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Rev. chil. anest ; 50(1): 159-170, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1512438


In emergency settings, TIVA should be adjusted in accordance to the pharmacological changes observed in the hypovolemic patient. With the understanding that in those cases there is a decrease in drug requirements, there is a tendency to underdose these patients, increasing the possibility of awareness. Variation in central volume concentration and blood flow redistribution increase plasma drug concentration (Cp). Decreased liver and kidney perfusion, hemodilution and hypothermia, all affect metabolism and clearance of drugs. Changes in drug bioavailability are also observed secondary to changes in plasma protein concentration and acidosis. Changes in pharmacodynamic of target organs are the product of metabolic and temperature disturbances. Due to the nature of hypovolemic shock, most systematic studies have been done in animals. In this condition, the volume of distribution and clearance of fentanyl decreases, increasing decremental times hence requiring bolus and infusion adjustment. Similar changes are observed when using remifentanil, but in this case its contextual half-life is not altered. In the case of etomidate use, most changes are observed on V2 and V3, with a minimal pharmacodynamic variation is observed, thus, requiring no adjustment. When propofol is used, the increase in Cp is proportional to the degree of hypovolemia, adding an increased sensitivity when it reaches over 40%. Data fit to the Eleveld's model (from animal data extrapolation) and simulations in TIVA trainer are shown. Experience shows that these suggestions overestimate the dose, especially within the first 10 minutes. Therefore, it is recommended to reduce the target by 50% in the case of crystalloid-based resuscitation and by 20% when colloids are preferred. Finally, ketamine has been repositioned as an analgesic drug, and is not recommended as a hypnotic, except when used with propofol or benzodiazepines. For propofol, a staggered induction is recommended (together with remifentanil and a neuromuscular blocker), maintaining then the concentration at the site of effect with which the unconsciousness was achieved. The use of EEG monitoring will yield a better titration.

En escenarios de urgencia, la TIVA se debe ajustar a los cambios farmacológicos observados en el paciente hipovolémico. En el entendido de que los requerimientos de drogas bajan, se tiende a subdosificar y con ello, aumentar la posibilidad de recuerdo intraoperatorio. La concentración del volumen central y la redistribución de flujo, aumentan la concentración plasmática (Cp) de droga. La disminución del flujo hepático y renal, la hemodilución y la hipotermia afectan el metabolismo y la distribución de las drogas. Cambios en la biodisponibilidad de drogas también se observan secundario a cambios en la concentración de proteínas plasmáticas y acidosis. Cambios farmacodinámicos de los órganos blancos son producto de las alteraciones metabólicas y de temperatura. Por la naturaleza del hipovolémico, los estudios sistemáticos han sido fundamentalmente en animales. El volumen de distribución y aclaramiento del fentanilo disminuyen, aumentando los tiempos decrementales. Requiere ajuste de bolo e infusión. Los mismos cambios se observan en el remifentanilo, sin embargo, su vida media contextual no se altera. Para etomidato se observa una contracción centrada en V2 y V3 y una variación farmacodinámica mínima, por lo que no requiere ajuste. Con propofol el aumento de la Cp es proporcional a la hipovolemia, agregándose aumento de la sensibilidad cuando es mayor del 40%. Se muestran ajustes basados en el modelo de Eleveld (de la extrapolación de datos animales) y simulaciones en TIVAtrainer. La experiencia muestra que estas sugerencias sobrestiman la dosis, especialmente los primeros 10 minutos, por lo que se aconseja disminuir el target en 50% en el caso de la reanimación basada en cristaloides y en 20% cuando se prefieren coloides. Por último, la ketamina se ha reposicionado como droga analgésica, no se recomienda como hipnótico, salvo en presencia de propofol o benzodiacepinas. Para propofol, se recomienda una inducción escalonada (junto con remifentanilo y un bloqueador neuromuscular), manteniendo luego con la concentración en en el sitio de efecto (Ce) con la que se alcanzó el LOC. El monitoreo con EEG permitirá una mejor titulación.

Humans , Anesthetics, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Emergencies , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacokinetics , Hypovolemia
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(6): 620-626, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155779


Abstract Background and objectives Day-case pediatric sedation is challenging. Dexmedetomidine is a sedative analgesic that does not induce respiratory depression. We compared dexmedetomidine to propofol when it was added to ketamine for sedation during pediatric endoscopy, regarding recovery time and hemodynamic changes. Methods We enrolled 120 patients (2−7 years in age) and randomly assigned them into two groups. Each patient received intravenous (IV) ketamine at a dose of 1 in addition to either propofol (1 or dexmedetomidine (0.5 µ The recovery time was compared. Hemodynamics, oxygen saturation, need for additional doses, postoperative complications and endoscopist satisfaction were monitored. Results There was no significant difference in hemodynamics between the groups. The Propofol-Ketamine (P-K) group showed significantly shorter recovery times than the Dexmedetomidine-Ketamine (D-K) group (21.25 and 29.75 minutes, respectively, p < 0.001). The P-K group showed more oxygen desaturation. Eleven and 6 patients experienced SpO2 < 92% in groups P-K and D-K, respectively. A significant difference was noted regarding the need for additional doses; 10% of patients in the D-K group needed one extra dose, and 5% needed two extra doses, compared to 25% and 20% in the P-K group, respectively (p = 0.001). The P-K group showed less post-procedure nausea and vomiting. No statistically significant difference between both groups regarding endoscopist satisfaction. Conclusions The P-K combination was associated with a shorter recovery time in pediatric upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, while the D-K combination showed less need for additional doses. Registration number Clinical (NCT02863861).

Resumo Justificativa e objetivos A sedação ambulatorial pediátrica é um desafio. A dexmedetomidina é um analgésico sedativo que não induz à depressão respiratória. Comparamos a dexmedetomidina ao propofol quando associados à cetamina para sedação durante endoscopia pediátrica, quanto ao tempo de recuperação e às alterações hemodinâmicas. Métodos Foram recrutados 120 pacientes (2−7 anos de idade) que foram aleatoriamente alocados em dois grupos. Cada paciente recebeu cetamina IV na dose de 1‐1, além de propofol (1‐1) ou dexmedetomidina (0,5 µ‐1). Comparamos o tempo de recuperação. A hemodinâmica, saturação de oxigênio, necessidade de doses adicionais, complicações pós‐operatórias e satisfação do endoscopista foram monitoradas. Resultados Não houve diferença significante entre os grupos no que diz respeito à hemodinâmica. O grupo Propofol‐Cetamina (P‐C) apresentou tempos de recuperação significantemente mais curtos do que o grupo Dexmedetomidina‐Cetamina (D‐C) (21,25 e 29,75 minutos respectivamente, p < 0,001). Observou‐se frequência maior de dessaturação de oxigênio no grupo P‐C. Onze e 6 pacientes apresentaram SpO2 < 92% nos grupos P‐C e D‐C, respectivamente. Uma diferença significante foi observada em relação à necessidade de doses adicionais; 10% dos pacientes no grupo D‐C precisaram de uma dose extra e 5% precisaram de duas doses extras, em comparação com 25% e 20% no grupo P‐C, respectivamente (p = 0,001). O grupo P‐C apresentou menos náuseas e vômitos após o procedimento. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os dois grupos em relação à satisfação do endoscopista. Conclusões A combinação P‐C foi associada a tempo mais curto de recuperação na endoscopia digestiva alta pediátrica, enquanto a combinação D‐C mostrou menor necessidade de doses adicionais. Número de registro Clinical (NCT02863861).

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Propofol/administration & dosage , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Anesthetics, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Combined/administration & dosage , Dexmedetomidine/administration & dosage , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Oxygen/blood , Time Factors , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Anesthesia Recovery Period , Heart Rate/drug effects , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Hypotension/chemically induced , Ketamine/administration & dosage
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(5): 464-470, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143954


Abstract Introduction and objectives: The incidence of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) after video cholecystectomy is high. Progress in pharmacological PONV prophylaxis includes a new generation of 5-HT3 antagonists. This study aims to assess the effect of the 5-HT3 antagonist in postanesthetic antiemetic management of patients submitted to laparoscopic cholecystectomy with total intravenous anesthesia. Methods: Sixty individuals who underwent video cholecystectomy were randomized into three groups of 20 individuals according to the treatment administered: 0.125 mg of palonosetron (Group 1); 4 mg of ondansetron associated with 4 mg of dexamethasone (Group 2); 4 mg of dexamethasone (Group 3). General intravenous anesthesia was performed with propofol, remifentanil and rocuronium. The group to which the participant belonged was concealed from the investigator who assessed drug effect. PONV was assessed using the Rhodes Scale at 12 and 24 hours after surgery. Rescue medication was 0.655 to 1.5 mg of droperidol. Results: Group 1 presented a lower incidence of PONV and required less rescue medication in the first postoperative hour. There was no significant difference among the three groups regarding PONV incidence in the first 12 postoperative hours. Groups 1 and 2 were superior to Group 3 regarding the control of PONV from 12 to 24 hours, and after rescue medication from 12 to 24 hours. Group 1 showed significantly superior nausea control in the first 12 postoperative hours. Conclusions: The present study showed evidence that palonosetron is superior to the drugs compared regarding a protracted antiemetic effect and less requirement of rescue drugs, mainly related to its ability to completely inhibit the uncomfortable symptom of nausea.

Resumo Justificativa e objetivo: Náuseas e Vômitos no Pós-Operatório (NVPO) têm alta incidência após videocolecistectomia. Avanços na profilaxia farmacológica de NVPO incluem a nova geração de antagonista 5-HT3. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito do antagonista 5-HT3 no controle antiemético pós-anestésico em videocolecistectomia com anestesia venosa total. Método: Estudo realizado no HC-UFU (Hospital Terciário). Sessenta indivíduos submetidos a videocolecistectomia foram randomizados em três grupos de igual número, sendo administrados 0,125 mg de palonosetrona (Grupo 1); 4 mg de ondasetrona e 4 mg de dexametasona (Grupo 2); ou 4 mg de dexametasona (Grupo 3). A anestesia geral venosa foi realizada com propofol, remifentanil e rocurônio. O avaliador do efeito da droga desconhecia o grupo ao qual o indivíduo pertencia. NVPO foi avaliada aplicando a Escala de Rhodes após 12 e 24 horas do término da cirurgia. Para resgate terapêutico, foi estabelecido 0,655−1,5 mg de droperidol. Resultado: Observou-se no Grupo 1 menor incidência de NVPO e de resgate terapêutico na primeira hora de PO. Não foi observada diferença significativa entre os três grupos com relação a ocorrência de NVPO nas primeiras 12 horas de pós-operatório. Os grupos 1 e 2 foram superiores ao Grupo 3 no que se refere ao controle de NVPO de 12 a 24 horas e após o resgate de 12−24 horas. Observou-se que o controle de náuseas nas primeiras 12 horas de pós-operatório do Grupo 1 foi significantemente superior. Conclusão: O presente estudo mostrou evidências da superioridade da palonosetrona às demais drogas empregadas no que se refere ao efeito antiemético prolongado e menor necessidade de resgate, principalmente na capacidade de inibir completamente o desconfortável sintoma de náusea.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic/methods , Anesthetics, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting/prevention & control , Antiemetics/administration & dosage , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Propofol/administration & dosage , Double-Blind Method , Ondansetron/administration & dosage , Rocuronium/administration & dosage , Remifentanil/administration & dosage , Palonosetron/administration & dosage , Middle Aged
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(5): 471-476, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143969


Abstract Background: Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) is a multifactorial surgical complication with an unclear underlying cause. Anesthetic methods, patients' characteristics and the type of surgery are considered as factors affecting PONV. This study was designed to compare the effect of inhalational and intravenous anesthesia in abdominal surgery on the incidence and severity of PONV. Methods: A single-blinded prospective randomized clinical trial on 105 patients aged 18 − 65 years was carried out. Patients were divided into two groups of Total Intravenous Anesthesia (TIVA) and inhalational anesthesia. The incidence and the severity of PONV were examined at 0, 2, 6, 12 and 24 hours after the surgery. The use of a rescue antiemetic was also evaluated. Results: 50.9% of the patients in the inhalation group and 17.3% of the patients in the intravenous group developed PONV (p < 0.001). The incidence of vomiting was reported in 11.3% of the inhalational group and 3.8% of the TIVA group (p = 0.15). 24.5% of patients in the inhalation group and 9.6% of patients in the intravenous group needed an antiemetic medication (p = 0.043). Conclusion: The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting and the need for administration of an antiemetic rescue drug and the severity of nausea in patients were significantly lower in the TIVA group.

Resumo Justificativa: Náusea e Vômito no Pós-Operatório (NVPO) é uma complicação multifatorial com etiologia não esclarecida. A técnica anestésica, as características dos pacientes e o tipo de cirurgia são considerados fatores que afetam a NVPO. O presente estudo foi desenhado para comparar o efeito da anestesia inalatória com anestesia intravenosa na incidência e gravidade de NVPO na cirurgia abdominal. Método: Foi realizado estudo clínico mono-cego prospectivo randomizado com 105 pacientes com idades de 18 − 65 anos. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos, Anestesia Total Intravenosa (TIVA) e anestesia inalatória. A incidência e gravidade de NVPO foram avaliadas em cinco momentos: 0, 2, 6, 12 e 24 horas pós-cirurgia. O uso de antiemético de resgate também foi avaliado. Resultados: NVPO ocorreu em 50,9% dos pacientes no grupo inalatória e 17,3% dos pacientes no grupo TIVA (p< 0,001). A incidência de vômitos relatados foi 11,3% no grupo Inalatória e 3,8% no grupo TIVA (p = 0,15). Necessitaram de medicação antiemética 24,5% dos pacientes no grupo Inalatória e 9,6% dos pacientes no grupo TIVA (p = 0.043). Conclusão: A incidência de náusea e vômito no pós-operatório, a necessidade de administração de droga antiemética de resgate e a gravidade da náusea foram significantemente mais baixas no grupo TIVA.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Anesthetics, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Inhalation/administration & dosage , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting/epidemiology , Laparotomy/methods , Severity of Illness Index , Single-Blind Method , Incidence , Anesthetics, Intravenous/adverse effects , Anesthetics, Inhalation/adverse effects , Abdomen/surgery , Middle Aged , Antiemetics/administration & dosage
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 38: e2018267, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092130


ABSTRACT Objective: To report on a case of malignant hyperthermia in a child after a magnetic resonance imaging of the skull was performed using sevoflurane anesthesia. Case description: A 3-year-old boy admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit after presenting clinical and laboratory findings consistent with unspecified viral meningoencephalitis. While the patient was sedated, a magnetic resonance imaging of the skul was performed using propofol followed by the administration of sevoflurane through a laryngeal mask in order to continue anesthesia. Approximately three hours after the start of the procedure, the patient presented persistent tachycardia, tachypnea, generalized muscular stiffness and hyperthermia. With a diagnostic hypothesis of malignant hyperthermia, dantrolene was then administered, which immediately induced muscle stiffness, tachycardia, tachypnea and reduced body temperature. Comments: Malignant hyperthermia is a rare pharmacogenetic syndrome characterized by a severe hypermetabolic reaction after the administration of halogenated inhalational anesthetics or depolarizing muscle relaxants such as succinylcholine, or both. Although it is a potentially fatal disease, the rapid administration of continued doses dantrolene has drastically reduced the morbidity and mortality of the disease.

RESUMO Objetivo: Relatar um caso de hipertermia maligna em criança após exame de ressonância magnética de crânio realizada sob efeito anestésico de sevoflurano. Descrição do caso: Menino de três anos de idade, admitido na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica (UTIP) após apresentar quadros clínico e laboratorial compatíveis com meningoencefalite viral não especificada. Foi realizado um exame de ressonância magnética de crânio com sedação utilizando, na indução anestésica, o propofol seguido pela administração de sevoflurano por meio de máscara laríngea para manutenção anestésica. Aproximadamente três horas após o início do procedimento, o paciente apresentou taquicardia, taquipneia, rigidez muscular generalizada e hipertermia persistentes. Com hipótese diagnóstica de hipertermia maligna, foi então administrado dantrolene, que fez ceder de forma imediata a rigidez muscular, a taquicardia, a taquipneia e reduziu a temperatura corporal. Comentários: A hipertermia maligna é uma síndrome farmacogenética rara, que se caracteriza por reação hipermetabólica grave após administração de anestésicos inalatórios halogenados e/ou relaxantes musculares despolarizantes, como a succinilcolina. Apesar de ser uma doença potencialmente fatal, a rápida administração de dantrolene, junto às doses de manutenção, tem reduzido drasticamente a morbimortalidade da doença.

Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Anesthetics, Inhalation/adverse effects , Sevoflurane/adverse effects , Malignant Hyperthermia/etiology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Acyclovir/therapeutic use , Propofol/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Inhalation/administration & dosage , Dantrolene/therapeutic use , Sevoflurane/administration & dosage , Malignant Hyperthermia/drug therapy , Meningoencephalitis/drug therapy , Meningoencephalitis/virology , Muscle Relaxants, Central/therapeutic use
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(4): 377-382, July-Aug. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041994


Abstract Background and objectives According to the manufacturer, the Bispectral Index (BIS) has a processing time delay of 5-10 s. Studies addressing this have suggested longer delays. We evaluated the time delay in the Bispectral Index response. Methods Based on clinical data from 45 patients, using the difference between the predicted and the real BIS, calculated during a fixed 3 minutes period after the moment the Bispectral Index dropped below 80 during the induction of general anesthesia with propofol and remifentanil. Results The difference between the predicted and the real BIS was in average 30.09 ± 18.73 s. Conclusion Our results may be another indication that the delay in BIS processing may be much longer than stated by the manufacture, a fact with clinical implications.

Resumo Justificativa e objetivos De acordo com o fabricante, o índice bispectral (BIS) tem um tempo de processamento de cinco a dez segundos. Estudos que avaliaram esse tempo de processamento sugeriram atrasos mais longos. Nós avaliamos o tempo de atraso na resposta do BIS. Métodos Com base em dados clínicos de 45 pacientes, calculamos a diferença entre o tempo de atraso previsto e real do índice bispectral durante um período fixo de três minutos após o momento em que o BIS caiu abaixo de 80 durante a indução da anestesia geral com propofol e remifentanil. Resultados A diferença entre o BIS previsto e real foi em média 30,09 ± 18,73 segundos. Conclusão Nossos resultados sugerem que o atraso no processamento do índice bispectral pode ser muito maior do que o declarado pelo fabricante, um fato com implicações clínicas.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Propofol/administration & dosage , Consciousness Monitors , Remifentanil/administration & dosage , Anesthesia, General/methods , Time Factors , Monitoring, Intraoperative/methods , Anesthetics, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Middle Aged
Rev. chil. anest ; 48(3): 223-229, 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1451986


INTRODUCTION: Cancer is a chronic, incapacitating and high mortality disease. OBJECTIVE: To carry out an update on the beneficial properties of the use of propofol as an anesthetic agent in cancer patients. METHODOLOGICAL DESIGN: A manual and digital search was performed in different databases such as MEDLINE, Scielo, IBECS and Cochrane, with the following descriptors: propofol, cancer, immunity and cancer. Development: 90% of deaths related to cancer are due to the progression of the disease, to metastases and not to the primary tumor. Therefore, preventing immunosuppression in the perioperative period is particularly important. During the perioperative period, there are factors that activate or inhibit immune responses. Recent findings have suggested that anesthesia can induce metabolic, inflammatory and immunological changes in the perioperative period. Propofol promotes the cytotoxicity of natural killer cells, reduces the motility of tumor cells, inhibits cyclo-oxygenase. It has been revealed that this drug exhibits anticancer properties in some types of cancer: colon cancer, gastric cancer, bile duct cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Propofol has a potential benefit as an anesthetic agent in patient with cancer. Only the accumulation of even more scientific evidence would allow us to give greater value to the use of this drug.

INTRODUCCIÓN: El cáncer es una enfermedad crónica, incapacitante y de gran mortalidad. OBJETIVO: Realizar una actualización sobre las beneficiosas propiedades del uso del propofol como agente anestésico en el paciente oncológico. DISEÑO METODOLÓGICO: Se realizó una búsqueda manual y digital en diferentes bases de datos como MEDLINE, Scielo, IBECS y Cochrane, con los descriptores siguientes: propofol, cáncer, inmunidad y cáncer. Desarrollo: El 90% de las muertes relacionadas con el cáncer son debido a la progresión de la enfermedad, a las metástasis y no al tumor primario. Por ello, prevenir la inmunosupresión en el período perioperatorio toma particular importancia. Durante el periodo perioperatorio existen factores que activan o inhiben las respuestas inmunitarias. Los descubrimientos recientes han sugerido que la anestesia puede inducir cambios metabólicos, inflamatorios e inmunológicos en el período perioperatorio. El propofol favorece la citotoxicidad de las células naturalkiller, reduce la motilidad de las células tumorales, inhibe la ciclooxigenasa. Ha sido revelado que este fármaco exhibe propiedades anticancerosas en algunos tipos de cáncer: cáncer de colon, cáncer gástrico, cáncer de vías biliares. CONCLUSIONES: El propofol presenta un potencial beneficio como agente anestésico en el paciente con cáncer. Solo bastaría la acumulación de aún más evidencia científica que nos permita darle mayor valor al uso de este fármaco.

Humans , Propofol/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Anesthesia/methods , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Propofol/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology
Rev chil anest ; 48(5): 461-464, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1509985


OBJECTIVES: The capacity of polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) to phagocyte microorganisms is an important function to be preserved during surgical interventions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of propofol, fentanyl and remifentanil combination on Candida albicans engulfment by human PMN. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty patients scheduled to undergo surgical interventions (ASA I-II) received propofol, fentanyl and remifentanil as intravenous anesthesia. PMNs were obtained before and after the surgical procedure and phagocytosis assay was performed using opsonized C. albicans. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: No differences between the values obtained before and after anesthesia treatment in the number of phagocytic PMN and the number of C. albicans engulfed were observed. These results suggest that the used anesthesic protocol does not alter one of the most important immune mechanisms.

OBJETIVOS: La capacidad de las células polimorfonucleares (CPN) de fagocitar a los microorganismos es una importante función que se debe de preservar durante las intervenciones quirúrgicas. Por lo tanto, el propósito de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la combinación del propofol, el fentanil y el remifentanil en la ingestión de Candida albicans por parte de las CPN humanas. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Veinte pacientes sujetos a intervenciones quirúrgicas (ASA I-II) recibieron propofol, fentanil y remifentanil como anestesia endovenosa. Los CPN se obtuvieron antes y después del procedimiento quirúrgico y el ensayo de fagocitosis fue realizando usando C. albicans opsonizada. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES: No se observaron diferencias significativas en los valores obtenidos antes y después del tratamiento anestésico tanto en el número de CPN fagocíticas como en el número de C. albicans dentro de las células. Estos hallazgos sugieren que el protocolo anestésico usado no altera uno de los mecanismos de defensa más importante del organismo.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Candida albicans/immunology , Propofol/administration & dosage , Fentanyl/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Phagocytosis/drug effects , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Propofol/pharmacology , Fentanyl/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Remifentanil , Neutrophils
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 68(6): 591-596, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977407


Abstract Introduction: Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury is a common pathophysiological process in liver surgery. Whether Propofol can reduce myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury induced by hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats, together with related mechanisms, still needs further studies. Objective: To investigate if propofol would protect the myocardial cells from apoptosis with hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 18) were randomly allocated into three groups: Sham Group (Group S, n = 6), Hepatic Ischemia-reperfusion Injury Group (Group IR, n = 6) and Propofol Group (Group P, n = 6). Group S was only subjected to laparotomy. Group IR was attained by ischemia for 30 min and reperfusion for 4 h. Group P was subjected identical insult as in Group IR with the administration of propofol started 10 min before ischemia with 120−1, following by continuous infusion at 20−1.h−1. Cell apoptosis was examined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling assay. Endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase2 (SERCA2) and cysteine-containing aspartic acid cleaved-caspase3 (cleaved-caspase3) were assayed by western blot and Altimeter polymerase chain reaction. Results: Apoptosis rate was increased, with mRNA and protein of SERCA2 down-regulated and cleaved-caspase3 up-regulated in Group IR compared with Group S (p < 0.01). Apoptosis rate was decreased, with mRNA and protein of SERCA2 up-regulated and cleaved-caspase3 down-regulated in Group P compared with Group IR (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Propofol can reduce hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury-induced myocardial cell apoptosis, meanwhile, can up-regulate mRNA and protein of SERCA2 in rats.

Resumo Introdução: A lesão hepática por isquemia-reperfusão é um processo fisiopatológico comum em cirurgias hepáticas. Mais estudos ainda são necessários para avaliar se o propofol pode reduzir a lesão de isquemia-reperfusão miocárdica induzida pela lesão de isquemia-reperfusão hepática em ratos, juntamente com os mecanismos que estão relacionados. Objetivo: Investigar se propofol protege as células do miocárdio da apoptose com a lesão hepática por isquemia-reperfusão. Métodos: Ratos machos da raça Sprague-Dawley (n = 18) foram alocados aleatoriamente em três grupos: Grupo Sham (Grupo S, n = 6), Grupo Lesão Hepática por Isquemia-reperfusão (Grupo IR, n = 6) e Grupo Propofol (Grupo P, n = 6). O Grupo S foi submetido apenas à laparotomia. O grupo IR foi submetido à isquemia por 30 min e reperfusão por 4 h. O grupo P foi submetido à mesma isquemia do grupo IR, com a administração de 120 de propofol iniciada 10min antes da isquemia, seguida de infusão contínua a 20 A apoptose celular foi examinada por meio do ensaio de marcação de terminações dUTP pela deoxinucleotidil transferase. Retículo endoplasmático Ca2+-ATPase2 (SERCA2) e caspase-3 do ácido aspártico contendo cisteína (caspase-3 clivada) foram avaliados com o ensaio western blot e reação em cadeia da polimerase. Resultados: A taxa de apoptose foi maior com mRNA e proteína de SERCA2 regulados para baixo e caspase-3 clivada suprarregulada no Grupo IR, em comparação com o Grupo S (p < 0,01). A taxa de apoptose foi menor com mRNA e proteína de SERCA2 suprarregulada e caspase-3 clivada sub-regulada no Grupo P, em comparação com o Grupo IR (p < 0,01). Conclusões: O propofol pode reduzir a apoptose de células miocárdicas induzida por lesão hepática por isquemia-reperfusão. Entretanto, pode suprarregular o mRNA e a proteína de SERCA2 em ratos.

Animals , Male , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Propofol/administration & dosage , Apoptosis/drug effects , Anesthetics, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Myocytes, Cardiac/physiology , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases/biosynthesis , Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases/drug effects , Liver/blood supply , Random Allocation , Propofol/pharmacology , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology
Rev. gastroenterol. Perú ; 38(2): 157-163, abr.-jun. 2018. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1014075


Objetivo: Evaluar la seguridad de propofol combinado con meperidina y midazolam en colonoscopías, endoscopías y ecoendoscopía administrado por una enfermera supervisada por un gastroenterólogo entrenado y comparar su requerimiento en pacientes menores y mayores de 75 años. Material y métodos: Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo, que incluyó a pacientes mayores de 18 años de edad que recibieron propofol durante la endoscopía, colonoscopía (o endoscopía+colonoscopía) y ecoendoscopía. A los pacientes se les administró una dosis inicial de Meperidina (25 mg) y Midazolam (1-3 mg) por vía intravenosa (IV). Después de 2-3 minutos recibieron un bolo IV de propofol entre 10-30 mg. Se administraron bolos repetidos de 10-20 mg a intervalos no menores a 60 segundos durante cada procedimiento, titulado según necesidad y tolerancia del paciente. Resultados: Entre septiembre del 2006 y septiembre del 2016, se realizaron 9 704 procedimientos endoscópicos: 1 598 endoscopías, 3 065 colonoscopías, 2 492 endoscopía + colonoscopía y 57 eco-endoscopías. Hubo 3 912 mujeres (59,1%), la edad promedio fue de 57,1 ± 14,6 años, 880 pacientes (12,5%) mayores de 75 años. La dosis media de propofol para todos los procedimientos fue de 83,2 ± 48,1 mg, para la endoscopía y colonoscopía fue de 59,7 ± 36,2 mg y 77,2 ± 41 mg respectivamente. La dosis media utilizada en pacientes mayores de 75 años en endoscopía fue de 47,5 ± 37,8 mg, colonoscopías de 58,3 ± 33,4 mg y endoscopía + colonoscopía de 78,7 ± 42,7 mg en comparación con pacientes < 75 años en los que la dosis promedio de endoscopía fue de 61,1±35,8 mg (p <0,05), en colonoscopías de 80,5±41,3 mg (p<0,05) y en endoscopías+colonoscopías 105,9 ± 50,2 mg (p<0,05). No hubo complicaciones relacionadas con la sedación. Conclusiones: Propofol combinado con meperidina y midazolam en procedimientos endoscópicos, administrado por enfermera y dirigidos por un gastroenterólogo entrenado, es seguro. Los pacientes mayores de 75 años, necesitaron dosis significativamente menores de propofol para endoscopía, colonoscopia, endoscopía + colonoscopia y ecoendoscopía.

Objective: To evaluate safety of propofol combined with Meperidine and Midazolam in colonoscopies, upper endoscopies (EGD) and Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS) administered by a nurse supervised by a trained gastroenterologist. To compare the required doses of propofol among older and younger than 75 years old. Materials and methods: Retrospective descriptive study including patients 18 years of age and older who received propofol for EGD, colonoscopy (or EGD + colonoscopy) and EUS. The patients were given a baseline dose of Meperidine (25 mg) and Midazolam (1-3 mg) intravenously (IV). After 2-3 minutes, they received an IV bolus of propofol between 10-30 mg. Repeat boluses of 10-20 mg were administered at intervals no lesser than 60 seconds during the procedure, as needed according to patient`s tolerance to the procedure. Results: Between September 2006 and September 2016, 9,704 procedures were performed, of which 1,598 were EGD, 3,065 colonoscopies, 2,492 EGD + colonoscopies and 57 EUS. There were 3,912 women (59.1%), and the average age was 57.1 ± 14.6 years. Eight hundred eighty (12.5%) were older than 75 years. The average dose of propofol for all the procedures was 83.2 ± 48.1 mg, for EGD and colonoscopy was 59.7 ± 36.2 mg and 77.2 ± 41 mg respectively. The average dose used in patients >75 years for EGD was 47.5 ± 37.8 mg, for colonoscopies 58.3 ± 33.4 mg and for EGD + colonoscopies was 78.7 ± 42.7 mg compared to patients <75 years in whom the average dose for EGD was 61.1 ± 35.8 mg (p<0.05), in colonoscopies was 80.5 ± 41.3 mg (p<0.05) and in EGD + colonoscopies 105.9 ± 50.2 mg (p<0.05). There were no sedation-related complications. Conclusions: Propofol combined with meperidine and midazolam in endoscopic procedures directed by a trained gastroenterologist is safe. Elderly patients (>75 years old) required significantly less doses of propofol for EGD, colonoscopy, EGD/colonoscopy and EUS.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Propofol/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Endoscopy , Gastroenterologists , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Adjuvants, Anesthesia/administration & dosage , Peru , Midazolam/administration & dosage , Retrospective Studies , Patient Safety , Injections, Intravenous , Meperidine/administration & dosage
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 67(5): 500-507, Sept-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897769


Abstract Background and objectives There is a strong demand for fast and predictable anesthesia recovery with few side effects. Choice of the hypnotic agent could impact on that. This study investigated the differences between recoveries after remifentanil-propofol and remifentanil-desflurane anesthesias guided by bispectral index (BIS®). Methods Forty patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups according to the anesthesia technique applied: remifentanil-propofol (REM-PRO) and remifentanil-desflurane (REM-DES). After the discontinuation of the anesthetics, the times to extubation, to obey commands and to recover the airway protection reflex were recorted. In the post-anesthetic recovery room (PACU) it was recorded the occurrence of nausea and vomiting (PONV), scores of Ramsay sedation scale and of numeric pain scale (NPS), morphine dose and length of stay in the unit. Results Data from 38 patients were analyzed: 18 from REM-PRO and 20 from REM-DES group. Anesthesia times were similar (REM-PRO = 193 min, SD 79.9 vs. 175.7 min, SD 87.9 REM-DES; p = 0.5). REM-DES had shorter times than REM-PRO group: time to follow command (8.5 min; SD 3.0 vs. 5.6 min; SD 2.5; p = 0.0) and extubation time (6.2 min; 3.1-8.5 vs. 9.5 min; 4.9-14.4; p = 0.0). Times to recover airway protective reflex were similar: 16 patients from REM-PRO (88.9%) restored the airway protective reflex 2 min after extubation vs. 17 from REM-DES (89.5%); and 2 patients from REM-PRO (11.1%) vs. 2 from REM-DES (10.5%) 6 min after extubation, p = 1. Ramsay sedation score, NPS, PONV incidents, morphine dose and PACU stay of length PACU were also similar. Conclusion Remifentanil-desflurane-based anesthesia has a faster extubation time and to follow command than remifentanil-propofol-based anesthesia when both guided by BIS®.

Resumo Justificativa e objetivos Há uma forte demanda por recuperação pós-anestésica rápida e previsível com poucos efeitos adversos. A escolha do agente hipnótico pode influenciar isso. Este estudo investigou as diferenças da recuperação no pós-operatório entre as técnicas anestésicas com remifentanil-propofol e com remifentanil-desflurano ambas com monitoração guiada pelo índice bispectral (BIS ®). Métodos Foram randomicamente distribuídos 40 pacientes em dois grupos de acordo com a técnica anestésica aplicada: remifentanil-propofol (REM-PRO) e remifentanil-desflurano (REM-DES). Após a descontinuação dos anestésicos foram registrados os tempos para extubação, obedecer a comandos e recuperar o reflexo de proteção das vias aéreas. Na sala de recuperação pós-anestésica (SRPA) foi registrado a ocorrência de náuseas e vômitos (NVPO), os escores na escala de sedação de Ramsay e na escala numérica de dor (END), a dose de morfina utilizada e o tempo de permanência nesta unidade. Resultados Os dados de 38 pacientes foram analisados: 18 do grupo REM-PRO e 20 do grupo REM-DES. Os tempos de anestesia foram semelhantes (REM-PRO = 193 minutos, DP 79,9 vs. 175,7 minutos, DP 87,9 REM-DES; p = 0,5). O grupo REM-DES apresentou tempos mais curtos do que o grupo REM-PRO: tempo para obedecer a comandos (8,5 minutos; DP 3,0 vs. 5,6 minutos; DP 2,5; p = 0,0) e tempo de extubação (6,2 minutos; 3,1-8,5 vs. 9,5 minutos; 4,9-14,4; p = 0,0). Os tempos para recuperação do reflexo de proteção das vias aéreas foram semelhantes: 16 pacientes do grupo REM-PRO (88,9%) recuperaram o reflexo de proteção das vias aéreas dois minutos após a extubação vs. 17 do grupo REM-DES (89,5%) e dois pacientes do grupo REM-PRO (11,1%) vs. dois do REM-DES (10,5%) seis minutos após a extubação, p = 1. Os escores de Ramsay, NPS, a incidência de NVPO, a dose de morfina e o tempo de permanência na SRPA também foram semelhantes. Conclusão A anestesia com remifentanil-desflurano tem um perfil de recuperação da anestesia pós-anestésica mais rápido do que o da anestesia com remifentanil-propofol quando ambas guiadas pelo BIS®.

Humans , Female , Anesthesia Recovery Period , Propofol/administration & dosage , Monitoring, Intraoperative/methods , Anesthetics, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Inhalation/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Combined/administration & dosage , Remifentanil/administration & dosage , Desflurane/administration & dosage , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Recovery of Function , Consciousness Monitors , Middle Aged
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 83(4): 445-450, July-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889271


Abstract Introduction: Knowledge of the site of obstruction and the pattern of airway collapse is essential for determining correct surgical and medical management of patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). To this end, several diagnostic tests and procedures have been developed. Objective: To determine whether drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) or Müller's maneuver (MM) would be more successful at identifying the site of obstruction and the pattern of upper airway collapse in patients with OSAS. Methods: The study included 63 patients (52 male and 11 female) who were diagnosed with OSAS at our clinic. Ages ranged from 30 to 66 years old and the average age was 48.5 years. All patients underwent DISE and MM and the results of these examinations were characterized according to the region/degree of obstruction as well as the VOTE classification. The results of each test were analyzed per upper airway level and compared using statistical analysis (Cohen's kappa statistic test). Results: There was statistically significant concordance between the results from DISE and MM for procedures involving the anteroposterior (73%), lateral (92.1%), and concentric (74.6%) configuration of the velum. Results from the lateral part of the oropharynx were also in concordance between the tests (58.7%). Results from the lateral configuration of the epiglottis were in concordance between the tests (87.3%). There was no statistically significant concordance between the two examinations for procedures involving the anteroposterior of the tongue (23.8%) and epiglottis (42.9%). Conclusion: We suggest that DISE has several advantages including safety, ease of use, and reliability, which outweigh MM in terms of the ability to diagnose sites of obstruction and the pattern of upper airway collapse. Also, MM can provide some knowledge of the pattern of pharyngeal collapse. Furthermore, we also recommend using the VOTE classification in combination with DISE.

Resumo Introdução: O conhecimento do local da obstrução e do padrão de colapso das vias respiratórias é essencial para determinar o tratamento cirúrgico e clínico corretos de pacientes com Síndrome de Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono (SAOS). Para este fim, vários testes e procedimentos de diagnóstico foram desenvolvidos. Objetivo: Determinar se a Endoscopia de Sono Induzido por Fármacos (DISE) ou Manobra de Müller (MM) seria mais bem-sucedida na identificação do local de obstrução e do padrão de colapso das vias respiratórias superiores em pacientes com SAOS. Método: O estudo incluiu 63 pacientes (52 do sexo masculino e 11 do sexo feminino) que foram diagnosticados com SAOS em nossa clínica. As idades variaram de 30 a 66 anos e a idade média foi de 48,5 anos. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a DISE e MM e os resultados destes exames foram caracterizados de acordo com a região/grau de obstrução, bem como a classificação VOTE. Os resultados de cada teste foram analisados de acordo com o nível das vias respiratórias superiores e comparados por análise estatística (teste estatístico kappa de Cohen). Resultados: Houve concordância estatisticamente significativa entre os resultados da DISE e MM para os procedimentos que envolvem configuração anteroposterior (73%), lateral (92,1%) e concêntrica (74,6%) do véu palatino. Os resultados da parte lateral da orofaringe também estavam em concordância entre os testes (58,7%). Os resultados da configuração lateral da epiglote estavam em concordância entre os testes (87,3%). Não houve concordância estatisticamente significativa entre os dois exames para os procedimentos que envolvem a parte anteroposterior da língua (23,8%) e epiglote (42,9%). Conclusão: Sugere-se que a DISE apresenta várias vantagens, como segurança, facilidade de uso e confiabilidade, que superam a MM em termos da capacidade de diagnosticar locais de obstrução e o padrão de colapso da via respiratória superior. O MM pode também fornecer algum conhecimento sobre o padrão de colapso da faringe. Além disso, recomendamos o uso da classificação VOTE em combinação com DISE.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Polysomnography/methods , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Endoscopy/methods , Severity of Illness Index , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Anesthetics, Intravenous/administration & dosage
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 66(6): 622-627, Nov.-Dec. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-829716


Abstract A double blind randomized clinical trial of sufentanil as an adjunct in spinal anesthesia for cesarean section and, thereby, be able to reduce the dose of bupivacaine, a local anesthetic, with the same result of an anesthetic block with higher doses but with fewer perioperative side effects, such as hypotension.

Resumo Ensaio clínico randomizado duplamente encoberto sobre o uso do sufentanil como adjuvante em raquianestesia para cesariana e, possibilitando a redução da dose do anestésico local, a bupivacaína, com o mesmo resultado de bloqueio anestésico com doses mais elevadas, mas com menos efeitos colaterais no perioperatório, como hipotensão.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Bupivacaine/administration & dosage , Bupivacaine/adverse effects , Cesarean Section/methods , Sufentanil/administration & dosage , Sufentanil/adverse effects , Anesthetics, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Intravenous/adverse effects , Anesthesia, Obstetrical/methods , Anesthesia, Spinal/methods , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Local/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Double-Blind Method , Hypotension/prevention & control , Intraoperative Complications/prevention & control
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 14(3): 305-310, July-Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-796975


ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the anesthetic techniques using propofol and fentanyl versus midazolam and remifentanil associated with a paracervical block with lidocaine in performing ultrasound-guided transvaginal oocyte aspiration. Methods: A randomized double-blind clinical trial (#RBR-8kqqxh) performed in 61 women submitted to assisted reproductive treatment. The patients were divided into two groups: anesthetic induction with 1mcg/kg of fentanyl associated with 1.5mg/kg of propofol (FP Group, n=32), in comparison with anesthetic induction using 0.075mg/kg of midazolam associated with 0.25mcg/kg/min of remifentanil, and paracervical block with 3mL of 2% lidocaine (MRPB Group, n=29). Main outcome measures: human reproduction outcomes, modified Aldrete-Kroulik index, hemodynamic parameters, and salivary cortisol. Results: The results revealed a higher number of embryos formed in the FP Group (p50=2 versus 1; p=0.025), gestation rate two times higher in the FP Group (44.4% versus 22.2%; p=0.127), less time to reach AK=10 in the MRPB Group (p50=10 versus 2; p<0.001), and lower mean of hemodynamic parameters in the MRPB Group (p<0.05). Conclusion: Anesthesia with fentanyl and propofol as well as with midazolam, remifentanil, and paracervical block offered satisfactory anesthetic conditions when performing assisted reproduction procedures, providing comfort for the patient and physician.

RESUMO Objetivo: Comparar as técnicas anestésicas utilizando propofol e fentanil contra midazolam e remifentanil associados a um bloqueio paracervical com lidocaína na aspiração de oócitos transvaginal guiada por ultrassom. Métodos: Ensaio clínico randomizado duplocego (#RBR-8kqqxh) realizado em 61 mulheres submetidas ao tratamento de reprodução assistida. As pacientes foram divididas em dois grupos: um grupo foi submetido à indução da anestesia com 1mcg/kg de fentanil associada com 1,5mg/kg de propofol (Grupo FP, n=32), em comparação com ao grupo submetido à indução da anestesia utilizando 0,075mg/kg de midazolam associada com 0,25mcg/kg/min de remifentanil, e bloqueio paracervical com 3mL de lidocaína a 2% (Grupo MRBP, n=29). Foram avaliados os resultados reprodutivos, índice modificado de Aldrete e Kroulik, parâmetros hemodinâmicos e cortisol salivar. Resultados: Foi encontrado um número mais elevado de embriões formados no Grupo FP (p50=2 versus 1; p=0,025), taxa de gestação duas vezes mais elevada no Grupo FP (44,4% versus 22,2%; p=0,127), menos tempo para alcançar AK=10 no Grupo MRBP (p50=10 versus 2; p<0,001) e média mais baixa de parâmetros hemodinâmicos do Grupo MRBP (p<0,05). Conclusão: Ambas as anestesias (com fentanil e propofol, e com midazolam, remifentanil e bloqueio paracervical) ofereceram condições anestésicas satisfatórias na realização de procedimentos realizados em reprodução assistida, proporcionando conforto para o paciente e médico.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Piperidines/administration & dosage , Punctures/methods , Anesthetics, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Oocyte Retrieval/methods , Anesthesia, Obstetrical/methods , Time Factors , Midazolam/administration & dosage , Hydrocortisone/analysis , Propofol/administration & dosage , Fentanyl/administration & dosage , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies , Patient Satisfaction , Ultrasonography, Interventional , Pregnancy Rate
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 31(2): 178-182, Mar.-Apr. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-792654


Abstract Introduction: To obtain the optimal anesthesia depth is not easy in cardiovascular surgery patients where the haemodynamic reserve is limited, due to reasons such as not being able to give the desired dose of anesthetic agent, or the change in the pharmacokinetics of the agent in the heart-lung machine. This study was planned to assess the contribution of bispectral index (BIS) monitoring in the depth of anesthesia. Methods: The patients were divided into 2 groups, and BIS monitoring was used for each patient. Group 1 (G1 n=35): keeping the BIS monitor screen open, the anesthesia need was set. Group 2 (G2 n=35): BIS monitor was tied to the patient and the monitor screen was closed in such a way that the anaesthesist couldn't see the BIS value. When the recording time came, the data on the monitor was recorded. The need for the anesthetic agent was set according to the parameters such as haemodynamics or follow up of pupils, instead of BIS value, by titrating the anesthetic infusion doses. Results: BIS values were similar in both groups before the induction, BIS values in both groups showed a decrease, showing no significant statistical difference (P>0.05). One patient in each group said that he dreamt, and one patient in G2 said that he had heard a noise and felt that he was taken from one place to another. Conclusion: The management should be done with clinical evaluation, haemodynamics and other monitorization methods and BIS monitoring findings together.

Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Coronary Artery Bypass/instrumentation , Monitoring, Intraoperative/methods , Consciousness Monitors/statistics & numerical data , Intraoperative Awareness/diagnosis , Propofol/administration & dosage , Fentanyl/administration & dosage , Monitoring, Intraoperative/statistics & numerical data , Anesthetics, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Consciousness Monitors/standards , Hemodynamics
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 66(1): 44-49, Jan.-Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-773490


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Tourniquet pain is one of the major obstacles for intravenous regional anesthesia. We aimed to compare tramadol and lornoxicam used in intravenous regional anesthesia as regards their effects on the quality of anesthesia, tourniquet pain and postoperative pain as well. METHODS: After the ethics committee approval 51 patients of ASA physical status I-II aged 18-65 years were enrolled. The patients were divided into three groups. Group P (n = 17) received 3 mg/kg 0.5% prilocaine; group PT (n = 17) 3 mg/kg 0.5% prilocaine + 2 mL (100 mg) tramadol and group PL (n = 17) 3 mg/kg 0.5% prilocaine + 2 mL (8 mg) lornoxicam for intravenous regional anesthesia. Sensory and motor block onset and recovery times were noted, as well as tourniquet pains and postoperative analgesic consumptions. RESULTS: Sensory block onset times in the groups PT and PL were shorter, whereas the corresponding recovery times were longer than those in the group P. Motor block onset times in the groups PT and PL were shorter than that in the group P, whereas recovery time in the group PL was longer than those in the groups P and PT. Tourniquet pain onset time was shortest in the group P and longest in the group PL. There was no difference regarding tourniquet pain among the groups. Group PL displayed the lowest analgesic consumption postoperatively. CONCLUSION: Adding tramadol and lornoxicam to prilocaine for intravenous regional anesthesia produces favorable effects on sensory and motor blockade. Postoperative analgesic consumption can be decreased by adding tramadol and lornoxicam to prilocaine in intravenous regional anesthesia.

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A dor relacionada ao torniquete é um dos maiores obstáculos para a anestesia regional intravenosa (ARIV). Nosso objetivo foi comparar tramadol e lornoxicam usados em ARIV em relação aos seus efeitos sobre a qualidade da anestesia, dor relacionada ao torniquete e dor no pós-operatório. MÉTODOS: Após a aprovação do Comitê de Ética, 51 pacientes com estado físico ASA I-II entre 18-65 anos foram inscritos. Os pacientes foram divididos em três grupos. Grupo P (n = 17) recebeu 3 mg/kg de prilocaína a 0,5%; Grupo PT (n = 17) 3 mg/kg de prilocaína a 0,5% + 2 mL (100 mg) de tramadol e Grupo PL (n = 17) de 3 mg/kg de prilocaína a 0,5% + 2 mL (8 mg) de lornoxicam para ARIV. O início do bloqueio sensorial e motor e os tempos de recuperação foram registrados, bem como a dor relacionada ao torniquete e o consumo de analgésico no pós-operatório. RESULTADOS: Os tempos de início do bloqueio sensorial foram mais curtos nos grupos PT e PL, enquanto que os tempos de recuperação correspondentes foram mais longos do que os do Grupo P. Os tempos de início do bloqueio motor nos grupos PT e PL foram menores do que no Grupo P, enquanto que o tempo de recuperação do grupo PL foi maior do que os dos grupos P e PT. O tempo para início da dor relacionada ao torniquete foi menor no Grupo P e maior no Grupo PL. Não houve diferença em relação à dor relacionada ao torniquete entre os grupos. O Grupo PL apresentou o menor consumo de analgésicos no pós-operatório. CONCLUSÃO: A adição de tramadol e lornoxicam à prilocaína para ARIV produz efeitos favoráveis sobre o bloqueio sensorial e motor. O consumo de analgésicos no pós-operatório pode ser reduzido com a adição de tramadol e lornoxicam à prilocaína em ARIV.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Tourniquets/adverse effects , Tramadol/administration & dosage , Piroxicam/analogs & derivatives , Anesthesia, Conduction/methods , Pain/ethnology , Pain/prevention & control , Prilocaine/administration & dosage , Anesthesia Recovery Period , Piroxicam/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Analgesics/administration & dosage , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Middle Aged
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 66(1): 12-18, Jan.-Feb. 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-773477


BACKGROUND: We investigated the effects of a novel method of anesthesia combining propofol and volatile anesthesia on the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing laparoscopic gynecological surgery. METHODS: Patients were randomly divided into three groups: those maintained with sevoflurane (Group S, n = 42), propofol (Group P, n = 42), or combined propofol and sevoflurane (Group PS, n = 42). We assessed complete response (no postoperative nausea and vomiting and no rescue antiemetic use), incidence of nausea and vomiting, nausea severity score, vomiting frequency, rescue antiemetic use, and postoperative pain at 2 and 24 h after surgery. RESULTS: The number of patients who exhibited a complete response was greater in Groups P and PS than in Group S at 0-2 h (74%, 76% and 43%, respectively, p = 0.001) and 0-24 h (71%, 76% and 38%, respectively, p < 0.0005). The incidence of nausea at 0-2 h (Group S = 57%, Group P = 26% and Group PS = 21%, p = 0.001) and 0-24 h (Group S = 62%, Group P = 29% and Group PS = 21%, p < 0.0005) was also significantly different among groups. However, there were no significant differences among groups in the incidence or frequency of vomiting or rescue antiemetic use at 0-24 h. CONCLUSION: Combined propofol and volatile anesthesia during laparoscopic gynecological surgery effectively decreases the incidence of postoperative nausea. We term this novel method of anesthesia "combined intravenous-volatile anesthesia (CIVA)".

JUSTIFICATIVA: Investigamos os efeitos de um novo método de anestesia, que combina propofol e anestesia volátil, sobre a incidência de náusea e vômito no período pós-operatório de pacientes submetidas à laparoscopia ginecológica. MÉTODOS: As pacientes foram randomicamente divididas em três grupos: manutenção com sevoflurano (Grupo S, n = 42), com propofol (Grupo P, n = 42) ou com a combinação de propofol e sevoflurano (Grupo PS, n = 42). Avaliamos as respostas completas (sem náusea e vômito no pós-operatório e sem uso de antiemético de resgate), incidência de náusea e vômito, escore de gravidade da náusea, frequência de vômitos, uso de antiemético de resgate e dor no pós-operatório em duas e 24 horas após a cirurgia. RESULTADOS: O número de doentes que apresentou uma resposta completa foi maior nos grupos P e PS do que no Grupo S em 0-duas horas (74%, 76% e 43%m respectivamente, p = 0,001) e 0-24 horas (71%, 76% e 38%, respectivamente, p < 0,0005). A incidência de náusea em 0-duas horas (Grupo S = 57%, Grupo P = 26% e Grupo PS = 21%, p = 0,001) e 0-24 horas (Grupo S = 62%; Grupo P = 29% e grupo PS = 21%, p < 0,0005) também foi significativamente diferente entre os grupos. Porém, não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos em relação à incidência ou frequência de vômitos ou uso de antiemético de resgate em 0-24 horas. CONCLUSÃO: A combinação de propofol e anestesia volátil durante a laparoscopia ginecológica efetivamente diminui a incidência de náusea no pós-operatório.

Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Propofol/administration & dosage , Laparoscopy/methods , Anesthetics, Combined/administration & dosage , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting/epidemiology , Methyl Ethers/administration & dosage , Pain, Postoperative/epidemiology , Gynecologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Time Factors , Incidence , Anesthetics, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Inhalation/administration & dosage , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting/drug therapy , Sevoflurane , Middle Aged , Antiemetics/therapeutic use
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 260-266, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-36005


BACKGROUND/AIMS: The efficacy of bispectral index (BIS) monitoring during colonoscopic sedation is debated. We aimed to determine whether BIS monitoring was useful for propofol dose titration, and to evaluate differences in sedative administration between expert and inexperienced medical personnel during colonoscopy procedures that required moderate sedation. METHODS: Between February 2012 and August 2013, 280 consecutive patients scheduled to undergo a screening colonoscopy participated in this study and were randomly allocated to the expert or inexperienced endoscopist group. Each group was further divided into either a BIS or a modified Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation Scale (MOAA/S) subgroup. Trained nurses administered combined propofol sedation and monitored sedation using either the BIS or MOAA/S scale. RESULTS: The mean BIS value throughout the procedure was 74.3 +/- 6.7 for all 141 patients in the BIS group. The mean total propofol dose administered in the BIS group was higher than that in the MOAA/S group, independently of the endoscopists' experience level (36.9 +/- 29.6 and 11.3 +/- 20.7, respectively; p < 0.001). The total dose of propofol administered was not significantly different between the inexperienced endoscopist group and the expert endoscopist group, both with and without the use of BIS (p = 0.430 and p = 0.640, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with monitoring using the MOAA/S score alone, BIS monitoring was not effective for titrating the dose of propofol during colonoscopy, irrespective of colonoscopist experience.

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Anesthetics, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Clinical Competence , Colonoscopy , Conscious Sedation/adverse effects , Consciousness/drug effects , Consciousness Monitors , Electroencephalography/instrumentation , Nurse Anesthetists , Predictive Value of Tests , Propofol/administration & dosage , Prospective Studies , Republic of Korea
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 65(5): 326-332, Sept.-Oct. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-763133


ABSTRACTBACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Sedation in dialysis dependent end-stage renal disease patients requires caution as a result of performing high doses of sedatives and its complications. Multidrug sedation regimens might be superior and advantage on lesser drug consumption and by the way adverse events which occur easily in end-stage renal disease patients. We evaluated the effects of dexmedetomidine premedication on propofol consumption, sedation levels with Observer's Assessment of Alertness and Sedation scores and the bispectral index and the hemodynamic changes, potential side effects in geriatric patients with end-stage renal disease who underwent hip fracture surgery under spinal anesthesia.METHOD: In this randomized, controlled, double-blind study 60 elderly patients (age ≥ 65 years) with end-stage renal disease and hip fracture scheduled for anterograde femoral intramedullary nailing were assigned to groups that received either intravenous saline infusion (Group C) or dexmedetomidine 0.5 g/kg/10 min infusion for premedication (Group D). All the patients received propofol infusion after the induction of the spinal anesthesia.RESULTS: Total propofol consumption, propofol dose required for targeted sedation levels according to Observer's Assessment of Alertness and Sedation scores and bispectral index levels, recovery times were significantly lower in Group D (p < 0.001). The time to reach to Observer's Assessment of Alertness and Sedation score 4 and to achieve bispectral index ≤ 80 was significantly lower in Group C compared with Group D (p < 0.001). Adverse events were similar in both groups.CONCLUSION: Dexmedetomidine premedication lowers intraoperative propofol consumption to maintain targeted level of sedation. Therefore low dose dexmedetomidine premedication in addition to propofol infusion might be an alternative in geriatric patients with end-stage renal disease for sedation.

RESUMOJUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVO: A sedação em paciente dependente de diálise com doença renal em estágio terminal (DRET) requer cautela como resultado da administração de altas doses de sedativos e suas complicações. Os regimes de sedação com múltiplas drogas podem ser superiores e vantajosos em relação ao consumo menor de drogas e aos eventos adversos que ocorrem facilmente em pacientes com DEET. Avaliamos os efeitos da pré-medicação com dexmedetomidina sobre o consumo de propofol, os níveis de sedação com os escores da Observer's Assessment of Alertness and Sedation (OAA/S) e do índice bispectral (BIS), as alterações hemodinâmicas e os potenciais efeitos colaterais em pacientes geriátricos com DRET submetidos à cirurgia para fratura de quadril sob raquianestesia.MÉTODO: Neste estudo randômico, controlado e duplo-cego, 60 pacientes idosos (idade ≥ 65 anos), com DRET e fratura de quadril, agendados para fixação intramedular de haste femoral anterógrada foram designados para grupos para receberam infusão intravenosa de solução salina (Grupo C) ou pré-medicação com infusão de 0,5 mg kg/10 min de dexmedetomidina (DEX) (Grupo D). Todos os pacientes receberam infusão de propofol após a indução da raquianestesia.RESULTADOS: O consumo total de propofol, a dose de propofol necessária para os níveis-alvo de sedação de acordo com os escores da OAA/S, os valores do BIS e os tempos de recuperação foram significativamente menores no Grupo D (p < 0,001). O tempo para atingir o escore 4 na OAA/S e valores BIS ≤ 80 foi significativamente inferior no Grupo C em comparação com o Grupo D (p < 0,001). Os eventos adversos foram semelhantes em ambos os grupos.CONCLUSÃO: A pré-medicação com dexmedetomidina reduz o consumo de propofol no intraoperatório para manter o nível-alvo de sedação. Portanto, a pré-medicação com DEX em dose baixa em combinação com infusão de propofol pode ser uma opção para sedação em pacientes geriátricos com DRET.

Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Preanesthetic Medication , Propofol/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Dexmedetomidine/pharmacology , Hypnotics and Sedatives/pharmacology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/metabolism , Double-Blind Method , Dexmedetomidine/administration & dosage , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(4): 286-291, 4/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744366


This study aimed to determine the effects of different concentrations of propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression and release of high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) in mouse macrophages. Mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 cells were randomly divided into 5 treatment groups. Expression levels of HMGB1 mRNA were detected using RT-PCR, and cell culture supernatant HMGB1 protein levels were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Translocation of HMGB1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in macrophages was observed by Western blotting and activity of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) in the nucleus was detected using ELISA. HMGB1 mRNA expression levels increased significantly in the cell culture supernatant and in cells after 24 h of stimulating RAW264.7 cells with LPS (500 ng/mL). However, HMGB1 mRNA expression levels in the P2 and P3 groups, which received 500 ng/mL LPS with 25 or 50 μmol/mL propofol, respectively, were significantly lower than those in the group receiving LPS stimulation (P<0.05). After stimulation by LPS, HMGB1 protein levels were reduced significantly in the nucleus but were increased in the cytoplasm (P<0.05). Simultaneously, the activity of NF-κB was enhanced significantly (P<0.05). After propofol intervention, HMGB1 translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and NF-κB activity were inhibited significantly (each P<0.05). Thus, propofol can inhibit the LPS-induced expression and release of HMGB1 by inhibiting HMGB1 translocation and NF-κB activity in RAW264.7 cells, suggesting propofol may be protective in patients with sepsis.

Animals , Mice , Anesthetics, Intravenous/pharmacology , Cell Nucleus/drug effects , HMGB1 Protein/drug effects , Macrophages/drug effects , Propofol/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger/drug effects , Active Transport, Cell Nucleus , Anesthetics, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Blotting, Western , Cell Line , Cell Nucleus/metabolism , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Gene Expression/drug effects , HMGB1 Protein/genetics , HMGB1 Protein/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides , Macrophages/metabolism , NF-kappa B/drug effects , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Propofol/administration & dosage , Random Allocation , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/metabolism