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Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(1): 36-41, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137146


Abstract Background and objectives: This clinical trial aimed to evaluate the effects of two different inhalation anesthetic agents on postoperative olfactory memory and olfactory function in patients who underwent micro laryngeal surgery. Methods: This randomized prospective controlled study consisted of 102 consecutive patients with a voice disorder. The patients underwent micro laryngeal surgery for voice disorders under general anesthesia. Patients who did not meet inclusion criteria and/or declined to participate (n = 34) were excluded from the study. Patients were divided into two groups. Four patients from Group 1 and four patients from Group 2 were lost to follow-up. Group 1 (n = 30) received sevoflurane, and Group 2 (n = 30) received desflurane during anesthesia. We compared the results by performing the pre-op and post-op Connecticut Chemosensory Clinical Research Center Olfactory test. Results: Thirty-three patients (55%) were male and 27 (45%) were female. The mean age was 48.18 ± 13.88 years (range: 19‒70 years). Preoperative and postoperative olfactory functions did not show a significant difference within the groups postoperatively (p > 0.05). Preoperative and postoperative olfactory memory showed a significant decrease 3 hours after the surgery (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Olfactory functions and memory were not affected by desflurane in the early postoperative period. Although sevoflurane did not affect olfactory functions, it had a temporary negative effect on olfactory memory in the early postoperative period.

Resumo Introdução e objetivos: O estudo avaliou o efeito pós-operatório de dois agentes anestésicos inalatórios distintos na memória olfativa de curta duração e na função olfativa em pacientes submetidos à microcirurgia de laringe. Método: O estudo prospectivo controlado randomizado avaliou, consecutivamente, 102 pacientes com alteração vocal submetidos à microcirurgia de laringe sob anestesia geral. Trinta e quatro pacientes não obedeceram aos critérios de inclusão e/ou não aceitaram participar do estudo e foram excluídos. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos. Quatro pacientes do Grupo 1 e quatro do Grupo 2 foram perdidos durante o seguimento. O Grupo 1 (n = 30) recebeu sevoflurano durante a anestesia e o Grupo 2 (n = 30), desflurano. Comparamos resultados pré e pós-operatórios de memória olfativa e funções olfativas, realizando o Connecticut Chemosensory Clinical Research Center Olfactory test. Resultados: Foram incluídos um total de 33 (55%) homens e 27 (45%) mulheres. A idade média foi 48,18 ± 13,88 anos (variação: 19-70 anos). As funções olfativas pré e pós-operatórias não apresentaram diferença estatisticamente significante dentro dos grupos no pós-operatório (p > 0,05). A memória olfativa pré e pós-operatória não mostrou diminuição estatisticamente significante quando avaliada três horas após a cirurgia (p< 0,05). Conclusões: Memória e funções olfativas não foram alteradas pelo desflurano no pós-operatório imediato. Embora o sevoflurano não tenha alterado as funções olfativas, causou efeito temporário negativo na memória olfativa no pós-operatório imediato.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Smell/drug effects , Smell/physiology , Anesthetics, Inhalation/pharmacology , Sevoflurane/pharmacology , Desflurane/pharmacology , Memory, Short-Term/drug effects , Memory, Short-Term/physiology , Postoperative Period , Prospective Studies , Larynx/surgery , Middle Aged
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(1): 48-57, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977418


Abstract Background: Anesthetic pre-conditioning attenuates inflammatory response during ischemia-reperfusion lung injury. The molecular mechanisms to explain it are not fully understood. The aim of our investigation was to analyze the molecular mechanism that explain the anti-inflammatory effects of anesthetic pre-conditioning with sevoflurane focusing on its effects on MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases), NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa beta) pathways, and apoptosis in an experimental lung autotransplant model. Methods: Twenty large white pigs undergoing pneumonectomy plus lung autotransplant were divided into two 10-member groups on the basis of the anesthetic received (propofol or sevoflurane). Anesthetic pre-conditioning group received sevoflurane 3% after anesthesia induction and it stopped when one-lung ventilation get started. Control group did not receive sevoflurane in any moment during the whole study period. Intracellular signal-transduction pathways (MAPK family), transcription factor (NF-κB), and apoptosis (caspases 3 and 9) were analyzed during experiment. Results: Pigs that received anesthetic pre-conditioning with sevoflurane have shown significant lower values of MAPK-p38, MAPK-P-p38, JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinases), NF-κB p50 intranuclear, and caspases (p < 0.05) than pigs anesthetized with intravenous propofol. Conclusions: Lung protection of anesthetic pre-conditioning with sevoflurane during experimental lung autotransplant is, at least, partially associated with MAPKs and NF κB pathways attenuation, and antiapoptotic effects.

Resumo Justificativa: O pré-condicionamento anestésico atenua a resposta inflamatória durante a lesão de isquemia-reperfusão do pulmão. Os mecanismos moleculares para explicá-lo não são totalmente compreendidos. O objetivo de nossa investigação foi analisar o mecanismo molecular que explica os efeitos anti-inflamatórios do pré-condicionamento anestésico com sevoflurano, enfocar seus efeitos sobre as proteínas quinases ativadas por mitógenos (MAPKs), o fator nuclear kappa beta (NF-κB) e a apoptose em modelo experimental de autotransplante pulmonar. Métodos: Vinte porcos Large White submetidos à pneumonectomia e autoimplante de pulmão foram divididos em dois grupos de 10 membros com base no anestésico recebido (propofol ou sevoflurano). O grupo de pré-condicionamento anestésico recebeu sevoflurano a 3% após a indução da anestesia, que foi descontinuado quando a ventilação monopulmonar foi iniciada. O grupo controle não recebeu sevoflurano em qualquer momento durante todo o período do estudo. As vias de transdução de sinal intracelular (família MAPK), o fator de transcrição (NF-κB) e a apoptose (caspases 3 e 9) foram analisados durante o experimento. Resultados: Os suínos que receberam pré-condicionamento anestésico com sevoflurano apresentaram valores mais baixos de MAPK-p38, MAPK-P-p38, c-Jun N-terminal quinases (JNK), NF-κB p50 intranuclear e caspases (p < 0,05) do que os suínos anestesiados com propofol intravenoso. Conclusões: A proteção pulmonar do pré-condicionamento anestésico com sevoflurano durante o autotransplante pulmonar experimental está, pelo menos, parcialmente associada à atenuação das vias de MAPKs e NF κB e aos efeitos antiapoptóticos.

Animals , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Lung Transplantation , Apoptosis/drug effects , Anesthetics, Inhalation/pharmacology , Sevoflurane/pharmacology , Anesthesia/methods , Swine , Transplantation, Autologous , Models, Theoretical
Acta cir. bras ; 32(10): 853-861, Oct. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886175


Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the preventive effect of ascorbic acid on sevoflurane-induced acute renal failure in an experimental rat model. Methods: Twenty-four adult male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into three groups. Subjects were allocated into 3 groups: Group I received sevoflurane only, whereas Groups II and III had moderate (150 mg/kg) and high (300 mg/kg) doses of AA in addition to sevoflurane, respectively. Rhabdomyolysis and myohemoglobinuric ARF was formed by intramuscular administration of glycerol on the upper hind limb on the 15th minute of inhalation anesthesia. Biochemical parameters consisted of serum levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and protein carbonyl content. Histopathological variables were tubular necrosis, fibrin, and cast formation. Results: NGAL levels were significantly lower in Group III than Group II and Group I. On the other hand, TAC, PCO, urea and creatinine levels were notably higher in Group I compared with Groups II and III. There was a significant difference between 3 groups on frequencies of acute tubular necrosis (p=0.003), fibrin (p<0.001) and cast (p<0.001). Acute tubular necrosis and fibrin formation were more prominent in Group I. Casts were more common in Groups II and III. Conclusions: The ascorbic acid serve as a prophylactic agent against renal damage in patients receiving sevoflurane anesthesia and higher doses were associated with more apparent protective effects.

Animals , Male , Rats , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Vitamins/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Inhalation/pharmacology , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Methyl Ethers/pharmacology , Biomarkers/blood , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/blood , Sevoflurane
Acta cir. bras ; 32(3): 203-210, Mar. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837689


Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effects of cyclosporine A on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury during transient hyperglycemia in rats. Methods: In a model of ischemia-reperfusion-induced renal injury and transiently induced hyperglycemia by intraperitoneal injection of glucose, 2.5, Wistar rats were anesthetized with either isoflurane or propofol and received intravenous cyclosporine A, 5, five minutes before reperfusion. Comparison groups were isoflurane and propofol sham groups and isoflurane and propofol ischemia-reperfusion-induced renal injury. Renal tubular cell viability was quantitatively assessed by flow cytometry after cell culture and classified as early apoptosis, necrotic cells, and intact cells. Results: Early apoptosis was significantly higher in isoflurane and propofol anesthetized animals subjected to renal ischemia-reperfusion injury when compared to both cyclosporine A treated and sham groups. Necrosis percentage was significantly higher in propofol-anesthetized animals subjected to renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. The percentage of intact cells was lower in both, isoflurane and propofol anesthetized animals subjected to renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Conclusion: In a model of ischemia-reperfusion-induced renal injury, cyclosporine A, 5, administered five minutes before renal reperfusion in rats with acute-induced hyperglycemia under either isoflurano or propofol anesthesia, attenuated early apoptosis and preserved viability in renal tubular cells, regardless of the anesthetic used.

Animals , Male , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Cyclosporine/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Hyperglycemia/physiopathology , Kidney/drug effects , Premedication , Time Factors , Reperfusion Injury/complications , Random Allocation , Propofol/pharmacology , Cell Survival/drug effects , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Inhalation/pharmacology , Flow Cytometry , Ischemia/prevention & control , Isoflurane/pharmacology , Kidney/blood supply , Kidney/pathology , Necrosis/prevention & control
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 67(1): 35-41, Jan.-Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843351


Abstract Background and objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of sevoflurane and propofol anesthesia on oxidative DNA damage that occurs in low-extremity ischemia and is caused by tourniquet application. Methods: Fourteen New Zealand rabbits were randomly allocated into two equal groups. Group S (n = 7) received sevoflurane (2.5-4 percent) inhalation and Group P (n = 7) received a propofol infusion (1-2 mg·kg-1·min-1), after which a pneumatic tourniquet was placed on the right lower extremity. Blood samples were collected prior to tourniquet placement (baseline), 120 min after ischemia, 15 min after ischemia and 120 minutes (min) after ischemia. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were analyzed to determine lipid peroxidation, and single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) was used to determine DNA damage. Results: At 15 min after ischemia, the MDA levels in Group P (8.15 ± 2.61 µM) were higher than baseline (6.26 ± 3.19 µM, p = 0.026) and Group S (4.98 ± 0.77 µM, p = 0.01). DNA damage was similar in both groups, although DNA damage was higher than baseline (tail moment 0.63 ± 0.27, tail intensity 3.76 ± 1.26) in Group P at the 15th minute of reperfusion (tail moment 1.05 ± 0.45, p = 0.06; tail intensity 5.33 ± 1.56, p = 0.01). The increase in tail moment and tail intensity returned to normal levels in both groups 2 hours after the termination of ischemia. Conclusion: Given that oxidative stress and genotoxic effect disappear in the late stages of reperfusion, we conclude that neither sevoflurane nor propofol can be considered superior to the other in anesthesia practices for extremity surgeries involving the use of a tourniquet.

Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: Comparar os efeitos da anestesia com sevoflurano e propofol sobre o dano oxidativo ao DNA que ocorre na isquemia de extremidade inferior e é causada pela aplicação de torniquete. Métodos: Foram alocados aleatoriamente em dois grupos iguais 14 coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia. Grupo S (n = 7) recebeu inalação de sevoflurano (2,5-4%) e Grupo P (n = 7) recebeu perfusão de propofol (1-2 mg·kg-1·min-1), logo após um torniquete pneumático foi colocado na extremidade inferior direita. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas antes da colocação do torniquete (fase basal), após 120 minutos de isquemia, 15 minutos após a isquemia e 120 minutos após a isquemia. Os níveis de malondialdeído (MDA) foram analisados para determinar a peroxidação de lipídios e eletroforese em gel de célula única (EGCU) foi usada para determinar o dano ao DNA. Resultados: Aos 15 minutos após a isquemia, os níveis de MDA no Grupo P (8,15 ± 2,61 µM) foram superiores aos da fase basal (6,26 ± 3,19 µM, p = 0,026) e dp Grupo S (4,98 ± 0,77 µM, p = 0,01). O dano causado ao DNA foi semelhante nos dois grupos, embora tenha sido maior do que na fase basal (momento da cauda 0,63 ± 0,27, intensidade da cauda 3,76 ± 1,26) no Grupo P no 15 minutos de reperfusão (momento da cauda 1,05 ± 0,45, p = 0,06; intensidade da cauda 5,33 ± 1,56, p = 0,01). O aumento no momento da cauda e a intensidade da cauda voltaram aos níveis normais nos dois grupos duas horas após o término da isquemia. Conclusão: Como o estresse oxidativo e o efeito genotóxico desaparecem nos estágios finais da reperfusão, concluímos que não há superioridade tanto de sevoflurano quanto de propofol em práticas de anestesia para procedimentos cirúrgicos de extremidades que envolvem o uso de torniquete.

Animals , DNA Damage/drug effects , Propofol/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Inhalation/pharmacology , Methyl Ethers/pharmacology , Rabbits , Tourniquets/adverse effects , Reperfusion Injury , Random Allocation , Acute Disease , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Comet Assay , Sevoflurane , Malondialdehyde/metabolism
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 66(6): 613-621, Nov.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829707


Abstract Background and objectives: Isoflurane is halogenated volatile ether used for inhalational anesthesia. It is widely used in clinics as an inhalational anesthetic. Neonatal hypoxic ischemia injury ensues in the immature brain that results in delayed cell death via excitotoxicity and oxidative stress. Isoflurane has shown neuroprotective properties that make a beneficial basis of using isoflurane in both cell culture and animal models, including various models of brain injury. We aimed to determine the neuroprotective effect of isoflurane on hypoxic brain injury and elucidated the underlying mechanism. Methods: A hippocampal slice, in artificial cerebrospinal fluid with glucose and oxygen deprivation, was used as an in vitro model for brain hypoxia. The orthodromic population spike and hypoxic injury potential were recorded in the CA1 and CA3 regions. Amino acid neurotransmitters concentration in perfusion solution of hippocampal slices was measured. Results: Isoflurane treatment caused delayed elimination of population spike and improved the recovery of population spike; decreased frequency of hypoxic injury potential, postponed the onset of hypoxic injury potential and increased the duration of hypoxic injury potential. Isoflurane treatment also decreased the hypoxia-induced release of amino acid neurotransmitters such as aspartate, glutamate and glycine induced by hypoxia, but the levels of γ-aminobutyric acid were elevated. Morphological studies showed that isoflurane treatment attenuated edema of pyramid neurons in the CA1 region. It also reduced apoptosis as evident by lowered expression of caspase-3 and PARP genes. Conclusions: Isoflurane showed a neuro-protective effect on hippocampal neuron injury induced by hypoxia through suppression of apoptosis.

Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: Isoflurano é um éter volátil halogenado usado para anestesia por via inalatória. É amplamente usado na clínica como um anestésico para inalação. A lesão hipóxico-isquêmica neonatal ocorre no cérebro imaturo e resulta em morte celular tardia via excitotoxicidade e estresse oxidativo. Isoflurano mostrou ter propriedades neuroprotetoras que formam uma base benéfica para o seu uso tanto em cultura de células quanto em modelos animais, incluindo vários modelos de lesão cerebral. Nosso objetivo foi determinar o efeito neuroprotetor de isoflurano em hipóxia cerebral e elucidar o mecanismo subjacente. Métodos: Fatias de hipocampo, em fluido cerebrospinal artificial (CSFA) com glicose e privação de oxigênio, foram usadas como um modelo in vitro de hipóxia cerebral. O pico de população ortodrômica (PPO) e o potencial de lesão hipóxica (PLH) foram registrados nas regiões CA1 e CA3. A concentração de neurotransmissores de aminoácidos na solução de perfusão das fatias de hipocampo foi medida. Resultados: O tratamento com isoflurano retardou a eliminação do PPO e melhorou a recuperação do PPO; diminuiu a frequência do PLH, retardou o início do PLH e aumentou a duração do PLH. O tratamento com isoflurano também diminuiu a liberação de neurotransmissores de aminoácidos induzida pela hipóxia, como aspartato, glutamato e glicina, mas os níveis de ácido γ-aminobutírico (GABA) estavam elevados. Estudos morfológicos mostram que o tratamento de edema com isoflurano atenuou o edema de neurônios piramidais na região CA1. Também reduziu a apoptose, como mostrado pela expressão reduzida da caspase-3 e genes PARP. Conclusões: Isoflurano mostrou um efeito neuroprotetor na lesão neuronal no hipocampo induzida por hipóxia através da supressão de apoptose.

Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Hypoxia, Brain/prevention & control , Brain Ischemia/pathology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Inhalation/pharmacology , Isoflurane/pharmacology , Hypoxia, Brain/pathology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , CA1 Region, Hippocampal/pathology , CA3 Region, Hippocampal/pathology , Glucose/deficiency , Hippocampus/pathology , Animals, Newborn
Acta cir. bras ; 31(5): 338-345, May 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-783802


ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To investigate the myocardial ischemia-reperfusion with sevoflurane anesthetic preconditioning (APC) would present beneficial effects on autonomic and cardiac function indexes after the acute phase of a myocardial ischemia-reperfusion. METHODS: Twenty Wistar rats were allocated in three groups: control (CON, n=10), myocardial infarction with sevoflurane (SEV, n=5) and infarcted without sevoflurane (INF, n=5). Myocardial ischemia (60 min) and reperfusion were performed by temporary coronary occlusion. Twenty-one days later, the systolic and diastolic function were evaluated by echocardiography; spectral analysis of the systolic arterial pressure (SAPV) and heart rate variability (HRV) were assessed. After the recording period, the infarct size (IS) was evaluated. RESULTS: The INF group presented greater cardiac dysfunction and increased sympathetic modulation of the SAPV, as well as decreased alpha index and worse vagal modulation of the HRV. The SEV group exhibited attenuation of the systolic and diastolic dysfunction and preserved vagal modulation (square root of the mean squared differences of successive R-R intervals and high frequency) of HRV, as well as a smaller IS. CONCLUSION: Sevoflurane preconditioning better preserved the cardiac function and autonomic modulation of the heart in post-acute myocardial infarction period.

Animals , Male , Autonomic Nervous System/drug effects , Myocardial Ischemia/physiopathology , Anesthetics, Inhalation/pharmacology , Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial/methods , Methyl Ethers/pharmacology , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Pulse , Autonomic Nervous System/physiology , Time Factors , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Blood Pressure/physiology , Echocardiography , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Myocardial Ischemia/etiology , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Models, Animal , Heart Rate/drug effects , Heart Rate/physiology , Myocardial Infarction/pathology , Myocardial Infarction/prevention & control , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging
Clinics ; 70(12): 804-809, Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-769713


OBJECTIVES: Inhalant anesthesia induces dose-dependent cardiovascular depression, but whether fluid responsiveness is differentially influenced by the inhalant agent and plasma volemia remains unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane on pulse pressure variation and stroke volume variation in pigs undergoing hemorrhage. METHODS: Twenty-five pigs were randomly anesthetized with isoflurane, sevoflurane or desflurane. Hemodynamic and echocardiographic data were registered sequentially at minimum alveolar concentrations of 1.00 (M1), 1.25 (M2), and 1.00 (M3). Then, following withdrawal of 30% of the estimated blood volume, these data were registered at a minimum alveolar concentrations of 1.00 (M4) and 1.25 (M5). RESULTS: The minimum alveolar concentration increase from 1.00 to 1.25 (M2) decreased the cardiac index and increased the central venous pressure, but only modest changes in mean arterial pressure, pulse pressure variation and stroke volume variation were observed in all groups from M1 to M2. A significant decrease in mean arterial pressure was only observed with desflurane. Following blood loss (M4), pulse pressure variation, stroke volume variation and central venous pressure increased (p <0.001) and mean arterial pressure decreased in all groups. Under hypovolemia, the cardiac index decreased with the increase of anesthesia depth in a similar manner in all groups. CONCLUSION: The effects of desflurane, sevoflurane and isoflurane on pulse pressure variation and stroke volume variation were not different during normovolemia or hypovolemia.

Animals , Female , Male , Anesthetics, Inhalation/pharmacology , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Hypovolemia/physiopathology , Stroke Volume/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Hemorrhage/physiopathology , Isoflurane/analogs & derivatives , Isoflurane/pharmacology , Methyl Ethers/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Reference Values , Swine , Time Factors
Acta cir. bras ; 30(11): 749-755, Nov. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-767602


PURPOSE: To evaluate the underlying mechanisms by which sevoflurane protects the liver against ischemia/reperfusion injury evaluate the mechanism by which sevoflurane exerts this protective effect. METHODS: Twenty-six rats were subjected to partial ischemia/reperfusion injury for 1h: one group received no treatment, one group received sevoflurane, and sham group of animals received laparotomy only. Four hours after reperfusion, levels of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, tumor necrosis factor-a, and interleukins 6 and 10 were measured. Analyses of mitochondrial oxidation and phosphorylation, malondialdehyde content, histology, and pulmonary vascular permeability were performed. RESULTS: Serum levels of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases were significantly lower in the sevoflurane group compared to untreated controls (p<0.05). The sevoflurane group also showed preservation of liver mitochondrial function compared to untreated controls (p<0.05). Sevoflurane administration did not alter increases in serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-a, and interleukins 6 and 10. Sevoflurane treatment significantly reduced the coagulative necrosis induced by ischemia/reperfusion (p<0.05). Pulmonary vascular permeability was preserved in the sevoflurane group compared to untreated controls. CONCLUSION: Sevoflurane administration protects the liver against ischemia/reperfusion injury, via preservation of mitochondrial function, and also preserves lung vascular permeability.

Animals , Male , Anesthetics, Inhalation/pharmacology , Ischemia/prevention & control , Liver/blood supply , Methyl Ethers/pharmacology , Mitochondria, Liver/drug effects , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Capillary Permeability/drug effects , Cytokines/blood , Ischemia/pathology , Lipid Peroxidation , Liver/pathology , Mitochondria, Liver/physiology , Necrosis , Phosphorylation , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Time Factors
Clinics ; 69(10): 655-659, 10/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-730461


OBJECTIVES: Video laparoscopic bariatric surgery is the preferred surgical technique for treating morbid obesity. However, pneumoperitoneum can pose risks to the kidneys by causing a decrease in renal blood flow. Furthermore, as in other surgical procedures, laparoscopic bariatric surgery triggers an acute inflammatory response. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin is an early and accurate biomarker of renal injury, as well as of the inflammatory response. Anesthetic drugs could offer some protection for the kidneys and could attenuate the acute inflammatory response from surgical trauma. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of two types of anesthetics, propofol and sevoflurane, on the serum levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin during the perioperative period in laparoscopic bariatric surgery. METHODS: Sixty-four patients scheduled for laparoscopic bariatric surgery were randomized into two anesthesia groups and were administered either total intravenous anesthesia (propofol) or inhalation anesthesia (sevoflurane). In the perioperative period, blood samples were collected at three time points (before anesthesia, 6 hours after pneumoperitoneum and 24 hours after pneumoperitoneum) and urine output was measured for 24 hours. Acute kidney injuries were evaluated by examining both the clinical and laboratory parameters during the postoperative period. The differences between the groups were compared using non-parametric tests. ReBEC ( RBR-8wt2fy RESULTS: None of the patients developed an acute kidney injury during the study and no significant differences were found between the serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels of the groups during the perioperative period. CONCLUSION: The choice of anesthetic drug, either propofol or sevoflurane, did not affect the serum levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin during the perioperative ...

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Anesthetics, Inhalation/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology , Bariatric Surgery/methods , Lipocalins/blood , Methyl Ethers/pharmacology , Propofol/pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins/blood , Video-Assisted Surgery/methods , Acute-Phase Proteins , Anesthesia, Intravenous , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Anesthesia, General/methods , Bariatric Surgery/adverse effects , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Laparoscopy/adverse effects , Laparoscopy/methods , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Perioperative Period , Risk Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Video-Assisted Surgery/adverse effects
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 63(2): 170-177, mar.-abr. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-671556


JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Investigamos o efeito do óxido nitroso (N2O) em hipotensão controlada durante anestesia com baixo fluxo (isoflurano-dexmedetomidina) em termos de hemodinâmica, consumo de anestésico e custos. MÉTODOS: Quarenta pacientes foram randomicamente alocados em dois grupos. Infusão de dexmedetomidina (0,1 µ foi mantida por 10 minutos. Subsequentemente, essa infusão foi mantida até os últimos 30 minutos de operação a uma dose de 0,7 µ Tiopental (4-6 e brometo de vecurônio (0,08 0,12 foram administrados na indução de ambos os grupos. Isoflurano (2%) foi administrado para manutenção da anestesia. O Grupo N recebeu uma mistura de 50% de O2-N2O e o Grupo A recebeu uma mistura de 50% de O2-ar como gás de transporte. Anestesia com baixo fluxo (1 L.min-1) foi iniciada após um período de 10 minutos de alto fluxo inicial (4,4 L.min-1). Os valores de pressão arterial, frequência cardíaca, saturação periférica de O2, isoflurano inspiratório e expiratório, O2 inspiratório e expiratório, N2O inspiratório e expiratório, CO2 inspiratório, concentração de CO2 após expiração e concentração alveolar mínima foram registrados. Além disso, as taxas de consumo total de fentanil, dexmedetomidina e isoflurano, bem como de hemorragia, foram determinadas. RESULTADOS: A frequência cardíaca diminuiu em ambos os grupos após a carga de dexmedetomidina. Após a intubação, os valores do Grupo A foram maiores nos minutos um, três, cinco, 10 e 15. Após a intubação, os valores de hipotensão desejados foram alcançados em 5 minutos no Grupo N e em 20 minutos no grupo A. Os valores da CAM foram mais altos no Grupo N nos minutos um, três, cinco, 10 e 15 (p < 0,05). Os valores da FiO2 foram mais altos entre 5 e 60 minutos no Grupo A, enquanto foram mais altos no Grupo N aos 90 minutos (p < 0,05). Os valores de Fi Iso (isoflurano inspiratório) foram menores no Grupo N nos minutos 15 e 30 (p < 0,05). CONCLUSÃO: O uso de dexmedetomidina em vez de óxido nitroso em anestesia com isoflurano pela técnica de baixo fluxo atingiu os níveis desejados de pressão arterial média (PAM), profundidade suficiente da anestesia, estabilidade hemodinâmica e parâmetros de inspiração seguros. A infusão de dexmedetomidina com oxigênio-ar medicinal como gás de transporte é uma técnica anestésica opcional.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effect of Nitrous Oxide (N2O) on controlled hypotension in low-flow isoflurane-dexmedetomidine anesthesia in terms of hemodynamics, anesthetic consumption, and costs. METHODS: We allocated forty patients randomly into two equal groups. We then maintained dexmedetomidine infusion (0.1 µ for 10 minutes. Next, we continued it until the last 30 minutes of the operation at a dose of 0.7 µ We administered thiopental (4-6 mg. kg-1) and 0.08-0.12 vecuronium bromide at induction for both groups. We used isoflurane (2%) for anesthesia maintenance. Group N received a 50% O2-N2O mixture and Group A received 50% O2-air mixture as carrier gas. We started low-flow anesthesia (1 L.min-1) after a 10-minute period of initial high flow (4.4 L.min-1). We recorded values for blood pressure, heart rate, peripheral O2 saturation, inspiratory isoflurane, expiratory isoflurane, inspiratory O2, expiratory O2, inspiratory N2O, expiratory N2O, inspiratory CO2, CO2 concentration after expiration, Minimum Alveolar Concentration. In addition, we determined the total consumption rate of fentanyl, dexmedetomidine and isoflurane as well as bleeding. RESULTS: In each group the heart rate decreased after dexmedetomidine loading. After intubation, values were higher for Group A at one, three, five, 10, and 15 minutes. After intubation, the patients reached desired hypotension values at minute five for Group N and at minute 20 for group A. MAC values were higher for Group N at minute one, three, five, 10, and 15 (p < 0.05). FiO2 values were high between minute five and 60 for Group A, while at minute 90 Group N values were higher (p < 0.05). Fi Iso (inspiratuvar isofluran) values were lower in Group N at minute 15 and 30 (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: By using dexmedetomidine instead of nitrous oxide in low flow isoflurane anesthesia, we attained desired MAP levels, sufficient anesthesia depth, hemodynamic stability and safe inspiration parameters. Dexmedetomidine infusion with medical air-oxygen as a carrier gas represents an alternative anesthetic technique.

JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Investigamos el efecto del óxido nitroso (N2O) en hipotensión controlada durante anestesia con bajo flujo (isoflurano-dexmedetomidina) en términos de hemodinámica, consumo de anestésico y costes. MÉTODOS: Cuarenta pacientes fueron aleatoriamente divididos en dos grupos iguales. La infusión de dexmedetomidina (0,1 µ se mantuvo entonces por 10 minutos. En secuencia, esa infusión se mantuvo hasta los últimos 30 minutos de operación en una dosis de 0,7 µ El tiopental (4-6 y el bromuro de vecuronio (0,08 0,12 fueron administrados en la inducción de ambos grupos. El Isofluorano (2%) fue administrado para el mantenimiento de la anestesia. El Grupo N recibió una mezcla de un 50% de O2-N2O y el Grupo A recibió una mezcla de un 50% de O2-ar como gas de transporte. La anestesia con bajo flujo (1 L.min-1) fue iniciada después de un período de 10 minutos de alto flujo inicial (4,4 L.min-1). Se registraron los valores de la presión arterial, frecuencia cardíaca, saturación periférica de O2, isoflurano inspiratorio, isoflurano espiratorio, O2 inspiratorio, O2 espiratorio, N2O inspiratorio, N2O espiratorio, CO2 inspiratorio, concentración de CO2 después de la espiración y concentración alveolar mínima. Además, de determinaron las tasas de consumo total de fentanil, dexmedetomidina e isoflurano, como también la de hemorragia. RESULTADOS: La frecuencia cardíaca disminuyó en ambos grupos después de la carga de dexmedetomidina. Después de la intubación, los valores del Grupo A fueron mayores en los minutos 1, 3, 5, 10 y 15. Después de la intubación, los valores de hipotensión deseados se alcanzaron en 5 minutos en el Grupo N y en 20 minutos en el grupo A. Los valores de la CAM fueron más altos en el Grupo N en los minutos 1, 3, 5, 10 y 15 (p < 0,05). Los valores de la FiO2 fueron más altos entre 5 y 60 minutos en el Grupo A, mientras que fueron más altos en el Grupo N a los 90 minutos (p < 0,05). Los valores de Fi Iso (isoflurano espiratorio) fueron menores en el Grupo N en los minutos 15 y 30 (p < 0,05). CONCLUSIONES: El uso de la dexmedetomidina en vez del óxido nitroso en la anestesia con el isoflurano por la técnica de bajo flujo, alcanzó los niveles deseados de presión arterial promedio (PAP), profundidad suficiente de la anestesia, estabilidad hemodinámica y parámetros de inspiración seguros. La infusión de dexmedetomidina con oxígeno / aire medicinal como gas de transporte es una técnica anestésica opcional.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Anesthesia, Inhalation , Anesthetics, Inhalation/pharmacology , Hypotension, Controlled , Nitrous Oxide/pharmacology , Hemodynamics/drug effects , Prospective Studies
Clinics ; 68(2): 231-238, 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-668812


OBJECTIVES: The anesthetic gas xenon is reported to preserve hemodynamic stability during general anesthesia. However, the effects of the gas during shock are unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Xe on hemodynamic stability and tissue perfusion in a canine model of hemorrhagic shock. METHOD: Twenty-six dogs, mechanically ventilated with a fraction of inspired oxygen of 21% and anesthetized with etomidate and vecuronium, were randomized into Xenon (Xe; n = 13) or Control (C; n = 13) groups. Following hemodynamic monitoring, a pressure-driven shock was induced to reach an arterial pressure of 40 mmHg. Hemodynamic data and blood samples were collected prior to bleeding, immediately after bleeding and 5, 20 and 40 minutes following shock. The Xe group was treated with 79% Xe diluted in ambient air, inhaled for 20 minutes after shock. RESULT: The mean bleeding volume was 44 in the C group and 40 in the Xe group. Hemorrhage promoted a decrease in both the cardiac index (p<0.001) and mean arterial pressure (p<0.001). These changes were associated with an increase in lactate levels and worsening of oxygen transport variables in both groups (p<0.05). Inhalation of xenon did not cause further worsening of hemodynamics or tissue perfusion markers. CONCLUSIONS: Xenon did not alter hemodynamic stability or tissue perfusion in an experimentally controlled hemorrhagic shock model. However, further studies are necessary to validate this drug in other contexts.

Animals , Dogs , Male , Anesthetics, Inhalation/pharmacology , Hemodynamics/drug effects , Models, Animal , Shock, Hemorrhagic , Xenon/pharmacology , Perfusion , Random Allocation , Respiration/drug effects , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
Acta cir. bras ; 27(1): 37-42, Jan. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-607994


PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of intravenous nonselective cyclooxygenase inhibitor, ketoprofen (keto), on kidney histological changes and kidney cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 (IL-1), levels after hemorrhage of 30 percent of volemia (three times 10 percent, intervals of 10 min) in rats. METHODS: Under sevoflurane (sevo) anesthesia, sevo and sevo+keto groups (10 rats each) were instrumented for Ringer solution (5mL/kg/h) administration and mean arterial pressure (MAP) evaluation, plus keto (1.5mg/kg) administration in sevo+keto group in the beginning of anesthesia. Rectal temperature was continuously measured. The baseline data of temperature and MAP were collected at the first hemorrhage (T1), the third hemorrhage (T2) and 30min after T2 (T3). Bilateral nephrectomy was achieved for histology and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: In both groups, temperature and MAP diminished from initial values. Hypothermia was greater in sevo group (p=0.0002). Tubular necrosis was more frequent in sevo group (p=0.02). The studied cytokines were equally present in the kidneys of both groups. CONCLUSION: Ketoprofen was more protective to the rat kidney in condition of anesthesia with sevoflurane and hypovolemia, but it seems that TNF-α and IL-1 were not involved in that protection.

OBJETIVO: Investigar a influência do inibidor não-seletivo da ciclooxigenase, cetoprofeno (ceto) intravenoso, em alterações histológicas e dos níveis das citocinas renais - fator α de necrose tumoral (TNF- α) e interleucina 1 (IL-1) - após hemorragia de 30 por cento da volemia (10 por cento, três vezes, em intervalos de 10 min). MÉTODOS: Sob anestesia com sevoflurano (sevo), os grupos sevo e sevo+ceto (10 ratos cada) foram preparados cirurgicamente para leitura de pressão arterial média (PAM) e administração de solução de Ringer (5 mL/kg/h) e de cetoprofeno (1,5 mg/kg), no início da anestesia, no grupo sevo+ceto. Mediu-se temperatura retal continuamente. Os valores de temperatura e PAM foram observados antes da primeira hemorragia (T1), após a terceira hemorragia (T2) e 30 min após T2 (T3). Realizada nefrectomia bilateral nos dois grupos para análise histológica e imuno-histoquímica. RESULTADOS: Nos dois grupos, temperatura e PAM diminuíram com relação aos valores basais. Hipotermia foi mais acentuada no grupo sevo (p=0,0002). Necrose tubular foi mais frequente no grupo sevo (p=0,02). As citocinas estiveram igualmente presentes nos rins dos dois grupos. CONCLUSÃO: Cetoprofeno foi mais protetor no rim de rato durante anestesia com sevoflurano e hipovolemia, porém parece que TNF- α e IL-1 não estão envolvidas nessa proteção.

Animals , Rats , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Anesthetics, Inhalation/pharmacology , Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Hemorrhage/complications , Ketoprofen/pharmacology , Methyl Ethers/pharmacology , Acute Disease , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Body Weight/drug effects , Interleukin-1/analysis , Kidney Diseases/prevention & control , Kidney/blood supply , Kidney/drug effects , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 204-212, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-145830


PURPOSE: Despite the fact that desflurane prolongs the QTC interval in humans, little is known about the mechanisms that underlie these actions. We investigated the effects of desflurane on action potential (AP) duration and underlying electrophysiological mechanisms in rat ventricular myocytes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rat ventricular myocytes were enzymatically isolated and studied at room temperature. AP was measured using a current clamp technique. The effects of 6% (0.78 mM) and 12% (1.23 mM) desflurane on transient outward K+ current (I(to)), sustained outward current (I(sus)), inward rectifier K+ current (I(KI)), and L-type Ca2+ current were determined using a whole cell voltage clamp. RESULTS: Desflurane prolonged AP duration, while the amplitude and resting membrane potential remained unchanged. Desflurane at 0.78 mM and 1.23 mM significantly reduced the peak I(to) by 20+/-8% and 32+/-7%, respectively, at +60 mV. Desflurane (1.23 mM) shifted the steady-state inactivation curve in a hyperpolarizing direction and accelerated inactivation of the current. While desflurane (1.23 mM) had no effects on I(sus) and I(KI), it reduced the L-type Ca2+ current by 40+/-6% (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Clinically relevant concentrations of desflurane appear to prolong AP duration by suppressing Ito in rat ventricular myocytes.

Action Potentials/drug effects , Anesthetics, Inhalation/pharmacology , Animals , Calcium Channels, L-Type/physiology , Heart Conduction System/drug effects , Heart Ventricles/drug effects , Isoflurane/analogs & derivatives , Myocardial Contraction/drug effects , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Potassium Channels/physiology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 61(5): 597-603, set.-out. 2011. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-600952


JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A lesão hepática pós-anestesia inalatória ainda é controversa. Estudos sugerem que agentes inalatórios geram uma resposta imune que pode provocar lesões hepáticas. O objetivo deste estudo é analisar o efeito dos anestésicos inalatórios halotano e sevoflurano no fígado de ratos submetidos à hipóxia e à reperfusão. MÉTODO: Foram utilizados 30 ratos Wistar pré-tratados com fenobarbital 0,1 por cento por cinco dias, com suspensão da medicação 24 horas antes do experimento, a fim de provocar a lesão hepática. Os animais foram distribuídos em cinco grupos com seis ratos cada. O Grupo C foi o de controle, sem qualquer tipo de tratamento; o Grupo F foi aquele no qual se induziu lesão hepática com fenobarbital; o Grupo Hipóxia foi exposto a 14 por cento de oxigênio (O2); o Grupo H recebeu halotano 1 por cento e 14 por cento de O2; e o Grupo S recebeu sevoflurano 2 por cento e 14 por cento de O2. Contadas 24 horas após a exposição dos gases, realizaram-se coletas de sangue para avaliação de transaminases (AST e ALT) e de amostras de fígado para avaliação histológica. Foram usados os testes de Análise de Variância não paramétrica de Kruskal-Wallis e, para comparação de médias, os testes de Newman-Keuls. RESULTADOS: A atividade enzimática revelou que os valores de média amostral de AST (280,33 para halotano, 181 para sevoflurano) e ALT (235 para halotano e 48,33 para sevoflurano) não indicaram diferença estatística significativa; os grupos testados apresentaram valores elevados. O sevoflurano, quando comparado com o halotano à microscopia óptica, apresentou índices menores de alteração morfológica, com p = 0,045 para esteatose, p = 0,0075 para infiltrado inflamatório e p = 0,0074 para necrose. CONCLUSÕES: O Grupo sevoflurano, quando comparado ao Grupo halotano, não apresentou lesão no parênquima hepático quando avaliado por microscopia óptica.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hepatic injury after inhalational anesthesia is controversial. Studies have suggested that inhalational agents generate an immune response that can provoke hepatic injury. The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of the inhalational agents halothane and sevoflurane on the liver of rats submitted to hypoxia and reperfusion. METHODS: Thirty Wistar rats, pretreated with 0.1 percent phenobarbital for 5 days, with discontinuation of the drug 24 hours before the experiment to cause hepatic injury, were used. Animals were distributed in five groups of six rats each. The control group (C) did not receive any treatment; in the F group, phenobarbital was used to induce hepatic injury; the Hypoxia group was submitted to 14 percent oxygen (O2); the H group received 1 percent halothane and 14 percent O2; and the S group received 2 percent sevoflurane and 14 percent O2. Twenty-four hours after exposure to the gases, blood samples were collected to evaluate transaminases (AST and ALT), and liver samples were collected for histological evaluation. Kruskal-Wallis Analysis of Variance and the Newman-Keuls test were used. RESULTS: Enzymatic activity mean values of AST (280.33, for halothane, 181, for sevoflurane) and ALT (235 for halothane, and 48.33, for sevoflurane) did not show significant differences, and all groups showed elevated values. Compared to halothane on optical microscopy, sevoflurane had lower indices of morphologic changes with p = 0.045, for steatosis, p = 0.0075, for inflammatory infiltrate, and p = 0.0074, for necrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to the halothane group, sevoflurane did not show injuries of the liver parenchyma on optical microscopy.

JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La lesión hepática postanestesia inhalatoria todavía es algo controversial. Algunos estudios sugieren que los agentes inhalatorios generan una respuesta inmune que puede provocar lesiones hepáticas. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar el efecto de los anestésicos inhalatorios halotano y sevoflurano en el hígado de ratones que fueron sometidos a la hipoxia y a la reperfusión. MÉTODO: Fueron utilizados 30 ratones Wistar tratados previamente con fenobarbital al 0,1 por ciento durante cinco días, con suspensión de la medicación 24 horas antes del experimento para provocar la lesión hepática. Los animales fueron distribuidos en cinco grupos con seis ratones cada uno. El grupo C fue el de control, sin ningún tipo de tratamiento; el grupo F fue aquel en el cual se indujo la lesión hepática con fenobarbital; el grupo Hipoxia se expuso a un 14 por ciento de oxígeno (O2); el grupo H recibió halotano al 1 por ciento y al 14 por ciento de O2; y el grupo S recibió sevoflurano al 2 por ciento y al 14 por ciento de O2. Contadas 24 horas después de la exposición de los gases, se realizó la recolección de sangre para la evaluación de las transaminasas (AST y ALT), y de las muestras de hígado para la evaluación histológica. Fueron usados los test de Análisis de Variancia no paramétrica de Kruskal-Wallis, y para la comparación de los promedios se usaron los test de Newman-Keuls. RESULTADOS: La actividad enzimática arrojó valores de promedio de muestra de AST (280,33 para halotano, 181 para sevoflurano y ALT 235 para halotano y 48,33 para sevoflurano), que no indicaron diferencia estadística significativa: los grupos testados presentaron valores elevados. El sevoflurano, cuando fue comparado con el halotano a la microscopía óptica, presentó índices menores de alteración morfológica, con p = 0,045 para esteatosis, p = 0,0075 para infiltrado inflamatorio y p = 0,0074 para necrosis. CONCLUSIONES: El grupo sevoflurano, cuando se comparó con el grupo h...

Animals , Rats , Anesthetics, Inhalation/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Halothane/pharmacology , Liver Diseases , Rats, Wistar
Acta cir. bras ; 26(supl.1): 66-71, 2011. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-600661


PURPOSE: To evaluate the metabolic and oxidative effects of sevoflurane and propofol in children undergoing surgery for correction of congenital heart disease. METHODS: Twenty children with acyanotic congenital heart disease, scheduled for elective cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, age range 1 day to 14 years were randomly assigned to 2 groups: Group GP, programmed to receive total intravenous anesthesia with propofol and group GS scheduled to use balanced anesthesia with sevoflurane. Exclusion criteria were cyanotic heart disease or complex, association with other malformations, severe systemic diseases, infection or children undergoing treatment and palliative or emergency surgery. Blood samples were collected at three different time-points: T0, after radial artery cannulation, T1, 30 minutes after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) launch and T2, at the end of procedure. Parameters analyzed included thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS), glutathione (GLN), lactate and pyruvate plasmatic concentrations. RESULTS: TBARS, GSH, lactate and pyruvate concentrations did not change significantly by Friedman´s test. Lactate/pyruvate ratio (L/P) was >10 in both groups. There was a moderate Pearson correlation for TBARS, in T1 (r=0.50; p=0.13) e T2 (r=0.51;p=0.12). Pearson correlation was high between groups during CPB (T1) for lactate (r=0.68; p=0.02), pyruvate (r=0.75; p=0.01) and L/P ratio (r=0.83; p=0.003). CONCLUSION: Anesthetic techniques investigated in this study showed a similar pattern, with no increase in metabolic substrates and oxidative stress during surgical correction of congenital heart defects in non-cyanotic children.

OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos metabólicos e oxidativos da anestesia com sevoflurano ou propofol em crianças portadoras de cardiopatia congênita, submetidas à cirurgia eletiva. MÉTODOS: Vinte crianças com cardiopatia congênita acianótica, agendadas para a cirurgia cardíaca eletiva com circulação extracorpórea (CEC), idades 1 dia-14 anos, foram distribuídas aleatoriamente em dois grupos: Grupo GP (anestesia venosa total com propofol) e grupo GS (anestesia balanceada com sevoflurano). Critérios de exclusão foram: doença cardíaca cianótica ou complexa, associação com outras malformações, doença sistêmica grave, infecção ou crianças submetidas a tratamento e cuidados paliativos ou cirurgia de emergência. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas em três horários diferentes: T0, após a canulação da artéria radial, T1, 30 minutos após o início da CEC e T2, no final do procedimento. Parâmetros analisados: substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS), glutationa (GLN), lactato e piruvato. RESULTADOS: As concentrações de TBARS, GSH, lactato e piruvato não foram diferentes (teste de Friedman). A razão Lactato/piruvato (L/P) foi >10 em ambos os grupos. Houve uma correlação de Pearson moderada no TBARS, em T1 (r = 0,50, p = 0,13) e T2 (r = 0,51, p = 0,12). A correlação de Pearson foi alta entre os grupos durante a CEC (T1) para lactato (r=0,68, p=0,02), piruvato (r=0,75, p=0,01) e relação L/P (r =0,83, p=0,003). CONCLUSÃO: As técnicas anestésicas investigadas mostraram um padrão semelhante, sem aumento de substratos metabólicos ou do estresse oxidativo durante a correção cirúrgica de cardiopatias congênitas em crianças acianóticas.

Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Anesthetics, Inhalation/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology , Heart Defects, Congenital/surgery , Methyl Ethers/pharmacology , Propofol/pharmacology , Glutathione/blood , Lactic Acid/blood , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Prospective Studies , Pyruvic Acid/blood , Time Factors , Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances/metabolism
Botucatu; s.n; 2011. 181 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-673801


A metadona é um opióide que possui potência analgésica semelhante à da morfina. Doses elevadas de metadona intravenosa (0,5-1,0 mg/kg), apesar de reduzirem a concentração alveolar mínima do isoflurano (CAMISO), resultam em maior depressão cardíaca que a observada com a morfina intravenosa (1,0 mg/kg) em cães. Com a hipótese de que a metadona peridural poderia proporcionar vantagens clínicas em relação à metadona intravenosa (maior potencialização da anestesia inalatória e maior eficácia analgésica), os estudos apresentados objetivaram comparar aspectos farmacocinéticos e farmacodinâmicos destas vias de administração da metadona em cães. Nos dois estudos iniciais (Capítulos 1 e 2), os mesmos seis animais foram anestesiados com isoflurano e tratados com metadona (0,5 mg/kg) peridural ou intravenosa em ocasiões distintas. No primeiro estudo (Capítulo 1), para comparação da farmacocinética destas duas vias de administração, a concentração de metadona foi determinada no plasma e no líquor da cisterna magna antes e durante 450 minutos após a administração do opióide. No segundo estudo (Capítulo 2), a CAMISO foi mensurada antes e após 2,5 e 5 horas da administração da metadona, mediante a aplicação da estimulação nociceptiva em membro pélvico e torácico (via peridural) ou em membro pélvico apenas (via intravenosa). No último estudo (Capítulo 3), cadelas apresentando tumores mamários, após serem tratadas de forma preemptiva com metadona (0,5 mg/kg) peridural ou intravenosa (10 animais por grupo), foram submetidas à mastectomia unilateral. Nesta etapa, avaliou-se a concentração expirada de isoflurano (ETISO) necessária à realização da mastectomia e, no período pós-operatório, avaliou-se os escores de dor, limiares nociceptivos mecânicos (LNM) das cadeias mamárias e requerimento de resgates analgésicos...

Methadone is an opioid that has analgesic potency comparable to that of morphine. High doses of intravenous methadone (0.5-1.0 mg/kg), in spite of reducing the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane (MACISO), cause greater cardiac depression than intravenous morphine (1 mg/kg) in dogs. The studies presented here aimed to compare some pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of peridural and intravenous methadone in dogs, testing the hypothesis that peridural methadone could result in clinical advantages when compared to intravenous methadone (greater reduction in anesthetic requirements and greater analgesic efficacy). In the first 2 studies (Chapters 1 and 2), the same six animals underwent isoflurane anesthesia and were treated with methadone (0.5 mg/kg) administered via the peridural or intravenous routes during different occasions. During the first study (Chapter 1), in order to compare the pharmacokinetics of these two administration routes, methadone concentrations were determined in plasma and in the cisternal cerebrospinal fluid before and for 450 minutes after opioid injection. During the second study (Chapter 2), MACISO was measured before, 2.5 and 5 hours after methadone injection via nociceptive stimulation of the thoracic and pelvic limb (peridural) or the pelvic limb (intravenous). During the last series of studies (Chapter 3), bitches presented with mammary gland tumors were preemptively treated with peridural or intravenous methadone (0.5 mg/kg) (10 animals per group) and underwent unilateral mastectomy. The end-tidal isoflurane concentration (ETISO) necessary for maintaining surgical anesthesia was evaluated and, during the postoperative period, parameters evaluated included Glasgow pain scores, mechanical nociceptive thresholds (MNT) in the mammary glands, and requirement for supplemental analgesia...

Animals , Dogs , Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacokinetics , Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Inhalation/pharmacokinetics , Anesthetics, Inhalation/pharmacology , Isoflurane/pharmacokinetics , Isoflurane/pharmacology , Methadone/administration & dosage , Methadone/pharmacokinetics , Methadone/pharmacology
Ann Card Anaesth ; 2010 May; 13(2): 130-137
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-139514


This prospective randomized study aims to evaluate and compare the effects of isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane (study drugs) on left ventricular (LV) diastolic function in patients with impaired LV relaxation due to ischemic heart disease using transesophageal Doppler echocardiography. After approval of the local ethics committee and informed consent, 45 patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting surgery were enrolled in the study. Patients were selected by a preoperative Transthoracic Echocardiographic diagnosis of impaired relaxation or Grade 1 Diastolic Dysfunction. They randomly received fentanyl and midazolam anesthesia with 1 MAC of isoflurane (n=16), sevoflurane (n=14) or desflurane (n=15). Hemodynamic parameters and TEE derived ventricular diastolic relaxation indices before and after the study drug administration were compared. LV filling pressures were kept constant throughout the study period to exclude the effect of the loading conditions on diastolic function. Four patients in the sevoflurane group and three in the desflurane group were excluded from the study, after baseline TEE examination revealed normal diastolic filling pattern. All the three study drugs significantly reduced the systemic vascular resistance index with a significant increase in cardiac index. Mean arterial pressure was reduced by all the drugs, although the decrease was not statistically significant. Hemodynamic changes were comparable between all the three groups. In terms of LV relaxation indices, all three agents led to a significant improvement in diastolic function. Transmitral and Tissue Doppler E/A and Em/Am ratios improved significantly Transmitral and Tissue Doppler E/A and Em/Am ratios improved significantly accompanied by a significant decrease in deceleration time and isovolumetric relaxation time. The effect of all three agents on diastolic relaxation parameters was comparable. In conclusion , Isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane, do not appear to have a detrimental effect in patients with early diastolic dysfunction. On the contrary, these inhalational agents actually improve the LV relaxation. A significant reduction in afterload produced by these vapors can be a possible reason for these findings. The positive effect of these inhalational agents on LV relaxation can have a profound effect on the perioperative anesthetic management of patients with diastolic dysfunction.

Anesthetics, Inhalation/pharmacology , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Hemodynamics/drug effects , Humans , Isoflurane/analogs & derivatives , Isoflurane/pharmacology , Methyl Ethers/pharmacology , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/drug therapy , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Function, Left/drug effects , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 60(2): 162-169, mar.-abr. 2010. tab
Article in English, Spanish, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-552044


JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O sevoflurano é um éter halogenado com flúor que sofre biotransformação hepática através do citocromo P450 2E1. Éteres halogenados que sofrem biotransformação pelo P450 2E1 podem produzir espécies reativas do oxigênio (ERO) e promover enfraquecimento do sistema de defesa antioxidante. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a relação entre a atividade das enzimas antioxidantes eritrocitárias e o sevoflurano. MÉTODO: Os animais foram distribuídos em quatro grupos: Grupo 1 controle: apenas oxigênio a 100 por cento (1 L.min-1 por 60 minutos durante 5 dias consecutivos); Grupo 2 - sevoflurane 4,0 por cento em oxigênio a 100 por cento (1 L.min-1 por 60 minutos durante 5 dias consecutivos); Grupo 3 - isoniazida (i.p.), 50 de peso corporal /dia, durante 4 dias e em seguida tratados apenas com oxigênio a 100 por cento (1 L.min-1 por 60 minutos durante 5 dias consecutivos); Grupo 4 - isoniazida por via intraperitoneal na dose de 50 de peso corporal, diariamente durante 4 dias, seguido da administração do sevoflurane a 4,0 por cento em oxigênio a 100 por cento (1 L.min-1 por 60 minutos durante 5 dias). Após 12 horas da última exposição ao sevoflurane, os animais foram sacrificados e o sangue foi coletado através da veia porta para análise da atividade das enzimas antioxidantes. RESULTADOS: Aumento da atividade específica da glicose-6-fosfato desidrogenase, diminuição da atividade específica da catalase, principalmente no grupo de animais pré-tratados com isoniazida e, em seguida, tratados com sevoflurano. A glutationa peroxidase não apresentou alteração na sua atividade. CONCLUSÕES: A interação do sevoflurano com indutores enzimáticos do citocromo P450 2E1 pode propiciar a instalação do estresse oxidativo caso a exposição se torne prolongada e repetitiva.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sevoflurane is a halogenated fluorinated ether that undergoes hepatic biotransformation through cytochrome P4502E1. Halogenated ethers undergoing biotransformation by P4502E1 can produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), weakening the antioxidant defense mechanism. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the activity of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes and sevoflurane. METHODS: Animals were divided in four groups: Group 1 - control: 100 percent oxygen (1 L.min-1 for 60 min during five consecutive days); Group 2 - 4.0 percent sevoflurane in 100 percent oxygen (1 L.min-1 for 60 minutes during five consecutive days); Group 3 - isoniazid (i.p.), 50 day for four consecutive days, followed by 100 percent oxygen (1 L.min-1 for 60 minutes during four consecutive days); Group 4 - intraperitoneal isoniazid, 50 daily for four days, followed by 4.0 percent sevoflurane in 100 percent oxygen (1 L.min-1 for 60 minutes during five days). Twelve hours after the last exposure to sevoflurane, animals were sacrificed and their blood was collected through the portal vein for analysis of antioxidant enzymes. RESULTS: An increase in the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and a decrease in the activity of catalase were observed, especially in the group of animals pre-treated with isoniazid. Changes in the activity of glutathione peroxidase were not observed. CONCLUSIONS: The interaction between sevoflurane and cytochrome P450 2E1 with enzymatic inducers can lead to oxidative stress with prolonged and repetitive exposure.

JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: El sevoflurano es un éter halogenado con flúor que sufre una biotransformación hepática a través del citocromo P450 2E1. Los éteres halogenados que sufren biotransformación por el P450 2E1, pueden generar especies reactivas del oxígeno (ERO) y promover el debilitamiento del sistema de defensa antioxidante. El objetivo de este trabajo fue investigar la relación entre la actividad de las enzimas antioxidantes eritrocitarias y el sevoflurano. MÉTODO: Los animales fueron distribuidos en cuatro grupos: Grupo 1 control: apenas oxígeno a 100 por ciento (1 L.min-1 por 60 minutos durante 5 días consecutivos); Grupo 2 - sevoflurano 4,0 por ciento en oxígeno a 100 por ciento (1 L.min-1 por 60 minutos durante 5 días consecutivos); Grupo 3 - isoniazida (i.p.), 50 de peso corporal /día, durante 4 días y enseguida tratados apenas con oxígeno a 100 por ciento (1 L.min-1 por 60 minutos durante 5 días consecutivos); Grupo 4 - isoniazido por vía intraperitoneal en dosis de 50 de peso corporal, diariamente durante 4 días, seguido de la administración del sevoflurano a 4,0 por ciento en oxígeno a 100 por ciento (1 L.min-1 por 60 minutos durante 5 días). Después de 12 horas de la última exposición al sevoflurano, los animales se sacrificaron y la sangre se recolectó a través de la vena porta para el análisis de la actividad de las enzimas antioxidantes. RESULTADOS: Aumento de la actividad específica de la glucosa- 6-fosfato deshidrogenasa, reducción de la actividad específica de la catalasis, principalmente en el grupo de animales pretratados con isoniazida y enseguida, tratados con sevoflurano. El glutatión peroxidasa no presentó ninguna alteración en su actividad. CONCLUSIONES: La interacción del sevoflurano con inductores enzimáticos del citocromo P450 2E1 puede propiciar la instalación del estrés oxidativo en el caso que la exposición se prolongue y sea repetitiva.

Animals , Male , Rats , Anesthetics, Inhalation/pharmacology , Erythrocytes/drug effects , Erythrocytes/enzymology , Methyl Ethers/pharmacology , /drug effects , Rats, Wistar