantly both 0‒24 and 0‒48 hours postoperatively (OR = 0.07; 95% CI 0.02‒0.24; p < 0.001 and OR = 0.07; 95% CI 0.02‒0.23; p < 0.001). Limitations: Risk factors for PONV are not considered, RCTs using multiple antiemetics are included, RCTs for fosaprepitant is small, and some bias may be present. Conclusions and implications of key findings: Aprepitant and fosaprepitant can be effective prophylactic antiemetics for postoperative vomiting. However, more studies are required for higher-quality meta-analyses. Systematic review registration number: CRD42019120188.


Resumo Histórico: Náusea e Vômito no Pós-Operatório (NVPO) é um evento adverso frequente da anestesia geral. Várias classes de antieméticos, incluindo antagonistas do receptor 5-Hidroxitriptamina3 (5-HT3) e antagonistas do receptor da Neurocinina-1 (NK-1), têm sido utilizados para tratar a NVPO. Objetivo: Comparar o efeito antiemético dos antagonistas do receptor NK-1, incluindo o fosaprepitanto. Fontes de dados: Foram utilizadas bases de dados on-line (PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus, The Cochrane Library). Critérios de elegibilidade do estudo, participantes e intervenções: Foram incluídos Estudos Clínicos Randomizados (ECR) realizados em pacientes acima de 18 anos classificação ASA I a III, com o objetivo de avaliar a eficácia de antieméticos que incluíssem antagonistas do receptor NK-1 e antagonistas do receptor 5-HT3, e que comparassem a incidência de NVPO. Métodos de avaliação e síntese do estudo: Todas as avaliações estatísticas foram realizadas por abordagem de efeito aleatório e foram calculadas razões de chances e Intervalos de Confiança de 95%. Resultados: As doses de 40 mg e 80 mg de aprepitanto reduziram significantemente a incidência de vômito no período de 0 a 24 horas pós-operatórias (razão de chances [OR = 0,40]; Intervalo de Confiança de 95% [95% IC] 0,30-0,54; p < 0,001 e OR = 0,32; 95% IC 0,19-0,56; p < 0,001). O fosaprepitanto pode também reduzir significantemente a incidência de vômito tanto de 0-24 horas como no período de 0-48 horas pós-operatórias (OR = 0,07; 95% IC 0,02-0,24; p < 0,001 e OR = 0,07; 95% IC 0,02-0,23; p < 0,001). Limitações: Os fatores de risco para NVPO não foram analisados, ECRs usando múltiplos antieméticos foram incluídos, ECRs para fosaprepitanto tinham amostras pequenas, podendo haver algum viés. Conclusões e implicações dos principais achados: Aprepitanto e fosaprepitanto podem ser drogas antieméticas profiláticas efetivas para vômito no pós-operatório. No entanto, são necessários mais estudos para elaboração de meta-análises de melhor qualidade. Número de registro da revisão sistemática: CRD42019120188.


Subject(s)
Humans , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting/prevention & control , Neurokinin-1 Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Antiemetics/administration & dosage , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Morpholines/administration & dosage , Morpholines/pharmacology , Incidence , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting/epidemiology , Serotonin 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Serotonin 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Neurokinin-1 Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Anesthesia, General/methods , Antiemetics/pharmacology
4.
Clinics ; 75: e1701, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133407

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Female sex, body mass index (BMI), and neuromuscular blocking agents are risk factors of perioperative hypersensitivity reactions. This study aimed to investigate the effect of rocuronium on serum tryptase concentrations during general anesthesia in overweight and obese women. METHODS: The study was conducted in two groups: Group I (n=66) underwent volatile anesthesia with rocuronium and group II (n=60) underwent volatile anesthesia without any muscle relaxant. Serum tryptase concentration (STC) measurements were performed at baseline (STC 0) and postoperatively (STC 1). ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04035707 RESULTS: The highest median value of STC 0 was seen in obese patients (3.44 μg L-1) and it was significantly higher than in overweight (p=0.01) and underweight patients (p=0.03). The maximum STC 0 was observed in overweight patients (20.4 μg L-1). In group I, STC 0 in obese patients presented the highest median value (4.49 μg L-1), and was significantly higher than in overweight patients (p=0.03), and had significantly higher STC 1 than patients with normal BMI (p=0.04). STC 0 and STC 1 in overweight and obese female patients did not differ significantly between groups. STC 1 did not correlate with rocuronium doses. In group I, BMI positively correlated with the duration of rocuronium infusion (rho=0.37) and STC 1 positively correlated with BMI (rho=0.32). CONCLUSION: Excess weight and obesity predispose to higher preoperative serum tryptase values. Postoperative STC is not linked to rocuronium doses. BMI is the main determinant factor of STC during combined volatile general anesthesia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents , Rocuronium , Body Weight , Body Mass Index , Tryptases , Androstanols/adverse effects , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects
5.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(3): 233-241, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013421

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: Emergence delirium after general anesthesia with sevoflurane has not been frequently reported in adults compared to children. This study aimed to determine the incidence of emergence delirium in adult patients who had anesthesia with sevoflurane as the volatile agent and the probable risk factors associated with its occurrence. Design & methods: A prospective observational study was conducted in adult patients who had non-neurological procedures and no existing neurological or psychiatric conditions, under general anesthesia. Demographic data such as age, gender, ethnicity and clinical data including ASA physical status, surgical status, intubation attempts, duration of surgery, intraoperative hypotension, drugs used, postoperative pain, rescue analgesia and presence of catheters were recorded. Emergence delirium intensity was measured using the Nursing Delirium Scale (NuDESC). Results: The incidence of emergence delirium was 11.8%. The factors significantly associated with emergence delirium included elderly age (>65) (p = 0.04), emergency surgery (p = 0.04), African ethnicity (p = 0.01), longer duration of surgery (p = 0.007) and number of intubation attempts (p = 0.001). Factors such as gender, alcohol and illicit drug use, and surgical specialty did not influence the occurrence of emergence delirium. Conclusions: The incidence of emergence delirium in adults after general anesthesia using sevoflurane is significant and has not been adequately reported. Modifiable risk factors need to be addressed to further reduce its incidence.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: O delirium do despertar após a anestesia geral com sevoflurano não tem sido relatado com frequência em adultos como nas crianças. Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar a incidência de delirium do despertar em pacientes adultos submetidos à anestesia com sevoflurano como agente volátil e os prováveis fatores de risco associados à sua ocorrência. Desenho e métodos: Um estudo observacional prospectivo foi conduzido com pacientes adultos sem distúrbios neurológicos ou psiquiátricos submetidos à anestesia geral para procedimentos não neurológicos. Dados demográficos como idade, sexo, etnia e dados clínicos, inclusive estado físico ASA, estado cirúrgico, tentativas de intubação, tempo de cirurgia, hipotensão intraoperatória, drogas usadas, dor pós-operatória, analgesia de resgate e presença de cateteres, foram registrados. A intensidade do delirium do despertar foi medida com a Escala de Triagem de Delirium em Enfermagem (Nursing Delirium Scale - NuDESC). Resultados: A incidência de delirium do despertar foi de 11,8%. Os fatores significativamente associados ao delirium do despertar incluíram idade avançada (> 65) (p = 0,04), cirurgia de emergência (p = 0,04), descendência africana (p = 0,01), tempo maior de cirurgia (p = 0,007) e número de tentativas de intubação (p = 0,001). Fatores como sexo, uso de álcool e drogas ilícitas e especialidade cirúrgica não influenciaram a ocorrência de delirium do despertar. Conclusões: A incidência de delirium do despertar em adultos após a anestesia geral com sevoflurano é significativa e não tem sido relatada adequadamente. Fatores de risco modificáveis precisam ser abordados para reduzir ainda mais sua incidência.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Anesthetics, Inhalation/administration & dosage , Emergence Delirium/epidemiology , Sevoflurane/administration & dosage , Anesthesia, General/methods , Incidence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Anesthetics, Inhalation/adverse effects , Operative Time , Sevoflurane/adverse effects , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Middle Aged
6.
Rev. medica electron ; 41(2): 397-409, mar.-abr. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1004276

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: la agitación durante la emergencia de la anestesia general es una complicación frecuente en pediatría que puede causar daños físicos, retrasar el alta y aumentar los costos. Objetivo: caracterizar los episodios anestesia general en el paciente pediátrico. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo, longitudinal de 246 pacientes que presentaron anestesia general en el Hospital "Eliseo Noel Caamaño" entre septiembre de 2015 y diciembre de 2018. Se estudiaron las variables: edad, género, ASA, tiempo quirúrgico y tiempo anestésico, tipo de cirugía, método de anestesia, agentes usados para la inducción y el mantenimiento, severidad de los episodios y necesidad de tratamiento. Resultados: la mayoría de los pacientes que presentaron anestesia general tenían entre 2 y 6 años (63,4%), eran masculinos (67,9%), ASA I (78,1%) y fueron operados de excéresis de lesiones de partes blandas (27,6%). El tiempo quirúrgico fue de 31,2 ± 10,4 minutos y el anestésico 43,5±8,8 minutos. El método anestésico más indicado fue la anestesia balanceada (84,2%), como inductor el propofol (86,2%) y para el mantenimiento isoflurano (34,1%) y sevoflurano (26,4%). Predominaron los episodios severos (51,2%) y el 56,9% necesitó intervención farmacológica. Conclusiones: esta anestesia fue más frecuente en los menores de seis años, masculinos, sanos, a los cuales se les realizaron procederes cortos, con anestesia balanceada, se usó propofol para la inducción e isoflurano y sevoflurano para el mantenimiento de la anestesia. Prevalecieron los episodios severos y la mayoría requirió tratamiento farmacológico.


ABSTRACT Introduction: agitation during the emergence from general anesthesia is a frequent complication in Pediatrics that can cause physical damages, delay discharge and increase costs. Objective: to characterize the episodes of general anesthesia in the pediatric patient. Materials and methods: a descriptive, prospective, longitudinal study was carried out with 246 patients who presented general anesthesia in the Hospital "Eliseo Noel Caamaño" from September 2015 to December 2018. The studied variables were age, gender, ASA, surgical time, anesthetic time, kind of surgery, anesthetic method, agents used for the induction and maintenance, episodes severity and treatment necessity. Results: most of patients treated with general anesthesia were aged 2-6 years (63.4 %), male (67.9 %), ASA I (78.1 %), and underwent the removal of soft parts lesions (27.6 %). The average surgical time was 31,2 ± 10,4 minutes and the anesthetics one was 43,5±8,8 minutes. The most used anesthetics method was balanced anesthesia (84.2 %), the most used inductor was propofol (86.2 %) and for the maintenance isoflurane (34,1%) and sevoflurane (26,4%). Severe episodes (51,2%) predominated, and 56.9 % needed pharmacologic intervention. Conclusions: this kind of anesthesia is more frequently used in children aged less than 6 years, male, healthy, who underwent short procedures with balanced anesthesia and the use of propofol for the induction and isoflurane and sevoflurane for maintaining it. Severe episodes predominated, and most of them required pharmacologic treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Child , Emergence Delirium/complications , Emergence Delirium/diagnosis , Emergence Delirium/drug therapy , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Anesthesia, General/methods , Anesthesia, General/statistics & numerical data , Pediatrics , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies
7.
Clinics ; 74: e605, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039555

ABSTRACT

OJECTIVES: The aim was to evaluate the ability of bilateral superficial cervical plexus blockade to control pain and to reduce the side effects of general anesthesia in patients submitted to thyroidectomy. METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial, we prospectively studied 100 consecutive patients who underwent total thyroidectomy. The simple random patient sample was divided into two groups: 50 patients received general anesthesia alone (group 1 [G1]), and 50 patients received general anesthesia with bilateral superficial cervical plexus blockade (group 2 [G2]). Statistical analyses were performed, and a 5% significance level was adopted. RESULTS: The mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were 12% lower in G2 patients than in G1 patients 60 minutes after surgery (101 mmHg for G1 vs. 92.3 mmHg for G2; p<0.001). G2 patients reported less pain than G1 patients, and opioid consumption was lower in G2 patients than in G1 patients, not upon postanesthesia care unit arrival, but at 30 minutes (2% vs. 34%; p<0.001, respectively), 45 minutes (0% vs. 16%; p=0.006, respectively), and 4 hours postoperatively (6% vs. 20%; p=0.037, respectively). The incidence of nausea and vomiting was lower in G2 patients than in G1 patients from 45 minutes (0% vs. 16%; p=0.006, respectively) to 8 hours postoperatively (0% vs. 14%; p=0.012, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated that the combination of bilateral superficial cervical plexus blockade with general anesthesia for thyroidectomy is feasible, safe, and effective for achieving pain control and improving patient outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Thyroidectomy/methods , Cervical Plexus Block/methods , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Pain, Postoperative/etiology , Preoperative Care , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects
8.
Rev. medica electron ; 40(6): 2140-2155, nov.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-978723

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El edema pulmonar por presión negativa es una complicación rara y dramática en la anestesia general. Habitualmente ocurre como consecuencia de un laringoespasmo u otra causa de obstrucción de la vía aérea. Se presentó un caso con el objetivo de mostrar los elementos usados para el diagnóstico y tratamiento del edema pulmonar por presión negativa. Paciente de 7 años de edad, femenina, ASA I, operada de metatarso varo funcional con anestesia general balanceada y máscara laríngea clásica # 3. Desarrolló dicho evento adverso durante la recuperación anestésica. El diagnóstico se basó en la disociación toraco abdominal al restablecer la ventilación espontanea, crepitantes en ambos hemitórax, cianosis central, hipoxemia y la presencia de infiltrado difuso bilateral alveolar. Se intubó la tráquea, se controló la ventilación con presión positiva al final de la espiración y se administró furosemida. La paciente fue trasladada a la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos donde evolucionó satisfactoriamente. Este es un síndrome cuya verdadera incidencia se desconoce debido a la escasa familiarización con el mismo. La evolución de los pacientes es favorable siempre que se establezca el diagnóstico y el tratamiento oportuno (AU).


ABSTRACT Pulmonary edema due to negative pressure is a rare and dramatic complication in general anesthetic. It usually occurs as a consequence of a laryngeal spasm or another cause of respiratory tract obstruction.A case was presented with the aim of showing the elements used for the diagnosis and treatment of the pulmonary edema due to negative pressure. An ASA I, 7-year-old female patient, was operated on a functional metatarsus varus with balanced general anesthetic and classical laryngeal mask number 3. She developed this adverse event during the anesthetic recovery. The diagnosis was based on the thoracoabdominal dissociation when recovering spontaneous ventilation, crepitation in hemithoraxes, central cyanosis, hypoxemia, and alveolar bilateral diffused infiltrate. The trachea was intubated, ventilation was controlled with positive pressure at the end of the expiration and furosemide was administered. The patient was transferred to the Intensive Care Unit where she evolved satisfactorily. This is a syndrome whose true incidence is unknown as a result of the lack of familiarization with it. Patients' evolution is favorable whenever the right diagnosis and treatment are timely established (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child , Pulmonary Edema/diagnosis , Ventilators, Negative-Pressure/adverse effects , Laryngeal Masks/adverse effects , Metatarsus Varus/surgery , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Pulmonary Edema/prevention & control , Pulmonary Edema/therapy , Pulmonary Edema/epidemiology , Laryngismus/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Airway Obstruction/surgery , Intensive Care Units
9.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(11): 954-963, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973477

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: The effect of a prophylactic oleuropein-rich diet before anesthesia accompanied by the widely-used steroid-based neuromuscular drug rocuronium on mast cell activation was investigated in the study. Methods: 14 rabbits used in the study. The rabbits in the oleuropein group were given oleuropein-rich extract added to the animals' water at doses of 20 mg/kg oleuropein for 15 days orally. After 15 days, all rabbits in the two groups were given general anesthesia with rocuronium of 1 mg/kg. After 1 day, animals were sacrificed and the liver tissue sections stained with H&E, toluidine blue and tryptase for immunohistochemical study. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between ALT, AST and albumin averages of the oleuropein and control groups (p> 0.05). The tryptase average of the control group was higher than the tryptase average of the oleuropein group and this difference was statistically significant (p=0.003). The T. blue average in the oleuropein group was higher than the control group. However, there was no statistically significant difference between groups (p=0.482). Conclusions: Rocuronium adverse effects, like hypersensitivity and anaphylaxis, may limit routine use of this substance. The use of oleuropein reduced the number of inflammatory cells and prevented degranulation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents/adverse effects , Iridoids/administration & dosage , Rocuronium/adverse effects , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Mast Cells/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Serum Albumin/analysis , Random Allocation , Cell Degranulation/drug effects , Cell Aggregation/drug effects , Reproducibility of Results , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Diet Therapy/methods , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/prevention & control , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Liver/drug effects , Liver/enzymology , Mast Cells/pathology
10.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 68(6): 637-640, Nov.-Dec. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977395

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: General anesthesia is a safe, frequent procedure in clinical practice. Although it is very unusual in procedures not related to head and or neck surgery, vocal cord paralysis is a serious and important complication. Incidence has been associated with patient age and comorbidities, as well as the position of the endotracheal tube and cuff. It can become a dangerous scenario because it predisposes aspiration. Objectives: To present a case and analyze the risk factors associated with increased risk of vocal cord paralysis described in the literature. Case report: 53 year-old diabetic man, who developed hoarseness in the postoperative period after receiving general anesthesia for an elective abdominal laparoscopic surgery. Otolaryngological evaluation showed left vocal cord paralysis. Conclusions: Vocal cord paralysis can be a serious complication of general anesthesia because of important voice dysfunction and risk of aspiration. The management is not yet fully established, so prevention and early diagnosis is essential.


Resumo Justificativa: A anestesia geral é um procedimento seguro e frequente na prática clínica. Embora seja muito rara em procedimentos não relacionados à cirurgia de cabeça ou pescoço, a paralisia das cordas vocais é uma complicação séria e importante. Sua incidência tem sido associada à idade e comorbidades do paciente, bem como à posição do tubo endotraqueal e seu balonete. A paralisia das cordas vocais pode ser uma condição perigosa porque predispõe à aspiração. Objetivos: Apresentar um caso e analisar os fatores de risco associados ao aumento do risco de paralisia das cordas vocais descritos na literatura. Relato de caso: Paciente do sexo masculino, 53 anos, diabético, que desenvolveu rouquidão no pós-operatório após anestesia geral para cirurgia laparoscópica abdominal eletiva. A avaliação otorrinolaringológica mostrou paralisia da corda vocal esquerda. Conclusão: A paralisia de cordas vocais pode ser uma complicação séria da anestesia geral devido ao risco grave de disfunção da voz e aspiração. O manejo dessa condição ainda não está totalmente estabelecido, de modo que a prevenção e o diagnóstico precoce são essenciais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Vocal Cord Paralysis/etiology , Intubation, Intratracheal , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Middle Aged
11.
Clinics ; 73: e287, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-890755

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of intra-operative immediate hypersensitivity reactions and anaphylaxis. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted at the Department of Anesthesiology, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo, Brazil, from January to December 2010. We developed a specific questionnaire to be completed by anesthesiologists. This tool included questions about hypersensitivity reactions during anesthesia and provided treatments. We included patients with clinical signs compatible with immediate hypersensitivity reactions. Hhypersensitivity reactions were categorized according to severity (grades I-V). American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification (ASA 1-6) was analyzed and associated with the severity of hypersensitivity reactions. RESULTS: In 2010, 21,464 surgeries were performed under general anesthesia. Anesthesiologists answered questionnaires on 5,414 procedures (25.2%). Sixty cases of intra-operative hypersensitivity reactions were reported. The majority patients (45, 75%) had hypersensitivity reactions grade I reactions (incidence of 27.9:10,000). Fifteen patients (25%) had grade II, III or IV reactions (intra-operative anaphylaxis) (incidence of 7:10,000). No patients had grade V reactions. Thirty patients (50%) were classified as ASA 1. The frequency of cardiovascular shock was higher in patients classified as ASA 3 than in patients classified as ASA 1 or ASA 2. Epinephrine was administered in 20% of patients with grade III hypersensitivity reactions and in 50% of patients with grade II hypersensitivity reactions. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of patients had hypersensitivity reactions grade I reactions; however, the incidence of intra-operative anaphylaxis was higher than that previously reported in the literature. Patients with ASA 3 had more severe anaphylaxis; however, the use of epinephrine was not prescribed in all of these cases. Allergists and anesthesiologists should implement preventive measures to reduce the occurrence of anaphylaxis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Drug Hypersensitivity/epidemiology , Anaphylaxis/epidemiology , Intraoperative Complications/epidemiology , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil/epidemiology , Epinephrine/therapeutic use , Incidence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Drug Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Anesthesiologists/statistics & numerical data , Anaphylaxis/diagnosis , Intraoperative Complications/diagnosis
12.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 32(4): 556-561, out.-dez. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-878776

ABSTRACT

Introdução: O controle da dor é essencial em qualquer evento cirúrgico. A lipoaspiração cursa, em geral, com queixas de dor pós-operatória, o que levanta a discussão acerca da melhor maneira de preveni-la e tratá-la. Dessa forma, estudos indicam que a analgesia deveria começar antes que qualquer estímulo doloroso seja deflagrado a fim de reduzir ou prevenir a dor preemptivamente. A abordagem nas diversas vias álgicas, com combinação de diferentes classes de fármacos ou associação dos bloqueios raquimedular ou epidural com anestesia geral, também pode contribuir para o manejo da dor. Métodos: Estudo descritivo, prospectivo, intervencionista, tipo Coorte, com pacientes submetidas à cirurgia plástica envolvendo lipoaspiração. O procedimento anestésico padrão consistiu na associação de anestesia geral e subaracnóidea. O escalonamento da dor, realizado 6 e 18 horas após o término da cirurgia, utilizou escalas unidimensionais. A ausência de dor ou a presença de dor leve foram consideradas como resultado satisfatório. Resultados: Foram avaliadas 50 pacientes do sexo feminino, com média de 35 anos de idade. Não foi encontrada dor severa em qualquer momento do estudo. Os resultados satisfatórios representaram 94% e 92% das pacientes na avaliação das 6 e 18 horas do pós-operatório, respectivamente (p < 0,001). Conclusões: A anestesia geral venosa combinada com raquianestesia, em cirurgia de contorno corporal, foi capaz de controlar satisfatoriamente a dor no pós-operatório imediato na maioria dos casos (>90%). A lipoaspiração mostrou ser cirurgia de dor controlável nesta casuística.


Introduction: Pain control is essential in any surgical event. Liposuction is, in general, accompanied by complaints of postoperative pain, which raises the discussion about the best way to prevent and treat it. Accordingly, studies indicate that the analgesia should begin before any painful stimulus is triggered in order to reduce or prevent the pain preemptively. The approach of the various pain pathways, with a combination of different classes of drugs or utilization of spinal block or epidural/general anesthesia can also contribute to pain management. Methods: A descriptive, prospective, interventional cohort type study was conducted with patients undergoing plastic surgery involving liposuction. The standard anesthetic procedure consisted of an association between general and spinal anesthesia. The assessment of pain, carried out 6 and 18 hours after the end of the surgery, used unidimensional scales. The absence of pain or the presence of mild pain was considered a satisfactory result. Results: Fifty female patients were evaluated, with an average of 35 years of age. No intense pain was found at any time during the study. Satisfactory results accounted for 94% and 92% of the patients in the assessment at 6 and 18 hours post-surgery, respectively (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Intravenous anesthesia combined with spinal anesthesia, in body contouring surgery, was able to satisfactorily control pain in the immediate postoperative period in most cases (>90%). In this study, liposuction was revealed to be a type of surgery with manageable pain.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , History, 21st Century , Pain , Lipectomy , Analgesia , Anesthesia, General , Anesthesia, Spinal , Pain/complications , Pain/drug therapy , Pain, Postoperative/surgery , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Pain, Postoperative/therapy , Lipectomy/methods , Analgesia/methods , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Anesthesia, General/methods , Anesthesia, Spinal/adverse effects , Anesthesia, Spinal/methods
13.
Acta cir. bras ; 32(10): 853-861, Oct. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886175

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the preventive effect of ascorbic acid on sevoflurane-induced acute renal failure in an experimental rat model. Methods: Twenty-four adult male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into three groups. Subjects were allocated into 3 groups: Group I received sevoflurane only, whereas Groups II and III had moderate (150 mg/kg) and high (300 mg/kg) doses of AA in addition to sevoflurane, respectively. Rhabdomyolysis and myohemoglobinuric ARF was formed by intramuscular administration of glycerol on the upper hind limb on the 15th minute of inhalation anesthesia. Biochemical parameters consisted of serum levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and protein carbonyl content. Histopathological variables were tubular necrosis, fibrin, and cast formation. Results: NGAL levels were significantly lower in Group III than Group II and Group I. On the other hand, TAC, PCO, urea and creatinine levels were notably higher in Group I compared with Groups II and III. There was a significant difference between 3 groups on frequencies of acute tubular necrosis (p=0.003), fibrin (p<0.001) and cast (p<0.001). Acute tubular necrosis and fibrin formation were more prominent in Group I. Casts were more common in Groups II and III. Conclusions: The ascorbic acid serve as a prophylactic agent against renal damage in patients receiving sevoflurane anesthesia and higher doses were associated with more apparent protective effects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Vitamins/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Inhalation/pharmacology , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Methyl Ethers/pharmacology , Biomarkers/blood , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/blood , Sevoflurane
14.
Rev. urug. cardiol ; 32(2): 150-157, ago. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-903581

ABSTRACT

Fundamento: el delirio es un síndrome de diagnóstico clínico que afecta a un importante porcentaje de pacientes que cursan posoperatorio de cirugía cardíaca, pudiendo desencadenar consecuencias negativas. A pesar de su elevada incidencia se encuentra subdiagnosticado. En Uruguay no existen datos de injuria encefálica aguda a modo de delirio en el posoperatorio de cirugía cardíaca. Métodos: se realizó un estudio prospectivo, descriptivo, con elementos analíticos en una cohorte de 93 pacientes consecutivos a quienes se les realizó cirugía cardíaca durante el período comprendido entre el 25 de julio de 2016 y el 27 de setiembre de 2016. Se realizó el análisis en dos etapas del posoperatorio. Etapa 1: despertar anestésico, con delirio versus sin delirio; y etapa 2: durante la internación desde el período posextubación hasta el alta sanatorial, con delirio versus sin delirio. Para la evaluación se utilizó la escala de sedación Ramsay y la escala CAM (Confussion Assesment Method). El trabajo estadístico se realizó mediante análisis univariado, prueba U Mann Whitney y prueba de t. Resultados: la incidencia de delirio al despertar fue de 51,6% y estuvo relacionada con estadía más prolongada en unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI) (82,3 ± 72,1 vs 54,5 ± 19,9 horas (p=0,02)). La incidencia de delirio luego de la extubación hasta el alta sanatorial fue de 41,9%, siendo este grupo de pacientes más añosos, con edad de 69,3 ± 10,1 vs 60,9 ± 10 años (p ?0,001); tuvieron mayor tiempo de asistencia respiratoria mecánica 11,47 ± 12,68 vs 7,49 ± 6,11 horas (p=0,019), y una mayor estadía en UCI: 87,9 ± 78,3 vs 55,1 ± 20,7 horas (p=0,003). No se encontraron diferencias significativas en las demás variables analizadas. Conclusiones: la incidencia acumulada de delirio fue de 51,6% al despertar y de 41,9% durante la internación desde el período posextubación. La presencia de delirio al despertar se asoció con mayor estadía en UCI. Luego de la extubación, la presencia de delirio se asoció a mayor edad, mayor tiempo de asistencia respiratoria mecánica y estadía más prolongada en UCI.


Background: delirium is a clinical diagnosis syndrome that affects a significant percentage of patients who undergo postoperative cardiac surgery, which may lead to negative consequences. Despite its high incidence, it is underdiagnosed. In Uruguay, there is no data on acute encephalic injury as a delirium in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery. Methods: a prospective, descriptive study with analytical elements was carried out. A cohort of 93 consecutive patients who underwent cardiac surgery during the period from July 25, 2016 to September 27, 2016 was included. The analysis was made in two stages. The first stage was during the anesthetic awakening, with two possible outcomes: with delirium vs. without delirium. The second stage was during the hospitalization from the post-extubation period to hospital discharge: with delirium vs. without delirium. For the evaluation, the Ramsay sedation scale and the Confussion Assesment Method (CAM) scale were used. Statistical analysis was performed using a univariate analysis, Mann Whitney U Test and t Test. Results: the incidence of delirium on awakening was 51.6% and was related to longer intensive care unit (ICU) stay (82.3 ± 72.1 vs 54.5 ± 19.9 hours (p = 0.02)). The incidence of delirium during hospitalization from the post-extubation period to hospital discharge was 41.9%. This group of patients was more aged on average (with ages of 69.3 ± 10.1 vs 60.9 ± 10 years (p ? 0.001)), had a longer time in mechanical ventilation (11.47 ± 12.68 vs 7.49 ± 6.11 hours (p = 0.019)) and a longer ICU stay: (87.9 ± 78.3 vs 55.1 ± 20.7 hours (p = 0.003)). No significant differences were found in the other variables analyzed. Conclusions The cumulative incidence of delirium was 51.6% on awaking and 41.9% during hospitalization from the post-extubation period to hospital discharge. The presence of delirium on awakening was associated with longer ICU stay. In the second stage, the presence of delirium was associated with older age, longer time of mechanical ventilation and longer stay in ICU.


Subject(s)
Humans , Delirium/chemically induced , Delirium/epidemiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Postoperative Period , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Incidence , Prospective Studies
15.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 67(4): 415-417, July-aug. 2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897745

ABSTRACT

Abstract More and more endoscopically gastrointestinal procedures require anesthesiologists to perform general anesthesia, such as "peroral endoscopic myotomy". Peroral endoscopic myotomy is a novel invasive treatment for the primary motility disorder of esophagus, called esophageal achalasia. Despite of its minimally invasive feature, there are still complications during the procedure which develop to critical conditions and threat patients' lives. Herein we describe a case about tension pneumothorax subsequent to esophageal rupture during peroral endoscopic myotomy. The emergent management of the complication is stated in detail. The pivotal points of general anesthesia for patients undergoing peroral endoscopic myotomy are emphasized and discussed. Also, intraoperative and post-operative complications mentioned by literature are integrated.


Resumo Cada vez mais os procedimentos gastrointestinais feitos por endoscopia, tais como a miotomia endoscópica por via oral (MEVO), exigem anestesiologistas para administrar anestesia geral. A MEVO é um novo tratamento invasivo para o distúrbio de motilidade primária do esôfago, denominado acalasia esofágica (AE). Apesar de sua característica minimamente invasiva, existem complicações durante o procedimento que evoluem para condições críticas e de risco à vida. Descrevemos aqui um caso de pneumotórax hipertensivo após a ruptura do esôfago durante uma MEVO. O tratamento de emergência da complicação é relatado em detalhes. Os pontos cruciais da anestesia geral para pacientes submetidos à MEVO são enfatizados e discutidos. Além disso, as complicações mencionadas pela literatura nos períodos intraoperatório e pós-operatório são integradas ao texto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pneumothorax/etiology , Esophageal Achalasia/surgery , Esophagoscopy , Myotomy/methods , Intraoperative Complications/etiology , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Middle Aged
16.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 67(2): 193-198, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843384

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: Sevoflurane is often used in pediatric anesthesia and is associated with high incidence of psychomotor agitation. In such cases, dexmedetomidine (DEX) has been used, but its benefit and implications remain uncertain. We assessed the effects of DEX on agitation in children undergoing general anesthesia with sevoflurane. Method: Meta-analysis of randomized clinical and double-blind studies, with children undergoing elective procedures under general anesthesia with sevoflurane, using DEX or placebo. We sought articles in English in PubMed database using the following terms: Dexmedetomidine, sevoflurane (Methyl Ethers/sevoflurante), and agitation (Psychomotor Agitation). Duplicate articles with children who received premedication and used active control were excluded. It was adopted random effects model with DerSimonian-Laird testing and odds ratio (OR) calculation for dichotomous variables, and standardized mean difference for continuous variables, with their respective 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: Of 146 studies identified, 10 were selected totaling 558 patients (282 in DEX group and 276 controls). The use of DEX was considered a protective factor for psychomotor agitation (OR = 0.17; 95% CI 0.13-0.23; p < 0.0001) and nausea and vomiting in PACU (OR = 0.49; 95% CI 0.35-0.68; p < 0.0001). Wake-up time and PACU discharge time were higher in the dexmedetomidine group. There was no difference between groups for extubation time and duration of anesthesia. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine reduces psychomotor agitation during wake-up time of children undergoing general anesthesia with sevoflurane.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: Sevoflurano é frequentemente usado em anestesia pediátrica e está associado à alta incidência de agitação psicomotora ao despertar. Nesses casos a dexmedetomidina (dex) tem sido usada, porém permanecem incertos seus benefícios e suas implicações. Foram avaliados os efeitos da dex sobre a agitação no despertar de crianças submetidas à anestesia geral com sevoflurano. Método: Metanálise de ensaios clínicos randomizados e duplamente encobertos, com crianças submetidas a procedimentos eletivos sob anestesia geral com sevoflurano, que usaram dex ou placebo. Buscaram-se artigos em língua inglesa na base de dados Pubmed com termos como Dexmedetomidine, sevoflurane (Methyl Ethers/sevoflurane) e agitation (Psychomotor Agitation). Artigos duplicados, com crianças que receberam medicação pré-anestésica e que usaram controle ativo foram excluídos. Adotou-se modelo de efeitos aleatórios com testes de DerSimonian-Laird e cálculo de odds ratio (OR) para variáveis dicotômicas e diferença de média padronizada para variáveis contínuas, com seus respectivos intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC). Resultados: Dos 146 estudos identificados, 10 foram selecionados, com 558 pacientes (282 no grupo dex e 276 controles). O uso da dex foi considerado fator de proteção para agitação psicomotora (OR = 0,17; 95% IC 0,13-0,23; p < 0,0001) e para náuseas e vômitos na SRPA (OR = 0,49; 95% IC 0,35-0,68; p < 0,0001). Tempo para despertar e para alta da SRPA foram maiores no grupo dexmedetomidina. Não houve diferença entre os grupos para tempo de extubação e duração da anestesia. Conclusão: A dexmedetomidina reduz a agitação psicomotora no despertar de crianças submetidas à anestesia geral com sevoflurano.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Psychomotor Agitation/prevention & control , Dexmedetomidine/administration & dosage , Methyl Ethers/adverse effects , Psychomotor Agitation/etiology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Anesthetics, Inhalation/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Inhalation/adverse effects , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting/prevention & control , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , Sevoflurane , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Hypnotics and Sedatives/pharmacology , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Anesthesia, General/methods , Methyl Ethers/administration & dosage
17.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 67(1): 6-14, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843352

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: Dental injuries incurred during endotracheal intubation are more frequent in patients with previous oral pathology. The study objectives were to develop an oral health questionnaire for preanaesthesia evaluation, easy to apply for personnel without special dental training; and establish a cut-off value for detecting persons with poor oral health. Methods: Validation study of a self-administered questionnaire, designed according to a literature review and an expert group's recommendations. The questionnaire was applied to a sample of patients evaluated in a preanaesthesia consultation. Rasch analysis of the questionnaire psychometric properties included viability, acceptability, content validity and reliability of the scale. Results: The sample included 115 individuals, 50.4% of men, with a median age of 58 years (range: 38-71). The final analysis of 11 items presented a Person Separation Index of 0.861 and good adjustment of data to the Rasch model. The scale was unidimensional and its items were not biased by sex, age or nationality. The oral health linear measure presented good construct validity. The cut-off value was set at 52 points. Conclusions: The questionnaire showed sufficient psychometric properties to be considered a reliable tool, valid for measuring the state of oral health in preoperative anaesthetic evaluations.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivo: As lesões dentárias que ocorrem durante a intubação traqueal são mais frequentes em pacientes com patologia oral prévia. O objetivo do estudo foi desenvolver um questionário de saúde bucal para avaliação no período pré-anestesia, de fácil aplicação por pessoal sem formação odontológica, e estabelecer um valor de corte para detectar pessoas com má saúde bucal. Métodos: Estudo de validação de um questionário autoadministrado, projetado de acordo com uma revisão da literatura e recomendações de um grupo de especialistas. O questionário foi aplicado a uma amostra de pacientes avaliados em uma consulta pré-anestesia. A análise Rasch das propriedades psicométricas do questionário incluiu viabilidade, aceitabilidade, validade de conteúdo e confiabilidade da escala. Resultados: A amostra incluiu 115 indivíduos, 50,4% de homens, com mediana de 58 anos (variação: 38-71). A análise final dos 11 itens apresentou um índice de separação dos indivíduos de 0,861 e um bom ajuste dos dados ao modelo de Rasch. A escala foi unidimensional e seus itens não foram influenciados por sexo, idade ou nacionalidade. A medida linear da saúde bucal apresentou boa validade de constructo. O valor de corte foi fixado em 52 pontos. Conclusões: O questionário mostrou propriedades psicométricas suficientes para ser considerado uma ferramenta confiável, válida para medir o estado de saúde bucal nas avaliações pré-anestesia antes da operação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Oral Health , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Oral Hygiene , Psychometrics , Preoperative Care , Observer Variation , Analysis of Variance , Tooth Injuries/prevention & control , Patient Safety , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Mouth/injuries
18.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 66(2): 183-193, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777417

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Neuraxial anesthesia (NA) has been used in association with general anesthesia (GA) for coronary artery bypass; however, anticoagulation during surgery makes us question the viability of benefits by the risk of epidural hematoma. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analyzes examining the efficacy of NA associated with GA compared to GA alone for coronary artery bypass on mortality reduction. METHODS: Mortality, arrhythmias, cerebrovascular accident (CVA), myocardial infarction (MI), length of hospital stay (LHS), length of ICU stay (ICUS), reoperations, blood transfusion (BT), quality of life, satisfaction degree, and postoperative cognitive dysfunction were analyzed. The weighted mean difference (MD) was estimated for continuous variables, and relative risk (RR) and risk difference (RD) for categorical variables. RESULTS: 17 original articles analyzed. Meta-analysis of mortality (RD = -0.01, 95% CI = -0.03 to 0.01), CVA (RR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.32-1.95), MI (RR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.52-1.79) and LHS (MD = -1.94, 95% CI = -3.99 to 0.12) were not statistically significant. Arrhythmia was less frequent with NA (RR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.50-0.93). ICUS was lower in NA (MD = -2.09, 95% CI = -2.92 to -1.26). CONCLUSION: There was no significant difference in mortality. Combined NA and GA showed lower incidence of arrhythmias and lower ICUS.


RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO E OBJETIVOS: A anestesia neuroaxial (AN) vem sendo utilizada em associação com a anestesia geral (AG) para revascularização miocárdica, entretanto a anticoagulação durante a cirurgia torna questionável a viabilidade dos benefícios mediante o risco de hematoma de espaço peridural. O objetivo deste estudo foi executar metanálises analisando a efetividade da AN associada à AG comparada à AG isolada para a cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica relativa à redução da mortalidade. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados mortalidade, arritmias, acidente vascular cerebral (AVC), infarto miocárdico (IM), tempo de internação hospitalar (TIH), tempo de internação em unidade de terapia intensiva (TUTI), reoperações, transfusão sanguínea (TS), qualidade de vida, grau de satisfação e disfunção cognitiva pós-opertória. A diferença média (DM) ponderada foi estimada para as variáveis contínuas e risco relativo (RR) e a diferença de risco (DR) para variáveis categóricas. RESULTADOS: Analisados 17 artigos originais. Metanálise da mortalidade (DR = -0,01; IC 95% = -0,03 a 0,01), AVC (RR = 0,79; IC 95% = 0,32 a 1,95), IM (RR = 0,96; IC 95% = 0,52 a 1,79) e TIH (DM = -1,94; IC 95% = -3,99 a 0,12) não demonstraram significância estatística. Arritmia foi menos frequente com AN (RR = 0,68; IC 95% = 0,50 a 0,93). O TUTI foi menor no com AN (DM = -2,09; IC 95% = -2,92 a -1,26). CONCLUSÃO: Não se observaram diferenças estatisticamente significantes quanto a mortalidade. A combinação de AN e AG mostrou menor incidência de arritmias e menor TUTI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronary Artery Bypass/methods , Anesthesia, Conduction/methods , Anesthesia, General/methods , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Coronary Artery Bypass/mortality , Hematoma/prevention & control , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Anesthesia, Conduction/adverse effects , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Length of Stay , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage
19.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 66(2): 208-211, Mar.-Apr. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777413

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Inadvertent venous catheterizations occur in approximately 9% of lumbar epidural anesthetic procedures with catheter placement and, if not promptly recognized, can result in fatal consequences. The objective of this report is to describe a case of accidental catheterization of epidural venous plexus and its recording by computed tomography with contrast injection through the catheter. CASE REPORT: A female patient in her sixties, physical status II (ASA), underwent conventional cholecystectomy under balanced general anesthesia and an epidural with catheter for postoperative analgesia. During surgery, there was clinical suspicion of accidental catheterization of epidural venous plexus because of blood backflow through the catheter, confirmed by the administration of a test dose through the catheter. After the surgery, a CT scan was obtained after contrast injection through the catheter. Contrast was observed all the way from the skin to the azygos vein, passing through anterior and posterior epidural venous plexuses and intervertebral vein. CONCLUSION: It is possible to identify the actual placement of the epidural catheter, as well as to register an accidental catheterization of the epidural venous plexus, using computed tomography with contrast injection through the epidural catheter.


RESUMO JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A cateterização venosa inadvertida ocorre em aproximadamente 9% das anestesias peridurais lombares com introdução de cateter e caso não seja prontamente reconhecida pode trazer consequências fatais. O objetivo deste relato é descrever um caso de cateterização acidental do plexo venoso peridural e o seu registro por tomografia computadorizada com injeção de contraste pelo cateter. RELATO DE CASO: Paciente feminina, sexagenária, estado físico II (ASA), submetida à colecistectomia convencional sob anestesia geral balanceada e peridural com cateter para analgesia pós-operatória. Durante cirurgia houve suspeição clínica de cateterização acidental do plexo venoso peridural, por refluxo de sangue pelo cateter, fato confirmado pela administração de dose-teste pelo cateter. Feita tomografia computadorizada com injeção de contraste pelo cateter, após o termino da cirurgia. Observado todo o trajeto do contraste desde a pele até a veia ázigo, passando pelo plexo venoso peridural anterior, posterior e veia intervertebral. CONCLUSÃO: É possível a identificação do real posicionamento do cateter peridural, bem como o registro da cateterização acidental do plexo venoso peridural, por meio de tomografia computadorizada com injeção de contraste pelo cateter peridural.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Epidural Space/diagnostic imaging , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Catheterization/methods , Cholecystectomy/methods , Contrast Media/administration & dosage , Anesthesia, Epidural/methods , Anesthesia, General/methods , Middle Aged
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