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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887880


Sevoflurane is one of the most commonly used inhaled anesthetics in obstetric and pediatric general anesthesia.According to related literature,this article reviews major possible mechanisms including myelin formation damage,nerve inflammation,cell apoptosis,oxidative stress,inhibition of histone acetylation,synapsis and receptor changes of sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity in animal experiments.Furthermore,we summarize the neuroprotection effects and functioning mechanisms of anti-anemia medicine,plant-based drugs,alpha 2 adrenoceptor agonists and others,aiming to provide a basis for the brain protection of fetuses and infants during the perioperative period.

Anesthetics, Inhalation/adverse effects , Animals , Apoptosis , Brain , Child , Female , Humans , Methyl Ethers , Neuroprotective Agents/therapeutic use , Oxidative Stress , Pregnancy , Sevoflurane
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(5): 471-476, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143969


Abstract Background: Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) is a multifactorial surgical complication with an unclear underlying cause. Anesthetic methods, patients' characteristics and the type of surgery are considered as factors affecting PONV. This study was designed to compare the effect of inhalational and intravenous anesthesia in abdominal surgery on the incidence and severity of PONV. Methods: A single-blinded prospective randomized clinical trial on 105 patients aged 18 − 65 years was carried out. Patients were divided into two groups of Total Intravenous Anesthesia (TIVA) and inhalational anesthesia. The incidence and the severity of PONV were examined at 0, 2, 6, 12 and 24 hours after the surgery. The use of a rescue antiemetic was also evaluated. Results: 50.9% of the patients in the inhalation group and 17.3% of the patients in the intravenous group developed PONV (p < 0.001). The incidence of vomiting was reported in 11.3% of the inhalational group and 3.8% of the TIVA group (p = 0.15). 24.5% of patients in the inhalation group and 9.6% of patients in the intravenous group needed an antiemetic medication (p = 0.043). Conclusion: The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting and the need for administration of an antiemetic rescue drug and the severity of nausea in patients were significantly lower in the TIVA group.

Resumo Justificativa: Náusea e Vômito no Pós-Operatório (NVPO) é uma complicação multifatorial com etiologia não esclarecida. A técnica anestésica, as características dos pacientes e o tipo de cirurgia são considerados fatores que afetam a NVPO. O presente estudo foi desenhado para comparar o efeito da anestesia inalatória com anestesia intravenosa na incidência e gravidade de NVPO na cirurgia abdominal. Método: Foi realizado estudo clínico mono-cego prospectivo randomizado com 105 pacientes com idades de 18 − 65 anos. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos, Anestesia Total Intravenosa (TIVA) e anestesia inalatória. A incidência e gravidade de NVPO foram avaliadas em cinco momentos: 0, 2, 6, 12 e 24 horas pós-cirurgia. O uso de antiemético de resgate também foi avaliado. Resultados: NVPO ocorreu em 50,9% dos pacientes no grupo inalatória e 17,3% dos pacientes no grupo TIVA (p< 0,001). A incidência de vômitos relatados foi 11,3% no grupo Inalatória e 3,8% no grupo TIVA (p = 0,15). Necessitaram de medicação antiemética 24,5% dos pacientes no grupo Inalatória e 9,6% dos pacientes no grupo TIVA (p = 0.043). Conclusão: A incidência de náusea e vômito no pós-operatório, a necessidade de administração de droga antiemética de resgate e a gravidade da náusea foram significantemente mais baixas no grupo TIVA.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Anesthetics, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Inhalation/administration & dosage , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting/epidemiology , Laparotomy/methods , Severity of Illness Index , Single-Blind Method , Incidence , Anesthetics, Intravenous/adverse effects , Anesthetics, Inhalation/adverse effects , Abdomen/surgery , Middle Aged , Antiemetics/administration & dosage
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(3): 233-241, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013421


Abstract Background and objectives: Emergence delirium after general anesthesia with sevoflurane has not been frequently reported in adults compared to children. This study aimed to determine the incidence of emergence delirium in adult patients who had anesthesia with sevoflurane as the volatile agent and the probable risk factors associated with its occurrence. Design & methods: A prospective observational study was conducted in adult patients who had non-neurological procedures and no existing neurological or psychiatric conditions, under general anesthesia. Demographic data such as age, gender, ethnicity and clinical data including ASA physical status, surgical status, intubation attempts, duration of surgery, intraoperative hypotension, drugs used, postoperative pain, rescue analgesia and presence of catheters were recorded. Emergence delirium intensity was measured using the Nursing Delirium Scale (NuDESC). Results: The incidence of emergence delirium was 11.8%. The factors significantly associated with emergence delirium included elderly age (>65) (p = 0.04), emergency surgery (p = 0.04), African ethnicity (p = 0.01), longer duration of surgery (p = 0.007) and number of intubation attempts (p = 0.001). Factors such as gender, alcohol and illicit drug use, and surgical specialty did not influence the occurrence of emergence delirium. Conclusions: The incidence of emergence delirium in adults after general anesthesia using sevoflurane is significant and has not been adequately reported. Modifiable risk factors need to be addressed to further reduce its incidence.

Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: O delirium do despertar após a anestesia geral com sevoflurano não tem sido relatado com frequência em adultos como nas crianças. Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar a incidência de delirium do despertar em pacientes adultos submetidos à anestesia com sevoflurano como agente volátil e os prováveis fatores de risco associados à sua ocorrência. Desenho e métodos: Um estudo observacional prospectivo foi conduzido com pacientes adultos sem distúrbios neurológicos ou psiquiátricos submetidos à anestesia geral para procedimentos não neurológicos. Dados demográficos como idade, sexo, etnia e dados clínicos, inclusive estado físico ASA, estado cirúrgico, tentativas de intubação, tempo de cirurgia, hipotensão intraoperatória, drogas usadas, dor pós-operatória, analgesia de resgate e presença de cateteres, foram registrados. A intensidade do delirium do despertar foi medida com a Escala de Triagem de Delirium em Enfermagem (Nursing Delirium Scale - NuDESC). Resultados: A incidência de delirium do despertar foi de 11,8%. Os fatores significativamente associados ao delirium do despertar incluíram idade avançada (> 65) (p = 0,04), cirurgia de emergência (p = 0,04), descendência africana (p = 0,01), tempo maior de cirurgia (p = 0,007) e número de tentativas de intubação (p = 0,001). Fatores como sexo, uso de álcool e drogas ilícitas e especialidade cirúrgica não influenciaram a ocorrência de delirium do despertar. Conclusões: A incidência de delirium do despertar em adultos após a anestesia geral com sevoflurano é significativa e não tem sido relatada adequadamente. Fatores de risco modificáveis precisam ser abordados para reduzir ainda mais sua incidência.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Anesthetics, Inhalation/administration & dosage , Emergence Delirium/epidemiology , Sevoflurane/administration & dosage , Anesthesia, General/methods , Incidence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Anesthetics, Inhalation/adverse effects , Operative Time , Sevoflurane/adverse effects , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Middle Aged
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(2): 152-159, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003412


Abstract Background and objectives: Malignant hyperthermia is an autosomal dominant hypermetabolic pharmacogenetic syndrome, with a mortality rate of 10%-20%, which is triggered by the use of halogenated inhaled anesthetics or muscle relaxant succinylcholine. The gold standard for suspected susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia is the in vitro muscle contracture test in response to halothane and caffeine. The determination of susceptibility in suspected families allows the planning of safe anesthesia without triggering agents for patients with known susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia by positive in vitro muscle contracture test. Moreover, the patient whose suspicion of malignant hyperthermia was excluded by the in vitro negative muscle contracture test may undergo standard anesthesia. Susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia has a variable manifestation ranging from an asymptomatic subject presenting a crisis of malignant hyperthermia during anesthesia with triggering agents to a patient with atrophy and muscle weakness due to central core myopathy. The aim of this study is to analyze the profile of reports of susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia confirmed with in vitro muscle contracture test. Method: Analysis of the medical records of patients with personal/family suspicion of malignant hyperthermia investigated with in vitro muscle contracture test, after given written informed consent, between 1997 and 2010. Results: Of the 50 events that motivated the suspicion of malignant hyperthermia and family investigation (sample aged 27 ± 18 years, 52% men, 76% white), 64% were investigated for an anesthetic malignant hyperthermia crisis, with mortality rate of 25%. The most common signs of a malignant hyperthermia crisis were hyperthermia, tachycardia, and muscle stiffness. Susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia was confirmed in 79.4% of the 92 relatives investigated with the in vitro muscle contracture test. Conclusion: The crises of malignant hyperthermia resembled those described in other countries, but with frequency lower than that estimated in the country.

Resumo Justificativa e objetivo: Hipertermia maligna é uma síndrome farmacogenética hipermetabólica, autossômica dominante, com mortalidade entre 10%-20%, desencadeada por uso de anestésico inalatório halogenado ou relaxante muscular succinilcolina. O padrão-ouro para pesquisa de suscetibilidade à hipertermia maligna é o teste de contratura muscular in vitro em resposta ao halotano e à cafeína. A determinação da suscetibilidade nas famílias suspeitas permite planejar anestesias seguras sem agentes desencadeantes para os pacientes confirmados como suscetíveis à hipertermia maligna pelo teste de contratura muscular in vitro positivo. Além disso, o paciente no qual a suspeita de hipertermia maligna foi excluída pelo teste de contratura muscular in vitro negativo pode ser anestesiado de forma convencional. Suscetibilidade à hipertermia maligna tem manifestação variável, desde indivíduo assintomático que apresenta crise de hipertermia maligna durante anestesia com agentes desencadeantes, até paciente com atrofia e fraqueza muscular por miopatia central core disease. O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar o perfil dos relatos de suscetibilidade à hipertermia maligna confirmados com teste de contratura muscular in vitro. Método: Análise das fichas de notificação dos pacientes com suspeita pessoal/familiar de hipertermia maligna investigados com teste de contratura muscular in vitro, após assinatura do termo de consentimento, entre 1997-2010. Resultados: Dos 50 eventos que motivaram a suspeita de hipertermia maligna e a investigação familiar (amostra com 27 ± 18 anos, 52% homens, 76% brancos), 64% foram investigados por crise de hipertermia maligna anestésica, com mortalidade de 25%. Sinais mais comuns da crise de hipertermia maligna foram hipertermia, taquicardia e rigidez muscular. Suscetibilidade à hipertermia maligna foi confirmada em 79,4% dos 92 parentes investigados com teste de contratura muscular in vitro. Conclusão: Crises de hipertermia maligna assemelharam-se às descritas em outros países, porém com frequência inferior à estimada no país.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Anesthetics, Inhalation/adverse effects , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Malignant Hyperthermia/diagnosis , Muscle Contraction/drug effects , In Vitro Techniques , Brazil , Caffeine/administration & dosage , Family Health , Retrospective Studies , Anesthetics, Inhalation/administration & dosage , Halothane/administration & dosage , Malignant Hyperthermia/physiopathology , Malignant Hyperthermia/prevention & control , Middle Aged , Muscle Contraction/physiology
Acta cir. bras ; 34(12): e201901205, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054687


Abstract Purpose To investigate the effects of huperzine A (HupA) on hippocampal inflammatory response and neurotrophic factors in aged rats after anesthesia. Methods Thirty-six Sprague Dawley rats (20-22 months old) were randomly divided into control, isofluran, and isoflurane+HupA groups; 12 rats in each group. The isoflurane+HupA group was intraperitoneally injected with 0.2 mg/kg of HupA. After 30 min, isoflurane inhalation anesthesia was performed in the isoflurane and isoflurane+HupA groups. After 24 h from anesthesia, Morris water maze experiment and open-field test were performed. Hippocampal inflammatory and neurotrophic factors were determined. Results Compared with isoflurane group, in isofluran+HupA group the escape latency of rats was significantly decreased (P < 0.05), the original platform quadrant residence time and traversing times were significantly increased (P < 0.05), the central area residence time was significantly increased (P < 0.05), the hippocampal tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6 and interleukin 1β levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.05), and the hippocampal nerve growth factor, brain derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 levels were significantly increased (P < 0.05). Conclusion HupA may alleviate the cognitive impairment in rats after isoflurane anesthesia by decreasing inflammatory factors and increasing hippocampal neurotrophic factors in hippocampus tissue.

Humans , Animals , Male , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Inhalation/adverse effects , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Hippocampus/drug effects , Nerve Growth Factors/drug effects , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Interleukin-6/analysis , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Maze Learning , Interleukin-1beta/analysis , Hippocampus/metabolism , Isoflurane/adverse effects , Anesthesia/adverse effects , Nerve Growth Factors/analysis
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 68(1): 33-41, Jan.-Feb. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897801


Abstract Background and objectives The waste anesthetic gases (WAGs) present in the ambient air of operating rooms (OR), are associated with various occupational hazards. This paper intends to discuss occupational exposure to WAGs and its impact on exposed professionals, with emphasis on genetic damage and oxidative stress. Content Despite the emergence of safer inhaled anesthetics, occupational exposure to WAGs remains a current concern. Factors related to anesthetic techniques and anesthesia workstations, in addition to the absence of a scavenging system in the OR, contribute to anesthetic pollution. In order to minimize the health risks of exposed professionals, several countries have recommended legislation with maximum exposure limits. However, developing countries still require measurement of WAGs and regulation for occupational exposure to WAGs. WAGs are capable of inducing damage to the genetic material, such as DNA damage assessed using the comet assay and increased frequency of micronucleus in professionals with long-term exposure. Oxidative stress is also associated with WAGs exposure, as it induces lipid peroxidation, oxidative damage in DNA, and impairment of the antioxidant defense system in exposed professionals. Conclusions The occupational hazards related to WAGs including genotoxicity, mutagenicity and oxidative stress, stand as a public health issue and must be acknowledged by exposed personnel and responsible authorities, especially in developing countries. Thus, it is urgent to stablish maximum safe limits of concentration of WAGs in ORs and educational practices and protocols for exposed professionals.

Resumo Justificativa e objetivos Os Resíduos de Gases Anestésicos (RGA) presentes no ar ambiente das Salas de Operação (SO) são associados a riscos ocupacionais diversos. O presente artigo propõe-se a discorrer sobre exposição ocupacional aos RGA e seu impacto em profissionais expostos, com ênfase em danos genéticos e estresse oxidativo. Conteúdo Apesar do surgimento de anestésicos inalatórios mais seguros, a exposição ocupacional aos RGA ainda é preocupação atual. Fatores relacionados às técnicas anestésicas e estação de anestesia, além da ausência de sistema de exaustão de gases em SO, contribuem para poluição anestésica. Para minimizar os riscos à saúde em profissionais expostos, recomendam-se limites máximos de exposição. Entretanto, em países em desenvolvimento, ainda carece a mensuração de RGA e de regulamentação frente à exposição ocupacional aos RGA. Os RGA são capazes de induzir danos no material genético, como danos no DNA avaliados pelo teste do cometa e aumento na frequência de micronúcleos em profissionais com exposição prolongada. O estresse oxidativo também é associado à exposição aos RGA por induzir lipoperoxidação, danos oxidativos no DNA e comprometimento do sistema antioxidante em profissionais expostos. Conclusões Por tratar-se de questão de saúde pública, é imprescindível reconhecer os riscos ocupacionais relacionados aos RGA, inclusive genotoxicidade, mutagenicidade e estresse oxidativo. Urge a necessidade de mensuração dos RGA para conhecimento desses valores nas SO, especialmente em países em desenvolvimento, de normatização das concentrações máximas seguras de RGA nas SO, além de se adotarem práticas de educação com conscientização dos profissionais expostos.

Humans , Operating Rooms , DNA Damage , Occupational Exposure/adverse effects , Air Pollution, Indoor/adverse effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Anesthetics, Inhalation/adverse effects , Air Pollutants, Occupational/adverse effects
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 67(2): 193-198, Mar.-Apr. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843384


Abstract Background and objectives: Sevoflurane is often used in pediatric anesthesia and is associated with high incidence of psychomotor agitation. In such cases, dexmedetomidine (DEX) has been used, but its benefit and implications remain uncertain. We assessed the effects of DEX on agitation in children undergoing general anesthesia with sevoflurane. Method: Meta-analysis of randomized clinical and double-blind studies, with children undergoing elective procedures under general anesthesia with sevoflurane, using DEX or placebo. We sought articles in English in PubMed database using the following terms: Dexmedetomidine, sevoflurane (Methyl Ethers/sevoflurante), and agitation (Psychomotor Agitation). Duplicate articles with children who received premedication and used active control were excluded. It was adopted random effects model with DerSimonian-Laird testing and odds ratio (OR) calculation for dichotomous variables, and standardized mean difference for continuous variables, with their respective 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: Of 146 studies identified, 10 were selected totaling 558 patients (282 in DEX group and 276 controls). The use of DEX was considered a protective factor for psychomotor agitation (OR = 0.17; 95% CI 0.13-0.23; p < 0.0001) and nausea and vomiting in PACU (OR = 0.49; 95% CI 0.35-0.68; p < 0.0001). Wake-up time and PACU discharge time were higher in the dexmedetomidine group. There was no difference between groups for extubation time and duration of anesthesia. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine reduces psychomotor agitation during wake-up time of children undergoing general anesthesia with sevoflurane.

Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: Sevoflurano é frequentemente usado em anestesia pediátrica e está associado à alta incidência de agitação psicomotora ao despertar. Nesses casos a dexmedetomidina (dex) tem sido usada, porém permanecem incertos seus benefícios e suas implicações. Foram avaliados os efeitos da dex sobre a agitação no despertar de crianças submetidas à anestesia geral com sevoflurano. Método: Metanálise de ensaios clínicos randomizados e duplamente encobertos, com crianças submetidas a procedimentos eletivos sob anestesia geral com sevoflurano, que usaram dex ou placebo. Buscaram-se artigos em língua inglesa na base de dados Pubmed com termos como Dexmedetomidine, sevoflurane (Methyl Ethers/sevoflurane) e agitation (Psychomotor Agitation). Artigos duplicados, com crianças que receberam medicação pré-anestésica e que usaram controle ativo foram excluídos. Adotou-se modelo de efeitos aleatórios com testes de DerSimonian-Laird e cálculo de odds ratio (OR) para variáveis dicotômicas e diferença de média padronizada para variáveis contínuas, com seus respectivos intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC). Resultados: Dos 146 estudos identificados, 10 foram selecionados, com 558 pacientes (282 no grupo dex e 276 controles). O uso da dex foi considerado fator de proteção para agitação psicomotora (OR = 0,17; 95% IC 0,13-0,23; p < 0,0001) e para náuseas e vômitos na SRPA (OR = 0,49; 95% IC 0,35-0,68; p < 0,0001). Tempo para despertar e para alta da SRPA foram maiores no grupo dexmedetomidina. Não houve diferença entre os grupos para tempo de extubação e duração da anestesia. Conclusão: A dexmedetomidina reduz a agitação psicomotora no despertar de crianças submetidas à anestesia geral com sevoflurano.

Humans , Child , Psychomotor Agitation/prevention & control , Dexmedetomidine/administration & dosage , Methyl Ethers/adverse effects , Psychomotor Agitation/etiology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Anesthetics, Inhalation/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Inhalation/adverse effects , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting/prevention & control , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , Sevoflurane , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Hypnotics and Sedatives/pharmacology , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Anesthesia, General/methods , Methyl Ethers/administration & dosage
Acta cir. bras ; 31(3): 168-175, Mar. 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777089


ABSTRACT PURPOSE : To investigate the effects of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) against desflurane induced hepatotoxicity. METHODS : Thirty experimental animals were divided into groups as healthy (HG), desflurane control (DCG) , TPP and desflurane group (TDG). 20 mg/kg TPP was injected to intraperitoneally TDG. After one hour of TPP administration, desflurane was applied for two hours. After 24 hours, liver tissues of the animals killed with decapitation were removed. The oxidant/antioxidant levels and ALT, AST and LDH activities were measured. The histopathological examinations were performed in the liver tissues for all rats. RESULTS : Notwithstanding the levels of oxidants and liver enzymes were significantly increased (p<0.0001), antioxidant levels were significantly decreased in DCG (p<0.0001). On contrary to the antioxidant parameters were increased (p<0.05) the oxidant parameters and liver enzymes were decreased in TDG (p<0.0001). Whereas multiple prominent, congestion, hemorrhage and dilatation were observed in sinusoids and lymphocyte-rich inflammation results in the centrilobular and portal areas of liver tissue in DCG, these findings were observed less frequently in TDG. CONCLUSİON : Thiamine pyrophosphate prevented liver oxidative damage induced with desflurane and may be useful in prophylaxis of desflurane induced hepatotoxicity.

Animals , Male , Thiamine Pyrophosphate/therapeutic use , Anesthetics, Inhalation/adverse effects , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Isoflurane/analogs & derivatives , Aspartate Aminotransferases/drug effects , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Peroxidase/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Alanine Transaminase/drug effects , Alanine Transaminase/metabolism , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/metabolism , Glutathione/drug effects , Glutathione/metabolism , Isoflurane , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/drug effects , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Liver/enzymology , Liver/pathology , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism
Dental press j. orthod. (Impr.) ; 20(4): 91-98, July-Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-757424


Angle Class III malocclusion is characterized by anteroposterior dental discrepancy which might be associated or not with skeletal changes. Class III molar relationship is associated with vertical or lingually tipped mandibular incisors and a usually concave profile. These characteristics seriously affect facial esthetics and most frequently are the reason why patients seek orthodontic treatment. This case was presented to the committee of the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO) as part of the requisites to become a BBO Diplomate.

A má oclusão de Classe III de Angle é caracterizada por uma discrepância dentária anteroposterior, que pode ou não estar acompanhada por alterações esqueléticas. Observa-se uma relação molar de Classe III associada ao posicionamento vertical ou retroinclinado dos incisivos inferiores e, geralmente, perfil facial côncavo. Esse aspecto gera grande comprometimento estético na face, sendo justamente esse o fator que, na maioria das vezes, motiva o paciente a procurar pelo tratamento ortodôntico. O presente caso clínico foi apresentado à Diretoria do Board Brasileiro de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial (BBO) como parte dos requisitos para a obtenção do título de Diplomado pelo BBO.

Animals , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Dogs , Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives/pharmacology , Hypotension/veterinary , Isoflurane/adverse effects , Isotonic Solutions/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Inhalation/adverse effects , Dog Diseases/drug therapy , Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives/administration & dosage , Hypotension/therapy , Isoflurane/pharmacology , Plasma Substitutes/administration & dosage , Plasma Substitutes/therapeutic use
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 739-746, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-211912


PURPOSE: This study aims to investigate the most appropriate effect-site concentration of remifentanil to minimize cardiovascular changes during inhalation of high concentration desflurane. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-nine American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status class I patients aged 20-65 years were randomly allocated into one of three groups. Anesthesia was induced with etomidate and rocuronium. Remifentanil was infused at effect-site concentrations of 2, 4 and 6 ng/mL in groups R2, R4 and R6, respectively. After target concentrations of remifentanil were reached, desflurane was inhaled to maintain the end-tidal concentration of 1.7 minimum alveolar concentrations for 5 minutes (over-pressure paradigm). The systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and end-tidal concentration of desflurane were measured for 5 minutes. RESULTS: The end-tidal concentration of desflurane increased similarly in all groups. The SBP, DBP, MAP and HR within group R4 were not significantly different as compared with baseline values. However, measured parameters within group R2 increased significantly 1-3 minutes after desflurane inhalation. The MAP within group R6 decreased significantly at 1, 2, 4, and 5 minutes (p<0.05). There were significant differences in SBP, DBP, MAP and HR among the three groups 1-3 minutes after inhalation (p<0.05). The incidence of side effects such as hyper- or hypo-tension, and tachy- or brady-cardia in group R4 was 4.8% compared with 21.8% in group R2 and 15.0% in group R6. CONCLUSION: The most appropriate effect-site concentration of remifentanil for blunting hemodynamic responses by inhalation of high concentration desflurane is 4 ng/mL.

Adult , Aged , Androstanols/adverse effects , Anesthetics/adverse effects , Anesthetics, Inhalation/adverse effects , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Etomidate/adverse effects , Female , Heart/drug effects , Heart Rate/drug effects , Humans , Isoflurane/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Piperidines/adverse effects , Protective Agents/adverse effects
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1266-1272, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-74273


PURPOSE: Although there is no clinical evidence of nephrotoxicity with the volatile anesthetics currently used in general anesthesia, a better agent should be needed in terms of preserving postoperative renal function in living kidney donors who have only single remaining kidney. The purpose of the current retrospective, single-center study was to evaluate and compare renal function of living kidney donors after nephrectomy under either sevoflurane or desflurane anesthesia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2006 through December 2011, a total of 228 donors undergoing video assisted minilaparotomy surgery nephrectomy for kidney donation were retrospectively enrolled in the current study. The donors were categorized into a sevoflurane group or desflurane group based on the type of volatile anesthetic used. We collected laboratory data from the patients preoperatively, immediately after the operation, on the first postoperative day and on the third postoperative day. We also compared renal function of the kidney donors after donor nephrectomy by comparing creatinine level and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). RESULTS: The decrease in renal function after surgery in both groups was the most prominent on the first postoperative day. There were no significant differences between the two groups in postoperative changes of creatinine or eGFR. CONCLUSION: Sevoflurane and desflurane can be used safely as volatile anesthetics in donors undergoing nephrectomy.

Adult , Anesthesia, General/methods , Anesthetics, Inhalation/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Isoflurane/adverse effects , Kidney/physiology , Kidney Function Tests , Kidney Transplantation , Living Donors , Male , Methyl Ethers/adverse effects , Nephrectomy , Postoperative Complications , Retrospective Studies
Rev. chil. anest ; 41(2): 120-123, sept.2012. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-780336


La inducción inhalatoria con sevoflurano se ha asociado con actividad epileptógena y movimientos convulsivos. Se diseñó un estudio para determinar la incidencia de movimientos convulsivos durante la inducción inhalatoria con sevoflurano y sus posibles factores de riesgo. Para llevar a cabo estos objetivos, desde marzo a julio de 2011 se solicitó a los anestesiólogos de Clínica Dávila registrar la ocurrencia de movimientos convulsivos en todo paciente en que se realizara inducción inhalatoria con sevoflurano, en el período comprendido entre la etapa III de la anestesia y la inyección de drogas endovenosas. El tamaño muestral calculado fue de 400 pacientes para obtener un intervalo de confianza de 95 por ciento con un error menor a 2,5 por ciento. Se obtuvo información de 405 pacientes con una mediana de edad de 4 años (rango: 2 días a 16 años de edad), predominantemente hombres y ASA I. La incidencia de convulsiones fue de 3,5 por ciento (IC 95 por ciento: 1,9 por ciento; 5,7 por ciento) y fueron más frecuentes en mujeres (5,9 por ciento versus 2 por ciento en hombres, p = 0,039). En conclusión, la incidencia de convulsiones durante la inducción inhalatoria con sevoflurano fue de 3,5 por ciento y su único factor de riesgo fue pertenecer al género femenino...

Introduction: Mask induction with Sevoflurane has been associated with epileptic form changes of the EEG and sometimes with tonic-clonic movements. Objectives: To determine the incidence rate of convulsive movements during the induction of anesthesia with Sevoflurane and its risk factors. Methods: From march 1st to july 31st 2011, we asked to the anesthesiologists of our institution to watch the occurrence of tonic-clonic movements during Sevoflurane induction, after the loss of eyelash reflex and before the injection of intravenous drugs. The sample size was calculated in 400 patients to obtain a 95 percent confidence interval with an error lesser than 2.5 percent. Results: We obtain data from 405 patients with a median age of 4 years old (range 2 days to 16 years old), predominantly males and ASA physical status I. The incidence rate of convulsions was 3.5 percent (CI 95 percent 1.9; 5.7), more frequent in females (5.9 percent versus 2.0 percent in males, p = 0.039). Conclusions: The incidence rate of convulsions during inhalatory induction with Sevoflurane was 3.5 percent and associated to female gender...

Humans , Male , Adolescent , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Anesthetics, Inhalation/adverse effects , Seizures/epidemiology , Methyl Ethers/adverse effects , Confidence Intervals , Seizures/chemically induced , Incidence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 62(2): 163-172, mar.-abr. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-618202


JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O sevoflurano por suas características farmacológicas é o anestésico ideal para procedimentos de curta duração. Existem duas marcas de sevoflurano no mercado brasileiro, o Sevocris® e Sevorane®, com diferentes formulações e envasamento. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar se existem diferenças entre os dois anestésicos na indução, manutenção, recuperação e consumo. MÉTODO: Foram incluídas 130 crianças dividas em dois grupos segundo a marca do agente utilizado: Grupo 1 sevoflurano da Cristália® e Grupo 2 da Abbott®. Foram analisados os seguintes parâmetros: frequência cardíaca, pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica, fração inspirada e expirada de sevoflurano, valores de BIS, temperatura timpânica, tempos de indução e recuperação, agitação ao despertar pela escala PAED e consumo do anestésico por pesagem dos vaporizadores. A indução foi realizada com 1 CAM e incrementadas a cada três movimentos respiratórios em 0,5 CAM, até no máximo 3 CAM. RESULTADO: Não houve diferença entre os grupos quanto ao tempo de procedimento e de anestesia e nos parâmetros avaliados na indução. No Grupo 1, o número de crianças que necessitaram bolus adicionais de sevoflurano na manutenção da anestesia foi maior que no 2 (p < 0,05). A fração inspirada e expirada de sevoflurano no final do procedimento foi menor no Grupo 1 (p < 0,001). No momento do despertar o valor do BIS foi menor no Grupo 1 (p = 0,045). Outros parâmetros avaliados na recuperação não mostraram diferença entre os grupos. O consumo de anestésico foi semelhante entre os grupos.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Due to its pharmacological characteristics, sevoflurane is the ideal anesthetic for short-duration procedures. There are two brands of sevoflurane in the Brazilian market, Sevocris® and Sevorane®, with different formulations and packaging. The objective of this study was to assess whether there are differences between the two anesthetics regarding induction, maintenance, recovery, and consumption. METHODS: One hundred and thirty children were included, divided into two groups according to the brand used: Group 1 was assigned to sevoflurane Cristália® and Group 2 to sevoflurane Abbott®. The following parameters were assessed: heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fraction of inspired and expired sevoflurane, BIS values, tympanic temperature, induction and recovery time, agitation upon awakening measured by the PAED scale, and anesthetic consumption by weighing the vaporizers. Anesthesia was induced with 1 MAC and increased every three breaths at 0.5 MAC, up to 3 MAC. RESULTS: There was no difference between groups regarding the duration of the procedure, the anesthesia, and the parameters evaluated at induction. In Group 1, the number of children who required additional bolus of sevoflurane for anesthesia maintenance was higher than in Group 2 (p < 0.05). The fraction of inspired and expired sevoflurane at the end of the procedure was lower in Group 1 (p < 0.001). Upon awakening, BIS value was lower in Group 1 (p = 0.045). Other parameters evaluated in recovery showed no difference between groups. The use of anesthesia was similar between groups.

JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El sevoflurano, por sus características farmacológicas, es el anestésico ideal para procedimientos de corta duración. Existen dos marcas de sevoflurano en el mercado brasileño, el Sevocris® y el Sevorane®, con diferentes formulaciones y envases. El objetivo de este estudio, fue analizar si existen diferencias entre los dos anestésicos en la inducción, mantenimiento, recuperación y consumo. MÉTODO: Se incluyeron 130 niños divididos en dos grupos según la marca del agente utilizado: Grupo 1 sevoflurano de Cristália® y Grupo 2 de Abbott®. Se analizaron los siguientes parámetros: frecuencia cardíaca, presión arterial sistólica y diastólica, fracción inspirada y espirada de sevoflurano, valores de BIS, temperatura timpánica, tiempos de inducción y recuperación, agitación al despertar por la escala PAED, y consumo del anestésico por pesaje de los vaporizadores. La inducción fue realizada con 1 CAM e incrementada a cada tres movimientos respiratorios en 0,5 CAM, hasta el máximo de 3 CAM. RESULTADO: No hubo diferencia entre los grupos en cuanto al tiempo de procedimiento y de anestesia y en los parámetros evaluados en la inducción. En el Grupo 1, el número de niños que necesitaron bolos adicionales de sevoflurano en el mantenimiento de la anestesia, fue mayor que en el 2 (p < 0,05). La fracción inspirada y espirada de sevoflurano al final del procedimiento fue menor en el Grupo 1 (p < 0,001). Al momento del despertar, el valor del BIS fue menor en el Grupo 1 (p = 0,045). Otros parámetros evaluados en la recuperación no arrojaron diferencia entre los grupos. El consumo de anestésico fue similar entre los grupos.

Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Akathisia, Drug-Induced , Ambulatory Surgical Procedures , Anesthesia , Anesthesia Recovery Period , Anesthetics, Inhalation/administration & dosage , Methyl Ethers/administration & dosage , Akathisia, Drug-Induced/etiology , Anesthetics, Inhalation/adverse effects , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , Double-Blind Method , Methyl Ethers/adverse effects , Psychomotor Agitation
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 333-338, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-68171


PURPOSE: Opioids may affect changes in the corrected QT interval (QTc) during anesthetic induction. This study examine whether a single bolus of remifentanil would prolong QTc after laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion during sevoflurane induction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty women of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1 (ASA PS1) undergoing gynecological surgery were studied. All patients were induced using three vital capacity inhalation inductions with 5% sevoflurane. Two minutes after induction, the inspiratory concentration of sevoflurane was reduced to 2%. Using double-blinded randomization, patients were allocated into one of two groups, receiving either saline (placebo group, n = 20) or 0.25 remifentanil (remifentanil group, n = 20) over a period of thirty seconds. Sixty seconds later, LMA insertion was performed. Recordings were taken with a 12-lead electrocardiogram at baseline, 2 min after induction and 1 and 3 min after LMA insertion. QTc was calculated by Bazett's formula. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were also measured at each time point. RESULTS: The QTc interval was significantly prolonged in the placebo group as compared to the remifentanil group at 1 min after LMA insertion (467.8 +/- 16.5 vs. 442.7 +/- 21.3 ms, p < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in QTc at 3 min after LMA insertion between the two groups. MAP and HR were significantly higher in the placebo group (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: A single bolus of remifentanil is safe method to attenuate prolonged QTc associated with insertion of LMA.

Adult , Anesthetics, Inhalation/adverse effects , Anesthetics, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Electrocardiography/drug effects , Female , Gynecologic Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Heart Rate/drug effects , Humans , Methyl Ethers/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Piperidines/pharmacology
Clinics ; 65(8): 763-767, June 2010. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-557001


OBJECTIVE: The effects of sevoflurane general anesthesia and bupivacaine selective spinal anesthesia on QT dispersion (QTd) and corrected QT (QTc) interval were investigated. METHODS AND MATERIALS: This prospective, randomized, double-blind study was conducted between July and September 2009 in the Urology and General Surgery operating rooms. Forty ASA I-II patients undergoing noncardiac surgery were randomized into two groups: Group R (n=20) and Group V (n=20). In Group R, 5 mg bupivacaine was administered into the spinal space. Anesthesia induction in Group V was established with sevoflurane + 0.1 mg/kg vecuronium using the maximum vital capacity technique. Anesthesia was maintained with 2-3 percent sevoflurane + 50 percent N2O/O2 inhalation. All patients were tested with a 24-hour Holter ECG device. QT, QTc, and QTd intervals were measured using 12-lead ECG records at 1 and 3 minutes during preinduction, postinduction, postincision and postextubation periods. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate and ECG records were measured simultaneously. RESULTS: None of the patients displayed arrhythmia. There was no significant difference between the groups with regard to QTd values (p>0.05). However, QTc was longer in Group V than in Group R after the induction of anesthesia at 3 minutes, after the intubation at 1 and 3 minutes, and after the incision at 1 and 3 minutes. MAP and heart rate were generally higher in Group V (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Although Volatile Induction and Maintenance of Anesthesia (VIMA) with sevoflurane might prolong the QTc interval and did not result in arrhythmia, selective spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine was not associated with alterations in the QT interval or arrhythmia.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Anesthetics, Inhalation/adverse effects , Anesthetics, Local/adverse effects , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/chemically induced , Bupivacaine/adverse effects , Electrocardiography/drug effects , Methyl Ethers/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Heart Conduction System/drug effects , Heart Rate/drug effects , Prospective Studies , Tachycardia, Ventricular/chemically induced