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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971294


Severe hypokalemia is defined as the concentration of serum potassium lower than 2.5 mmol/L, which may lead to serious arrhythmias and cause mortality. We report an unusual case of potentially fatal ventricular arrhythmias induced by severe hypokalemia in a patient undergoing laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in Peking University Third Hospital due to irregular use of indapamide before operation. Indapamide is a sulfonamide diuretic with vasodilative and calcium antagonistic effects, which enhances sodium delivery to the renal distal tubules resulting in a dose-related increase in urinary potassium excretion and decreases serum potassium concentrations. The electrolyte disorder caused by the diuretic is more likely to occur in the elderly patients, especially those with malnutrition or long-term fasting. Hence, the serum potassium concentration of the patients under indapamide therapy, especially elderly patients, should be monitored carefully. Meanwhile, the potassium concentration measured by arterial blood gas analysis is different from that measured by venous blood or laboratory test. According to the previous research, the concentration of potassium in venous blood was slightly higher than that in arterial blood, and the difference value was 0.1-0.5 mmol/L. This error should be taken into account when rapid intravenous potassium supplementation or reduction of blood potassium level was carried out clinically. In the correction of severe hypokalemia, the standard approach often did not work well for treating severe hypokalemia. The tailored rapid potassium supplementation strategy shortened the time of hypokalemia and was a safe and better treatment option to remedy life-threatening arrhythmias caused by severe hypokalemia with a high success rate. Through the anesthesia management of this case, we conclude that for the elderly patients who take indapamide or other potassium excretion diuretics, the electrolyte concentration and the general volume state of the patients should be comprehensively measured and fully evaluated before operation. It may be necessary for us to reexamine the serum electrolyte concentration before anesthesia induction on the morning of surgery in patients with the history of hypokalemia. For severe hypokalemia detected after anesthesia, central venous cannulation access for individualized rapid potassium supplementation is an effective approach to reverse the life-threatening arrhythmias caused by severe hypokalemia and ensure the safety of the patients.

Humans , Aged , Hypokalemia/complications , Indapamide/adverse effects , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , Diuretics/adverse effects , Potassium , Electrolytes/adverse effects , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects
Braz. J. Anesth. (Impr.) ; 73(4): 426-433, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1447630


Abstract Background Few trials have examined the efficacy of esmolol to attenuate hemodynamic and respiratory responses during extubation. However, the most appropriate dose of esmolol and an optimal protocol for administering this beta-blocker are uncertain. Methods Ninety patients ASA physical status I, II, and III (aged 18-60 years) scheduled to procedures with general anesthesia and tracheal extubation were selected. Patients were randomized into esmolol and placebo group to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a single bolus dose of esmolol (2 on cardiorespiratory responses during the peri-extubation period. The primary outcome was the rate of tachycardia during extubation. Results The rate of tachycardia was significantly lower in esmolol-treated patients compared to placebo-treated patients (2.2% vs. 48.9%, relative risk (RR): 0.04, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.01 to 0.32, p= 0.002). The rate of hypertension was also significantly lower in the esmolol group (4.4% vs. 31.1%, RR: 0.14, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.6, p= 0.004). Esmolol-treated patients were associated with higher extubation quality compared to patients who received placebo (p< 0.001), with an approximately two-fold increase in the rate of patients without cough (91.1%) in the esmolol group compared to the placebo group (46.7%). The rate of bucking was approximately 5-fold lower in the esmolol group (8.9% vs. 44.5%, respectively, RR: 0.20 (95% CI, 0.1 to 0.5, p= 0.002, with an NNT of 2.8). Conclusion A single bolus dose of esmolol is an effective and safe therapeutic strategy to attenuate cardiorespiratory responses during the peri-extubation period.

Humans , Propanolamines/therapeutic use , Propanolamines/pharmacology , Hypertension/ethnology , Hypertension/drug therapy , Tachycardia/ethnology , Tachycardia/prevention & control , Tachycardia/drug therapy , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/therapeutic use , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/pharmacology , Airway Extubation/adverse effects , Heart Rate , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927369


OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on laparoscope postoperative shivering in patients undergoing general anesthesia and explore its effect mechanism.@*METHODS@#A total of 80 patients with elective laparoscopic resection of intestinal tumor under general anesthesia were randomly divided into an EA group and a tramadol group, 40 cases in each group. Thirty min prior to the end of the operation, in the EA group, EA was exerted at Neimadian and Zusanli (ST 36), with disperse-dense wave, 2 Hz/100 Hz in frequency, 1 mA in intensity, and lasting 30 min. In the tramadol group, tramadol hydrochloride injection was dropped intravenously, 1 mg/kg. The conditions of shivering, dizziness, nausea, vomiting and agitation were observed in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). Heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were observed before treatment (T0), at the moment of extubation (T1), in 3 min of extubation (T2) and 1 h after operation (T3). Using ELISA, at T0 and T3, the expression levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in plasma were detected separately. Choking and agitation were recorded during extubation.@*RESULTS@#① In the EA group, the incidence of shivering, dizziness, nausea, vomiting and agitation in the PACU was lower than that in the tramadol group (P<0.05). ②Compared with T0, HR, SBP and DBP were increased at T1 and T2 in the tramadol group (P<0.05). HR, SBP and DBP in the EA group were lower than the tramadol group at T1 and T2 (P<0.05). ③Compared with T0, the expression levels of IL-6 and 5-HT in plasma were increased at T3 in the tramadol group (P<0.05). The expression levels of IL-6 and 5-HT in the EA group were lower than the tramadol group at T3 (P<0.05). ④The incidence of choking and agitation during exudation in the EA group was lower than that in the tramadol group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Electroacupuncture can reduce the incidence of laparoscopic postoperative shivering under general anesthesia. The potential mechanism mays related to the modulation of the expression levels of IL-6 and 5-HT caused by surgical trauma.

Humans , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Electroacupuncture , Laparoscopes , Postoperative Period , Shivering
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880839


OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the effect of general anesthesia on postoperative melatonin secretion in 4-to 6-year-old children with snoring.@*METHODS@#Twenty children with snoring aged 4-6 years of either gender (ASA grade Ⅰ and Ⅱ) were selected for adenoidectomy.Before, during and 3 days after the operation, salivary melatonin levels of the children were measured at 11 selected time points (T1-T11).The illumination intensity and body temperature of the children were recorded at each time point of measurement.The sleep time of the children in 3 days after the operation was recorded, and postoperative pain scores (FLACC) and Riker and Rehabilitation Quality Rating Scale-15(QoR-15) scores were assessed.Sleep Apnea Life Quality Evaluation Questionnaire (OSA-18) was used to evaluate postoperative recovery of the children at 28 days after the operation.The incidence of major adverse events of the children during hospitalization was recorded.@*RESULTS@#No significant difference was found in baseline salivary melatonin level among the 20 children before the operation.Salivary melatonin level at 7 am after the operation (T8) was significantly lowered as compared with that before the surgery (T4)(@*CONCLUSIONS@#In preschool children with snoring, general anesthesia affects but does not inhibit melatonin secretion on the first night after surgery, and minor surgeries under general anesthesia in the morning do not cause significant changes in melatonin secretion to cause disturbance of the circadian rhythm in these children.

Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Bodily Secretions , Circadian Rhythm , Melatonin , Snoring
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(6): 573-582, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155780


Abstract Background: The present study investigated the association between Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction (POCD) and increased serum S100B level after Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy (RALRP). Methods: The study included 82 consecutive patients who underwent RALRP. Serum S100B levels were determined preoperatively, after anesthesia induction, and at 30 minutes and 24 hours postoperatively. Cognitive function was assessed using neuropsychological testing preoperatively, and at 7 days and 3 months postoperatively. Results: Twenty four patients (29%) exhibited POCD 7 days after surgery, and 9 (11%) at 3 months after surgery. Serum S100B levels were significantly increased at postoperative 30 minutes and 24 hours in patients displaying POCD at postoperative 7 days (p = 0.0001 for both) and 3 months (p = 0.001 for both) compared to patients without POCD. Duration of anesthesia was also significantly longer in patients with POCD at 7 days and 3 months after surgery compared with patients without POCD (p = 0.012, p = 0.001, respectively), as was duration of Trendelenburg (p = 0.025, p = 0.002, respectively). Composite Z score in tests performed on day 7 were significantly correlated with duration of Trendelenburg and duration of anesthesia (p = 0.0001 for both). Conclusions: S100B increases after RALRP and this increase is associated with POCD development. Duration of Trendelenburg position and anesthesia contribute to the development of POCD. Trial Registry Number: (N° NCT03018522).

Resumo Introdução: O presente estudo investigou a associação entre Disfunção Cognitiva Pós-Operatória (DCPO) e aumento do nível sérico de S100B após Prostatectomia Radical Laparoscópica Assistida por Robô (PRLAR). Métodos: O estudo incluiu 82 pacientes consecutivos submetidos à PRLAR. Os níveis séricos de S100B foram determinados: no pré-operatório, após indução anestésica, e aos 30 minutos e 24 horas do pós-operatório. A função cognitiva foi avaliada com testes neuropsicológicos no pré-operatório, no 7° dia pós-operatório (7 DPO) e aos 3 meses após a cirurgia (3 MPO). Resultados: Observamos 24 pacientes (29%) com DCPO no 7 DPO e 9 pacientes com DCPO (11%) após 3 meses da cirurgia. Quando comparados com os pacientes sem DCPO, os níveis séricos de S100B estavam significantemente aumentados aos 30 minutos e às 24 horas do pós-operatório nos pacientes que apresentaram DCPO no 7 DPO (p= 0,0001 para os dois momentos) e 3 meses após a cirurgia (p= 0,001 para os dois momentos) A duração anestésica também foi significantemente maior em pacientes com DCPO no 7 DPO e 3 MPO em comparação com pacientes sem DCPO (p= 0,012, p= 0,001, respectivamente), assim como a duração da posição de Trendelenburg (p= 0,025, p= 0,002, respectivamente). O escore Z composto nos testes realizados no 7 DPO foi significantemente correlacionado com a duração da posição de Trendelenburg e a duração da anestesia (p= 0,0001 para ambos). Conclusão: S100B aumenta após PRLAR e o aumento está associado ao desenvolvimento de DCPO. A duração anestésica e o tempo decorrido em posição de Trendelenburg contribuem para o desenvolvimento de DCPO. Número de registro do estudo: (n° NCT03018522)

Humans , Male , Aged , Postoperative Complications/blood , Prostatectomy/adverse effects , Cognitive Dysfunction/blood , S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit/blood , Robotic Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Prostatectomy/methods , Time Factors , Biomarkers/blood , Case-Control Studies , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Head-Down Tilt/adverse effects , Area Under Curve , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Operative Time , Robotic Surgical Procedures/methods , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Anesthesia, General/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Neuropsychological Tests
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(5): 508-519, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143968


Abstract Background: Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) is a common complication of general anesthesia. Several kinds of antiemetics, including 5-Hydroxytryptamine3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, and Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonists have been used to treat PONV. Objectives: To compare the antiemetic effect of NK-1 receptor antagonists, including fosaprepitant. Data sources: Online databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus, The Cochrane Library databases) were used. Study eligibility criteria, participants, and interventions: Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) performed in patients over 18 years with ASA-PS of I‒III, aimed to assess the efficacy of antiemetics including NK-1 receptor antagonists and 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, and compared the incidence of PONV were included. Study appraisal and synthesis methods: All statistical assessments were conducted by a random effect approach, and odds ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals were calculated. Results: Aprepitant 40 mg and 80 mg significantly reduced the incidence of vomiting 0‒24 hours postoperatively (Odds Ratio [OR = 0.40]; 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI 0.30‒0.54]; p < 0.001, and OR = 0.32; 95% CI 0.19‒0.56; p < 0.001). Fosaprepitant could also reduce the incidence of vomiting significantly both 0‒24 and 0‒48 hours postoperatively (OR = 0.07; 95% CI 0.02‒0.24; p < 0.001 and OR = 0.07; 95% CI 0.02‒0.23; p < 0.001). Limitations: Risk factors for PONV are not considered, RCTs using multiple antiemetics are included, RCTs for fosaprepitant is small, and some bias may be present. Conclusions and implications of key findings: Aprepitant and fosaprepitant can be effective prophylactic antiemetics for postoperative vomiting. However, more studies are required for higher-quality meta-analyses. Systematic review registration number: CRD42019120188.

Resumo Histórico: Náusea e Vômito no Pós-Operatório (NVPO) é um evento adverso frequente da anestesia geral. Várias classes de antieméticos, incluindo antagonistas do receptor 5-Hidroxitriptamina3 (5-HT3) e antagonistas do receptor da Neurocinina-1 (NK-1), têm sido utilizados para tratar a NVPO. Objetivo: Comparar o efeito antiemético dos antagonistas do receptor NK-1, incluindo o fosaprepitanto. Fontes de dados: Foram utilizadas bases de dados on-line (PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus, The Cochrane Library). Critérios de elegibilidade do estudo, participantes e intervenções: Foram incluídos Estudos Clínicos Randomizados (ECR) realizados em pacientes acima de 18 anos classificação ASA I a III, com o objetivo de avaliar a eficácia de antieméticos que incluíssem antagonistas do receptor NK-1 e antagonistas do receptor 5-HT3, e que comparassem a incidência de NVPO. Métodos de avaliação e síntese do estudo: Todas as avaliações estatísticas foram realizadas por abordagem de efeito aleatório e foram calculadas razões de chances e Intervalos de Confiança de 95%. Resultados: As doses de 40 mg e 80 mg de aprepitanto reduziram significantemente a incidência de vômito no período de 0 a 24 horas pós-operatórias (razão de chances [OR = 0,40]; Intervalo de Confiança de 95% [95% IC] 0,30-0,54; p < 0,001 e OR = 0,32; 95% IC 0,19-0,56; p < 0,001). O fosaprepitanto pode também reduzir significantemente a incidência de vômito tanto de 0-24 horas como no período de 0-48 horas pós-operatórias (OR = 0,07; 95% IC 0,02-0,24; p < 0,001 e OR = 0,07; 95% IC 0,02-0,23; p < 0,001). Limitações: Os fatores de risco para NVPO não foram analisados, ECRs usando múltiplos antieméticos foram incluídos, ECRs para fosaprepitanto tinham amostras pequenas, podendo haver algum viés. Conclusões e implicações dos principais achados: Aprepitanto e fosaprepitanto podem ser drogas antieméticas profiláticas efetivas para vômito no pós-operatório. No entanto, são necessários mais estudos para elaboração de meta-análises de melhor qualidade. Número de registro da revisão sistemática: CRD42019120188.

Humans , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting/prevention & control , Neurokinin-1 Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Antiemetics/administration & dosage , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Morpholines/administration & dosage , Morpholines/pharmacology , Incidence , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting/epidemiology , Serotonin 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Serotonin 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Neurokinin-1 Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Anesthesia, General/methods , Antiemetics/pharmacology
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 77(2): 54-67, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124270


Resumen La anestesia general es una herramienta imprescindible para el proceso quirúrgico, ya que disminuye el dolor, reduce la ansiedad y genera inconsciencia. Sin ella, las cirugías serían dolorosas, riesgosas y emocionalmente traumáticas. La reciente emisión de una alerta sobre el uso de fármacos anestésicos en niños menores de 3 años por parte de la Food and Drug Administration (FDA) de los Estados Unidos generó controversia en torno a sus posibles efectos negativos. En este artículo se abordan los principales hitos del desarrollo neurobiológico del niño y se revisan las posibles consecuencias neuropsicológicas del uso de anestesia general en esta población. La mayoría de los reportes que abordan este tema son de tipo retrospectivo y arrojan resultados controversiales por sus inherentes dificultades metodológicas. Sin embargo, el estudio prospectivo sobre seguridad del uso de anestesia general en niños de la Clínica Mayo (MASK, Mayo Anesthesia Safety in Kids), junto con otros estudios a gran escala, han confirmado algunos datos obtenidos en los estudios experimentales que dieron sustento a la alerta emitida por la FDA. Así, las evidencias hasta ahora publicadas sugieren que el uso de anestesia general es seguro para el desarrollo cognitivo general del niño, aunque evidencian también alteraciones focalizadas en procesos cognitivos específicos que deben ser consideradas por el médico y la familia ante un procedimiento quirúrgico-anestésico.

Abstract General anesthetics are crucial drugs for surgical interventions, which are indicated to induce analgesia, diminish pain, and reduce anxiety in order to facilitate invasive procedures. In pediatric patients, benefits of general anesthetics also include abolishment of motility. Besides their probed benefits on surgery, the recent warning of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on the use of general anesthetics in children yielded a controversy on their potential neurotoxic effects. In this review, the main facts of the cerebral development are studied, and the available evidence concerning the use of general anesthesia on the neuropsychological development of children is analyzed. Most of the studies found were uncontrolled retrospective cohorts for which conclusions are difficult to obtain. However, a few group of controlled studies, including the Mayo Anesthesia Safety in Kids study (MASK), have partially supported the FDA warning. Cumulated evidence appears to support the safety use of general anesthetics, but no conclusive data supporting that it may induce massive effects on the cognitive development of exposed children has been reported. Important evidence suggests that specific cognitive functions may result altered under long-term expositions. Such data must be considered for those involved in anesthetic procedures.

Humans , Infant , Anesthetics, General/adverse effects , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/etiology , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Research Design , Cognition/drug effects , Anesthetics, General/administration & dosage , Anesthesia, General/methods
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942161


OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the effect of different anesthesia management on clinical outcomes in former prematurely born infants undergoing surgeries for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP).@*METHODS@#In this retrospective study, electronic medical record database was searched for all former prematurely born infants (gestational age < 37 weeks and post conceptual age < 60 weeks) who received ROP surgery under inhalational general anesthesia between November 2016 and October 2018. The patients were divided into two groups based on anesthesia management: laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion without intravenous muscle relaxant injection and with pressure support ventilation (LMA group) or airway secured with endotracheal tube (ETT) with intravenous muscle relaxant injection and pressure controlled ventilation (ETT group). Primary outcomes included perioperative adverse events and complications. Extubation time and length of stay after surgery were also recorded.@*RESULTS@#Sixty eight preterm infants in the LMA group and 100 preterm infants in the ETT group were included. The incidence of adverse events during surgery (including airway management change and desaturation) was similar in LMA group and ETT group (4.4% vs. 1.0%, P =0.364). During the early recovery period after surgery, the incidence of difficult extubation (extubation time >30 min) was significantly lower in LMA group compared with ETT group (4.4% vs.15.0%, RR=0.262, 95%CI:0.073-0.942, P=0.029). The incidence of respiratory events was similar between the two groups (20.6% vs. 27.0%, P =0.342). However, the incidence of apnea was significantly lower in the LMA group than in the ETT group (5.9% vs.19.0%, RR=0.266, 95%CI: 0.086-0.822, P =0.015). No significant difference was observed between the LMA group and ETT group in incidences of cardiovascular events (0% vs. 1.0%, P =1.000) and unplanned admission to neonatal intensive care unit (5.9% vs. 7.0%, P=0.774). No airway spasm, re-intubation, aspiration or regurgitation was observed during early recovery. During late recovery after returning to ward, the incidence of adverse events was also similar between the two groups (0% vs. 2.0%, P =0.241). The median (IQR) extubation time was 6 (5, 10) min in LMA group and 10 (6, 19) min in ETT group (P < 0.001). The median length of stay after surgery was significantly shortened in LMA group compared with ETT group [20 (17, 22) hours vs. 22 (17, 68) hours, P =0.002].@*CONCLUSION@#Compared with endotracheal intubation with intravenous muscle relaxant injection, laryngeal mask airway insertion without muscle relaxant could achieve an early extubation, and reduce the incidence of apnea during early recovery period in former prematurely born infants undergoing ROP surgery.

Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Infant, Premature , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Laryngeal Masks , Retinopathy of Prematurity/surgery , Retrospective Studies
Clinics ; 75: e1701, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1133407


OBJECTIVE: Female sex, body mass index (BMI), and neuromuscular blocking agents are risk factors of perioperative hypersensitivity reactions. This study aimed to investigate the effect of rocuronium on serum tryptase concentrations during general anesthesia in overweight and obese women. METHODS: The study was conducted in two groups: Group I (n=66) underwent volatile anesthesia with rocuronium and group II (n=60) underwent volatile anesthesia without any muscle relaxant. Serum tryptase concentration (STC) measurements were performed at baseline (STC 0) and postoperatively (STC 1). NCT04035707 RESULTS: The highest median value of STC 0 was seen in obese patients (3.44 μg L-1) and it was significantly higher than in overweight (p=0.01) and underweight patients (p=0.03). The maximum STC 0 was observed in overweight patients (20.4 μg L-1). In group I, STC 0 in obese patients presented the highest median value (4.49 μg L-1), and was significantly higher than in overweight patients (p=0.03), and had significantly higher STC 1 than patients with normal BMI (p=0.04). STC 0 and STC 1 in overweight and obese female patients did not differ significantly between groups. STC 1 did not correlate with rocuronium doses. In group I, BMI positively correlated with the duration of rocuronium infusion (rho=0.37) and STC 1 positively correlated with BMI (rho=0.32). CONCLUSION: Excess weight and obesity predispose to higher preoperative serum tryptase values. Postoperative STC is not linked to rocuronium doses. BMI is the main determinant factor of STC during combined volatile general anesthesia.

Humans , Female , Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents , Rocuronium , Body Weight , Body Mass Index , Tryptases , Androstanols/adverse effects , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(3): 233-241, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013421


Abstract Background and objectives: Emergence delirium after general anesthesia with sevoflurane has not been frequently reported in adults compared to children. This study aimed to determine the incidence of emergence delirium in adult patients who had anesthesia with sevoflurane as the volatile agent and the probable risk factors associated with its occurrence. Design & methods: A prospective observational study was conducted in adult patients who had non-neurological procedures and no existing neurological or psychiatric conditions, under general anesthesia. Demographic data such as age, gender, ethnicity and clinical data including ASA physical status, surgical status, intubation attempts, duration of surgery, intraoperative hypotension, drugs used, postoperative pain, rescue analgesia and presence of catheters were recorded. Emergence delirium intensity was measured using the Nursing Delirium Scale (NuDESC). Results: The incidence of emergence delirium was 11.8%. The factors significantly associated with emergence delirium included elderly age (>65) (p = 0.04), emergency surgery (p = 0.04), African ethnicity (p = 0.01), longer duration of surgery (p = 0.007) and number of intubation attempts (p = 0.001). Factors such as gender, alcohol and illicit drug use, and surgical specialty did not influence the occurrence of emergence delirium. Conclusions: The incidence of emergence delirium in adults after general anesthesia using sevoflurane is significant and has not been adequately reported. Modifiable risk factors need to be addressed to further reduce its incidence.

Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: O delirium do despertar após a anestesia geral com sevoflurano não tem sido relatado com frequência em adultos como nas crianças. Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar a incidência de delirium do despertar em pacientes adultos submetidos à anestesia com sevoflurano como agente volátil e os prováveis fatores de risco associados à sua ocorrência. Desenho e métodos: Um estudo observacional prospectivo foi conduzido com pacientes adultos sem distúrbios neurológicos ou psiquiátricos submetidos à anestesia geral para procedimentos não neurológicos. Dados demográficos como idade, sexo, etnia e dados clínicos, inclusive estado físico ASA, estado cirúrgico, tentativas de intubação, tempo de cirurgia, hipotensão intraoperatória, drogas usadas, dor pós-operatória, analgesia de resgate e presença de cateteres, foram registrados. A intensidade do delirium do despertar foi medida com a Escala de Triagem de Delirium em Enfermagem (Nursing Delirium Scale - NuDESC). Resultados: A incidência de delirium do despertar foi de 11,8%. Os fatores significativamente associados ao delirium do despertar incluíram idade avançada (> 65) (p = 0,04), cirurgia de emergência (p = 0,04), descendência africana (p = 0,01), tempo maior de cirurgia (p = 0,007) e número de tentativas de intubação (p = 0,001). Fatores como sexo, uso de álcool e drogas ilícitas e especialidade cirúrgica não influenciaram a ocorrência de delirium do despertar. Conclusões: A incidência de delirium do despertar em adultos após a anestesia geral com sevoflurano é significativa e não tem sido relatada adequadamente. Fatores de risco modificáveis precisam ser abordados para reduzir ainda mais sua incidência.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Anesthetics, Inhalation/administration & dosage , Emergence Delirium/epidemiology , Sevoflurane/administration & dosage , Anesthesia, General/methods , Incidence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Anesthetics, Inhalation/adverse effects , Operative Time , Sevoflurane/adverse effects , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Middle Aged
Rev. medica electron ; 41(2): 397-409, mar.-abr. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | CUMED, LILACS | ID: biblio-1004276


RESUMEN Introducción: la agitación durante la emergencia de la anestesia general es una complicación frecuente en pediatría que puede causar daños físicos, retrasar el alta y aumentar los costos. Objetivo: caracterizar los episodios anestesia general en el paciente pediátrico. Materiales y métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo, longitudinal de 246 pacientes que presentaron anestesia general en el Hospital "Eliseo Noel Caamaño" entre septiembre de 2015 y diciembre de 2018. Se estudiaron las variables: edad, género, ASA, tiempo quirúrgico y tiempo anestésico, tipo de cirugía, método de anestesia, agentes usados para la inducción y el mantenimiento, severidad de los episodios y necesidad de tratamiento. Resultados: la mayoría de los pacientes que presentaron anestesia general tenían entre 2 y 6 años (63,4%), eran masculinos (67,9%), ASA I (78,1%) y fueron operados de excéresis de lesiones de partes blandas (27,6%). El tiempo quirúrgico fue de 31,2 ± 10,4 minutos y el anestésico 43,5±8,8 minutos. El método anestésico más indicado fue la anestesia balanceada (84,2%), como inductor el propofol (86,2%) y para el mantenimiento isoflurano (34,1%) y sevoflurano (26,4%). Predominaron los episodios severos (51,2%) y el 56,9% necesitó intervención farmacológica. Conclusiones: esta anestesia fue más frecuente en los menores de seis años, masculinos, sanos, a los cuales se les realizaron procederes cortos, con anestesia balanceada, se usó propofol para la inducción e isoflurano y sevoflurano para el mantenimiento de la anestesia. Prevalecieron los episodios severos y la mayoría requirió tratamiento farmacológico.

ABSTRACT Introduction: agitation during the emergence from general anesthesia is a frequent complication in Pediatrics that can cause physical damages, delay discharge and increase costs. Objective: to characterize the episodes of general anesthesia in the pediatric patient. Materials and methods: a descriptive, prospective, longitudinal study was carried out with 246 patients who presented general anesthesia in the Hospital "Eliseo Noel Caamaño" from September 2015 to December 2018. The studied variables were age, gender, ASA, surgical time, anesthetic time, kind of surgery, anesthetic method, agents used for the induction and maintenance, episodes severity and treatment necessity. Results: most of patients treated with general anesthesia were aged 2-6 years (63.4 %), male (67.9 %), ASA I (78.1 %), and underwent the removal of soft parts lesions (27.6 %). The average surgical time was 31,2 ± 10,4 minutes and the anesthetics one was 43,5±8,8 minutes. The most used anesthetics method was balanced anesthesia (84.2 %), the most used inductor was propofol (86.2 %) and for the maintenance isoflurane (34,1%) and sevoflurane (26,4%). Severe episodes (51,2%) predominated, and 56.9 % needed pharmacologic intervention. Conclusions: this kind of anesthesia is more frequently used in children aged less than 6 years, male, healthy, who underwent short procedures with balanced anesthesia and the use of propofol for the induction and isoflurane and sevoflurane for maintaining it. Severe episodes predominated, and most of them required pharmacologic treatment.

Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Child , Emergence Delirium/complications , Emergence Delirium/diagnosis , Emergence Delirium/drug therapy , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Anesthesia, General/methods , Anesthesia, General/statistics & numerical data , Pediatrics , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies
Rev chil anest ; 48(1): 44-51, 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1451530


INTRODUCTION: Chronic kidney disease is a clinical entity secondary to the common final pathway of multiple etiologies with risk factors common to other chronic diseases. OBJECTIVE: To identify the risk factors related to the appearance of anesthetic complications in chronic renal patients undergoing emergency surgery. METHOD: A prospective cohort study was performed in patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing emergency surgery. The exposed cohort consisted of 15 patients with chronic kidney disease who developed complications during the study period. RESULTS: Age over 40 years, patients with ischemic heart disease and hypertensive patients presented a higher risk of anesthetic complications. Obesity and bronchial asthma were no risk factors. It was demonstrated that when the time elapsed between hemodialysis and the operation was less than 2 hours, the risk of anesthetic complications increased, the stage of the disease and the associated drugs were not related to the appearance of complications. Patients who received general anesthesia had three times more risk of complications than those under regional anesthesia. CONCLUSIONS: Age, arterial hypertension, ischemic heart disease, heart failure and the use of general anesthesia are risk factors associated with complications.

INTRODUCCIÓN: La enfermedad renal crónica es una entidad clínica secundaria a la vía final común de múltiples etiologías con factores de riesgo comunes a otras enfermedades crónicas. OBJETIVO: Identificar los factores de riesgo relacionados con la aparición de complicaciones anestésicas en enfermos renales crónicos intervenidos de urgencia. MÉTODO: Se realizó un estudio de cohorte prospectivo en pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica intervenidos por cirugía general de urgencia. La cohorte expuesta estuvo constituida por 15 pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica que desarrollaron complicaciones en el período en estudio. RESULTADOS: La edad mayor o igual a 40 años, los pacientes con cardiopatía isquémica y los hipertensos presentaron mayor riesgo de complicaciones anestésicas, no así la obesidad al igual que el asma bronquial. Se demostró que cuando el tiempo transcurrido entre la hemodiálisis y la operación fue inferior a 2 horas se incrementó el riesgo de complicaciones anestésicas, el estadio de la enfermedad y los medicamentos asociados no estuvieron relacionados con la aparición de complicaciones. Los pacientes a los que se administró anestesia general tuvieron tres veces más riesgo de complicaciones que aquellos que fueron intervenidos con anestesia regional. CONCLUSIONES: La edad, la hipertensión arterial, la cardiopatía isquémica, la insuficiencia cardiaca y el empleo de anestesia general son factores de riesgo asociados a complicaciones, en los pacientes portadores de IRC, sometidos a cirugía de urgencia.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Surgical Procedures, Operative/adverse effects , Anesthesia/adverse effects , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Analysis of Variance , Longitudinal Studies , Age Factors , Emergencies , Operative Time , Heart Diseases/complications , Hypertension/complications , Intraoperative Complications/etiology , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Obesity/complications
Clinics ; 74: e605, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039555


OJECTIVES: The aim was to evaluate the ability of bilateral superficial cervical plexus blockade to control pain and to reduce the side effects of general anesthesia in patients submitted to thyroidectomy. METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial, we prospectively studied 100 consecutive patients who underwent total thyroidectomy. The simple random patient sample was divided into two groups: 50 patients received general anesthesia alone (group 1 [G1]), and 50 patients received general anesthesia with bilateral superficial cervical plexus blockade (group 2 [G2]). Statistical analyses were performed, and a 5% significance level was adopted. RESULTS: The mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were 12% lower in G2 patients than in G1 patients 60 minutes after surgery (101 mmHg for G1 vs. 92.3 mmHg for G2; p<0.001). G2 patients reported less pain than G1 patients, and opioid consumption was lower in G2 patients than in G1 patients, not upon postanesthesia care unit arrival, but at 30 minutes (2% vs. 34%; p<0.001, respectively), 45 minutes (0% vs. 16%; p=0.006, respectively), and 4 hours postoperatively (6% vs. 20%; p=0.037, respectively). The incidence of nausea and vomiting was lower in G2 patients than in G1 patients from 45 minutes (0% vs. 16%; p=0.006, respectively) to 8 hours postoperatively (0% vs. 14%; p=0.012, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated that the combination of bilateral superficial cervical plexus blockade with general anesthesia for thyroidectomy is feasible, safe, and effective for achieving pain control and improving patient outcomes.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Thyroidectomy/methods , Cervical Plexus Block/methods , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Pain, Postoperative/etiology , Preoperative Care , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects
Rev. chil. anest ; 48(4): 344-351, 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1452474


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the lower vena cava Collapse Index (CI) as a predictor parameter of hypotensive episodes after general anesthesia induction in ASA I and II patients who were scheduled for elective surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective, observational and simple blind study was designed. A sample of 80 patients was recruited. In the preoperative stage, they underwent protocolarized sedation and CI was obtained. Prior to induction, the baseline values ​​of heart rate, non-invasive mean arterial pressure and continuous electrocardiographic tracing in DII were noted. In the post-orotracheal intubation stage, the aforementioned hemodynamic monitoring variables were recorded manually for 10 minutes. RESULTS: The data of 78 individuals are presented. After anesthetic induction, 8 (10.3%) patients developed hypotension. The adjustment of the univariate logistic regression model for CI shows a good diagnostic capacity, with the area under the ROC curve equal to 0.76. The chance of presenting hypotension is increased by 62% by increasing the CI by 5 points (p = 0.003). Regarding the negative predictive value, we found that with values ​​corresponding to the cutoff points between 39% and 46%, a probability of at least 93.1% of not presenting hypotension was obtained. The optimal cutoff point of the CI to predict hypotension is estimated at 43%, with a sensitivity of 62.5% and a specificity of 92.9%. CONCLUSION: A lower IC was associated with a lower probability of developing intraoperative hypotension. The use of this tool could be useful to anticipate which patients will be prone to intra-surgical hypotension.

OBJETIVO: Evaluar el índice de colapsabilidad (IC) de la vena cava inferior (VCI) como predictor de episodios hipotensivos posinducción de anestesia general en cirugía electiva de pacientes ASA I y II. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se diseñó un estudio prospectivo, observacional y simple ciego. Se reclutó una muestra de 80 pacientes. En etapa preoperatoria fueron sometidos a una sedación protocolizada y se obtuvo el IC. Previo a la inducción, se anotaron los valores basales de la frecuencia cardíaca, la presión arterial media y el trazado electrocardiográfico continuo en DII. Posintubación orotraqueal, se registraron manualmente las variables hemodinámicas mencionadas durante 10 minutos. RESULTADOS: Se presentan datos de 78 individuos. Luego de la inducción, 8 (10,3%) pacientes desarrollaron hipotensión. El ajuste del modelo de regresión logística univariado para IC muestra una buena capacidad diagnóstica, siendo el área bajo la curva ROC igual a 0,76. La chance de presentar hipotensión se incrementa en un 62% al aumentar el IC en 5 puntos (p = 0,003). En cuanto al valor predictivo negativo, encontramos que con valores correspondientes a los puntos de corte entre 39% y 46%, se obtenía una probabilidad de 93,1% de no presentar hipotensión. El punto de corte óptimo del IC para predecir hipotensión se estima en 43%, con una sensibilidad del 62,5% y una especificidad del 92,9%. CONCLUSIÓN: Un menor IC se asoció con una menor probabilidad de desarrollar hipotensión intraoperatoria. El uso de esta herramienta podría ser de utilidad para anticipar qué pacientes serán propensos a hipotensión intraquirúrgica.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Vena Cava, Inferior/diagnostic imaging , Hypotension/diagnosis , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Vena Cava, Inferior/physiopathology , Logistic Models , Single-Blind Method , Central Venous Pressure , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Elective Surgical Procedures , Fluid Therapy , Hemodynamics , Hypotension/etiology , Intraoperative Complications/diagnosis , Intraoperative Complications/etiology
Rev. medica electron ; 40(6): 2140-2155, nov.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-978723


RESUMEN El edema pulmonar por presión negativa es una complicación rara y dramática en la anestesia general. Habitualmente ocurre como consecuencia de un laringoespasmo u otra causa de obstrucción de la vía aérea. Se presentó un caso con el objetivo de mostrar los elementos usados para el diagnóstico y tratamiento del edema pulmonar por presión negativa. Paciente de 7 años de edad, femenina, ASA I, operada de metatarso varo funcional con anestesia general balanceada y máscara laríngea clásica # 3. Desarrolló dicho evento adverso durante la recuperación anestésica. El diagnóstico se basó en la disociación toraco abdominal al restablecer la ventilación espontanea, crepitantes en ambos hemitórax, cianosis central, hipoxemia y la presencia de infiltrado difuso bilateral alveolar. Se intubó la tráquea, se controló la ventilación con presión positiva al final de la espiración y se administró furosemida. La paciente fue trasladada a la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos donde evolucionó satisfactoriamente. Este es un síndrome cuya verdadera incidencia se desconoce debido a la escasa familiarización con el mismo. La evolución de los pacientes es favorable siempre que se establezca el diagnóstico y el tratamiento oportuno (AU).

ABSTRACT Pulmonary edema due to negative pressure is a rare and dramatic complication in general anesthetic. It usually occurs as a consequence of a laryngeal spasm or another cause of respiratory tract obstruction.A case was presented with the aim of showing the elements used for the diagnosis and treatment of the pulmonary edema due to negative pressure. An ASA I, 7-year-old female patient, was operated on a functional metatarsus varus with balanced general anesthetic and classical laryngeal mask number 3. She developed this adverse event during the anesthetic recovery. The diagnosis was based on the thoracoabdominal dissociation when recovering spontaneous ventilation, crepitation in hemithoraxes, central cyanosis, hypoxemia, and alveolar bilateral diffused infiltrate. The trachea was intubated, ventilation was controlled with positive pressure at the end of the expiration and furosemide was administered. The patient was transferred to the Intensive Care Unit where she evolved satisfactorily. This is a syndrome whose true incidence is unknown as a result of the lack of familiarization with it. Patients' evolution is favorable whenever the right diagnosis and treatment are timely established (AU).

Humans , Female , Child , Pulmonary Edema/diagnosis , Ventilators, Negative-Pressure/adverse effects , Laryngeal Masks/adverse effects , Metatarsus Varus/surgery , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Pulmonary Edema/prevention & control , Pulmonary Edema/therapy , Pulmonary Edema/epidemiology , Laryngismus/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Airway Obstruction/surgery , Intensive Care Units
Acta cir. bras ; 33(11): 954-963, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973477


Abstract Purpose: The effect of a prophylactic oleuropein-rich diet before anesthesia accompanied by the widely-used steroid-based neuromuscular drug rocuronium on mast cell activation was investigated in the study. Methods: 14 rabbits used in the study. The rabbits in the oleuropein group were given oleuropein-rich extract added to the animals' water at doses of 20 mg/kg oleuropein for 15 days orally. After 15 days, all rabbits in the two groups were given general anesthesia with rocuronium of 1 mg/kg. After 1 day, animals were sacrificed and the liver tissue sections stained with H&E, toluidine blue and tryptase for immunohistochemical study. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between ALT, AST and albumin averages of the oleuropein and control groups (p> 0.05). The tryptase average of the control group was higher than the tryptase average of the oleuropein group and this difference was statistically significant (p=0.003). The T. blue average in the oleuropein group was higher than the control group. However, there was no statistically significant difference between groups (p=0.482). Conclusions: Rocuronium adverse effects, like hypersensitivity and anaphylaxis, may limit routine use of this substance. The use of oleuropein reduced the number of inflammatory cells and prevented degranulation.

Animals , Male , Rabbits , Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents/adverse effects , Iridoids/administration & dosage , Rocuronium/adverse effects , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Mast Cells/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Serum Albumin/analysis , Random Allocation , Cell Degranulation/drug effects , Cell Aggregation/drug effects , Reproducibility of Results , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Diet Therapy/methods , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/prevention & control , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Liver/drug effects , Liver/enzymology , Mast Cells/pathology
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 68(6): 637-640, Nov.-Dec. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977395


Abstract Background: General anesthesia is a safe, frequent procedure in clinical practice. Although it is very unusual in procedures not related to head and or neck surgery, vocal cord paralysis is a serious and important complication. Incidence has been associated with patient age and comorbidities, as well as the position of the endotracheal tube and cuff. It can become a dangerous scenario because it predisposes aspiration. Objectives: To present a case and analyze the risk factors associated with increased risk of vocal cord paralysis described in the literature. Case report: 53 year-old diabetic man, who developed hoarseness in the postoperative period after receiving general anesthesia for an elective abdominal laparoscopic surgery. Otolaryngological evaluation showed left vocal cord paralysis. Conclusions: Vocal cord paralysis can be a serious complication of general anesthesia because of important voice dysfunction and risk of aspiration. The management is not yet fully established, so prevention and early diagnosis is essential.

Resumo Justificativa: A anestesia geral é um procedimento seguro e frequente na prática clínica. Embora seja muito rara em procedimentos não relacionados à cirurgia de cabeça ou pescoço, a paralisia das cordas vocais é uma complicação séria e importante. Sua incidência tem sido associada à idade e comorbidades do paciente, bem como à posição do tubo endotraqueal e seu balonete. A paralisia das cordas vocais pode ser uma condição perigosa porque predispõe à aspiração. Objetivos: Apresentar um caso e analisar os fatores de risco associados ao aumento do risco de paralisia das cordas vocais descritos na literatura. Relato de caso: Paciente do sexo masculino, 53 anos, diabético, que desenvolveu rouquidão no pós-operatório após anestesia geral para cirurgia laparoscópica abdominal eletiva. A avaliação otorrinolaringológica mostrou paralisia da corda vocal esquerda. Conclusão: A paralisia de cordas vocais pode ser uma complicação séria da anestesia geral devido ao risco grave de disfunção da voz e aspiração. O manejo dessa condição ainda não está totalmente estabelecido, de modo que a prevenção e o diagnóstico precoce são essenciais.

Humans , Male , Vocal Cord Paralysis/etiology , Intubation, Intratracheal , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Middle Aged
Clinics ; 73: e287, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-890755


OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of intra-operative immediate hypersensitivity reactions and anaphylaxis. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted at the Department of Anesthesiology, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo, Brazil, from January to December 2010. We developed a specific questionnaire to be completed by anesthesiologists. This tool included questions about hypersensitivity reactions during anesthesia and provided treatments. We included patients with clinical signs compatible with immediate hypersensitivity reactions. Hhypersensitivity reactions were categorized according to severity (grades I-V). American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification (ASA 1-6) was analyzed and associated with the severity of hypersensitivity reactions. RESULTS: In 2010, 21,464 surgeries were performed under general anesthesia. Anesthesiologists answered questionnaires on 5,414 procedures (25.2%). Sixty cases of intra-operative hypersensitivity reactions were reported. The majority patients (45, 75%) had hypersensitivity reactions grade I reactions (incidence of 27.9:10,000). Fifteen patients (25%) had grade II, III or IV reactions (intra-operative anaphylaxis) (incidence of 7:10,000). No patients had grade V reactions. Thirty patients (50%) were classified as ASA 1. The frequency of cardiovascular shock was higher in patients classified as ASA 3 than in patients classified as ASA 1 or ASA 2. Epinephrine was administered in 20% of patients with grade III hypersensitivity reactions and in 50% of patients with grade II hypersensitivity reactions. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of patients had hypersensitivity reactions grade I reactions; however, the incidence of intra-operative anaphylaxis was higher than that previously reported in the literature. Patients with ASA 3 had more severe anaphylaxis; however, the use of epinephrine was not prescribed in all of these cases. Allergists and anesthesiologists should implement preventive measures to reduce the occurrence of anaphylaxis.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Drug Hypersensitivity/epidemiology , Anaphylaxis/epidemiology , Intraoperative Complications/epidemiology , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil/epidemiology , Epinephrine/therapeutic use , Incidence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Drug Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Anesthesiologists/statistics & numerical data , Anaphylaxis/diagnosis , Intraoperative Complications/diagnosis