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1.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 19(3): e653, sept.-dic. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1138888

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La arteritis de Takayasu es una enfermedad inflamatoria que afecta la aorta y sus ramas y muestra predilección por la población asiática. Objetivo: Describir la conducción anestésica en una paciente obstétrica con arteritis de Takayasu. Presentación del caso: Paciente femenina, de 20 años de edad, con embarazo de 39 semanas, antecedentes de arteritis de Takayasu. A los seis meses de gestación aparecieron los primeros síntomas de la enfermedad. Se confirma diagnostico a través de AngioTAC de tronco supraaórtico y vasos del cuello, además de Doppler carotideo. Se observa trastornos vasculares oclusivos, estenosis concéntrica de ambas carótidas y de principales ramas del cayado aórtico. Finalmente, se confirmó el diagnóstico de arteritis de Takayasu tipo I. Al término de su embarazo, se decide cesárea electiva para evitar el trabajo de parto. Conclusiones: La anestesia obstétrica para pacientes con esta enfermedad es altamente complicada por su compleja conducción, observación e interpretación de la monitorización multiparamétrica e imagenológica. Durante la conducción anestésica es imprescindible el control estricto hemodinámico, evitando síndrome de bajo flujo sanguíneo y daño isquémico materno o fetal(AU) .


Introduction: Takayasu arteritis is an inflammatory disease that affects the aorta and its branches, and shows a predilection for the Asian population. Objective: To describe anesthetic management in an obstetric patient with Takayasu arteritis. Case presentation: Female patient, 20 years old, 39 weeks of pregnancy, a history of Takayasu arteritis. At six months of gestation, the first symptoms of the disease appeared. Diagnosis is confirmed through CT angiography of the supra-aortic trunk and neck vessels, in addition to carotid Doppler. Occlusive vascular disorders, as well as concentric stenosis of both carotids and the main branches of the aortic arch are observed. Finally, the diagnosis of type I Takayasu arteritis was confirmed. At the end of her pregnancy, an elective cesarean section was decided to avoid labor. Conclusions: Obstetric anesthesia for patients with this disease is highly complicated due to its complex management, observation and interpretation of multiparametric and imaging monitoring. During anesthetic conduction, strict hemodynamic control is essential, avoiding low blood flow syndrome and maternal or fetal ischemic damage(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Takayasu Arteritis/complications , Anesthesia, Obstetrical/methods
3.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(6): 631-634, nov.-Dec. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057483

ABSTRACT

Abstract Loss of consciousness during spinal anesthesia is a rare but scary complication. This complication is generally related to severe hypotension and bradycardia, but in this case, the loss of consciousness occurred in a hemodynamically stable parturient patient. We present a 31 years-old patient who underwent an emergency cesarean section. She lost consciousness and had apnea that started 10 minutes after successful spinal anesthesia and repeated three times for a total of 25 minutes, despite the stable hemodynamics of the patient. The case was considered a subdural block, and the patient was provided with respiratory support. The subdural block is expected to start slowly (approximately 15-20 minutes), but in this case, after about 10 minutes of receiving anesthesia, the patient suddenly had a loss of consciousness. After the recovery of consciousness and return of spontaneous respiration, the level of a sensory block of the patient, who was cooperative and oriented, was T4. There were motor blocks in both lower extremities. Four hours after intrathecal injection, both the sensory and motor blocks ended, and she was discharged two days later with no complications. Hence, patients who receive spinal anesthesia should be closely observed for any such undesirable complications.


Resumo A perda de consciência durante a raquianestesia é uma complicação rara, mas assustadora. Essa complicação geralmente está relacionada à grave hipotensão e bradicardia, mas, neste caso, a perda de consciência ocorreu em uma paciente parturiente hemodinamicamente estável. Apresentamos o caso de uma paciente de 31 anos, submetida a uma cesariana de emergência. A paciente perdeu a consciência e apresentou apneia que teve início 10 minutos após a raquianestesia bem-sucedida e repetiu o episódio três vezes por 25 minutos, a despeito de sua hemodinâmica estável. O caso foi considerado como um bloqueio subdural e a paciente recebeu suporte respiratório. Espera-se que o bloqueio subdural inicie lentamente (aproximadamente 15-20 minutos), mas, neste caso, cerca de 10 minutos após a anestesia, a paciente repentinamente perdeu a consciência. Após a recuperação da consciência e o retorno da respiração espontânea, a paciente que estava orientada e cooperativa apresentou nível de bloqueio sensorial em T4. Havia bloqueio motor em ambas as extremidades inferiores. O bloqueio sensório-motor terminou quatro horas após a injeção intratecal e a paciente recebeu alta hospitalar dois dias depois, sem complicações. Considerando o exposto, os pacientes que recebem raquianestesia devem ser atentamente observados para quaisquer complicações indesejáveis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Unconsciousness/etiology , Anesthesia, Obstetrical/adverse effects , Anesthesia, Spinal/adverse effects , Cesarean Section/methods , Hemodynamics/physiology , Anesthesia, Obstetrical/methods , Anesthesia, Spinal/methods
5.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(3): 311-314, May-June 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013425

ABSTRACT

Abstract Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is a cerebrovascular disorder leading to multifocal arterial constriction and dilation. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is possibly caused by transient deregulation of cerebral vascular tone. We report a rare case of a patient with chief complain of postpartum headache, was later diagnosed as a case of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. A young full term primigravida with good uterine contraction admitted to labour room. Later she complained of leaking per vagina and on examination meconium stained liquor was noted. Caesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia was done and intra-operative period was uneventful. Both mother and baby were normal and shifted to postoperative ward and nursery respectively. In postoperative ward, mother complained of severe headache after 1 h and later developed seizure. Midazolam was given intravenously and was intubated and transferred to critical care unit for further investigation and management. Non contrast computerised tomography scan of brain showed right occipital intracerebral as well as subarachnoid bleed. CT angiography showed right vertebral artery narrowing without any other vascular malformation. Patient was managed in critical care unit for 2 days and then extubated and shifted to high dependency ward after a day observation and discharged 3 days later after a full uneventful recovery.


Resumo A síndrome de vasoconstrição cerebral reversível é uma doença cerebrovascular que leva à constrição e dilatação arterial multifocal. A síndrome de vasoconstrição cerebral reversível é possivelmente causada pela desregulação transitória do tônus vascular cerebral. Relatamos um caso raro de uma paciente com queixa principal de cefaleia pós-parto, posteriormente diagnosticada como um caso de síndrome de vasoconstrição cerebral reversível. A jovem primigesta a termo apresentando boa contração uterina foi internada em sala de parto. Mais tarde, a parturiente queixou-se de perda de líquido pela vagina e, ao exame, líquido amniótico manchado foi observado. O parto cesariano sob raquianestesia foi realizado, e não houve intercorrência no período intraoperatório. Tanto a mãe quanto o bebê estavam normais e foram transferidos para a sala de recuperação pós-operatória e berçário, respectivamente. Na sala de recuperação, a mãe queixou-se de forte dor de cabeça após uma hora e depois desenvolveu convulsão. Midazolam foi administrado por via intravenosa, e a paciente foi intubada e transferida para uma unidade de terapia intensiva para posterior investigação e tratamento. A tomografia computadorizada sem contraste do cérebro mostrou hemorragia intracerebral occipital direita e subaracnoide. A angiotomografia mostrou estreitamento da artéria vertebral direita, sem qualquer outra malformação vascular. A paciente foi tratada em unidade de terapia intensiva por dois dias e, em seguida, foi extubada e transferida para a ala de alta dependência onde permaneceu um dia em observação, recebendo alta hospitalar três dias depois, após uma recuperação completa e sem intercorrências.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Vasoconstriction , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Postpartum Period , Headache/etiology , Syndrome , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Headache/diagnostic imaging , Anesthesia, Obstetrical/methods , Anesthesia, Spinal/methods
6.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 17(3): 1-7, set.-dic. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-991037

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La anestesia regional es la más empleada en la cesárea obstétrica. En particular, el uso de la anestesia intratecal tiene sus ventajas. Aunque la tasa de falla es baja, la aparición de este evento genera dificultades que merecen atención. Objetivo: Describir la conducta anestésica en una paciente obstétrica en la que falla la anestesia regional intratecal. Caso clínico: Paciente femenina, de 20 años a la que se le administró anestesia intratecal por el especialista. No hubo errores en la punción lumbar, esta se realizó con trócar 25 punta Whitacre. No se constató bloqueo sensitivo, motor ni simpático, por lo que se realizó anestesia general endotraqueal, la cual transcurrió sin dificultades. En el posoperatorio inmediato se observa hiperlaxitud articular lo que llevó a sospechar el diagnóstico. Este fue positivo conjuntamente con el servicio de Neurología, se determinó Síndrome de Ehlers danlos tipo III. Conclusiones: El índice de falla es muy bajo en anestesia suaracnoidea pero si se presenta un paciente de este tipo, debe descartarse por completo. Existen pocos casos documentados de resistencia a la anestesia local; pero si así fuera, debe estudiarse exhaustivamente para buscar estrategias que permitan un acto anestésico óptimo(AU)


Introduction: Regional anesthesia is the most used in obstetric caesarean section. In particular, the use of intrathecal anesthesia has its advantages. Although the failure rate is low, the onset of this event generates difficulties that deserve attention. Objective: To describe the anesthetic management in an obstetric patient with failure of regional intrathecal anesthesia. Clinical case: Female patient, aged 20 years, who was administered intrathecal anesthesia by the specialist. There were no errors in the lumbar puncture, this was done with a trocar 25 of Whitacre tip. No sensory, motor or sympathetic block was observed, so general endotracheal anesthesia was performed, which went on smoothly. In the immediate postoperative period, joint hypermobility was observed, leading to suspicion of the diagnosis. This was positive in conjunction with the Neurology service, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type 3 was determined. Conclusions: The failure rate is very low for subarachnoid anesthesia. However, for a patient of this type, it should be completely ruled out. There are few documented cases of resistance to local anesthesia. If it were the case, it should be studied exhaustively to look for strategies that allow an optimal anesthetic management(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Young Adult , Drug Resistance/genetics , Cesarean Section/methods , Anesthesia, Spinal/methods , Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome/complications , Anesthesia, Obstetrical/methods
7.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 68(3): 280-284, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-958297

ABSTRACT

Abstract Study objective: The purpose of this study was to assess whether application of dorsal table tilt and body rotation to a parturient seated for neuraxial anesthesia increased the size of the paramedian target area for neuraxial needle insertion. Setting: Labor and Delivery Room. Patients: Thirty term pregnant women, ASA I-II, scheduled for an elective C-section delivery. Interventions: Lumbar ultrasonography was performed in four seated positions: (F) lumbar flexion; (FR) as in position F with right shoulder rotation; (FT) as in position F with dorsal table-tilt; (FTR) as in position F with dorsal table-tilt combined with right shoulder rotation. Measurements: For each position, the size of the 'target area', defined as the visible length of the posterior longitudinal ligament was measured at the L3-L4 interspace. Main results: The mean posterior longitudinal ligament was 18.4 ± 4 mm in position F, 18.9 ± 5.5 mm in FR, 19 ± 5.3 mm in FT, and 18 ± 5.2 mm in FTR. Mean posterior longitudinal ligament length was not significantly different in the four positions. Conclusions: These data show that the positions studied did not increase the target area as defined by the length of the posterior longitudinal ligament for the purpose of neuraxial needle insertion in obstetric patients. The maneuvers studied will have limited use in improving spinal needle access in pregnant women.


Resumo Objetivo do estudo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar se a inclinação lateral da mesa cirúrgica e a rotação do corpo de uma parturiente sentada para anestesia neuraxial aumentou o tamanho da área-alvo paramediana para a inserção da agulha neuraxial. Ambiente: Sala de parto. Pacientes: Trinta grávidas a termo, ASA I-II, agendadas para cesárea eletiva. Intervenções: Ultrassonografia lombar foi feita em quatro posições sentadas: (F) flexão lombar; (FR) como na posição F com rotação do ombro direito; (FT) como na posição F com inclinação lateral da mesa cirúrgica; (FTR) como na posição F com inclinação lateral da mesa cirúrgica combinada com a rotação do ombro direito. Mensurações: Para cada posição, o tamanho da "área-alvo", definido como o comprimento visível do ligamento longitudinal posterior, foi medido no interespaço de L3-L4. Principais resultados: As médias do ligamento longitudinal posterior foram: 18,4 ± 4 mm na posição F; 18,9 ± 5,5 mm na posição FR; 19 ± 5,3 mm na posição FT e 18 ± 5,2 mm na posição FTR. O comprimento médio do ligamento longitudinal posterior não foi significativamente diferente nas quatro posições. Conclusões: Esses dados mostram que as posições avaliadas não aumentaram a área-alvo, conforme definido pelo comprimento do ligamento longitudinal posterior com o objetivo de inserção da agulha neuraxial em pacientes obstétricas. As manobras avaliadas terão um uso limitado na melhoria do acesso à agulha espinhal em mulheres grávidas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Cesarean Section/instrumentation , Longitudinal Ligaments , Anesthesia, Obstetrical/methods , Ultrasonography/methods
9.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 67(5): 480-486, Sept-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897763

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives Ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block demonstrated efficacy in providing post-operative analgesia by prolonging the time to first analgesic requirement and reducing the total analgesic consumption. The surgical transversus abdominis plane block, a novel technique, can be performed safely in obese patients in whom muscle layers cannot be sufficiently exposed. Here, we compared applicability, efficacy and complications of surgical transversus abdominis plane and ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane blocks in obese pregnant women following cesarean section under general anesthesia. Methods Seventy-five pregnant women with pre- and post-pregnancy body mass index > 30 were randomized and allocated into two groups: Ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block (UT group; n = 38) and surgical TAP block (ST group; n = 37). Visual analogue scale scores at post-operative 0, 2, 6, 12 and 24 hours (h), time to first analgesic requirement, total analgesic consumption amount in 24 h, post-operative side effects, complications and patient satisfaction were recorded. Results and conclusions Age, American Society of Anesthesiologist score, operative duration, body mass index, mean time to first analgesic requirement and total analgesic consumption in 24 h were similar between groups, while significant differences in pre- and post-pregnancy body mass index were observed between groups. Block procedure durations were 7 and 10 minutes in ST and UT groups, respectively. No significant differences in visual analogue scale scores were observed between the groups at all times; itching and nausea was observed in one (UT group) and four (UT and ST groups) patients, respectively. Surgical transversus abdominis plane block was safe in obese pregnant patients and provided similar post-operative analgesia to ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos O bloqueio do plano transverso abdominal (TAP) guiado por ultrassom (US) demonstrou eficácia no fornecimento de analgesia no pós-operatório ao prolongar o tempo até a primeira necessidade de analgésico e reduzir o consumo total de analgésico. O bloqueio TAP cirúrgico (uma nova técnica) pode ser realizado com segurança em pacientes obesas nas quais as camadas musculares não podem ser suficientemente expostas. Comparamos a aplicabilidade, a eficácia e as complicações do bloqueio TAP cirúrgico e do bloqueio TAP-US em gestantes obesas submetidas à cesárea sob anestesia geral. Método Setenta e cinco mulheres grávidas com índice de massa corporal (IMC) pré e pós-gravidez > 30 foram randomicamente alocadas em dois grupos: bloqueio TAP-US (Grupo TAP-US, n = 38) e bloqueio TAP cirúrgico (Grupo TAP-C, n = 37). Os escores da escala visual analógica (VAS) nos tempos 0, 2, 6, 12 e 24 horas de pós-operatório, o tempo até a primeira necessidade de analgésico, o consumo total de analgésico em 24 horas, os efeitos colaterais no pós-operatório, as complicações e a satisfação do paciente foram registrados. Resultados e conclusões Idade, estado físico ASA, tempo cirúrgico, IMC, média de tempo até a primeira necessidade de analgésico e consumo total de analgésico em 24 horas foram semelhantes entre os grupos, enquanto diferenças significativas foram observadas entre os grupos em relação ao IMC pré- e pós-gravidez. As durações dos procedimentos de bloqueio foram de 7 e 10 minutos nos grupos TAP-US e TAP-C, respectivamente. Não houve diferença significativa nos escores VAS entre os grupos em todos os momentos; prurido e náusea foram observados em um paciente (Grupo TAP-US) e em quatro (Grupo TAP-C), respectivamente. O bloqueio TAP cirúrgico foi seguro nas pacientes grávidas obesas e forneceu analgesia similar à do bloqueio TAP-US no pós-operatório.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications , Cesarean Section , Ultrasonography, Interventional , Anesthesia, General , Anesthesia, Obstetrical/methods , Nerve Block/methods , Obesity , Prospective Studies , Abdominal Muscles
10.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 82(2): 163-170, abr. 2017. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899894

ABSTRACT

Propósito: Describir la periodicidad del momento de máxima intensidad del dolor de las contracciones uterinas (CUs) durante el trabajo de parto (TDP) para eventualmente permitir el desarrollo de nuevos modelos de administración de analgesia endovenosa. Material y método: Embarazadas de término en TDP, reclutadas desde marzo 2014 por 18 meses, de manera no probabilística consecutiva. Se obtuvo el momento de máximo dolor por autoreporte de las pacientes con cronómetros, previa capacitación. Análisis: Regresión para medidas repetidas de efectos mixtos a los 3-5, 6-7 y 8-10cm de dilatación. La variable respuesta es el intervalo de tiempo desde el momento de máximo dolor de la CU basal al de la contracción siguiente. Resultados: En 64 pacientes, se obtuvo 5 intervalos de tiempo. Para la dilatación de 3-5cm una mediana=140.92 segundos y los coeficientes de regresión (CR) en 4 intervalos de tiempo con respecto al basal de 4.2, 15.9, -2.7 y -5.8 segundos. Para 67cm una mediana=131.16 seg y CR 13.4, 11.3, 2 y -10 seg. Para 8-10cm una mediana=129.3 seg y CR -6.7, 0.49, -2.5 y -7.7 seg. No hubo diferencias significativas entre los coeficientes de regresión. Conclusiones: Con los datos obtenidos podemos señalar que no hubo diferencias estadísticas significativas entre los intervalos de tiempo de los momentos de máximo dolor durante el TDP en fase activa. Esta información es relevante para apoyar el desarrollo de un modelo predictivo del dolor.


Aim: To describe the timing of the moment of maximum intensity of uterine contraction (UC) pain in labor to possibly enable the development of new models for administering endovenous analgesia. Materials and Methods: Full-term pregnant women in labor, recruited from March 2014 for 18 months, using consecutive nonprobability sampling. The moment of maximum pain was ascertained as self-reported by patients previously trained with chronometers. Analysis: Regression for repeated measurements from mixed results at 3-5, 6-7 and 8-10cm of dilation. The response variable was the time interval from the moment of maximum pain of the baseline UC to the following contraction. Results: In 64 patients, 5 time intervals were obtained. For the dilation of 3-5cm, a median=140.92 seconds and regression coefficients (RC) in 4 time intervals relative to the baseline of 4.2, 15.9, -2.7 and -5.8 seconds. For 6-7cm, a median =131.16 sec and RC 13.4, 11.3, 2 and -10 sec. For 8-10cm, a median =129.3 sec and RC -6.7, 0.49, -2.5 and -7.7 sec. There were no significant differences among the regression coefficients. Conclusions: With the data collected we can report that there were no statistically significant differences between the time intervals of the moments of maximum pain during active labor. This information is relevant to support the development of a predictive model for this pain.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Piperidines/pharmacokinetics , Analgesia, Patient-Controlled/methods , Labor Pain , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Time Factors , Uterine Contraction , Pain Measurement , Predictive Value of Tests , Regression Analysis , Longitudinal Studies , Administration, Intravenous , Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacokinetics , Anesthesia, Obstetrical/methods
11.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 82(1): 58-66, feb. 2017. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899876

ABSTRACT

Los Trastornos hipertensivos del embarazo (THE) contribuyen a la morbimortalidad materna y fetal. En Chile sigue siendo la 2ª causa de muerte materna. Las Sociedades Estadounidense (ACOG) y Canadiense (SOGC) de Ginecología y Obstetricia publicaron una actualización de sus guías de hipertensión en el embarazo, destacando cambios en definiciones y criterios diagnósticos. Se revisan las modificaciones con el objetivo de orientar el manejo anestesiológico de estas pacientes. Los THE se pueden clasificar en múltiples categorías, destacándose la preeclampsia. Ya no es requisito la proteinuria como criterio diagnóstico. Los signos de severidad afectan el pronóstico y deben ser pesquisados. Se recomienda la interrupción del embarazo a las 37 semanas, en ausencia de signos de severidad. La vía del parto es determinada por las condiciones obstétricas de la paciente. El manejo anestésico engloba el cuidado de crisis hipertensivas, convulsiones, analgesia en el trabajo de parto y anestesia para cesárea. Se recomienda la analgesia epidural precoz en el trabajo de parto y anestesia espinal para cesárea. No se recomienda la administración libre de fluidos endovenosos ni la monitorización invasiva, por el riesgo aumentado de complicaciones.


Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy (HDP) contribute to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. In Chile, it is still the second leading cause of maternal death. The American (ACOG) and Canadian (SOGC) Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology published an update of their hypertension guidelines in pregnancy, highlighting changes in definitions and diagnostic criteria. Modifications are revised in order to guide the anesthetic management of these patients. HDP can be classified into multiple categories, highlighting preeclampsia. Proteinuria is no longer required as diagnostic criteria. Severity features affect prognosis and should be actively searched. Interruption of pregnancy at 37 weeks is recommended, in the absence of signs of severity. Delivery should be determined by the obstetric conditions. Anesthetic management includes care of hypertensive crises, seizures, analgesia for labor and anesthesia for cesarean section. Early epidural analgesia is recommended in labor and spinal anesthesia for cesarean section. Intravenous fluids and invasive monitoring are not recommended due to increased complications risks.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/therapy , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/therapy , Anesthesia, Obstetrical/methods , Pre-Eclampsia/therapy , Severity of Illness Index , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential
12.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 67(1): 85-88, Jan.-Feb. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843359

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: Congenital unilateral absence of a pulmonary artery (UAPA) is a rare anomaly. Although there are several reports regarding pregnancy in patients with unilateral absence of a pulmonary artery, there are no case reports describing anesthesia for Cesarean section in a patient with unilateral absence of a pulmonary artery. Case report: We present a patient with unilateral absence of a pulmonary artery who underwent Cesarean sections twice at the ages of 24 and 26 years under spinal anesthesia for surgery and epidural analgesia for postoperative pain relief. Both times, spinal anesthesia and epidural analgesia enabled successful anesthesia management without the development of either pulmonary hypertension or right heart failure. Conclusion: Spinal anesthesia combined with epidural analgesia is a useful anesthetic method for a Cesarean section in patients with unilateral absence of a pulmonary artery.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: A ausência congênita unilateral de uma artéria pulmonar (ACAP) é uma anomalia rara. Embora existam vários relatos sobre pacientes grávidas com ACAP, não há relatos de casos que descrevam anestesia para cesariana em pacientes com ACAP. Relato de caso: Apresentamos uma paciente com ACAP que foi submetida a duas cesarianas, aos 24 e 26 anos, sob raquianestesia para a cirurgia e analgesia epidural para a dor no pós-operatório. Nas duas cesarianas, a raquianestesia e a analgesia epidural possibilitaram o manejo bem-sucedido da anestesia, sem a ocorrência de qualquer hipertensão pulmonar ou insuficiência cardíaca direita. Conclusão: Raquianestesia combinada com analgesia epidural é um método anestésico útil para cesarianas em pacientes com ACAP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Young Adult , Pulmonary Artery/abnormalities , Cesarean Section/methods , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular , Infusions, Intravenous , Midazolam/administration & dosage , Bupivacaine/administration & dosage , Analgesia, Epidural/methods , Cesarean Section, Repeat/methods , Ropivacaine , Amides , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Anesthesia, Epidural , Anesthesia, Obstetrical/methods , Anesthesia, Spinal/methods , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage
13.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 66(6): 657-660, Nov.-Dec. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829714

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: HELLP syndrome, characterized by hemolysis, high levels of liver enzyme, and low platelet count, is an advanced clinical stage of pre-eclampsia, progressing to high maternal (24%) and perinatal (up 40%) mortality, despite childbirth care in a timely manner. The goal is to describe the anesthetic management of a case with indication to emergency cesarean. Case report: Female patient, 36 years old, gestational age of 24 weeks, with hypertensive crisis (BP 180/100 mmHg) and severe headache, was admitted to the operating room for a cesarean section after diagnosis of HELLP syndrome. Indicated for general anesthesia, we opted for total intravenous with intubation after rapid sequence induction with propofol and remifentanil in continuous target-controlled infusion, and rocuronium at a dose of 1.2 mg/kg. Maintenance was achieved with propofol and remifentanil. The surgical procedure was uneventful, the child was born with APGAR 1/5 and transferred to the NICU. At the end of surgery, the patient was extubated in the operating room and taken to the ICU. The postoperative period was uneventful with no changes worthy of note and the patient was discharged on the sixth postoperative day. Conclusion: When general anesthesia is the choice in parturient with HELLP syndrome, tracheal intubation with rapid sequence induction due to possible difficult airway, as well as the use of drugs to control the hemodynamic response can minimize the complications associated with the procedure, as occurred in this case.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: A síndrome HELLP, caracterizada por hemólise, elevação dos níveis de enzimas hepáticas e plaquetopenia, representa estágio clínico avançado da pré-eclâmpsia, cursando com elevada mortalidade materna (24%) e perinatal (até 40%), apesar da assistência ao parto de forma oportuna. O objetivo é descrever o manejo anestésico de um caso com indicação de cesariana de emergência. Relato de caso: Paciente do sexo feminino, 36 anos, idade gestacional 24 semanas, com crise hipertensiva (PA 180/100 mmHg) e cefaleia intensa, é encaminhada ao Centro Cirúrgico para operação cesariana após diagnóstico de síndrome HELLP. Indicada anestesia geral, optou-se por venosa total com intubação após indução sequencial rápida, com propofol e remifentanil em infusão contínua alvo-controlada e rocurônio na dose de 1,2 mg/kg. A manutenção foi obtida com propofol e remifentanil. O procedimento cirúrgico transcorreu sem anormalidades, a criança nasceu com APGAR 1/5 e foi encaminhada à UTI Neonatal. Ao final da cirurgia, procedeu-se à extubação na sala cirúrgica e a paciente foi encaminhada ao CTI. O pós-operatório decorreu sem alterações dignas de nota e a paciente teve alta no sexto dia pós-operatório. Conclusão: Quando se opta pela anestesia geral em parturiente com síndrome HELLP, a intubação traqueal com técnica de indução sequencial rápida em função de possível via aérea difícil, bem como o emprego de drogas que controlem a resposta hemodinâmica, podem minimizar as complicações associadas ao procedimento, como ocorreu no presente caso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Pregnancy Complications , HELLP Syndrome/therapy , Anesthesia, General/methods , Anesthesia, Obstetrical/methods , Apgar Score , Piperidines , Propofol , Cesarean Section , Anesthetics, Intravenous , Emergency Medical Services , Remifentanil , Anesthesia, Intravenous
14.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 66(6): 622-627, Nov.-Dec. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829716

ABSTRACT

Abstract A double blind randomized clinical trial of sufentanil as an adjunct in spinal anesthesia for cesarean section and, thereby, be able to reduce the dose of bupivacaine, a local anesthetic, with the same result of an anesthetic block with higher doses but with fewer perioperative side effects, such as hypotension.


Resumo Ensaio clínico randomizado duplamente encoberto sobre o uso do sufentanil como adjuvante em raquianestesia para cesariana e, possibilitando a redução da dose do anestésico local, a bupivacaína, com o mesmo resultado de bloqueio anestésico com doses mais elevadas, mas com menos efeitos colaterais no perioperatório, como hipotensão.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Bupivacaine/administration & dosage , Bupivacaine/adverse effects , Cesarean Section/methods , Sufentanil/administration & dosage , Sufentanil/adverse effects , Anesthetics, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Intravenous/adverse effects , Anesthesia, Obstetrical/methods , Anesthesia, Spinal/methods , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Local/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Double-Blind Method , Hypotension/prevention & control , Intraoperative Complications/prevention & control
15.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 14(3): 305-310, July-Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-796975

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the anesthetic techniques using propofol and fentanyl versus midazolam and remifentanil associated with a paracervical block with lidocaine in performing ultrasound-guided transvaginal oocyte aspiration. Methods: A randomized double-blind clinical trial (#RBR-8kqqxh) performed in 61 women submitted to assisted reproductive treatment. The patients were divided into two groups: anesthetic induction with 1mcg/kg of fentanyl associated with 1.5mg/kg of propofol (FP Group, n=32), in comparison with anesthetic induction using 0.075mg/kg of midazolam associated with 0.25mcg/kg/min of remifentanil, and paracervical block with 3mL of 2% lidocaine (MRPB Group, n=29). Main outcome measures: human reproduction outcomes, modified Aldrete-Kroulik index, hemodynamic parameters, and salivary cortisol. Results: The results revealed a higher number of embryos formed in the FP Group (p50=2 versus 1; p=0.025), gestation rate two times higher in the FP Group (44.4% versus 22.2%; p=0.127), less time to reach AK=10 in the MRPB Group (p50=10 versus 2; p<0.001), and lower mean of hemodynamic parameters in the MRPB Group (p<0.05). Conclusion: Anesthesia with fentanyl and propofol as well as with midazolam, remifentanil, and paracervical block offered satisfactory anesthetic conditions when performing assisted reproduction procedures, providing comfort for the patient and physician.


RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar as técnicas anestésicas utilizando propofol e fentanil contra midazolam e remifentanil associados a um bloqueio paracervical com lidocaína na aspiração de oócitos transvaginal guiada por ultrassom. Métodos: Ensaio clínico randomizado duplocego (#RBR-8kqqxh) realizado em 61 mulheres submetidas ao tratamento de reprodução assistida. As pacientes foram divididas em dois grupos: um grupo foi submetido à indução da anestesia com 1mcg/kg de fentanil associada com 1,5mg/kg de propofol (Grupo FP, n=32), em comparação com ao grupo submetido à indução da anestesia utilizando 0,075mg/kg de midazolam associada com 0,25mcg/kg/min de remifentanil, e bloqueio paracervical com 3mL de lidocaína a 2% (Grupo MRBP, n=29). Foram avaliados os resultados reprodutivos, índice modificado de Aldrete e Kroulik, parâmetros hemodinâmicos e cortisol salivar. Resultados: Foi encontrado um número mais elevado de embriões formados no Grupo FP (p50=2 versus 1; p=0,025), taxa de gestação duas vezes mais elevada no Grupo FP (44,4% versus 22,2%; p=0,127), menos tempo para alcançar AK=10 no Grupo MRBP (p50=10 versus 2; p<0,001) e média mais baixa de parâmetros hemodinâmicos do Grupo MRBP (p<0,05). Conclusão: Ambas as anestesias (com fentanil e propofol, e com midazolam, remifentanil e bloqueio paracervical) ofereceram condições anestésicas satisfatórias na realização de procedimentos realizados em reprodução assistida, proporcionando conforto para o paciente e médico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Piperidines/administration & dosage , Punctures/methods , Anesthetics, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Oocyte Retrieval/methods , Anesthesia, Obstetrical/methods , Time Factors , Midazolam/administration & dosage , Hydrocortisone/analysis , Propofol/administration & dosage , Fentanyl/administration & dosage , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Patient Satisfaction , Ultrasonography, Interventional , Pregnancy Rate
17.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 65(4): 244-248, July-Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755133

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:

The prophylactic effect of ondansetron on subarachnoid morphine-induced pruritus is controversial, while evidence suggests that droperidol prevents pruritus. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of droperidol and ondansetron on subarachnoid morphine-induced pruritus.

METHODS:

180 ASA I or II patients scheduled to undergo cesarean sections under subarachnoid anesthesia combined with morphine 0.2 mg were randomized to receive, after the child's birth, metoclopramide 10 mg (Group I - control), droperidol 2.5 mg (Group II) or ondansetron 8 mg (Group III). Postoperatively, the patients were assessed for pruritus (absent, mild, moderate or severe) or other side effects by blinded investigators. Patients were also blinded to their group allocation. The tendency to present more severe forms of pruritus was compared between groups. NNT was also determined.

RESULTS:

Patients assigned to receive droperidol [Proportional odds ratio: 0.45 (95% confidence interval 0.23-0.88)] reported less pruritus than those who received metoclopramide. Ondansetron effect was similar to metoclopramide [Proportional odds ratio: 0.95 (95% confidence interval 0.49-1.83)]. The NNT for droperidol and ondansetron was 4.0 and 14.7, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS:

Ondansetron does not inhibit subarachnoid morphine-induced pruritus.

.

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS:

O efeito profilático do ondansetron sobre prurido provocado pela morfina subaracnoidea é controverso, enquanto evidências sugerem que o droperidol previne o prurido. O objetivo do presente trabalho é comparar o efeito do droperidol com o do ondansetron sobre o prurido provocado pela morfina subaracnoidea.

MÉTODOS:

180 pacientes ASA I ou II programadas para serem submetidas a cesarianas sob anestesia subaracnoidea à qual foram acrescentados 0,2 mg de morfina foram divididas aleatoriamente para receber, logo após o nascimento da criança, 10 mg de metoclopramida (grupo I - controle), 2,5 mg de droperidol (grupo II),ou 8 mg de ondansetron (grupo III). No período pós-operatório as pacientes foram avaliadas quanto ao prurido (ausente, leve, moderado ou intenso) ou outros efeitos colaterais por observadores que não sabiam a alocação das pacientes. As pacientes também não sabiam da sua alocação. Os grupos foram comparados pela sua tendência a apresentar formas mais severas de prurido. Também determinamos o NNT.

RESULTADOS:

As pacientes alocadas para receber droperidol [Odds RatioProporcional: 0,45 (Intervalo de Confiança de 95% 0,23 - 0,88)] relataram menos prurido do que as que receberam metoclopramida. O efeito do ondansetron foi semelhante ao da metoclopramida [Odds Ratio Proporcional: 0,95 (Intervalo de Confiança de 95% 0,49 - 1,83)]. O NNT do droperidol foi 4,0 e o do ondansetron foi 14,7.

CONCLUSÕES:

O ondansetron não inibiu o prurido provocado pela morfina subaracnoidea.

.

JUSTIFICACIÓN Y OBJETIVOS:

El efecto profiláctico del ondansetrón sobre el prurito provocado por la morfina subaracnoidea es controvertido, mientras las evidencias nos muestran que el droperidol previene el prurito. El objetivo del presente trabajo es comparar el efecto del droperidol con el del ondansetrón sobre el prurito provocado por la morfina subaracnoidea.

MÉTODOS:

Ciento ochenta pacientes ASA I o II programadas para someterse a cesáreas bajo anestesia subaracnoidea a la cual se le añadió 0,2 mg de morfina fueron divididas aleatoriamente para recibir, inmediatamente después del nacimiento del niño, 10 mg de metoclopramida (grupo I-control), 2,5 mg de droperidol (grupo II) u 8 mg de ondansetrón (grupo III). En el período postoperatorio las pacientes fueron evaluadas en cuanto al prurito (ausente, leve, moderado o intenso) u otros efectos colaterales por observadores que no sabían nada respecto de la ubicación de las pacientes. Las pacientes tampoco conocían su propia ubicación. Los grupos fueron comparados por su tendencia a presentar formas más severas de prurito. También se determinó el NNT.

RESULTADOS:

Las pacientes aleatorizadas para recibir droperidol (odds ratioproporcional: 0,45 [intervalo de confianza del 95%: 0,23-0,88]) relataron menos prurito que las que recibieron metoclopramida. El efecto del ondansetrón fue similar al de la metoclopramida (odds ratio proporcional: 0,95 [intervalo de confianza del 95%: 0,49-1,83-+). El NNT del droperidol fue 4 y el del ondansetrón 14,7.

CONCLUSIONES:

El ondansetrón no inhibió el prurito provocado por la morfina subaracnoidea.

.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Pruritus/prevention & control , Ondansetron/therapeutic use , Droperidol/therapeutic use , Morphine/adverse effects , Pruritus/chemically induced , Cesarean Section/methods , Double-Blind Method , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects , Anesthesia, Obstetrical/adverse effects , Anesthesia, Obstetrical/methods , Metoclopramide/therapeutic use , Morphine/administration & dosage
18.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 133(3): 227-234, May-Jun/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-752122

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: As the rates of cesarean births have increased, the type of cesarean anesthesia has gained importance. Here, we aimed to compare the effects of general and spinal anesthesia on maternal and fetal outcomes in term singleton cases undergoing elective cesarean section. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective randomized controlled clinical trial in a tertiary-level public hospital. METHODS: Our study was conducted on 100 patients who underwent cesarean section due to elective indications. The patients were randomly divided into general anesthesia (n = 50) and spinal anesthesia (n = 50) groups. The maternal pre and postoperative hematological results, intra and postoperative hemodynamic parameters and perinatal results were compared between the groups. RESULTS: Mean bowel sounds (P = 0.036) and gas discharge time (P = 0.049) were significantly greater and 24th hour hemoglobin difference values (P = 0.001) were higher in the general anesthesia group. The mean hematocrit and hemoglobin values at the 24th hour (P = 0.004 and P < 0.001, respectively), urine volume at the first postoperative hour (P < 0.001) and median Apgar score at the first minute (P < 0.0005) were significantly higher, and the time that elapsed until the first requirement for analgesia was significantly longer (P = 0.042), in the spinal anesthesia group. CONCLUSION: In elective cases, spinal anesthesia is superior to general anesthesia in terms of postoperative comfort. In pregnancies with a risk of fetal distress, it would be appropriate to prefer spinal anesthesia by taking the first minute Apgar score into account. .


CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: Como as taxas de partos cesáreos aumentaram, o tipo de anestesia na cesariana ganhou importância. Comparamos os efeitos da anestesia geral e da raquianestesia sobre os resultados maternos e fetais em casos de gestação única e no termo, com cesariana eletiva. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Ensaio clínico prospectivo, randomizado e controlado, em hospital público terciário. MÉTODOS: Estudo realizado com 100 pacientes que se submeteram a cesariana por indicação eletiva. As pacientes foram divididos aleatoriamente em grupos recebendo anestesia geral (n = 50) e raquianestesia (n = 50). Resultados maternos hematológicos pré e pós-operatórios, variáveis hemodinâmicas intra e pós-operatórias e resultados perinatais foram comparados entre os grupos. RESULTADOS: As médias de ruídos intestinais (P = 0,036) e tempo de descarga de gás (P = 0,049) foram significativamente mais elevadas e os valores de diferença de hemoglobina na 24a hora (P = 0,001) foram maiores no grupo anestesia geral. Os valores médios de hematócrito e hemoglobina na 24a hora (P = 0,004 e P < 0,001, respectivamente), o volume de urina na primeira hora de pós-operatório (P < 0,001) e a pontuação mediana de Apgar no primeiro minuto (P < 0,0005) foram significativamente maiores, e o tempo até o primeiro requerimento de analgésicos também foi significativamente maior (P = 0,042) no grupo raquianestesia. CONCLUSÃO: Nos casos eletivos, raquianestesia é superior à anestesia geral em termos de conforto pós-operatório. Em gestações com risco de sofrimento fetal, seria adequado preferir raquianestesia, levando em conta o Apgar no primeiro minuto. .


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy , Anesthesia, General/methods , Anesthesia, Obstetrical/methods , Anesthesia, Spinal/methods , Cesarean Section/methods , Pregnancy Outcome , Apgar Score , Blood Pressure/physiology , Elective Surgical Procedures/methods , Hematocrit , Hemodynamics/physiology , Hemoglobins/analysis , Postoperative Period , Preoperative Period , Prospective Studies , Reference Values , Risk Factors
19.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1122-1127, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-150470

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aimed to determine whether head elevation during combined spinal-epidural anesthesia (CSE) and Caesarean section provided improved hemodynamics and appropriate sensory block height. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-four parous women undergoing CSE for elective Caesarean section were randomly assigned to one of two groups: right lateral (group L) or right lateral and head elevated (group HE) position, for insertion of the block. Patients were positioned in the supine wedged position (group L) or the left lateral and head elevated position (group HE) until a block height of T5 to light touch was reached. Group HE was then turned to the supine wedged position with maintenance of head elevation until the end of surgery. Hemodynamics, including the incidence of hypotension, ephedrine dose required, and characteristics of the sensory blocks were analyzed. RESULTS: The incidence of hypotension (16 versus 7, p=0.0035) and the required dose of ephedrine [24 (0-40) versus 0 (0-20), p<0.0001] were greater in group L compared to group HE. In group L, the time to achieve maximal sensory block level (MSBL) was shorter (11.8+/-5.4 min versus 20.1+/-6.3 min, p<0.0001) and MSBL was also higher than in group HE [14 (T2) versus 12 (T4), p=0.0015]. CONCLUSION: Head elevation during CSE and Caesarean section is superior to positioning without head elevation in the lateral to supine position, as it is associated with a more gradual onset, appropriate block height, and improved hemodynamics.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anesthesia, Epidural/methods , Anesthesia, Obstetrical/methods , Anesthesia, Spinal/methods , Blood Pressure/physiology , Cesarean Section/methods , Elective Surgical Procedures/methods , Female , Head , Hemodynamics , Humans , Hypotension , Patient Positioning/methods , Pregnancy , Treatment Outcome
20.
Acta cir. bras ; 29(11): 752-758, 11/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728642

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and side-effects of fentanyl and sufentanil combined with hyperbaric spinal bupivacaine in elective cesarean section. METHODS: A prospective, randomized, double-blind study with 64 term parturients, distributed into 2 groups according to the opioid combined with hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% (10mg): GF - fentanyl (25µg) and GS - sufentanil (5.0µg). The latency and maximum sensory block level; degree and duration of motor block; duration and quality of analgesia; maternal-fetal repercussions were evaluated. This was an intention-to-treat analysis with a 5% significance level. RESULTS: The latency period, maximum sensory block level, motor block degree and perioperative analgesia were similar in both groups. Motor block and analgesia had a longer duration in the sufentanil group. Maternal adverse effects and neonatal repercussions were similar. The incidence of hypotension was higher in the fentanyl group. In both groups, there was a predominance of patients who were awake and either calm or sleepy. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of fentanyl and sufentanil to hyperbaric subarachnoid bupivacaine was shown to be effective for the performance of cesarean section, and safe for the mother and fetus. Analgesia was more prolonged with sufentanil. .


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Anesthesia, Obstetrical/methods , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Bupivacaine/administration & dosage , Cesarean Section/methods , Fentanyl/administration & dosage , Sufentanil/administration & dosage , Analysis of Variance , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects , Anesthesia, Spinal/methods , Anesthetics, Local/adverse effects , Bupivacaine/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Drug Combinations , Fentanyl/adverse effects , Operative Time , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Sufentanil/adverse effects , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
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